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SERE N G RO PAT E

Sera ngropat cu care poi produce legume i n miezul iernii. Cost


270 de euro i o poate construi orice gospodar

Ieftine i eficiente, serele subterane sau ngropate sunt o modalitate foarte


bun pentru cultivatori de a produce legume pe tot parcursul anului i mai
ales n lunile de iarn. Cu o investiie de numai 250-270 de euro v putei
construi o ser/solar de tipul Walipini (cuvnt indian pentru loc cald) care
v va permite s avei o grdina plin cu legume proaspete chiar i de Crciun.
Investiie destul de mic
Cel mai interesant aspect, potrivit Institutului Benson o organizaie non-profit
pentru agricultur sustenabil care a creat chiar un manual despre funcionarea
unei astfel de construcii, este faptul c modelul lor de ser Walipini (de ase
metri pe 23 de metri), construit n La Paz, cost pn n 270 de euro. Preul
destul de mic este datorat forei de munc furnizate de proprietarii construciei
i utilizrii de materiale ieftine, cum ar fi foliile de plastic care protejeaz
mpotriva razelor ultraviolete.
Principiul care st la baza unei astfel de construcii este destul de simplu,
cldura din timpul zilei este stocat astfel nct s fie pstrat o temperatur
optim i peste noapte. Astfel, o temperatur este meninut constant 24/24
ore, iar legume cum sunt salata, roiile, varza sau broccoli pot fi cultivate i n
timpul iernii.
Cum se construiete
n primul rnd se sap o groap rectangular de circa 2,5m adncime. Rmne la
decizia cultivatorului ct de lung sau lat va fi construcia, n funcie de ct de
multe legume dorete s cultive. Un detaliu foarte important este poziia soarelui,
astfel c se alege un loc ct mai luminat i unde soarele s bat tot timpul anului.
Un zid gros de pmnt n partea din spate a construciei i un perete mult mai mic
n partea din fa, furnizeaz unghiul necesar pentru acoperiul care poate fi
din folie de plastic, sticl sau policarbonat, n funcie de buget.
Tot n raport cu posibilitile cultivatorului, pereii pot fi fcui din piatr, pmnt
sau alte materiale naturale suficient de dense pentru a absorbi cantiti ct mai
mari de cldur.
Trebuie s se in cont c peretele de nord al serei trebuie s fie mai nalt
dect cel din sud, deoarece n felul acesta iarna o s fie captat toat cldura
soarelui, iar vara, acesta va reflecta soarele.

Pereii trebuie s fie puin nclinai iar interiorul ar trebui s arate n form de
\_/, pentru a nu se drma. nainte de a adug pmntul fertil pe care, practic,
vor crete plantele, turnai minim 30 cm de pietri pe toata baza serei. Acesta
va avea rolul de a drena surplusul de ap din sera subteran.
nfiltrarea apei n perei sau n podea poate fi distructiv pentru ser, deoarece
zidurile se vor prbui iar umezeal din sol va afecta n mod negativ creterea
plantelor i mai ales va favoriza bolile la legume. De aceea, exist precauii
care trebuie luate n considerare, n ceea ce privete hidroizolarea, drenajul i
ventilarea construciei, n timp ce este aliniat n mod corect la razele soarelui.
Folia care nvelete acoperiul nu trebuie s fie subire
Acoperiul sigileaz practic groapa i permite razelor soarelui s ptrund n
interior, crend un mediu cald i stabil necesar pentru creterea plantelor.
Atenie, dac sera subteran este mult mai lat, atunci acoperiul trebuie
gndit astfel nct s nu cedeze cnd e vnt mai puternic, ploaie torenial sau
zpad. Nici folia nu trebuie s fie prea subire astfel c este recomandat s
alegei varianta cea mai groas pe care o gsii pe pia.
De asemenea, deasupra, n jurul acoperiului, facei anturi micue i folosii
tuburi de plastic sau chiar folie pentru a crea anuri de drenaj. Fcnd acest
lucru, vei proteja sera subteran de inundaie.
Serele ngropate nu sunt utile numai iarna astfel c i n perioadele caniculare
cnd temperatura atinge i 50 de grade iar plantele practic sunt sufocate de
cldur sera pstreaz mai rece, undeva la 30 de grade. Deci, sera ngropat
ine o constant din cauza pmntului, care acioneaz ca un tampon, absorbind
cldura n exces i cednd-o napoi cnd e prea rece afar, ntocmai ca un
calorifer.
Care sunt riscurile
Sunt eseniale adncimea, orientarea fa de soare i ventilaia. n plus, trebuie
s avei o intrare bine protejat contra ploii. Aceasta pe timpul verii este folosit
i pentru aerisire. Mai facei nc o aerisire n cealalta parte a serei, pentru a
avea o ventilaie corespunztoare pe timpul verii.
Surs selectiv: manancabio.ro
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gn9A7HUdbZM&list=PLkms-hr-
SEHcQlP0wCohuGFk2MtnkY-iv&index=6
Explicaii detaliate putei gsi n limba englez pe:
www.the-meal.net/graph/manuel_walipina_benson.pdf
https://ro.pinterest.com/explore/underground-greenhouse/?lp=true
http://insteading.com/2013/08/05/diy-in-ground-greenhouse-with-plans/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?list=PL5b0hZQBbi3bAuJDkWIqPs-
kcqOCddI9-&v=cGuy2DOZEcY
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-
hV8Teiskfo&list=PL5b0hZQBbi3bAuJDkWIqPs-kcqOCddI9-&index=7

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aj1EO6srF6A&index=9&list=PL5b0hZQ
Bbi3bAuJDkWIqPs-kcqOCddI9-

Pasii constructiei:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vdeaz5UvHyk&index=11&list=PL5b0hZ
QBbi3bAuJDkWIqPs-kcqOCddI9-
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1wKBR10vKgs&index=12&list=PL5b0hZ
QBbi3bAuJDkWIqPs-kcqOCddI9-
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=90agWixcUpk&list=PL5b0hZQBbi3bAu
JDkWIqPs-kcqOCddI9-&index=13
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8RFinQU3JqM&index=14&list=PL5b0h
ZQBbi3bAuJDkWIqPs-kcqOCddI9-
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qb5GaVjCFhU&index=15&list=PL5b0hZ
QBbi3bAuJDkWIqPs-kcqOCddI9-
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TxObN8nrF6M&list=PL5b0hZQBbi3bA
uJDkWIqPs-kcqOCddI9-&index=16
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=73O3ahLt6Mg&list=PL5b0hZQBbi3bAu
JDkWIqPs-kcqOCddI9-&index=17
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RPZltW61vpw&index=18&list=PL5b0hZ
QBbi3bAuJDkWIqPs-kcqOCddI9-
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oO-
lvlAUo90&list=PL5b0hZQBbi3bAuJDkWIqPs-kcqOCddI9-&index=19
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zNNdM4xNoGo&index=20&list=PL5b0
hZQBbi3bAuJDkWIqPs-kcqOCddI9-
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4oEVdIfcIb8&list=PL5b0hZQBbi3bAuJ
DkWIqPs-kcqOCddI9-&index=21
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4ka-
piMrFR8&index=2&list=PL5b0hZQBbi3bAuJDkWIqPs-kcqOCddI9-
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A3EAJex1RVo

https://www.niftyhomestead.com/blog/underground-greenhouse/
Underground Greenhouse
At most latitudes, the temperature six to eight feet below the surface stays
between 50 and 60F. An underground greenhouse uses calm below-ground
weather to keep plants growing whether its snowing or sweltering.

Underground greenhouse in Spetchley Gardens, UK. Stairs down to entrance


on right. Image by Mezzapod via Flickr.
Designs for an Underground Greenhouse

Underground greenhouse. The inside can be cased in stone, mud brick or any
dense natural material able to absorb large amounts of heat. Cool weather
crops like lettuce, kale and brocolli can be grown during winter in harsh
climates. The glazing creates a greenhouse effect. If your water table is high,
obviously that could spell disaster. You should build your greenhouse at least
five feet above the water table. This manual from GrowTest Urban Gardening
has good information.
Mike Oehlers underground greenhouse design. Mike digs a deep trench for
access on the shaded south side which also allows cold air to sink and be
warmed by the deeper, warmer soil. Many install tubes within the soil to
transfer warmed air into the earth, yet Mike believes you need only the cold
sink to allow the transfer in most climates. How to: motherearthnews. Mike
Oehlers book: The Earth Sheltered Solar Greenhouse Book.
During the day, the earth walls store heat. The walls are the battery that
release their heat at night. A properly-designed pit greenhouse is naturally
warmed at night from five sides. In an above-ground greenhouse only one side,
the floor, is heated during the day. A waterproof barrier extending along the
periphery and down the berms are necessary. Here are a couple of earthbag
underground greenhouse plans.
Care must be taken waterproofing, draining and ventilating the greenhouse.
The most efficient pit greenhouses have south-facing windows. The north wall
stores heat.
This earthen-walled underground greenhouse has lots of natural clay to absorb
heat. The two most important factors in a pit greenhouse are the large amount
of thermal mass (stone, soil, water), and its positioning toward the sun.
Via organica.net.pl

Must-Haves For Greenhouse Owners


Potting Soil
Black Gold 16-Quart All-Organic Potting Soil
Roots Organics Potting Soil, .75 cubic feet
Foxfarm Ocean Forest Soil, Smart Naturals, 1.5 cubic feet
Seedling Heat Mats
Hydrofarm 9 x 19.5 Seedling Heat Mat
VIVOSUN 10 x 20.75 Durable Waterproof Seedling Heat Mat
Garden Nova 10 x 20.75 Seedling Heat Mat
Underground Greenhouses Around the World

An underground greenhouse is called a walipini in South America, from the


Aymara Indian language, meaning place of warmth. As you dig, you save your
upper-most topsoil to serve as the bottom of the greenhouse. Use the deeper
soil as the new berm on the north side (or south side if youre south of the equator).
Angling your window 90 degrees to the sun on the winter solstice will allow
the pit to store the most heat during those days when the sun shines the fewest
hours.

Here is a large walipini in LaPaz, Bolivia. At two minutes they go inside the
walipini, at four minutes they walk around the outside. In Spanish. Obviously
they do not get much rain there.
An underground greenhouse made of local stone in Nepal at almost 10,000
feet altitude, where the temperature falls below freezing 199 days per year.
This pit greenhouse in Mongolia is currently producing food during three seasons
of the year. As the footprints show the entrance is on the opposite side.
Inside of above pit greenhouse. In a cold climate, the north, east and west
walls should be well insulated. The north ceiling should be well insulated as
well.
A greenhouse built into a hill in Tennessee.
This pit greenhouse is in Texas, it is essentially a hole dug into the ground.
Here the soil was such hard sandstone, minimal wall support was necesary.
How to build this underground greenhouse.
Earth-sheltered greenhouse with earthbag walls in Patagonia. Note the use of
plastic around the periphery.
A Nebraska couple turned an abandoned missile silo into an underground home.
The walls are two feet thickfour feet thick in some places. The place where
the missile was held is now the couples garage. Theyve covered the ground
with wooden flooring and plastic turf. Their underground greenhouse is the
only place where natural light comes through. In the (massive) greenhouse they
are able to grow tomatoes, garlic, potatoes, and green beans.
Digging a shallow drainage ditch around the perimeter of the greenhouse will
lead the run off water away from the structure. Via darfieldearthship.com
Pit greenhouse. Many underground greenhouse owners store barrels of rainwater
at the back of the greenhouse to soak up and store even more heat. Note the
entranceway to right.
Walipini is another name for a pit greenhouse, this one is topped with old windows.
See step-by-step photos of a greenhouse in New Mexico dug by hand!
Ethan shows us his walipini or underground greenhouse in Cedar City, Utah.
He says the greenhouse was built for $3,000. He describes losing a bunch of
tomato plants because of snow not being cleared off the roof. He says condensation
was also an issue. Now they are growing a new crop. He says you can do your
starts much earlier with an underground greenhouse, you can even start things
from seed. He shows water damage to the wall. The roof got some holes in it,
because a goat walked on it, and water got through. Ethan also shows off the
roof vent he built. The vent was necessary because in summer the greenhouse
was far too hot.
This mud brick walipini in Ladakh which produces food year-round in a very
harsh climate.
Many More Uses for Your Underground Greenhouse

This amazing couple turned an old gunite pool into a closed-loop food-producing
urban greenhouse. The greenhouse houses tilapia, chickens and hydroponic
vegetables and fruits.
An easy way to warm up and bring light into your basement. Build a mini-pit
greenhouse on the south side of your home. naturalbuildingblog.com
A pit greenhouse used as dining area.
A pit greenhouse for musicians.
Part 1 of a video series about the construction of an underground greenhouse,
by Homesteadonomics. The builder says hes doing it to extend his growing
season, because he lives in an area with high winds, and because it seems like
a cool project. He gets about 60% of the digging done by hand, a backhoe
finishes the rest. Then he built a rough stairway, and poured a concrete footer.
At the end of the video he does a nice job of showing whats next. As of writing
hes in the middle of building; now hes up to part 5.

At the New Alchemy Institute bioshelter, fish tanks and compost heat the green-
house and adjoining house. Water is dense and holds heat even better than rock,
soil takes third place in heat storage. The solar aquaculture ponds are above-
ground, translucent tanks. The fertile pond water was used for irrigating crops.
Driftless Farm Greenhouse by Roald Gundersen, Wisconsin. The larger you
build your pit greenhouse the more efficient, as the temperatures inside of a
small greenhouse can fluctuate quite quickly.
Driftless Farm Greenhouse, Wisconsin. A 2800 s.f. straw-bale insulated solar
greenhouse. 1 The whole tree supports were made from site-harvested black
locust, a fast-growing, sturdy and rot-resistant tree thats abundant throughout
Wisconsin.
Earth Sheltered greenhouse by Hiroshi Iguchi, Japan. A greenhouse that obviously
does not completely close. Via fifthworld-inc.
Greenhouse by Rob Stout, New Mexico. swsolardesign.com.
Pit greenhouse attached to a home.
Via solarinnovations.com.
Semi-underground greenhouse surrounded on two sides with a stone wall and
earth behind. Via solarinnovations.com.
This incredible Greenhouse in the Snow is in western Nebraska, close to the
Colorado border, and when the video was filmed (early December) it had been
1 below zero the day before. Yet, in the greenhouse, lemons are ready to pick.
Inside the greenhouse the temperature was in the high 70s during the day, and
only fell to 38 F at night. Tomatoes were growing. The greenhouse is 80 feet
long, 16 feet wide, and 12 feet high. Russ Finch, the owner of the home, says,
the entire energy cost for the year is $600. The video shows a lemon tree so
lush, they have to prop up the branches to keep them from crashing. He also
grows sweet Meyer lemons. He shows a Valencia orange tree, a peach tree, roses,
papaya, grapes, kiwi, figs. He grows a lot of cactus, too. The heating system is
entirely geothermal, his only heating system is a small unit that circulates air
heated by the ground.
Greenhouse built into a hill.
Via solarinnovations.com
Pit greenhouses attached to stone buildings are also extremely energy efficient!
See inside here: solarinnovations.com.
Straw bales are a great insulator (an R-value of 1.5 to 3 per inch). Manure below
ground will also help to keep these plants warm. Photo by Terrie Schweitzer,
via flickr.
Cold frame of old windows and straw bales. Placing manure or compost down
below the layer of topsoil will help keep the area warm.

How to Build an Underground Greenhouse: Resources

Great step-by-step guide to building an earth-sheltered greenhouse with center


work space/cold sink.
An underground greenhouse in Bozeman, Montana. As you can see in the
video, theres snow on the ground there. But in this completely underground
unit, hes growing peppers, radishes, chard, cilantro, basil and zucchini. He
mentions that one day, even though it was 28 F outside, it got up to 117 F in
the greenhouse (he forgot to throw open the doors). There is no outside
heating, just a series of water barrels that help retain heat.
The partially-submerged YMCA Solar Greenhouse in Blacksburg, Virginia.
A clearinghouse of info on solar greenhouses from L. David Roper.
Mike Oehlers Earth Sheltered Greenhouse.
Photos of underground greenhouse construction in Kyrgyzstan.
How Joseph Orr built a mud heat-storage solar greenhouse that even heats an
adjacent room.
A step-by-step look at building a cinder block underground greenhouse.
Photos of a bermed, solar-heated greenhouse in Southern Idaho.
Step-by-step construction photos of a small, earth-sheltered greenhouse.
Step-by-step instructions and designs for a quonset hut style greenhouse
made from chain link fence top railings. Youll need a lot of land for this one.
If youre okay with this, heres how to build a greenhouse thats heated by an
adjacent chamber of compost.
What life is like at the Solviva greenhouse, where its 4 degrees outside but,
inside the greenhouse, you can be plucking fresh tomatoes in 75-degree heat.

Best Books on How to Build an Underground Greenhouse

The Earth Sheltered Solar Greenhouse Book by Mike Oehler


Solviva: How To Grow $500,000 On One Acre by Anna Edey
The Winter Harvest Handbook: Year Round Vegetable Production Using
Deep-Organic Techniques and Unheated Greenhouses by Eliot Coleman
Solar Greenhouses Underground by Daniel Geery
The Solar Greenhouse Book by James McCullagh
Gardeners Solar Greenhouse: How to Build and Use a Solar Greenhouse for
Year-Round Gardening by Ray Wolf

More Underground Greenhouse Resources

Slope, orientation, glazing, etc: attra.ncat.org


Lots of info! L. David Roper: roperld.com
Compost heated greenhouses: attra.ncat.org
Wood greenhouse kits, they will make a kit for your foundation:
cedarbuilt.homestead.com
Solar Greenhouse Links: builditsolar.com

Underground Greenhouse Video

(This is part 1 of 28 (so far)!)