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Substantivul

A. Tipuri de substantive

Substantive comune Substantive proprii

Substantivele comune desemneaza fiinte Substantivele proprii desemneaza nume de


(oameni si animale) si obiecte / familie si prenume, nume de munti,
lucruri. orase, tari, ape etc.

Exemple: Exemple:
- fiinte: man, woman, grandmother, - nume de familie si prenume:
teacher, brother, pupil, doctor, nurse Ewing, Brown, Sawyer, John, Mary,
- obiecte (lucruri): pencil, school, Helen
car, hotel, medicine, shop, power, - nume de munti: Alps, Himalaya,
health Everest
- nume de orase: Bucharest, Paris,
Venice
- nume de tari: France, Italy, Croatia
- nume de ape: Mississippi, Danube,
Thames

B. Genul substantivelor

Genul masculin (care se Genul feminin (care se Genul neutru (nume de


inlocuiesc cu inlocuiesc cu lucruri, obiecte si
pronumele personal pronumele personal animale; se inlocuiesc
he) she) cu pronumele
personal it)

Exemple: man, doctor, Exemple: woman, mother, Exemple: cat, dog, pencil,
driver, father, boy girl, actress, sister. butterfly, car,
notebook.

C. Numarul substantivelor

Substantivele pot fi la singular sau la plural.


Exemple:
a dog ---> two dogs
a school ---> two
1) pluralul cu "-s"
schools
a car ---> two cars
a book ---> two books
Exemple:
a bus ---> two buses
a fax ---> two faxes
a church ---> two
churches

2) pluralul cu "-es" (pentru substantivele care au Atentie:


terminatia in -s, -x, -z, -ch, -sh) a tomato ---> two
tomatoes
a potato ---> two
potatoes

dar
radio ---> radios
photo ---> photos

3) pluralul cu "-ies" (pentru substantivele care au Exemple:


terminatia in -y) lady ---> ladies
baby ---> babies
Reguli: fly ---> flies
- pentru substantivele care se termina in y
precedat de o consoana, pluralul se va face in dar:
-ies day ---> days
- pentru substantivele care se termina in y boy ---> boys
precedat de o vocala, pluralul se va face in -s

Exemple:
leaf ---> leaves
calf ---> calves
shelf ---> shelves
4) pluralul cu "-ves" (pentru substantivele care au
wife ---> wives
terminatia in -f sau -fe) wolf ---> wolves

Exceptii:
chief ---> chiefs
proof ---> proofs
belief ---> beliefs
Exemple:
child ---> children
man ---> men
5) pluralele neregulate woman ---> women
foot ---> feet
goose ---> geese
mouse ---> mice
tooth ---> teeth

Exemple:
deer (cerb)
5) substantive invariabile care nu primesc "-s" duck (rata)
sheep (oaie)
trout (pastrav)
fish (peste)
fruit (fructe)

Exemple:
advice (sfat)
baggage (bagaj)
luggage (bagaje)
6) substantivele cu sens colectiv care nu au forma de information
plural (informatii)
furniture (mobila)
people (oameni)
crowd (multime)
police (politie)

Exemple:
7) pluralul substantivelor proprii the Browns
the Johnsons
the Thompsons

D. Substantive compuse

Exemple:
classroom
schoolboy
schoolgirl
blackboard
dining-room
breakfast

Exercitii:
1. Alcatuiti pluralul urmatoarelor substantive:

table --->
clock --->
leaf --->
gentleman --->
baby --->
tooth --->
friend --->
city --->
life --->
chief --->

2. Inlocuiti substantivele urmatoare cu pronumele personal potrivit:

the girl ---


the dog ---
the actor ---
the schoolboy ---
the pencil ---
the grandmother ---

3. Alcatuiti cat mai multe substantive compuse cu ajutorul urmatoarelor cuvinte:

dining, bird, school, class, kinder, mate, room, boy, father, black, book, girl,
board, living, garden, note, exercise, parents, grand.