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Energia eolian n Romnia Wind energy in Romania

RAPORT 2 0 1 1 REPORT

SEPTEMBRIE

Cuprins
Energia eolian n Romnia, Europa i n lume ........................ 04 1 Energia eolian n Romnia, Europa i n lume ....................... 05 2 Situaia sectorului de energie eolian n Europa ...................... 07 3 Situaia sectorului de energie eolian n Romnia ................... 09

Index of contents
Wind energy in Romania, Europe and Worldwide .............. 04 1 Wind energy in Romania, Europe and worldwide ................... 05 2 Wind energy sector in Europe .............................................. 07 3 The wind energy sector in Romania ...................................... 09

Prevederi legale ...................................................................... 11 1 Pregtirea proiectului de investiie i construcia unei centrale eoliene ...................................................................................... 12 1.1 Dreptul de a dispune de proprietate ..................................... 12 1.1.1 Dreptul de proprietate ........................................................ 12 1.1.2 Dreptul de superficie ........................................................ 13 1.1.2.1 Dreptul de superficie vs. dreptul de folosin (locaiune) ..... 13 1.1.3 Uzufructul ........................................................................ 13 1.1.4 Drepturile convenionale i legale de uz i servitute .......... 14 1.1.4.1 Exercitarea drepturilor de uz i servitute asupra terenurilor aflate n proprietatea privat a terilor, conform Legii Energiei i Hotrrii de Guvern nr. 135 ........................................................ 14 1.2 Cartea funciar n Romnia ............................................... 15 1.3 Situaii care ar putea mpiedica/ntrzia investiia ............ 16 1.3.1 Proprietatea public .......................................................... 16 1.3.2 Cereri de restituire/litigii cu privire la terenuri ..................... 16 1.3.3 Constituirea titlului de proprietate; interdicii ..................... 17 1.3.4 Regimul monumentelor istorice ........................................ 17 1.3.5 Regimul arheologic ........................................................... 18 1.3.6 Lipsa certificatului de urbanism ........................................ 18 1.4 Evaluarea potenialului eolian ............................................... 18 1.5 Autorizaia de construire ....................................................... 19 1.6 Planificare urbanistic ........................................................... 19 1.7 Prevederi cu privire la mediu ................................................ 20 1.7.1 Evaluarea impactului asupra mediului (EIA) .................... 20 1.7.2 Protecia naturii i conservarea peisajului ...................... 20 1.8 Racordarea la reea ............................................................. 20 1.9 Autorizaia de nfiinare ...................................................... 21 2 Operarea centralei eoliene ............................................... 22 2.1 Licena de exploatare ......................................................... 22 2.2 Mediu .................................................................................. 22 2.3 Vnzarea de energie .............................................................. 22 3 Sistemul de promovare i tranzacionarea certificatelor verzi .. 23 3 1 Remarci generale cu privire la sistemul de promovare .........23 3.2 Beneficiarii sistemului de CV .................................................. 23 3.3 Tranzacionarea de CV .......................................................... 24 3.4 Propuneri de modificare a sistemului de promovare ............... 25 4. Legislaia Uniunii Europene privind industria energiei eoliene .. 26

Legal regulations .................................................................... 11 1 Preparation of the investment project and construction of a wind farm .................................................................................... 12 1.1 Right to dispose of real property ........................................... 12 1.1.1 Ownership right ................................................................... 12 1.1.2 Superficies right .................................................................. 13 1.1.2.1 Superficies right vs. right of use (lease) .......................... 13 1.1.3 Usufruct .............................................................................. 13 1.1.3 Examination of the wind force ....................................... 16 1.1.4 Conventional and statutory right of usage and easements .. 14 1.1.4.1 Exercise of easement and usage rights over third owners properties, as provided under the Energy Law and GD 135 .......... 14 1.2 Romanian Land Register ................................................... 15 1.3 Issues that might impede/delay the investment process .... 16 1.3.1 Public property ................................................................... 16 1.3.2 Restitution claims/litigations affecting the land ................. 16 1.3.3 Instatement of ownership title; restrictions ........................ 17 1.3.4 Historical monument status ............................................... 17 1.3.5 Archaeological status ......................................................... 18 1.3.6 Lack of city planning certificate .......................................... 18 1.4 Wind assessment .................................................................. 18 1.5 Building Permit ..................................................................... 19 1.6 Zoning classification ............................................................ 19 1.7 Environmental regulations .................................................... 20 1.7.1 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) ........................... 20 1.7.2 Nature protection and landscape conservation .................. 20 1.8 Grid connection ..................................................................... 20 1.9 Setting-up authorisation ....................................................... 21 2 Wind farm operation ............................................................... 22 2.1 Operation licence ................................................................. 22 2.2 Environmental ...................................................................... 22 2.3 Sale of energy .................................................................... 22 3 Support scheme and green certificates trading ................... 23 3.1 General remarks on the support scheme ...............................23 3.2 Beneficiaries of the GCs system ......................................... 23 3.3 Trading of GCs ....................................................................... 24 3.4 Proposed amendments to the support scheme .................... 25 4 European Union law as regards the wind energy industry ..... 26

Surse de finanare a investiiilor n energii eoliene ............... 27 1 Programe cofinanate de UE .................................................. 28 2 Fonduri naionale .................................................................... 30 3 Alte instituii care ofer finanri pentru proiectele de parcuri eoliene ..................................................................................... 31

Sources of financing for wind investment ............................. 27 1 Programmes cofinanced by the EU ...................................... 28 2 National Funds ..................................................................... 30 3 Other institutions which offer financing for wind park projects . 31

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Constrngeri poteniale i perspective ............................... 34 1 Capacitatea reelei i racordarea ............................................ 35 2 Amendamente tehnice la specificaiile parcurilor eoliene .... 36 3 Protecia mediului ..................................................................... 38 4 Proteste sociale ........................................................................ 39 5 Limitrile de infrastructur ........................................................ 39 6 Durata procedurii .................................................................... 41 7 Obstacole n calea investiiilor - Romnia, n contextul UE ........ 43 8 Dispersia surselor ................................................................... 44 9 Probleme fiscale ...................................................................... 48 10 Profitabilitatea energiei eoliene .............................................. 50 Lista abrevierilor ....................................................................... 58 Business limitations and prospects ..................................... 34 1 Grid capacity and connection ................................................ 35 2 Technical amendments to wind farm specifications .............. 36 3 Environmental protection ...................................................... 38 4 Social protests ...................................................................... 39 5 Infrastructural limitations ....................................................... 39 6 Length of procedure ............................................................... 41 7 Obstacles to Investments Romania in the context of the EU .... 43 8 Dispersion of Sources ............................................................. 44 9 Tax issues ............................................................................... 48 10 The Profitability of Wind Energy ..............................................50 List of Acronyms ........................................................................ 58

Introducere
n momentul actual, sectorul de energie eolian este supus unor schimbri dinamice, n pofida faptului c primele proiecte profesionale de parcuri eoliene au fost dezvoltate n Romnia cu doar civa ani n urm, ncepnd s joace un rol din ce n ce mai important. Cu siguran, n anii ce vor urma, Romnia are anse reale de a deveni unul dintre principalii utilizatori din Europa ai unei astfel de energii regenerabile. La finalul anului 2010 capacitatea staiilor de energie eolian crescuse la 462 MW, fiind de 33 de ori mai mare fa de cea a sfritului anului 2009, cnd Romnia avea instalat o capacitate eolian de 14 MW. Zona n care predomin capacitatea de energie regenerabil generat este Dobrogea, pe coasta Mrii Negre. Aceast dinamic n ascensiune n ceea ce privete capacitatea instalat a parcurilor eoliene, face posibil progresul Romniei comparativ cu multe ri europene. Condiiile de mediu favorabile, numrul crescut de licene i proiecte n execuie, asigur dezvoltarea pieei ntr-un ritm alert n urmtorii ani.

Introduction
Although its first professional wind farm projects were only developed a few years ago, Romanias wind energy sector is currently undergoing dynamic changes and beginning to play an increasingly important role. In the coming years, Romania will undoubtedly have a real chance to become one of the leading users of this form of renewable energy in Europe. At the end of 2010 its wind power station capacity amounted to 462 MW, a 33-fold increase since the end of 2009, when Romania had an installed wind capacity of just 14 MW. The countrys most dominant region in terms of generating wind capacity is Dobrogea, on the Black Sea coast. This incredibly dynamic growth in installed wind farm capacity is allowing Romania to make progress and getting ahead of a number of European countries. The favourable environmental conditions, growing number of permits being issued and significant number of projects already underway ensure this market will continue to develop at a fast pace during the coming years. On a European level, by the end of 2010 the combined installed wind power capacity throughout Europe had reached 84,278 MW. The European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) estimated the value of investment in wind farms in 2010 at EUR 12,7 billion, which corresponds to a 10% increase in capacity compared with the previous year. For the purposes of comparison, the total capacity of wind farms worldwide amounts to 197 GW. There is a continual increase in the size of the wind projects being implemented in Romania, something reflected in the extremely high rate of growth in capacity in 2010, compared with the previous year, of 1,071%, while the period January-May 2011 has seen capacity increase by as much as 161.72 % over the entire year 2010. As a consequence, Romania is one of the fastest growing countries in the EU in this respect: 448 MW were installed in 2010, bringing the total installed wind capacity to 462 MW (33 times more than in 2009). Halfway through 2011 there were already 570 MW of operational capacity, a figure expected to rise to 1,000 MW by the end of the year. The wind energy market creates jobs, and not only in areas related to wind farm installation and servicing: there are an increasing number of companies and businesses beginning to conduct research and development operations related to renewable energy.

Pn la sfritul anului 2010, capacitatea total de energie eolian instalat pe ntinsul Europei atinsese 84.278 MW. Asociaia European a Energiei Eoliene (AEEE) a estimat valoarea investiiilor n parcurile eoliene n 2010 la 12,7 miliarde euro, ceea ce corespunde unei creteri a capacitii cu 10%, fa de anul precedent. Pentru o simpl comparaie, capacitatea total a parcurilor eoliene la nivel global atinge 197 GW. Romnia atest implementarea proiectelor pe o scar din ce n ce mai mare, iar rata creterii capacitii n 2010 comparat cu cea a anului pre-cedent a fost ridicat, respectiv de 1.071%, iar pe parcursul perioadei ianuarie-mai 2011, capacitatea a crescut cu 161,72% n raport cu ntreg anul 2010. Prin urmare, Romnia nregistreaz una dintre cele mai rapide creteri n cadrul UE, n acest domeniu: 448 MW au fost instalai n 2010, astfel nct capacitatea total instalat a atins 462 MW (de 33 de ori mai mult dect n 2009). La sfritul primului semestru din 2011, erau operaionali 570 MW i se preconizeaz ca pn la finele anului 2011, puterea energetic eolian s ating 1.000 MW. Piaa energiei eoliene ofer locuri de munc, nu numai n domeniul instalrii parcurilor sau al serviciilor. Din ce n ce mai multe companii i uniti de afaceri au nceput s dirijeze operaii de cercetare i dezvoltare asociate energiei regenerabile.

Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

Energia eolian n Romnia, Europa i n lume Wind energy in Romania, Europe and worldwide

CAPITOL PART

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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

Energia eolian n Romnia, Europa i n lume


Situaia sectorului de energie eolian la nivel mondial Capacitatea centralelor energetice eoliene la nivel global a crescut n 2010 cu o ptrime n comparaie cu anul precedent i a atins nivelul de 197 GW. Potrivit informaiilor oferite de Consiliul Global al Energiei Eoliene (CGEE), China a fost n anul 2010 cea mai larg pia, adaugnd impresionanta capacitate de 18,9 GW, ntrecnd Statele Unite i devenind ara cu cea mai mare capacitate pe piaa energiei eoliene. La nivel global, liderii sunt: China (44,7 GW), Statele Unite (40,2 GW), Germania (27,2 GW) i Spania (20,7 GW).

Wind energy in Romania, Europe and worldwide


The wind energy sector worldwide The global wind power plant capacity in 2010 increased by 1/4 on the previous year to reach 197 GW. Based on the information provided by the Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC), China was the worlds largest market for wind power in 2010, adding a staggering 18.9 GW of new capacity and edging past the US to become top country in terms of wind power worldwide. The worlds top countries in wind power production include China (44.7 GW), the United States (40.2 GW), Germany (27.2 GW) and Spain (20.7 GW).

rile cu cea mai ridicat capacitate a parcurilor eoliene la nivel mondial Countries with the highest wind farm capacities worldwide

ara / Country China / China USA / USA Germania / Germany Spania / Spain India / India Italia / Italy Frana / France UK / UK Portugalia / Portugal Danemarca / Denmark Totalul de mai sus / Total of the above Restul lumii / Rest of the world Total n lume / Total worldwide

Capacitatea centralelor energetice eoliene [MW] / Wind power plant capacity [MW] 44 733 40 180 27 214 20 676 13 065 5 797 5 660 5 204 3 898 3 752 170 179 26 860 197 039

Sursa: Consiliul Global al Energiei Eoliene Source: Global Wind Energy Council
Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

Capacitatea parcurilor eoliene la nivel mondial [MW] Wind farm capacity worldwide [MW]
220000 200000 180000 160000 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0
6100 7600 10200 13600 17400 23900 31100 39431 47620 59091 74052 93835 120550 157899 197039

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Sursa: Consiliul Global al Energiei Eoliene Source: Global Wind Energy Council

Estimarea energiei eoliene la nivel mondial Lund n calcul n special dezvoltrile din China, Statele Unite i Europa, CGEE anticipeaz o cretere a capacitii mai mare de 400 GW, aferent perioadei 2010-2014, conform estimrii realizate pe cinci ani.

Worldwide wind energy forecast In its five-year forecast, the GWEC expects wind capacity to grow beyond the level of 400 GW between 2010 and 2014, mainly as a result of development in China, United States and Europe.

Scenarii n dezvoltarea energiei eoliene la nivel global [MW] Wind energy development scenarios worldwide [MW] Scenariu / Scenario Referine Reference Moderat Moderate Avansat Advanced 2007 2008 2009 2010 2015 2020 2030

93 864 93 864 93 864

120 297 120 297 120 297

158 505 158 505 158 505

197 039 197 039 197 039

295 783 460 364 533 233

415 433 832 251 1 071 415

572 733 1 777 550 2 341 984

Sursa: Consiliul Global al Energiei Eoliene Source: Global Wind Energy Council

n cele trei scenarii ale dezvoltrii energiei eoliene, prezentate de CGEE, estimarea de referin prevede o cretere a capacitii de pn la 573 GW n 2030. Cea mai optimist estimare prevede o capacitate combinat de 2.341 GW pentru aceeai perioad.
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Of the three scenarios for wind energy development presented by the GWEC, the reference forecast assumes a growth in capacity of up to 573 GW by 2030. The most optimistic forecast assumes a combined installed capacity of 2,341 GW for the same period.

Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

2010

Situaia sectorului de energie eolian n Europa


2010 a fost primul an dup 2007 n care energia eolian nu a reprezentat sectorul de vrf n ceea ce privete valoarea capacitii noilor instalaii ce se bazeaz pe surse ecologice de energie electric. Energia eolian a reprezentat 16,8 % din capacitatea energetic nou instalat. n anul 2010 tendina dinamic de utilizare a energiei eoliene a fost confirmat de o cretere de 17% a capacitii parcurilor eoliene. Asociaia European a Energiei Eoliene (AEEE) estimeaz valoarea noilor instalaii n UE cu o capacitate de 9.918 MW la 12,7 miliarde euro. Capacitatea total a tuturor resurselor de energie regenerabil din Europa a crescut la sfritul anului 2010 cu 52.855 MW ajungnd la 876.023 MW, cu un aport al energiei eoliene atingnd 84.278 MW (9,6%). AEEE estimeaz c n cursul unui an cu densitate medie de energie eolian n Europa, parcurile eoliene sunt acum capabile s satisfac 5,3% din cererea de electricitate a Europei. nlocuind combustibilii fosili, energia eolian poate fi utilizat pentru a reduce rapid emisiile de poluare i gazele cu efect de ser.

The wind energy sector in Europe


For the first year since 2007, wind energy in 2010 was not the leading sector in terms of the value of the capacity of new facilities based on ecological electrical energy sources. Wind constituted 16.8% of the capacity of all new energy sources. In 2010, the dynamic trend in wind energy use was confirmed by a 17% increase in wind farm capacity. The European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) estimates the value of new installations in the EU (capacity 9,918 MW) at EUR 12.7 billion. The total capacity of all renewable energy sources in Europe at the end of 2010 had increased by 52,855 MW to 876,023 MW, of which wind energy represented 84,278 MW (9.6%). The EWEA estimates specify that during an average wind power density year in Europe, wind farms are currently able to satisfy 5.3% of the EUs electricity demand. By replacing fossil fuels, wind energy can be used to rapidly reduce pollution and the emission of greenhouse gases.

Capacitatea parcurilor eoliene n Europa [MW] Wind farm capacity in Europe [MW]
1000000 90000
84278

80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000


23098 40500 34372 48031 56519

74767

64719

24491

20000 10000
2497 3476 9678 4753 6453 12887

17315

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Sursa: Consiliul Global al Energiei Eoliene Source: Global Wind Energy Council
Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

2010

Capacitatea parcurilor eoliene n Europa [MW] Wind farm capacities in Europe [MW]

ara / Country UE 27 Germania / Germany Spania / Spain Italia / Italy Frana / France Marea Britanie / United Kingdom Portugalia / Portugal Danemarca / Denmark Olanda / The Netherlands Suedia / Sweden Irlanda / Ireland Grecia / Greece Polonia / Poland Austria / Austria Belgia / Belgium Romnia / Romania Bulgaria / Bulgaria Ungaria / Hungary Cehia / Czech Republic Finlanda / Finland Lituania / Lithuania Estonia / Estonia Cipru / Cyprus Luxemburg / Luxemburg Letonia / Latvia Slovacia / Slovakia Slovenia / Slovenia
Sursa: Consiliul Global al Energiei Eoliene Source: European Wind Energy Association

Sfrit 2009 / End of 2009 74 767 25 777 19 149 4 850 4 492 4 051 3 535 3 465 2 229 1 560 1 260 1 087 725 995 563 14 177 201 192 146 91 142 0 35 28 3 0

Sfrit 2010 / End of 2010 84 278 27 214 20 676 5 797 5 660 5 203 3 898 3 752 2 245 2 163 1 428 1 208 1 107 1 011 911 462 375 295 215 197 154 149 82 42 31 3 0

n scenariul Energy trends to 2030, Comisia European estimeaz ca n perioada 2011-2020, s fie conectate instalaii cu o capacitate de 333 GW, din care 136 GW (41%) s fie asociate cu energia eolian. n plus, Comisia European estimeaz ca 64% din noua capacitate va fi rezultatul sectorului de energie eolian (17% surse de gaz, 12% crbune, 4% energie nuclear i 3% petrol).
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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

In its Energy trends to 2030 scenario, for the decade 2011-2020 the European Commission foresees the installation of new facilities with a capacity of 333 GW, of which 136 GW (41%) will be associated with wind energy. Moreover, the European Commission also estimates that 64% of this new capacity will be contributed by the wind energy sector (17% from gas sources, 12% coal, 4% nuclear energy and 3% oil).

Structura surselor de energie regenerabil energie generat [TWh] Structure of renewable energy sources generated energy [TWh] Tip de energie Energy type Maree / Tidal Geotermal / Geothermal Biomas / Biomass Solar / Solar Vnt marin / Wind offshore Vnt pe uscat / Wind onshore Hidro / Hydro
Sursa: Comisia European Source: European Commission

2005 0 5 84 1 2 68 307

2010 0 6 127 17 14 147 323

2015 1 6 164 32 72 197 332

2020 3 7 191 46 146 253 339

2025 6 11 218 60 204 316 349

2030 9 19 241 75 276 368 335

Situaia sectorului de energie eolian n Romnia


Energia eolian a ajuns s fie pe primul loc printre sursele de energie alternativ din Romnia. Potrivit Autoritii Naionale de Reglementare n Domeniul Energiei, capacitatea total a parcurilor eoliene n funciune a crescut la 469 MW la sfritul lunii mai 2011. Cel mai amplu proiect care urmeaz a fi implementat este parcul eolian din Fntnele i Cogealac, construit de Grupul CEZ i care va nsuma o capacitate de 600 MW. La momentul actual, cele mai importante proiecte de energie eolian sunt: Fntnele (CEZ, 347,5 MW), Casimcea, Topolog, Dieni (IMA PARTNERS + Verbund, 532 MW), judeul Tulcea (ENEL, 174 MW), zona Moldova i Dobrogea (PNE Wind, 200 MW), Cogealac (CEZ, 252,5 MW), Mihai Viteazu (Iberdrola, 80 MW), judeul Constana (ENEL, 118 MW), Cernavod (Renovatio / EDPR, 138 MW), judeul Galai (Renovatio / EDPR, 100 MW), Mitoc (IWE, 100 MW), Bora (Alstrom, 56 MW), Topolog (Land Power, 168 MW) i Casimcea (Martifer, 40 MW).

The wind energy sector in Romania


Wind energy has taken the lead among alternative energy sources in Romania. According to the Energy Regulatory Authority, the total capacity of wind farms in use amounted to 469 MW at the end of May 2011. The largest project to be implemented to date is the wind farm in Fntnele and Cogealac, which was built by the CEZ Group and has a combined capacity of 600 MW. Currently the most important wind energy projects include Fntnele (CEZ, 347.5 MW), Casimcea, Topolog, Dieni (IMA PARTNERS + Verbund, 532 MW), Tulcea county (ENEL, 174 MW), the Moldova and Dobrogea areas (PNE Wind, 200 MW), Cogealac (CEZ, 252.5 MW), Mihai Viteazu (Iberdrola, 80 MW), Constana county (ENEL, 118 MW), Cernavod (Renovatio / EDPR, 138 MW), Galai county (Renovatio / EDPR, 100 MW), Mitoc (IWE, 100 MW), Bora (Alstrom, 56 MW), Topolog (Land Power, 168 MW) and Casimcea (Martifer, 40 MW).

Capacitatea instalaiilor de energie regenerabil din Romnia [MW] (n 2010) Capacity of renewable energy facilities in Romania [MW] (as of 2010) 40,18 % 0,0001 % 16,96 %
Energie eolian 290.045 MW / Wind energy 290,045 MW Mini sau micro hidrocentrale n operare (pn la 10 MW) 274.439 MW Mini or micro hydro plants in operation (up to 10 MW) 274,439 MW Fotovoltaice 7 MW / Photovoltaic 7 MW Biomas 112.115 MW / Biomass 112,115 MW

42,86 %
Sursa: Transelectrica Source: Transelectrica
Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

Parcurile eoliene operaionale din Romnia sunt n principal situate n zona Dobrogea, pe coasta Mrii Negre, unde viteza medie a vntului poate ajunge la 7 m/s la o altitudine de 100 m. Zona este de cmpie i puin populat, ceea ce faciliteaz instalarea unui numr mare de turbine eoliene. Pe lng acestea, n Romnia mai sunt dou regiuni cu potenial eolian ridicat, i anume: Moldova i Cara Severin (Banat). Parcuri eoliene n regiunile din Romnia Wind farm capacity in main Romanian regions Locaie / Location Dobrogea / Dobrogea Moldova / Moldova Banat / Banat Diferite localiti-deja funcionale / Different localities-already running Total / Total
Sursa: Site-ul Asociaiei Romne pentru Energie Eolian Source: Romanian Wind Energy Association website

Romanias operational wind farms are mainly located in Dobrogea, on the Black Sea coast, where average wind speeds can reach 7 m/s at an altitude of 100 m. The region is flat and sparsely populated, which makes it possible to install a large number of wind turbines. There are also two other regions with a high wind power potential in Romania, namely: Moldova and Cara Severin (Banat).

Capaciate n perioada 2009-2013 / Capacity for the period 2009-2013 2 789 1 000,5 56 17,1 3 862,6

Harta mobilitii atmosferice n Romnia Wind map in Romania

Sursa: Asociaia Romn pentru Energie Eolian Source: Romanian Wind Energy Association

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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

Prevederi legale Legal regulation

CAPITOL PART

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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

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Aceast seciune se concentreaz asupra aspectelor juridice referitoare la investiiile n energie eolian n Romnia, precum i n Uniunea European. Primele dou pri trateaz reglementrile legislaiei romneti cu privire la regimul juridic al imobilelor, la autorizaiile necesare i la legislaia de mediu aplicabile construciei i operrii unei centrale eoliene. Partea a treia situeaz dezvoltarea domeniului energiei eoliene n contextul mai larg al reglementrilor europene.

This section will focus on the legal aspects of wind energy investments in Romania, as well as within the European Union. The first two parts deal with Romanian real estate, regulatory and environmental regulations applicable to the construction and the operation of a wind farm. The third part places Romanian wind energy development within the larger context of EU regulations.

Pregtirea proiectului de investiie i construcia unei centrale eoliene


Noul Cod Civil al Romniei1 (NCC) a fost aprobat n 2009 i urmeaz s intre n vigoare la 1 Octombrie 20112. n comparaie cu Codul Civil din 18643 (CC) actualmente n vigoare, NCC marcheaz cea mai important modificare a CC de la publicarea sa din 1864. innd cont de noutatea unora dintre reglementrilor legale introduse de NCC i de impactul pe care acestea l-ar putea avea cu privire la dezvoltarea unui parc eolian, n cuprinsul prezentului document sunt menionate principalele modificri introduse de NCC, cu limitare ns la aspectele cuprinse mai jos.

Preparation of the investment project and construction of a wind farm


Romanias New Civil Code1 (NCC) was approved in 2009 and is expected to enter into force on 1 October 20112. Compared with the Civil Code of 18643 (ACC) currently in force, the NCC marks the most extensive amendment of the ACC since its first publication in 1864. Due to the novelty of real estate related legal provisions and the impact they might have on the development of a wind farm project, we provide a summary of the main amendments created by the NCC with respect to the matters mentioned below.

1.1

Dreptul de a dispune de proprietate Primul pas n implementarea unui proiect de investiii pentru un parc eolian l reprezint obinerea terenului necesar amplasrii parcului eolian. Conform dreptului romnesc, pentru construcia oricrei capaciti energetice este necesar obinerea unei autorizaii de construire. Aceast autorizaie de construire se acord doar n baza unui drept real asupra terenului pe care urmeaz a fi construit capacitatea energetic. Astfel, investitorii care doresc s dezvolte un parc eolian n Romnia, au n general dou modaliti pentru dobndirea dreptului real solicitat n vederea emiterii autorizaiei de construire: (i) obinerea dreptului de proprietate asupra terenului sau (ii) obinerea unui drept similar de folosin, denumit de ctre doctrin drept de superficie.

Right to dispose of real property The first stage when implementing an investment project is obtaining the land on which to erect a wind farm. Under Romanian law, a building permit is needed to build any facility for the production of energy. The building permit is granted only if a specific real right to the land on which the wind farm is to be erected is proved. Under Romanian law there are generally two ways for investors to hold the specific in rem right required for a building permit: (i) an ownership title to the land or (ii) a similar right of use, which under Romanian Law is embodied in the so-called superficies right (drept de superficie).

1.1.1

Dreptul de proprietate Conform dreptului romnesc, titularul dreptului de proprietate dispune de un drept absolut de a folosi i de a dispune de proprietatea sa, fr limitare n timp. Acest drept l include i pe acela de a dispune de proprietate prin edificarea unor construcii-structuri pe aceasta. Dac n prezent dreptul de proprietate poate fi dovedit prin orice nscris ce atest proprietatea, NCC prevede c dovada dreptului de proprietate asupra imobilelor nscrise n cartea funciar, se va face cu extrasul de
Legea nr. 287/2009 privind Codul Civil, publicat n Monitorul Oficial al Romniei, Partea I, nr. 511, din 24 Iulie 2009 Legea nr. 71/2011 privind punerea n aplicare a Legii nr. 287/2009 privind Codul Civil, publicat n Monitorul Oficial al Romniei, Partea I, nr. 409, din 10 Iunie 2011 3 Republicat n Broura din 26 Iulie 1993
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Ownership right The ownership right under Romanian law offers the owner an absolute right to use, encumber and sell the real property without limitation in time. This also includes the right to build on the real property. While currently an ownership right may be proved by way of any attesting ownership documents, the NCC provides that the proof of ownership right to real estate subject to registration with the Land
Law No. 287/2009 on the civil code, published with Part I of the Official Gazette in Romania, No. 511 dated 24 July 2009. Law No. 71/2011 regarding the implementation of Law No. 287/2009 on the civil code, published with Part I of the Official Gazette, No. 409 dated 10 June 2011 3 Republished in Brochure dated 26 July 1993.
1 2

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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

carte funciar4. Dobndirea dreptului de proprietate asupra terenurilor n Romnia este n prezent limitat persoanelor fizice sau juridice romne. Cu toate acestea, strinii pot deine n Romnia dreptul de proprietate asupra terenurilor prin intermediul unei societi nregistrate n Romnia.

Register shall be made with the excerpt from the Land Register4. Direct access to ownership right to lands is currently limited to Romanian individuals or entities. Nevertheless, foreigners can hold ownership title to lands through a company registered in Romania. Superficies right A superficies right consists of: 1. the right to erect a building or other kind of structure on or under the land owned by another person; 2. the ownership right over the building or other type of structure; and 3. the right to use the land pertaining to the building (drept de folosinta). The superficies right allows for separation of the ownership to the land and the ownership to the buildings or other kind of structures erected on or under the land that is somebody elses property. A superficies right may be established by way of agreement executed in notarised form for validity purposes, under sanction of nullity. Although initially a creation of legal scholars and the courts of law, the superficies right is now exhaustively regulated under the NCC. While currently a superficies right may be established for an undetermined period of time, the NCC limits its time period to a maximum of 99 years, with a prolongation option. Despite all legal similarities with the ownership right over land, foreigners are in no way restricted from directly holding such superficies rights. Superficies right vs. right of use (lease) Any superficies right includes a right of use over the plot of land on which the superficies right is granted. If the owner of a piece of land grants to a third party only the right of use through a letting/lease or other kind of agreement, the third party will not be allowed from a legal point of view to build any permanent structure on that land. A third party whose right of use of the land is only based on a letting/lease agreement will not be granted permits to build on that land. Usufruct Pursuant to Romanian law, the usufruct is the legal right to use and derive profit or benefit from property that belongs to another person, as long as the substance of the property is preserved. The usufruct is a real right of limited duration on the property of another. The holder of a usufruct, known as the usufructuary, has the right to use and enjoy the property, as well as the right to receive profits from the fruits of the property.

1.1.2

Dreptul de superficie Dreptul de superficie const n: 1. dreptul de a construi o cldire precum i orice alt tip de structur pe deasupra sau n subsolul terenului deinut n proprietate de alt persoan; 2. dreptul de proprietate asupra cldirii sau oricrui alt tip de structur i 3. dreptul de folosin asupra terenului pe care se afl cldirea sau structura. Dreptul de superficie permite separarea ntre dreptul de proprietate asupra terenului i dreptul de proprietate asupra cldirii ori asupra altei structuri ridicate pe deasupra sau n subsolul terenului aflat n proprietatea altei persoane. Un drept de superficie se constituie de regul n baza unui contract ncheiat pentru validitate, n form autentic. Iniial o creaie a doctrinei i a jurisprudenei, dreptul de superficie este acum exhaustiv reglementat de NCC. Dac n prezent un drept de superficie poate fi stabilit pe perioad nedeterminat, NCC limiteaz durata acestui drept la maximum 99 de ani, cu posibilitatea de prelungire. n ciuda tuturor similitudinilor cu dreptul de proprietate asupra terenurilor, nu sunt impuse restricii strinilor cu privire la dobndirea unui drept de superficie asupra terenurilor n Romnia.

1.1.2.1 Dreptul de (locaiune)

superficie vs. dreptul de folosin

Orice drept de superficie include dreptul de a folosi suprafaa de teren afectat de dreptul de superficie. Dac proprietarul unui teren acord unui ter dreptul de folosin n baza unui contract de locaiune ori n baza altei convenii, terului nu i va fi permis, din punct de vedere legal, s construiasc pe acel teren. Cu alte cuvinte, autoritile competente nu vor emite autorizaie de construire n baza unui drept de folosin, obinut n baza unui contract de locaiune.

1.1.3

Uzufructul Potrivit legii romne, uzufructul este dreptul cuiva de a se folosi i de a se bucura de proprietatea care aparine altei persoane, att timp ct nu se aduce atingere substanei proprietii. Uzufructul este un drept real asupra proprietii altuia, limitat ca durat. Titularul unui uzufruct, cunoscut ca i uzufructuar, are dreptul de a folosi i de a se bucura de bun, i, de asemenea, de a obine profit din fructele bunului. Uzufructul poate fi constituit prin convenie ncheiat, pentru validitate, n form autentic.
4

Aceast prevedere va fi aplicabil doar dup ncheierea lucrrilor cadastrale pentru fiecare unitate administrativ - teritorial.

This provision shall be applicable only after completion of the cadastral works for each administrative-territorial unit.

Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

13

1.1.4

Drepturile convenionale i legale de uz i servitute Dreptul de uz este similar cu cel de uzufruct, aa cum este el descris mai sus. Titularul dreptului de uz are dreptul de a folosi i de a se bucura de bunul afectat, precum i dreptul de a culege fructele bunului ns doar n limitele necesare lui i familiei sale. Dreptul de servitute faciliteaz beneficiarului dreptul de acces pe proprietatea deinut de alt persoan. Pentru accesul la parcul eolian, n timpul i dup finalizarea lucrrilor de construcie, ori pentru traseul reelelor electrice care traverseaz proprietatea terilor, dezvoltatorul trebuie s dein servitui pe terenurile afectate de cile de acces sau de reelele electrice. Constituirea servituilor de trecere este valabil doar dac beneficiarul obine n acest scop un certificat de urbanism. Potrivit CC servitutea se stinge prin neuz timp de 30 de ani. NCC prevede o perioad de neuz de 10 ani care duce la stingerea servituii5. Dreptul de uz i de servitute pot fi constituite (i) prin ncheierea unui contract n form autentic sau (ii) n baza legii, n funcie de stadiul de dezvoltare al parcului eolian. Trebuie fcut distincie ntre stadiul de dezvoltare al parcului eolian nainte i dup obinerea autorizaiei de nfiinare. nainte de obinerea autorizaiei de nfiinare, dezvoltatorul poate beneficia de drepturile de uz i servitute doar n baza unui contract n form autentic ncheiat cu proprietarul terenului afectat. Dezvoltatorul poate beneficia prin lege de drepturile menionate doar dup obinerea autorizaiei de nfiinare. Drepturile de uz i de servitute acordate n baza legii sunt prevzute n Legea Energiei Electrice nr. 13/20076 (Legea Energiei), care acord dezvoltatorului drepturi de uz i servitute asupra terenurilor aflate n vecintatea capacitilor energetice. Exercitarea drepturilor de uz i servitute asupra proprietilor statului i ale unitilor administrativ-teritoriale afectate de capacitile energetice se realizeaz cu titlu gratuit pe toat durata existenei acestora, n timp ce pentru exercitarea drepturilor de uz i servitute asupra terenurilor aflate n proprietatea privat legea prevede reguli speciale,detaliate mai jos.

Conventional and statutory right of usage and easements The right of usage is quite similar to the usufruct as described above. The difference between the right of usage and the usufruct consists of the fact that the holder of the right of usage has the right to use and enjoy the affected property, as well as the right to receive profits from the fruits of the property within the limits required for himself and his family. The easement right enables the beneficiary to have access to the property held by another person. For access to the wind farm during and after the finalisation of the construction works of the wind farm or for the route of the electric cables that cross third parties properties, the investor must hold easements on the lands crossed by the access ways or the cables. The establishment of passage easements is valid only if the beneficiary first obtains an urbanism certificate. Pursuant to the ACC the easement extinguishes for 30 years of non-use. The NCC provides a period of non-use of ten years in order for the easement to terminate5. The rights of usage or the easements may be established (i) by executing a private notarised agreement or (ii) by virtue of law, depending on the stage of development of the wind farm. A distinction must be made between the stage of development of the wind farm prior to and after obtaining the settingup authorisation. Prior to obtaining the setting-up authorisation, the developer may benefit from the right of usage or easements only by executing private notarised agreements. The developer may benefit by virtue of law from the mentioned rights only after obtaining the setting-up authorisation. The rights of usage or the easements granted by virtue of law are regulated by Law No. 13/2007 on energy6 (the Energy Law), which grants the developer certain rights of usage or easements over the surrounding plots of land in order to be able to economically exploit the wind farm. Such rights affecting land owned by the State and local authorities are granted free-of-charge, while those affecting third owners properties follow specific rules stipulated by law, as detailed below. Exercise of easement and usage rights over third owners properties, as provided under the Energy Law and GD 135 In order to set the terms and conditions under which the developer may exercise the statutory rights of usage and easements, the owners of affected private lands may request the developer to execute the framework agreement as approved in the annex to Governmental Decision No. 135/20117 (GD 135) GD 135. The duration of the agreement will cover, in principle, the necessary period required to erect the
This termination reason will apply only to those usufructs established after the entry into force of NCC, namely 1 October 2011. Published in Official Gazette, I Part, No. 51 dated 23 January 2007 7 Governmental Decision No. 135/2011 for approving the procedural rules on conditions and terms of duration, content and limits of rights of usage and easement rights over private properties affected by energy capacities, the framework agreement, as well as for determining the amount of compensations and indemnities and the payment method thereof, published with Part I of the Official Gazette of Romania No. 236 dated 5 April 2011.
5 6

drepturilor de uz i servitute asupra 1.1.4.1 Exercitareaaflate n proprietatea privat a terilor, terenurilor conform Legii Energiei i Hotrrii de Guvern nr. 135

Pentru a stabili termenii i condiiile n care dezvoltatorul poate exercita drepturile legale de uz i servitute, proprietarii terenurilor afectate de aceste drepturi pot solicita dezvoltatorului s ncheie convenia-cadru, aa cum este aprobat n anexa la Hotrrea de Guvern nr. 135/20117 (HG 135). Durata conveniei va acoperi de principiu att perioada necesar executrii capacitii energetice,
Aceast modalitate de stingere se va aplica doar drepturilor de uzufruct constituite dup intrarea n vigoare a NCC, respectiv 1 Octombrie 2011. Publicat n Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 51, din data de 23.01.2007 7 Hotrrea de Guvern nr 135/2011 pentru aprobarea regulilor procedurale privind condiiile i termenii referitori la durata, coninutul i limitele de exercitare a drepturilor de uz i servitute asupra proprietilor private afectate de capacitile energetice, a conveniei-cadru, precum i a regulilor procedurale pentru determinarea cuantumului indemnizaiilor i a despgubirilor si a modului de plat a acestora, publicat n Monitorul Oficial al Romniei, partea I, nr. 236, din 05.04.2011.
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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

ct i perioada ulterioar de ntreinere i funcionare a capacitii energetice. n toate cazurile n care se vor ncheia astfel de convenii, cuantumul maxim al indemnizaiei la care sunt ndreptii proprietarii n schimbul afectrii terenurilor private se va stabili prin negociere, cel mult la nivelul chiriei minime pe mp stabilite pentru folosina unui teren din aceeai categorie de ctre administraia public local n a crei raz teritorial se afl terenul i se calculeaz numai pentru suprafaa de teren ce urmeaz a fi efectiv afectat de exercitarea drepturilor de uz si servitute. n situaia n care la nivelul administraiei publice locale n a crei raz teritorial se afl terenul nu exist stabilit un nivel al chiriei minime pe mp, ntinderea indemnizaiei va fi determinat de ctre un evaluator autorizat n condiiile legii, ales de comun acord de ctre pri, al crui onorariu va fi acoperit de dezvoltator. Proprietarii terenurilor afectate de exercitarea drepturilor de uz i servitute vor fi despgubii pentru prejudiciile cauzate de realizarea capacitii energetice, prejudicii ce vor fi evaluate avndu-se nvedere anumite criterii (e.g. suprafaa de teren afectat de lucrrile prevzute n convenie; tipurile de culturi i plantaii existente la data ncheierii conveniei pe terenul afectat; valoarea produciei afectate de lucrrile efectuate de dezvoltator; etc.) Dreptul la compensaie nu afecteaz dreptul proprietarului mai sus menionat de a primi indemnizaia. Conform HG 135 i Legii Energiei, proprietarii terenurilor afectate au opiunea de a solicita ncheierea unui nou contract, care s aib forma i coninutul conveniei aprobate de HG 135. Conform art. 16 alin. 7 din Legea Energiei, titularii de autorizaii i licene sunt obligai s procedeze la ncheierea Conveniei-cadru n termen de maximum 30 de zile de la solicitarea proprietarilor afectai. Cu toate acestea, nici HG 135, nici Legea Energiei nu prevd (i) o sanciune n cazul n care dezvoltatorii nu rspund cererii proprietarilor de terenuri, sau nu sunt de acord cu modificrile contractului care este deja n vigoare sau (ii) un termen legal n care proprietarii de terenuri pot solicita ncheierea contractului.

wind farm, as well as the necessary period required for the maintenance and operation of the wind farm. In all cases where agreements will be executed, the maximum amount of compensation to be paid to the owners is to be established by way of negotiation, but not higher than the level of minimum rent established by the local fiscal authority per sqm of land having the same category, and shall be calculated only for the surface of land directly affected by the rights of usage and easement rights. Where no minimum rent is established by the local fiscal authority, the amount of compensation is to be determined by an authorised expert chosen by the parties and payed by the developer.

The owners of lands affected will be indemnified for any damages caused by the wind farm determined with consideration to aseries of criteria (e.g. the surface of land affected by the works agreed upon under the agreement; the types of culture and plantation existing on the affected land at the execution date of the agreement;the value of production affected by the works performed by the developer; etc.). The compensation right does not affect the above-mentioned owners right to receive the indemnification. Pursuant to GD 135 and the Energy Law, the owners of the affected lands have the option to request for a new contract observing the form and content of the agreement approved by GD 135 to be executed with the developer. According to Article 16 (7) of the Energy Law, the holders of licences and setting-up authorisations are bound to execute the agreement no later than 30 days after the affected land owners request. However, neither GD 135 nor the Energy Law provide (i) a sanction in case developers do not reply to the land owners request or do not agree on the amendment of the already in-force agreement or (ii) if a legal deadline is to be met by the land owners in order to request the execution of the agreement. Romanian Land Register In relation to the above-mentioned real rights, opposability/transfer of said rights is also important. Under the current Land Register system any grant, transfer or limitation of rights pertaining to real property is generally effective between the parties upon signing the underlying agreement, e.g., a transfer deed. The lack of registration following execution of a transfer deed does not prevent ownership transfer or establishment of other real rights; however, this transfer will not be binding in respect of third-party interests until registration with the Land Register. The Romanian Land Register system will change once with the entry into force of the NCC. Pursuant to the NCC, the entries in the Land Register will have a constitutive effect and real rights will not be transferred prior to their legal registration with the Land Register. Rights will rank according to the date, hour
Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

1.2

Cartea funciar n Romnia Opozabilitatea/transferul drepturilor reale menionate mai sus este strns legat de sistemul crii funciare. Sub actualul sistem al crii funciare, orice constituire, transfer sau limitare a drepturilor cu privire la imobile opereaz ntre pri, ca regul, prin semnarea contractului, respectiv a actului de transfer. Lipsa nregistrrii ulterioare a acestor contracte sau acte de transfer nu mpiedic transferul dreptului de proprietate sau constituirea altor drepturi reale; cu toate acestea, un astfel de transfer sau constituire de drepturi nu vor fi opozabile terilor dect n momentul nregistrrii n cartea funciar, cu anumite excepii. Sistemul crii funciare va suferi o serie de modificri introduse de NCC. Potrivit NCC, nscrierile n cartea funciar vor avea efect constitutiv de drepturi, n sensul n care drepturile reale asupra imobilelor cuprinse n cartea funciar se vor dobndi, att ntre pri, ct i fa de teri, numai prin nscrierea

15

lor n cartea funciar. nscrierile n cartea funciar i vor produce efectele de la data nregistrrii cererilor, inndu-se ns cont de data, ora i minutul nregistrrii acestora8.

and minute of their registration applications8.

1.3

Situaii care ar putea mpiedica/ntrzia investiia

1.3.1 Proprietatea public


Conform dreptului romnesc, imobilele deinute de stat i unitile administrativ-teritoriale fac parte din dou categorii: cele care aparin domeniului public i cele ce aparin domeniului privat. Importana de a ti n care dintre aceste categorii este inclus terenul necesar pentru construcia capacitii energetice determin tipul de contract n baza cruia terenul poate fi asigurat pentru dezvoltarea parcului eolian, avnd n vedere c terenurile deinute n proprietate public pot fi obinute n vederea exploatrii ntr-un astfel de scop n baza unui contract de concesiune. ntrebarea cum i pot alege statul sau unitile administrativ-teritoriale partenerii contractuali cnd acord drepturi asupra terenurilor deinute n proprietate este un subiect sensibil. Vnzarea, concesiunea sau nchirierea unor terenuri din domeniului public sau privat al statului sau al unitilor administrativ-teritoriale, sunt supuse procedurilor de licitaie public. Detaliile unor astfel de proceduri nu au fost pn n prezent complet clarificate; legea, doctrina sau jurisprudena nu ofer un set de reguli clare cu privire la modalitatea n care autoritile publice trebuie s organizeze astfel de proceduri de licitaie. Cu toate acestea, dac o autoritate public acord unui ter drepturi asupra unui teren deinut n proprietate public sau privat fr organizarea unei licitaii publice n acest sens, contractul astfel ncheiat poate fi anulat de ctre instana de judecat. Aceast anulare ar produce o serie de efecte negative asupra proprietii structurilor construite pe teren i chiar asupra autorizaiilor i avizelor emise pentru construirea i operarea parcului eolian.

Issues that might impede/delay the investment process Public property Under Romanian law, immovable goods held by the State and local authorities can be of two categories: they can belong to the public domain or to the private domain (domeniul public sau privat). The importance of knowing in which category the land needed for a wind farm project falls into lays with the type of agreement the land can be secured with for a project as land in public domain can only be obtained subject to a concession agreement.

The question of how the local authorities can choose their contract partners when granting rights over land is a very sensitive aspect. The sale, concession or leasing of the plots of land, part of the public or private domain of a town or village, are subject to a public tender procedure. The details of such procedures are not yet completely clarified; neither the statutes nor the legal writings nor the case law provide a reliable set of rules as to how the local authorities should conduct such a public tender procedure. However, if the local authority grants rights to land to a party without conducting a public tender, the contract concluded with such a party may be declared null and void. This would have a series of adverse effects on the ownership over the structures built on the land and even on the authorisations and permits issued for the building and operation of the wind farm.

1.3.2 Cereri de restituire/ litigii cu privire la terenuri


n perioada 6 martie 1945 22 decembrie 1989,uneori n baza unor legi, precum i parial fr vreobaz legal, statul romn a confiscat / naionalizat /expropriat anumite imobile fr a plti respectivilorproprietari despgubiri (corespunztoare). Pentrua remedia aceste anormaliti i a facilita accesulasupra terenurilor proprietate privat, statul romn a adoptat o serie de legi cum ar fi Legea nr. 18/19919, Legea nr. 1/200010, Legea nr. 10/200111, pentru reglementarea proprietii private asupra terenurilor. Pe baza acestor legi, persoanele fizice au putut prezenta cereri de restituire solicitnd reconstituirea dreptului de proprietate asupra terenurilor deinute personal sau de ctre ascendenii lor nainte de a fi
Prevederile NCC se vor aplica doar acelor contracte ncheiate/drepturi constituite dup intrarea n vigoare a NCC, respectiv 1 Octombrie 2011, i doar dup ce lucrrile cadastrale vor fi ncheiate pentru fiecare unitate administrativ-teritorial. 9 Legea nr. 18/1991 asupra fondului funciar, republicat n Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 1, din 5 Ianuarie1998. 10 Legea nr. 1/2000 pentru reconstituirea drepturilor de proprietate asupra terenurilor agricole i forestiere, solicitate potrivit prevederilor Legii nr. 18/1991 i Legii nr. 169/1997, publicat n Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 8, din 12 Ianuarie 1998. 11 Legea nr. 10/2001 privind regimul juridic al unor imobile preluate abuziv n perioada 6 Martie 1945 22 Decembrie 1989, republicat n Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 798, din 2 Septembrie 2005.
8

Restitution claims/litigations affecting the lands In the period 6 March 1945 to 22 December 1989, the Romanian State confiscated/nationalised/ expropriated real estate property without paying adequate compensation to the owners, partly on the basis of enacted laws, partly without any legal basis. In order to correct such abnormalities and to open up access to private property over land, the Romanian State enacted several laws, such as laws Nos. 18/19919, 1/200010 and 10/200111, as means to regulate private ownership over land. Based on these laws, individuals were able to file restitution claims requesting the reinstatement (reconstituire) of ownership titles to land owned by them or their ancestors prior to expropriation by the State. At the
These provisions of the NCC will apply only to those agreements executed /rights established after the entry into force of the NCC, namely 1 October 2011, and only after the completion of the cadastral works for each administrative-territorial unit. 9 Law No 18/1991 on agricultural land, published with Part I of the Official Gazette No. 1 dated 5 January 1998. 10 Law No. 1/2000 regarding the reinstatement of the ownership right over the agricultural lands and forest lands, requested as per provisions of Law No. 18/199 and Law No. 169/1997, published with Part I of the Official Gazette No. 8 dated 12 January 2000. 11 Law No. 10/2001 on the legal regime of the immovable abusively taken over in the period between 6 March 1945 and 22 December 1989, republished with Part I of the official Gazette No. 798 dated 2 September 2005.
8

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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

expropriate de ctre statul romn. n acelai timp, la cererea persoanelor fizice private sau societilor/ asocierilor, au fost acordate n proprietate terenuri n baza constituirii dreptului de proprietate. Cu toate c perioada pentru depunerea cererilor de restituire a expirat (30 Noiembrie 2005), fotii proprietari care pot dovedi un titlu mai puternic (mai vechi) asupra unui teren pot contesta titlurile de proprietate nregistrate n prezent. Avnd n vedere c este imposibil de identificat toate exproprierile/naionalizrile fcute n perioada 19451989 (e.g. din lipsa unor nregistrri corespunztoare, din cauza efecturii unor dezmembrri sau alipiri ale terenurilor, etc.), pentru a evita riscuri viitoare care ar putea ntrzia investiia, sunt recomandabile investigaii oficiale la autoritile locale competente n cauz (cu privire la cererile de restituire nregistrate/ depuse). Aceleai investigaii sunt recomandate pentru a verifica dac terenurile sunt afectate de litigii care ar putea avea un potenial impact asupra dezvoltrii parcului eolian.

same time, land was distributed on request to private individuals or corporations by means of instatement (constituire) of titles to land. Although the time period for initiating restitution claims has expired (30 November 2005), former owners that can prove a stronger, i.e., older, title to a particular land may challenge currently registered titles. Since it is impossible to track down all expropriations/ nationalisations made in the period 1945 through 1989 (e.g., due to the lack of proper records, detachments and mergers of concerned plots, etc.), in order to avoid future risks that might delay the investment process, official inquiries with the relevant local councils are recommended (with a view to restitution claims filed/ deposited). The same inquiries are recommended in order to verify whether the lands are affected by other litigations that might have a potential impact on the development of the wind farm. Instatement of ownership title; restrictions Subject to certain preconditions, persons were granted access to private property over land by means of instatement of titles to land, even if they had not been expropriated during the Communist era. Pursuant to Article 32 Law No. 18/1991 on land resources, certain persons whose ownership right to a plot of land has been instated (constituit as opposed to reinstated, reconstituit) are not allowed to sell or otherwise transfer their ownership right to the respective plot for a period of ten years calculated as of the beginning of the year subsequent to the year when their ownership was registered. NCC abolished the aforementioned alienation prohibition. Breach of such prohibition results in absolutely null and void transfer documents (e.g., null and void purchase agreement) nullity that may be asserted at any time by the mayoralty, prefect and prosecutor, as well as by any interested person. In order to assess whether the prohibition has been observed, attention must be paid to the date when the prohibition term starts to run. As Article 32 of Law No. 18/1991 stipulates that the term shall run as of the beginning of the year following registration of ownership, various interpretations of the meaning of the term registration and, implicitly, of the date when the prohibition term starts to run where developed by the legal scholars. The risks regarding this term should be assessed in each project individually. Historical monument status Law No. 422/2001 on protection of historical monuments12 defines a historical monument as constructions and lands13 situated in Romania that are significant for Romanian (and universal) history, culture and civilisation.
12 13

1.3.3 Constituirea titlului de proprietate; interdicii


La ndeplinirea anumitor condiii preliminare, anumitor persoane li s-a acordat drept de proprietate privat asupra terenurilor prin constituirea dreptului de proprietate, chiar dac nu fuseser expropriai n perioada comunist. Potrivit art. 32 din Legea nr 18/1991 asupra fondului funciar, persoanelor crora li s-a constituit dreptul de proprietate asupra terenurilor le este interzis s vnd sau s transfere dreptul de proprietate asupra terenurilor respective timp de 10 ani calculai de la nceputul anului urmtor anului n care s-a nregistrat proprietatea. NCC a abrogat interdicia de nstrinare menionat anterior. nclcarea acestor interdicii este sancionat cu nulitatea absolut a actelor de nstrinare, iar constatarea nulitii poate fi cerut n justiie de ctre primrie, prefectur, procuror, precum i de ctre orice alt persoan interesat. Pentru a aprecia dac aceast interdicie a fost respectat, trebuie urmrit momentul de la care interdicia de nstrinare ncepe s curg. Art. 32 al Legii nr. 18/1991 prevede c termenul va ncepe s curg la nceputul anului urmtor anului n care s-a fcut nregistrarea proprietii. Doctrina conine numeroase interpretri ale termenului nregistrare i implicit, ale datei la care interdicia de nstrinare ncepe s curg. Riscul cu privire la acest aspect trebuie evaluat individual n fiecare proiect.

1.3.4 Regimul monumentelor istorice


Legea nr. 422/2001 privind protejarea monumentelor istorice12 definete monumentele istorice drept imobile, construcii i terenuri13 situate pe teritoriul Romniei, semnificative pentru istoria, cultura i civilizaia naional i universal.
12 13

Publicat n Monitorul Oficial, partea I, nr. 938 din 20 Noiembrie 2006 Cu toate c aceast dispoziie legal poate fi interpretat ca aplicndu-se doar terenurilor aferente construciilor clasificate ca monumente istorice, n practic autoritile locale au considerat i parcele de teren libere ca fiind monumente istorice.

Published with Part I of the Official Gazette No. 938 dated 20 November 2006. Although this provision may well be interpreted as only applying to land corresponding to constructions designated as historical monuments, in practice local authorities have also considered empty plots of land (agricultural) as historical monuments.

Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

17

n conformitate cu art. 4 alin. 4 al Legii nr. 422/2001, titlurile unor proprieti clasificate ca monumente istorice pot fi transferate de proprietarii de drept privat doar cu respectarea dreptului de preemiune al statului romn de a cumpra astfel de proprieti. Actele de transfer ncheiate cu nerespectarea acestui drept de preemiune al statului sunt nule absolut. Constatarea nulitii poate fi invocat oricnd, de ctre orice persoan interesat. Pentru a evita acest risc, este recomandabil obinerea unei adrese oficiale de la Departamentul de Cultur, Culte Religioase i Patrimoniu Cultural Naional i de la Ministerul Romn al Culturii i Cultelor cu privire la situaia terenurilor.

In accordance with Article 4, paragraph 4 of Law No. 422/2001, title to property listed as a historical monument may only be transferred by private owners with due observance of the Romanian States preemption right to purchase such property. Transfer documents concluded in breach of such legal provision are null and void. The nullity may be brought up in court at any time, by any interested person. In order to avoid this risk, requesting an official inquiry from the Department for Culture, Religious Denominations and National Cultural Patrimony and the Romanian Ministry for Culture and Religious Denominations is recommended. Archaeological status The owner of land located within the perimeter of archaeological sites, as defined by Government Ordinance No. 43/200014, must observe specific regulations concerning restrictions for the purpose of protecting and recuperating archaeological patrimony. Should archaeological works be required in a specific area, any other activity shall be suspended until the performance and termination of archaeological investigations, as evidenced by a certificate for archaeological clearance.Performance of works that may affect the archaeological sites, in the absence of the certificate for archaeological clearance, as well as destruction or damage done to archaeological sites constitutes a criminal offence and is punishable by law. In order to avoid such risks, documents evidencing the archaeological status of the lands should be obtained. Lack of urbanism certificate (certificat de urbanism) Law No. 350/2001 on land development and urbanism15 provides under Article 29 paragraph 2 that it is mandatory to obtain an urbanism certificate prior to the unification of two or several plots of land, as well as for the partition of a plot of land into three or more plots of land. Under Article 6 of Law No. 50/1991 on the authorisation for execution of construction works16, a city planning certificate must be issued for all notarised deeds related to real estates, whenever these deeds have as an object (i) the partitioning or unification of plots for the purpose of performing construction works or (ii) the establishment of easements of passage. The performance of any such deeds in the absence of an urbanism certificate triggers their absolute nullity. Wind assessment Wind maps for Romania have been drawn up by authorities and are available to the public. They are rather general, however; hence an assessment of the wind potential in the area where the wind farm will be built is required. Developers generally monitor wind potential for at least one year before commencing construction. The duration of monitoring
14 15 16

1.3.5 Regimul arheologic


Proprietarii terenurilor localizate n perimetrul unor situri arheologice, astfel cum sunt definite de Ordonana de Guvern nr. 43/200014 trebuie s respecte restricii special prevzute, n scopul de a proteja i recupera patrimoniul arheologic. Dac pe terenurile respective sunt necesare lucrri arheologice, orice alt activitate va fi suspendat pn la executarea i ncheierea cercetrilor arheologice, n baza unui certificat de descrcare de sarcin arheologic. Efectuarea oricror lucrri care pot afecta siturile arheologice, n absena certificatului de descrcare de sarcin arheologic, ca i desfiinarea, distrugerea parial sau degradarea siturilor arheologice constituie infraciune i se pedepsete prin lege. Pentru evitarea unor astfel de riscuri, este recomandabil obinerea unor documente oficiale care atest situaia arheologic a terenurilor.

1.3.6 Lipsa certificatului de urbanism


Legea nr. 350/2011 privind amenajarea teritoriului i urbanismul15 prevede la art. 29 alin. 2 ca fiind obligatorie obinerea unui certificat de urbanism pentru ntocmirea documentaiilor cadastrale de comasare, respectiv de dezmembrare a bunurilor imobile n cel puin trei parcele. Art. 6 al Legii nr. 50/1991 privind autorizarea executrii lucrrilor de construcii16 prevede necesitatea emiterii unui certificat de urbanism pentru operaiunile notariale ce au ca obiect (i) dezmembrri ori comasri de parcele solicitate n scopul realizrii de lucrri de construcii, precum i (ii) constituirea unei servitui de trecere cu privire la un imobil. Astfel de operaiuni juridice executate n lipsa certificatului de urbanism sunt lovite de nulitate absolut.

1.4

Evaluarea potenialului eolian Autoritile romne au ntocmit hri eoliene valabile pentru teritoriul Romniei, punndu-le la dispoziia publicului. Aceste hri au mai degrab un caracter general, fiind necesar o evaluare a potenialului eolian n aria n care urmeaz a se construi centrala eolian. Dezvoltatorii monitorizeaz n general potenialul de vnt cu cel puin un an nainte de
OG 43/2000 privind protecia patrimoniului arheologic i declararea unor situri arheologice ca zone de interes naional, publicat n Monitorul Oficial, partea I, nr. 951 din 24 Noiembrie 2006. 15 Publicat n Monitorul Oficial, partea I, nr. 373 din 10 Iulie 2001. 16 Publicat n Monitorul Oficial, partea I, nr. 933 din 13 Octombrie 2004.
14

Published with Part I of the Official Gazette No. 951 dated 24 November 2006. Published with Part I of the Official Gazette No. 373 dated 10 July 2001. Published with Part I of the Official Gazette No. 933 dated 13 October 2004.

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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

nceperea construciei. Durata monitorizrii i caracteristicile echipamentului de monitorizare trebuie alese cu atenie, n special dac n proiect urmeaz s fie implicate instituii financiare, ntruct acestea tind s impun cerine specifice. Echipamentul de monitorizare anemometre - poate fi instalat ulterior urmrii procedurii de obinere a autorizaiei de construire, care este similar cu aceea necesar pentru centrala eolian, dup cum este detaliat n cele ce urmeaz.

and the characteristics of monitoring equipment should be carefully considered, especially if financing institutions will be involved in the project, as they tend to have specific requirements. Monitoring equipment wind masts may be installed after undergoing a permit process for construction, which is similar to the one for the wind farm itself, as discussed below.

1.5

Autorizaia de construire Pentru construirea unui parc eolian este necesar o autorizaie de construire, indiferent de capacitatea instalat. n general, administraia public local are competena de a emite autorizaii de construire pentru parcurile eoliene construite pe teritoriul su administrativ. Cu toate acestea, n cazul n care parcul eolian este localizat (i) pe teritoriul mai multor uniti administrativ-teritoriale (ora/comun); sau (ii) n extravilanul unei comune care nu are organizat o structur specializat, autorizaia de construire va fi emis de ctre preedintele Consiliului Judeean, cu acordul primarului oraului sau al comunei respective. Autorizaia de construire se emite n 30 de zile de la data depunerii documentaiei complete la autoritatea competent. Procesul de obinere a documentaiei complete necesit diferite alte autorizaii i acorduri care difer n funcie de amplasament (de exemplu, certificat de urbanism, acord de mediu, avizul autoritii aeronautice, aviz arheologic, avize pentru scoaterea din circuitul agricol), precum i documentaie tehnic specific i drepturi reale asupra terenului aferent proiectului. Din aceste motive, durata procesului de autorizare va depinde de caracteristicile proiectului, cum ar fi amplasamentul sau capacitatea instalat.

Building Permit The construction of a wind park always requires a building permit, irrespective of its installed capacity. Generally, the local public administration is competent to issue the building permit for those wind parks erected on its administrative territory. However, in cases where a wind park is located (i) on the territory of more than one administrative unit (town/commune); or (ii) extra muros of a commune that does not have a specialised structure, the building permit shall be issued by the president of the county council, with the consent of the mayor of the respective town or commune. The building permit is issued within 30 days upon submitting the complete documentation to the competent authority. The process of obtaining the complete documentation requires various other permits and approvals that will vary depending on the location (e.g., urbanism certificate, environmental approval, approval from the aeronautical authority, archaeological approval, approvals for change of land designation, etc.) and specific technical documentation and real rights over the project land. Therefore, the timeframe will depend on the features of the project, such as location or installed capacity. Zoning classification A building permit can only be issued if the construction of a wind park is permitted according to the zoning plan of the municipality (Plan Urbanistic General - PUG). If the zoning classification does not allow for the erection of a wind power facility, it can be amended by preparing a zoning plan for the specific area considered for the project (Plan Urbanistic Zonal - PUZ) or, in certain situations, a Detailed Urban Plan (Plan Urbanistic de Detaliu PUD). Similarly to the PUG, both PUZ and PUD are approved by resolution of the local councils. In some cases, the amendment requires the execution of a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). The amendment of the zoning plan has to be completed prior to issuing the building permit. Changing the designation of the project land from agricultural land to non-agricultural land is a condition for obtaining the building permit. The procedure differs depending on the surface of the land and on other criteria (e.g., soil quality, irrigation capacities, etc.), with the consequence that the process is more difficult and time consuming for large surfaces of land or for surfaces with irrigation capacities, as more authorities get involved.
Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

1.6

Planificare urbanistic Autorizaia de construire poate fi emis doar atunci cnd construcia parcului eolian este permis prin planul urbanistic al municipalitii (Plan Urbanistic General - PUG). Atunci cnd planificarea urbanistic nu permite construirea unei centrale eoliene, sunt posibile modificri prin pregtirea unui plan urbanistic pentru suprafaa relevant pentru proiect (Plan Urbanistic Zonal - PUZ) sau, n anume situaii, a unui plan urbanistic de detaliu PUD). Similar PUG-ului, att PUZ-ul, ct i PUD-ul, se aprob prin hotrre a consiliului local. n anumite cazuri, modificarea necesit o evaluare strategic de mediu (SEA). Modificarea planului urbanistic trebuie finalizat anterior emiterii autorizaiei de construcie. Scoaterea din circuitul agricol a terenului aferent proiectului este o condiie pentru obinerea autorizaiei de construcie. Procedura este diferit n funcie de suprafaa terenului, precum i n funcie de alte criterii, cum ar fi calitatea solului sau capacitile de irigare, astfel nct procesul este mai dificil i necesit o perioad mai ndelungat de timp n cazul terenurilor cu suprafee mai mari sau n cazul suprafeelor cu capaciti de irigare, ntruct vor fi implicate mai multe autoriti.

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n cazul parcurilor eoliene, este necesar scoaterea din circuitul agricol numai a acelor suprafee direct afectate de construcii (cum ar fi cele aferente fundaiilor turbinelor, staiei de transformare, cilor de acces, liniilor electrice).

In the case of wind parks, it will be necessary to change the designation only for those surfaces directly affected by constructions (such as the surface of the foundations of the turbines, the transformer station, access roads, electrical lines, etc.). Environmental regulations Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Wind energy generation is qualified by the Romanian legislation as an activity with potentially significant impact on the environment. The local environmental agencies decide on a case-by-case basis and after considering specific criteria (installed capacity, location, polluting emissions, including noise) whether a wind park will have a significant impact on the environment, with the consequence that in such cases an EIA shall be required. Generally, the EIA will be conducted by the competent environmental agency. The timeframe for the issuance of the environmental approval (acord de mediu) in accordance with EIA applicable regulations is 45 working days upon submission of the complete documentation. Depending on the project, however, the overall process may take more than 12 months. Nature protection and landscape conservation Nature protection and landscape conservation are part of the EIA procedure. For wind projects located on Natura 2000 sites that do not qualify as projects with a significant impact on the environment (meaning that an environmental approval shall not be required) a Natura 2000 permit (aviz natura 2000) is needed. The Natura 2000 permit is issued by the competent environmental protection agency. Grid connection With a view to connect a wind farm to the public grid, a technical connection permit (aviz tehnic de racordare) should be issued by the distribution system operator or by the transmission system operator, as applicable. The technical connection permit is issued on the basis of connectivity studies approved by the network operators. Access can only be denied in the event of lack of grid capacity. The technical connection permit is valid for 25 years, provided that within three or six months (depending on the voltage of the electrical lines) of the issuance of the permit, the connection agreement is signed with the competent network operator and the connection fee is paid. A three or six-month extension period is available upon request. The connection fee represents the value of the connection works; hence the value may be substantial. Prior to starting construction of the connection installations and observing the above deadlines, a connection agreement (contract de racordare) shall be signed with the network operator. The purpose of the connection agreement is to determine the terms and conditions of the construction of the connection installations. The following documents must be submitted to the operator:

1.7

Prevederi cu privire la mediu

1.7.1 Evaluarea impactului asupra mediului (EIA)


Producerea de energie electric din surse eoliene este calificat de legislaia romn drept o activitate cu potenial impact semnificativ asupra mediului. Ageniile de mediu locale decid de la caz la caz i pe baza unor criterii specifice (capacitate instalat, amplasament, emisii poluante, inclusiv poluare fonic) dac un parc eolian va avea impact semnificativ asupra mediului, urmnd ca n acest caz s fie solicitat o EIA. n general, EIA este efectuat de ctre agenia de mediu competent. Durata necesar pentru emiterea acordului de mediu conform legislaiei EIA este de 45 de zile lucrtoare de la depunerea documentaiei complete. n funcie de proiect, ntregul proces poate dura mai mult de 12 luni.

1.7.2 Protecia naturii i conservarea peisajului


Protecia naturii i conservarea peisajului constituie parte a procedurii EIA. Pentru proiecte eoliene localizate n siturile Natura 2000 care nu se calific drept proiecte cu impact semnificativ asupra mediului (nsemnnd c acordul de mediu nu este necesar) este necesar avizul Natura 2000. Avizul Natura 2000 este emis de agenia competent pentru protecia mediului.

1.8

Racordarea la reea n scopul de a racorda o central eolian la reeaua public, este necesar emiterea unui aviz tehnic de racordare de ctre operatorul de distribuie sau de ctre operatorul de transport, dup caz. Avizul tehnic de racordare este emis pe baza studiilor de conectare aprobate de ctre operatorii de reea. Accesul poate fi refuzat doar n cazul unei lipse de capacitate a reelei. Avizul tehnic de racordare este valabil o perioad de 25 de ani, cu condiia ca n trei sau 6 luni (n funcie de tensiunea reelei electrice) de la emiterea avizului s fie semnat contractul de racordare cu operatorul de reea competent i s fie pltit tariful de racordare. La cerere este posibil prelungirea acestei perioade cu nc 3 sau 6 luni. Tariful de racordare reprezint valoarea lucrrilor de racordare; prin urmare, valoarea poate fi substanial. nainte de nceperea construciei instalaiei de racordare i respectnd termenele limit de mai sus, se va semna un contract de racordare cu operatorul de reea. Scopul contractului de racordare este de a determina termenii i condiiile construciei instalaiei de racordare. Urmtoarele documente trebuie depuse la operator:

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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

1. copie a avizului tehnic de racordare; 2. copie a certificatului de nregistrare la Registrul Comerului; 3. autorizaia de construire a parcului eolian; 4. acordurile proprietarilor de terenuri cu privire la trecerea sau ocuparea acestora, precum i cu privire la exercitarea drepturilor de uz i servitute de ctre operator asupra suprafeelor de teren afectate de instalaia de racordare (originale autentificate de un notar public). Operatorul este obligat s propun utilizatorului un contract de racordare n termen de cel mult zece zile calendaristice de la depunerea documentelor. ncheierea contractului de racordare este urmat de ncheierea unui contract pentru execuia instalaiei de racordare ntre operatorul de reea i un ter ce poate fi desemnat de ctre utilizator.

1. copy of the technical connection permit; 2. copy of the registration certificate with the Trade Registry; 3. building permit for the wind park; 4. approvals of the land owners to occupy or cross a plot of land and for exercise by the operator of the use and easement rights over the plots of land affected by the connection installation (originals authenticated by a notary public). The operator is obliged to propose a draft connection agreement to the user within maximum ten calendar days from the submission of the documents. The conclusion of the connection agreement is followed by the conclusion of an agreement for the execution of the connection installation between the network operator and a third party that may be designated by the user. Setting-up authorisation The setting-up authorisation (autorizatie de infiintare) is independent from the building permit and is required for the construction of energetic capacities with an installed capacity above 1 MW. The setting-up authorisation is issued by the Romanian Energy Regulatory Authority (ANRE) within 30 calendar days from the submission of the complete documentation and payment of the corresponding fee. The validity term of this permit is set forth by ANRE in accordance with the expected duration of the construction works and the complexity of the project. The setting-up authorisation is required in an advanced stage of the development process, after the issuance of the environmental approval (if required) and the technical connection permit. In addition, the applicant must provide, among other things, the following documents: (i) title to the land; (ii) notifications to third parties affected by the applicants use and easement rights on their property; (iii) a list of the requested use and easement rights; (iv) feasibility study; (v) documents attesting that the financing of the construction is secured; (vi) the location plan of the project; (vii) the limits of the protection and safety areas; (viii) a specification regarding the stages of the setting-up works; and (ix) excerpts from the tender books or copies of the agreements concluded with the designated contractors. Upon obtaining the setting-up authorisation, the wind park will enjoy various statutory rights over third-party property required for the development and construction of the wind park. The statutory easement rights for the electrical lines or the statutory rights of use for depositing construction materials should be mentioned.

1.9

Autorizaia de nfiinare Autorizaia de nfiinare este independent de autorizaia de construire i este necesar pentru capaciti energetice cu o capacitate instalat de peste 1 MW. Autorizaia de nfiinare se emite de ctre Autoritatea Naional de Reglementare n domeniul Energiei (ANRE) n termen de 30 de zile calendaristice de la depunerea documentaiei complete i plata taxei corespunztoare. Valabilitatea acestei autorizaii se stabilete de ctre ANRE n conformitate cu durata estimat a lucrrilor de construire i cu complexitatea proiectului. Autorizaia de nfiinare este necesar ntr-o etap avansat a procesului de dezvoltare, i anume dup emiterea acordului de mediu (dac este necesar) i a avizului tehnic de racordare. Suplimentar, solicitantul trebuie s pun la dispoziie, printre altele, urmtoarele documente: (i) titlul asupra terenului ; (ii) notificrile ctre terii afectai de drepturile de uz i servitute asupra proprietii lor; (iii) o list cu drepturile de uz i servitute solicitate; (iv) studiul de fezabilitate; (v) documentele care atest asigurarea finanrii construciei; (vi) planul de amplasament al proiectului; (vii) limitele zonelor de protecie i siguran; (viii) o specificaie cu privire la etapele lucrrilor de nfiinare; i (ix) extrase din caietele de sarcini aferente selectrii ori de copii ale contractelor ncheiate cu contractorii angajai. n urma obinerii autorizaiei de nfiinare, parcul eolian va beneficia de diferite drepturi legale asupra proprietii terilor necesare fazelor de dezvoltare i construire a parcului eolian. Ar putea fi menionate dreptul legal de servitute pentru liniile electrice sau dreptul legal de uz pentru depozitarea materialelor de construcie.

Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

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Operarea centralei eoliene


nainte de a deveni operaional, este necesar o licen de exploatare a capacitii energetice emis de ctre autoritatea de reglementare n domeniul energiei, precum i autorizaia de mediu.

Wind farm operation


Prior to becoming operational, a wind farm should be granted an operational licence by the energy regulator, as well as an environmental authorisation. Operation licence For the operation of a wind park, an operation licence (licena pentru exploatarea comercial a unor capaciti de producere a energiei electrice) is required and should be obtained after the wind park is commissioned and prior to the commencement of commercial operations. The applicant must submit detailed documentation as follows: (i) specification of the electricity production capacities; (ii) the applicants organisational chart, valid on the application date, indicating the department in charge of the performance of the licensed activity; (iii) an organisational chart attes-ting the qualification of personnel allocated to the licensed activity; (iv) the organisation and functioning regulations or the quality management manual; (v) a business plan for the licensed activity, for the respective year and for the next two years; (vi) the reception protocol upon completion of works; and (vii) the reception protocol for the commissioning into function of the energetic capacity. The operation licence is issued by ANRE 30 calendar days after the submission of the complete documentation and payment of the corresponding fee. The validity term of an operation licence shall not exceed 25 years. Licence holders shall constitute and maintain a financial guarantee representing 1 of the value of the share capital of the licence holder, however, no less than 1.5% of the annual turnover. Licence holders pay to ANRE an annual contribution representing 0.06% of the turnover resulting from the commercial activities performed in the electric energy field. Environmental An environmental authorisation (autorizaie de mediu) should be obtained from the local environmental protection agency upon the commissioning into function of the wind farm. The environmental authorisation determines the environmental conditions and parameters for the functioning of the objective. Sale of energy In order to benefit from the support scheme for renewable energy and from certain trading advantages, renewable electricity producers should be qualified by ANRE. Qualification may be done gradually for each commissioned electrical group. Once the producers qualify, the next step is to get registered with the transport and system operator (Operatorul de Transport i de Sistem CN TRANSELECTRICA SA TSO).

2.1

Licena de exploatare Pentru operarea unui parc eolian este necesar o licen pentru exploatarea comercial a unei capaciti de producere a energiei electrice care trebuie obinut dup punerea n funciune i anterior nceperii operaiunilor comerciale. Solicitantul trebuie s depun o documentaie detaliat dup cum urmeaz: (i) specificarea capacitilor de producie; (ii) organigrama solicitantului, valabil la data solicitrii licenei, indicnd departamentul responsabil cu desfurarea activitii pentru care se solicit licena; (iii) structura personalului, pe specialiti, care atest calificarea personalului alocat activitii pentru care se solicit licena; (iv) regulamentul de organizare i funcionare sau manualul calitii; (v) un plan de afaceri pentru activitatea care face obiectul licenei, pentru anul solicitrii acesteia i urmtorii doi ani; (vi) proces verbal de recepie la terminarea lucrrilor; i (vii) proces verbal de punere n funciune a capacitii energetice. Licena de exploatare este emis de ctre ANRE n 30 de zile calendaristice de la depunerea documentaiei complete i plata taxei corespunztoare. Termenul de valabilitate a licenei de exploatare nu trebuie s depeasc 25 de ani. Titularii de licene trebuie s constituie i s menin o garanie financiar care s reprezinte 1 din valoarea capitalului social al titularului de licen, dar nu mai puin de 1,5% din valoarea cifrei de afaceri anuale. Titularii de licen pltesc ctre ANRE o contribuie anual reprezentnd 0,06% din cifra de afaceri rezultat din activitile comerciale desfurate n domeniul energiei electrice.

2.2

Mediu O autorizaie de mediu trebuie obinut de la agenia local de protecie a mediului la punerea n funciune a centralei eoliene. Autorizaia de mediu determin condiiile i parametrii de funcionare ai obiectivului.

2.3

Vnzarea de energie Pentru a beneficia de sistemul de promovare a producerii energiei din surse regenerabile i de anumite avantaje comerciale, productorii de energie electric regenerabil trebuie calificai de ANRE. Calificarea poate fi fcut gradual pentru fiecare grup electric pus n funciune. Din momentul n care productorii sunt calificai, urmtorul pas este de a se nregistra la operatorul de transport i de sistem CN TRANSELECTRICA SA(OTS).
22
Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

n urma calificrii, energia din resurse regenerabile (E-SRE) poate fi vndut: 1. n baza unor contracte bilaterale ctre furnizori de electricitate sau ctre consumatori eligibili; 2. n baza unor contracte bilaterale ncheiate cu societi de distribuie/furnizare de electricitate care au ncheiat contracte de concesiune exclusive i care sunt obligate legal s cumpere E-SRE de la productorii racordai la reelele de distribuie din zona delimitat de licen, la preuri reglementate de ctre ANRE i la cererea productorilor respectivi; sau 3. pe piaa pentru ziua urmtoare (PZU). nregistrarea i tranzacionarea pe PZU sunt opionale. Pentru a fi nregistrat ca participant pe PZU, titularii de licene trebuie s dovedeasc operatorului pieei (OPCOM SA) c s-a transferat responsabilitatea echilibrrii ctre o alt parte responsabil cu echilibrarea.

Following qualification, energy from renewable sources (E-RES) may be sold: 1. by means of bilateral contracts, to electricity suppliers or eligible consumers; 2. by means of bilateral contracts concluded with electricity distribution/supply companies that have concluded exclusive concession agreements and are legally bound to purchase the E-RES from producers connected to the distribution networks of the territory provided in the licence, for a price regulated by ANRE and at the request of the respective producers; or 3. on the day-ahead market (DAM). Registration and trading on the DAM are optional. In order to be registered as a DAM participant, the licence holders must prove to the market operator (OPCOM SA) that the transfer of the balance responsibility to the other balancing responsible parties has been registered.

Sistemul de promovare i tranzacionarea certificatelor verzi


Remarci generale cu privire la sistemul de promovare n anul 2005 Romnia a implementat sistemul de promovare pentru energia regenerabil care presupune o cot obligatorie combinat cu tranzacionarea de certificate verzi (CV). Contrar rspnditului sistem de pre fix, sistemul de promovare prin CV este relativ nou i utilizat n prezent n cteva ri din Uniunea European, precum Belgia, Marea Britanie, Polonia, Suedia, Italia (unde preurile fixe sunt aplicabile energiei fotovoltaice) i Romnia. Sistemul iniial a fost ulterior dezvoltat n 2008, cnd Legea 220/2008 pentru stabilirea sistemului de promovare a producerii energiei din surse regenerabile de energie (Legea 220/2008) a fost publicat, i n 2010 cnd s-au fcut modificri majore. Sistemul de promovare mbuntit legiferat prin Legea 220/2008 a fost supus verificrii de ctre UE pentru conformitate cu prevederile legislaiei comunitare privind ajutorul de stat. Decizia Comisiei a fost recent emis i urmeaz a fi publicat n Jurnalul Oficial al Uniunii Europene. Pn la intrarea n vigoare a deciziei Comisiei, se aplic prevederile anterioare implementate n 2005. ntruct prevederile anterioare nu vor mai fi n vigoare o dat cu autorizarea de ctre Comisia European a sistemului prevzut de Legea 220/2008, aceast seciune se bazeaz pe prevederile Legii 220/2008.

Support scheme and green certificates trading


General remarks on the support scheme In 2005 Romania implemented a support scheme for renewable energy that entails a quota obligation combined with trading of green certificates (GCs). As opposed to the widespread feed-in tariff system, the GCs support scheme is relatively new and is currently used in several EU countries, including Belgium, the UK, Poland, Sweden, Italy (where feedin-tariffs are applicable for photovoltaic energy) and Romania. The initial system was further developed in 2008, when Act No. 220/2008 on the promotion system for energy generation from renewable energy (Act No. 220/2008) was published, and in 2010 when major amendments were made. The improved support scheme provided for in Act No. 220/2008 was under EU scrutiny for compliance with the state-aid regime. The Commissions decision was recently issued and it currently awaits publication in the Official Journal of the European Union. Until the Commissions decision becomes applicable, the former regulations implemented in 2005 apply. As these former regulations will no longer be in force as of the authorisation by the EU Commission of the system regulated by Act No. 220/2008, this section shall be based on the provisions of Act No. 220/2008. Beneficiaries of the GCs system The GCs system benefits energy producers that use renewable energy sources. Wind energy is considered a renewable energy source. Renewable energy producers that use wind power shall receive (on the basis of Act No. 220/2008) two
Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

3.1

3.2

Beneficiarii sistemului de CV De sistemul de CV beneficiaz productorii de energie care folosesc surse de energie regenerabil. Energia eolian este considerat o surs de energie regenerabil. Productorii de energie regenerabil care folosesc sursa eolian vor primi (n baza Legii

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220/2008) dou CV pn n anul 2017 i un CV, ncepnd cu 2018, pentru fiecare MW livrat n reea. Sistemul de CV se aplic oricrui beneficiar pe o perioad de 15 ani (cu condiia ca echipamentul folosit s fie nou) ncepnd de la data la care capacitatea de producie devine operaional i produce electricitate.

GCs until 2017 and one GC, starting with 2018, for each MW fed into the grid. The GCs system shall apply to each beneficiary for a period of 15 years (provided that the equipment used is new) starting from the moment the generation unit becomes operational and produces electricity. Trading of GCs Currently there are two dedicated means of trading GCs: (i) the bilateral contracts market and (ii) the centralised market. These markets run in parallel without any priority order. Either way, the producers can trade separately both the allocated GCs and the E-RES corresponding to the respective GCs. Prices can be negotiated and set anywhere from EUR 27 to EUR 55, as subsequently indexed (always computed at the average exchange rate of the National Bank of Romania for the previous December). GCs can be traded solely on the Romanian market, until the national targets set forth by Act No. 220/2008 are reached. From a practical perspective, however, even if these national targets are reached, international trading is not possible due to the lack of a trading platform that would allow trading GCs with other EU countries. A certain harmonisation between the EU countries that have implemented the GCs system would be required in order to allow international GCs trading. Directive 2009/28 stipulates that Member States may voluntarily decide to join or partially coordinate their national support schemes. Romania has implemented this principle in the national legislation, but has not taken any steps to agree with another Member State (that has also implemented the green certificates system) on a joint support scheme that would allow for inter-state trading.The participants to GCs Romanian markets are: renewable energy producers, electricity suppliers and consumers who voluntarily engage in trading GCs. The trading price on both markets is negotiated and may be set between the minimum and maximum benchmarks (i.e., EUR 27 and EUR 55). The price level (always between the minimum and the maximum levels) will depend on the balance between the offer of GCs from producers and the demand of GCs from electricity suppliers (which are obliged by law to acquire a certain amount of GCs depending on the amount of electricity traded). The offer side is determined by the quantity of renewable energy fed into the system (and by the renewable energy capacity installed in Romania). The demand side is determined by the quantity of supplied electricity and by the mandatory GCs quota that each supplier will have to comply with. On the bilateral contracts market the participants negotiate and execute transactions based on a sale purchase framework agreement issued by ANRE. Transactions on the centralised market are entered into on a monthly basis. The centralised market is operated by OPCOM. Market participants, whether for the bilateral contracts market or for the centralised market are registered for trading purposes on the basis on an application submitted to OPCOM, as per a specific registration procedure. The

3.3

Tranzacionarea de CV n prezent exist dou metode de tranzacionare a CV: (i) piaa contractelor bilaterale i (ii) piaa centralizat. Aceste piee coexist fr ca vreuna dintre ele s aib prioritate. Productorii pot tranzaciona separat att CV alocate, ct i E-SRE corespunztoare respectivelor CV. Preurile pot fi negociate i stabilite la orice valoare ntre 27 euro i 55 euro, astfel cum vor fi indexate ulterior (ntotdeauna calculate la valoarea medie a cursului de schimb stabilit de Banca Naional a Romniei pentru luna decembrie a anului precedent). CV pot fi tranzacionate doar pe piaa din Romnia, pn ce intele naionale prevzute de Legea 220/2008 sunt atinse. Din perspectiv practic, totui, chiar i dac aceste inte naionale sunt atinse, tranzacionarea pe plan internaional nu este posibil din cauza lipsei unei platforme internaionale ce ar permite tranzacionarea de CV n alte ri din UE. O anumit armonizare ntre rile UE care au implementat sistemul de CV ar fi necesar pentru a permite tranzacionarea pe plan internaional. Directiva 2009/28 prevede c statele membre pot hotr, pe o baz voluntar, s pun n comun sau s i coordoneze parial schemele naionale de sprijin. Romnia a implementat acest principiu n legislaia naional, dar nu a fcut pai pentru a agrea cu un alt stat membru (care a i implementat sistemul de certificate verzi) o schem de sprijin comun care s permit tranzacionarea ntre state. Participanii la piaa intern de CV sunt: productorii de energie regenerabil, furnizorii de energie i consumatorii care se angajeaz n mod voluntar n tranzacionarea de CV. Preul de tranzacionare pe ambele piee este negociat i poate fi stabilit ntre valoarea minim i cea maxim (27 euro i 55 euro). Nivelul preului (ntotdeauna ntre valoarea minim i cea maxim) va depinde de raportul dintre oferta de CV a productorilor i cererea de CV a furnizorilor de energie (care sunt obligai prin lege s achiziioneze un anumit numr de CV care depinde de cantitatea de electricitate furnizat). Oferta este determinat de cantitatea de energie regenerabil livrat n sistem (i de capacitatea de energie regenerabil instalat n Romnia). Cererea este determinat de cantitatea de electricitate furnizat i de cota obligatorie de CV pe care trebuie s o ndeplineasc fiecare furnizor. Pe piaa de contracte bilaterale participanii negociaz i ncheie tranzacii n baza unui model de contract de vnzare cumprare emis de ANRE. Tranzaciile pe piaa centralizat se ncheie lunar. Piaa centralizat este operat de OPCOM. Participanii la pia, fie pe piaa de contracte bilaterale, fie pe piaa centralizat, sunt nregistrai n scopul tranzacionrii n baza unei cereri transmise OPCOM, conform unei proceduri de nregistrare speciale.
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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

Transferul CV (pe oricare dintre piee) este nregistrat ntr-un registru special al CV. CV sunt emise de ctre OTS n baza cantitii de energie produs n luna anterioar.

transfer of GCs (on either of the markets) is registered in a registry dedicated to GCs. GCs are issued by the TSO based on the amount of energy produced in the previous month. Proposed amendments to the support scheme With a view to address the concerns raised by the EU Commission during the process for the authorization of the support scheme which ended with the issuing of the Commissions favourable decision on 13 July 2011, the Romanian Government plans to amend Act No. 220/2008 by way of a Government ordinance. It is expected that this ordinance will be adopted this fall. The text of the planned amendment is available on ANREs and the Ministrys of Economy websites. The main amendments proposed in the draft made public in July 2011 refer to: The mandatory GCs quota shall apply also to producers, including for the testing period. The individual target for a producer will consider the electricity used for its own final consumption, excluding the own technological consumption, and the electricity supplied by the producer to the consumers directly connected to its power plant. The GCs shall be valid for 16 months. ANRE shall monitor the renewable energy producers that benefit from the support scheme and shall prepare annual reports. Should such monitoring process emphasize that the applicable support scheme triggers an overcompensation of the renewable energy producers, ANRE shall take measures to decrease the number of GCs granted according to the scheme contemplated by Act No. 220/2008. However, in case of a downward adjustment of the scheme, the amended scheme shall not apply retroactively, in the sense that it will apply only to those projects that become operational after the entry into force of the amended scheme. Overcompensation is defined as an internal rate of return 10% higher than the reference internal rate of return for that specific technology that has been considered in the authorisation process of the support scheme for the respective technology and that shall be published on ANREs website. Regarding possible cumulating of subsidies and GCs, the Government proposes the principle of reducing the number of GCs granted to a certain technology proportionally with the ration between the amount of the subsidies and the reference investment value, according to a decision that is individually issued by ANRE. The reference investment value shall be based on the calculations provided by the Romanian Government to the EU Commission as part of the state aid notification process. The number of GCs granted for renewable energy produced from biomass is differentiated based on the technology and the fuel used. The draft proposal stipulates an individual obligation applicable to the producers that develop renewable energy projects with an installed capacity in excess of 125 MW/plant
Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

3.4

Propuneri de modificare a sistemului de promovare Pentru a rspunde ntrebrilor ridicate de Comisia European de-a lungul procesului de autorizare a sistemului de promovare prevzut de Legea 220/2008 care s-a ncheiat prin emiterea deciziei favorabile a Comisiei n data de 13 iulie 2011, Guvernul Romniei intenioneaz s amendeze Legea 220/2008 printr-o ordonan de Guvern. Este de ateptat ca ordonana s fie adoptat n aceast toamn. Proiectul de modificare poate fi accesat pe site-ul ANRE i pe siteul Ministerului Economiei. Modificrile principale propuse n proiectul fcut public n iulie 2011 sunt urmtoarele: Cota obligatorie de achiziie de CV se aplic i n cazul productorilor, inclusiv pe perioada de testare. Cota individual obligatorie de achiziie de CV aplicabil unui productor va lua n considerare cantitatea de energie electric utilizat pentru consumul final propriu, altul dect consumul propriu tehnologic, precum i cea utilizat pentru alimentarea consumatorilor racordai prin linii directe de centrala electric. CV vor avea o durat de valabilitate de 16 luni. ANRE va monitoriza productorii beneficiari ai sistemului de promovare i va pregti rapoarte anuale. n cazul n care un astfel de proces de monitorizare relev faptul c sistemul de promovare aplicabil cauzeaz o supracompensare pentru productorii de energie regenerabil, ANRE poate lua msuri pentru a reduce numrul de CV acordate conform sistemului prevzut n Legea 220/2008. n orice caz, n cazul unei ajustri n minus, sistemul modificat nu se va aplica retroactiv, nsemnnd c se va aplica doar acelor proiecte care devin operaionale dup intrarea n vigoare a sistemului modificat. Supracompensarea este definit ca fiind o rat intern de rentabilitate mai mare cu 10% fa de valoarea considerat pentru tehnologia respectiv la autorizarea sistemului de promovare i va fi publicat pe site-ul ANRE. Cu privire la un posibil cumul ntre ajutoare de stat i CV, Guvernul a propus principiul de reducere a numrului de CV acordate unei anumite tehnologii proporional cu raportul dintre valoarea ajutoarelor de stat i valoarea de referin a investiiei, conform unei decizii individuale emise de ANRE. Valoarea de referin a investiiei are la baza calculul furnizat Comisiei Europene de ctre Guvernul Romniei, ca parte a procesului de notificare a ajutorului de stat. Numrul de CV acordate pentru energia regenerabil produs din biomas este diferit n funcie de tehnologie i de combustibilul folosit. Propunerea de modificare prevede o obligaie individual aplicabil productorilor care dezvolt proiecte de energie regenerabil cu o capacitate instalat de mai mult de 125 MW/central i care sunt eligibili pentru sistemul de promovare.

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Obligaia se refer la notificarea unei documentaii specifice care s permit Comisiei Europene o analiz asupra proiectului, conform prevederilor orientrilor comunitare privind ajutorul de stat pentru protecia mediului 2008/C82/01. Cu toate acestea, seciunea de fa nu a avut n vedere modificrile de mai sus, date fiind incertitudinea formei lor finale i dezbaterile publice.

and that are eligible for the support scheme. The obligation consists in notifying certain documentation for allowing the EU Commission to analyse the respective project, pursuant to the provisions of the Community Guidelines on state aid for environmental protection 2008/C82/01. This section, however, did not consider the above amendments, given the uncertainty of their final form and the public debate.

Legislaia Uniunii Europene privind industria energiei eoliene


Directiva pentru energie regenerabil (Directiva 2009/28/CE de modificare i ulterior de abrogare a Directivei 2001/77/CE privind promovarea electricitii produse din surse de energie regenerabile pe piaa intern a electricitii) promoveaz obiective strategice cu scopul de a crete semnificativ producia de energie regenerabil la nivel european. Directiva prevede un obiectiv obligatoriu n conformitate cu o pondere de 20% a E-SRE din consumul brut la nivel comunitar care trebuie ndeplinit pn n anul 2020, precum i un alt obiectiv naional privind o pondere de 10% a E-SRE n transporturi. Pentru a ndeplini obiectivele generale, Directiva impune fiecrui stat membru obiective naionale. Romniei i s-a stabilit un ambiios obiectiv obligatoriu privind o pondere de 24% a E-SRE din consumul final brut de energie pn n anul 2020.

European Union law as regards the wind energy industry


The Renewable Energy Directive (Directive 2009/28/ EC amending and repealing Directive 2001/77/ EC on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources on the internal electricity market) promotes strategic objectives aimed at significantly increasing the production of renewable energy at the Community level. The Directive sets a mandatory target of 20% of the share of E-RES in the Communitys gross consumption to be reached by 2020, including a further target of 10% for E-RES for each Member States transport energy consumption. In order to achieve the overall targets, the Directive imposes national targets for each Member State. Romania has been set an ambitious mandatory target of 24% energy from renewable sources in the final gross consumption of energy by 2020.

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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

Surse de finanare a investiiilor n energia eolian Sources of financing for wind investment

CAPITOL PART

3
Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

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Programe cofinanate de UE
Interesul investitorilor n piaa romnesc de energie eolian este n cretere. Multe companii majore au nceput deja s implementeze proiecte de energie eolian, n ciuda lipsei unei legislaii elocvente despre schema de sprijin. Investiiile cu privire la promovarea i construirea a noi instalaii productoare de energie folosind surse regenerabile se pot finana de ctre statul romn i UE prin urmtoarele dou programe: ERDF Fondul de Dezvoltare Regional European Programul Operaional Sectorial Creterea Competivitii Economice, Msura 4.2 Investiiile n Energia Regenerabil. EAFRD - Fondul European Agricol pentru Dezvoltare Rural Msura 121- Modernizarea exploataiilor agricole. ERDF: n cadrul Msurii 4.2, fondul s-a stabilit la aproximativ 300 milioane de euro pentru finanarea proiectelor de energie regenerabil n perioada anilor 2007-2013, din care 85% reprezint fonduri nerambursabile oferite de ERDF si 15% reprezint fonduri publice de cofinanare de la bugetul de stat (conform HG 750/2008). Dezvoltatorii pot primi pn la 18 milioane de euro din fonduri nerambursabile pentru proiecte de energie eolian potrivit Msurii 4.2. Pn la 70% din costurile proiectelor eligibile se pot finana prin aceast modalitate, fiind condiionate de dimensiunea societii solicitante. Cererile s-au putut trimite n anii 2008 i 2010. Toate proiectele au concurat ntre ele din punct de vedere al calitii, astfel nct doar cele mai bune au fost subvenionate. Dintr-un total de 450 proiecte nscrise, aproximativ 40 au fost aprobate, iar fondurile aferente acestei msuri au fost epuizate astfel nct pentru moment nu se tie cu siguran dac vor mai fi posibile i alte solicitri. Catalogul cu eligibilitatea costurilor cuprinde n special urmtoarele: achiziia terenului; costurile aferente tuturor tipurilor de planificri tehnice; lucrarea la construcii i instalaii; achiziia echipamentului (doar echipament nou); organizarea amplasamentului cldirii; conectarea la Sistemul Energetic Naional; certificarea, licenierea, know-how + soluii tehnice nenregistrate i costurile aferente proiectelor legate de management, informaii i audit. EAFRD: Condiia de baz pentru a primi fonduri pentru energia regenerabil conform Msurii 121 este aceea ca toat electricitatea rezultat s fie folosit exclusiv pentru parcul care aplic la aceste fonduri electricitatea nu trebuie s fie livrat n reeaua naional. Valoarea maxim a costurilor eligibile a unor astfel de proiecte nu trebuie s depeasc 2.000.000 de euro. Componenta public cofinanatoare este limitat la 800.000 de euro pentru perioada 2010-2013 cu suport nerambursabil de 40%. Pentru proiectele ce includ investiii n producia agricol i pentru utilizarea energiei regenerabile, costurile eligibile maxime pot depi valoarea de 2.000.000 de euro, fiind limitate la 3.000.000 de euro. Suma acordat n plus fa de 2.000.000 de euro crete proporional cu aportul costurilor pentru investiiile n energie, fiind comparat cu valoarea total a proiectului.
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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

Programmes cofinanced by the EU


Investor interest in the Romanian wind energy market is growing. A number of major companies have already started to implement wind farm projects despite the lack of adequate relevant legislation regarding the support scheme. Investment in the upgrading and construction of new power production facilities through the use of renewable energy sources can be financed by the Romanian state together with the European Union through the following two programmes: ERDF the European Regional Development Fund the Sectoral Operational Programme Increase of Economic Competitiveness Measure 4.2 Investments in Renewable Energy EAFRD the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development Measure 121 Modernisation of agricultural holdings. ERDF: Within the framework of Measure 4.2, around EUR 300 million have been made available for funding renewable energy projects during the period 2007-2013, of which 85% represents non-refundable EU funds granted by the European Regional Development Fund and 15% public cofinancing funds from the state budget (according to GD 750/2008). Companies may receive up to EUR 18 million in non reimbursable EU-funds for wind energy projects under Measure 4.2. Up to 70% of the eligible project costs can be funded in this way, depending on the size of the company applying for the funds. Applications could be submitted in 2008 and 2010. All the projects submitted competed with each other in terms of quality, such that only applications of a high quality were subsidised. With a total of around 450 projects submitted, of which some 40 have been approved, the funds set aside for this measure have been exhausted, and at the current moment it is not sure whether further applications will be possible. The catalogue of costs eligible for aid comprises the following in particular: land purchase; costs for all types of technical planning; construction and installation works; purchase of equipment (only new equipment); organisation of the building site; connection to the National Electric System; purchase of patents, licenses, know-how + non-registered technical solutions and costs for project related management, information and auditing. EAFRD: The precondition of receiving funds for renewable energy under Measure 121 is that all the electricity produced be used exclusively for the farm that applies for these funds no electricity should be fed into the national grid system. The maximum value of the eligible costs for such projects must not exceed EUR 2,000,000. The public cofinancing component is limited to EUR 800,000 for the period 2010-2013 with non-reimbursable support of 40%. For projects that include investment in agricultural production and the use of renewable energy, the projects maximum eligible costs may exceed EUR 2,000,000, being limited instead to EUR 3,000,000. The amount financed in excess of EUR 2,000,000 increases proportionally together with the share of the costs for the energy investment compared with the total project value.

Fiind una dintre cele mai mari bnci din Romnia, Raiffeisen Bank este interesat de finanarea dezvoltrii sectorului de energie regenerabil, care pare a deveni foarte important.

As one of the largest banks in Romania, Raiffeisen Bank Romania is interested in financing the development in the renewable energy sector, which seems to become very interesting.

In spite of recent financial turmoil n ciuda dezechilibrului financiar in the Euro area, feed-in-tariff din zona Euro, a reducerilor reductions and subsidy cuts for costurilor care ncurajeaz renewables in Spain, Germany, folosirea energiei regenerabile France, Italy and the Czech i diminurile subveniilor din Republic, this industry sector Spania, Germania, Frana, Italia is currently viewed as the most i Cehia, acest sector industrial attractive for foreign investors. este n mod curent privit de Raiffeisen Bank, therefore, investitorii strini ca fiind cel mai expects that once the Applicable atractiv. Prin urmare, Raiffeisen Norms for Renewables Bank se ateapt ca o dat ce Supporting Scheme have Normele Aplicabile cu privire la Steven van Groningen become effective, there shall Schema-Suport pentru Energii CEO be an inflow of clean-energy Regenerabile va intra n vigoare, Banca Raiffeisen projects in which case we shall s existe o afluen de proiecte Chief Executive Officer be assessing the deals based on de energie regenerabil, situaie Raiffeisen Bank quality of sponsor, experience of n care vom evalua tranzaciile third parties, secured market risk bazndu-ne pe calitatea and good feasibility of the project in terms of debt sponsorului, experiena terilor, riscurile de pia servicing. i buna fezabilitate a proiectului din punct de vedere al onorrii obligaiilor de plat. Aa cum am menionat i mai devreme, obstacolele majore n ceea ce privete finanarea proiectelor de energie regenerabil sunt: (a) Riscul total al pieei Productorii Independeni de Energie (PIE) pot alege att s vnd i s negocieze energia n mod direct pe piaa spot ct i prin intermediul unor Contracte bilaterale de Achiziie a Energiei (CAE) cu furnizorii. Avnd n vedere instabilitatea sporit a pieei energiei, PIE pot fi n avantaj vnznd pe piaa spot, cu toate c finanatorul prefer fluxul securizat al lichiditilor, cu riscul pieei restrns de CAE semnate pe termen lung, cu pre fix. Din nefericire, aceste tipuri de contracte sunt destul de rare pe piaa energiei din Romnia. Fiind mai degrab o problem de pia dect de reglementare, disponibilitatea redus a CAE descurajeaz finanatorii cu privire la finanare. (b) Cadrul legal nc neaplicabil oferind o schem de suport pentru industria energiei regenerabile Legea de sprijinire a investiiilor n energii regenerabile a fost publicat n noiembrie 2008 i prevede o schem de sprijin/subvenii pentru proiectele de energie regenerabil sub forma de certificate verzi. Un megawatt de electricitate per or generat i livrat n reea folosindu-se resursele de energie regenerabil valoreaz un certificat verde, iar productorii de energie regenerabil ctig profit att din vnzarea energiei ct i a certificatelor verzi. Legea a fost amendat n iulie 2010, crescnd numrul de certificate disponibile pentru productorii de energie regenerabil. Cu toate acestea, recent (13 iulie 2011), Comisia European a aprobat schema-suport, iar acum As mentioned earlier the major barriers in financing the renewable energy projects are: (a) Unmitigated market risk The IPPs (independent power producers) may choose to sell and market the energy either on spot or through bi-lateral off-take agreements with the energy suppliers (PPAs). Given the increased volatility of the energy market the IPPs may gain by selling on spot however the financier prefers secured cash flow having the market risk hedged through signed long-term fixed-price PPAs (power purchase agreements). Unfortunately, these types of agreements are quite scarce in the Romanian energy market. Being rather a market issue than regulatory the reduced availability of PPAs deters the financier from financing. (b) Still inapplicable legal framework providing a supporting scheme for renewable energy industry Renewable Energy Supporting Scheme Law was published in November 2008 providing supporting mechanism/subsidies for renewable energy projects in form of green energy certificates. One megawatt per hour of electricity generated and delivered to the grid using green energy sources is worth one green certificate, and green energy producers make money from both the sale of electricity and the certificates. The law was amended in July 2010 increasing the number of certificates available for green energy producers. However, only recently (13 July 2011) the European Commission approved the supporting scheme and now ANRE is expecting
Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

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ANRE ateapt decizia UE pentru a redacta legislaia secundar, care va permite intrarea n vigoare a legii de sprijinire a investiiilor n energii regenerabile (c) Lipsa tradiiei privind dezvoltarea cu succes i operarea proiectelor de energie regenerabil n Romnia Energia regenerabil este o industrie destul de nou n Romnia (excepie fcnd energia hidroelectric), care implic tehnologii noi/care se dezvolt rapid, stimulnd astfel riscuri noi n ceea ce privete tehnologia i operarea, att pentru dezvoltatori ct i pentru finanatori. Elementele cheie pentru finanarea proiectelor sunt estimarea precis a fluxului de numerar, identificarea i estimarea riscurilor i alocarea acestora. Estimarea riscurilor se bazeaz pe o serie dinamic de date prevzute de proiectele existente/funcionale, iar lipsa acestora constituie un obstacol pentru finanator. Succesul finanrii unui proiect de energie regenerabil reprezint modalitatea n care banca aloc riscurile terilor (ndeosebi, oferind servicii specializate de EPC, estimri ale ctigurilor din energie eolian/ hidroelectric, monitorizarea/supervizarea costurilor proiectului i a vnzrii energiei produse).

the EU decision to draft the secondary legislation allowing the enactment of the law. (c) So far non-existing track record in Romania of successful development and operation of renewable energy projects The renewable energy is quite a new industry for Romania (except for hydropower) involving novel/fast developing technology and consequently fuelling new technology and operational risks for both developers and financiers. The key in project finance is in precise estimation of cash flow, risk identification and assessment and risk allocation. The risk assessment is based on a time series of data provided by existing/operating projects and the lack of such reduces the appetite from the financier. The success of renewable energy project finance is the way the bank allocates the risks to third parties (especially providing specialised EPC services, wind/hydropower yields estimates/measurements, project cost monitoring/supervising, output off-taking).

Fonduri Naionale
Ca o alternativ la programele UE, se pot accesa fonduri i prin intermediul Programului privind creterea produciei de energie din surse regenerabile; Ghidul de finanare a acestui Program a fost aprobat prin Ordinul nr. 714/2010, elaborat de Ministerul Mediului i Pdurilor. Astfel de fonduri sunt estimate la peste 100 milioane de euro pe an. Finanarea este acordat pn la 50% din valoarea total eligibil a proiectului, pentru companii ce dezvolt parcuri eoliene n Romnia, cu excepia proiectelor n Bucureti i judeul Ilfov, unde finanarea maxim este de 40%. Suma maxim care poate fi acordat este de 30 de milioane de RON pentru fiecare proiect. Catalogul costurilor eligibile pentru subvenii este similar cu cel al programelor cofinanate de UE (EAFRD) i cuprinde n special urmtoarele: costurile aferente tuturor tipurilor de planificri tehnice; lucrarea la construcii i instalaii; achiziia echipamentului; organizarea amplasamentului cldirii; certificarea, licenierea, know-how + soluii tehnice nenregistrate i costurile aferente proiectelor legate de management, informaii i audit. Cheltuielile efectuate pentru achiziia de active corporale sunt eligibile dac activele achiziionate sunt noi. Toate programele subvenionate att cele ale UE ct i cele naionale impun societii solicitante un studiu detaliat despre fezabilitatea proiectului din punct de vedere tehnic i economic. Pentru a avea anse reale de a beneficia de fonduri, la depunerea actelor proiectul trebuie s dein autorizaia de construcie.
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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

National Funds
As an alternative to the EU-programmes, funds can also be accessed through the Romanian Programme regarding increase in power from renewable sources; the financing guide to this Programme has been approved by Order No. 714/2010, issued by the Ministry of Environment and Forests. Such funds are estimated at over EUR 100 million per year. Financing is granted for up to 50% of the total eligible value of the project for companies developing wind parks in Romania, with the exception of projects in Bucharest and Ilfov county region, where the maximum financing is 40%. The maximum amount of funds that can be granted is RON 30 million per each project. The catalogue of costs eligible for aid is similar to that for the programmes co-financed by the EU (EAFRD) and comprises the following in particular: costs for all types of technical planning; construction and installation works; purchase of equipment; organisation of the building site; purchase of patents, licenses, know-how + non-registered technical solutions and costs for project related management, information and auditing. The expenses incurred for the acquisition of tangible assets are eligible for new assets only. All funded programmes EU as well as national programmes require that the company applying for funds prepare a detailed feasibility study on the technical and economic aspects of the project. To have a realistic chance of receiving funding, the project should already have acquired a building permit on submission of the documents.

Alte instituii care ofer finanri pentru proiectele de parcuri eoliene


UniCredit Leasing Corporation (UCL) a finanat proiecte de energie eolian pentru prima dat pe piaa de leasing romneasc, o dat cu finanarea pentru dou parcuri eoliene: una de 22 de milioane de euro i cealalt de aproximativ 12 milioane de euro. n prezent sunt apte proiecte de energie regenerabil, supuse evalurii de ctre UniCredit Leasing, dintre care cinci sunt pentru energie eolian. Stuctura general de finanare este urmtoarea: Finanarea clientului: minimum 20% Perioada: maximum 15 ani Criteriul principal: fluxul de numerar generat de proiect Banca Comercial Romn (BCR) a ncheiat un contract de finanare n valoare de 23 milioane de euro cu un grup multinaional industrial n vederea dezvoltrii unui parc eolian de 42MW n sud-estul Romniei. Banca European de Reconstrucie i Dezvoltare (BERD) a oferit un mprumut de 10 milioane de euro ctre Raiffeisen Bank Romnia pentru a finana proiecte de eficien energetic dezvoltate de ctre societi locale. Acest mprumut este parte din linia de finanare UE/BERD cu privire la eficiena energetic i va fi folosit n a sprijini investiiile pentru implementarea energiei eficiente de ctre companii locale prin mprumuturi pe termen lung, fiecare ajungand la 2,5 milioane de euro. Potrivit BERD, mprumuturile acordate de banc vor fi complementate de subvenii UE pentru asistena tehnic i stimulente de plat pentru consumatorii finali, promovndu-se n acest fel energia durabil. Banca European de Investiii (BEI) a oferit un mprumut de 200 milioane de euro la sfritul anului 2010 pentru a finana dezvoltarea unui parc eolian situat n Fntnele n regiunea Dobrogea. Fondurile de la BEI vor fi utilizate pentru a cofinana planul, construcia, darea n exploatare i lucrrile operaionale legate de parcul eolian, ct i transformatoarele i conectarea la reeaua electric. Proiectul este dezvoltat de un productor de energie avnd ca acionar principal guvernul Cehiei i care i va implementa proiectul prin intermediul subsidiarelor din Romnia.

Other institutions which offer financing for wind park projects


UniCredit Leasing Corporation (UCL) financed wind energy projects for the first time on the Romanian leasing market when it granted financing for two wind farms: one of EUR 22 million and another of approximately EUR 12 million. There are currently seven renewable energy projects subject to evaluation by UniCredit Leasing, and of these five are wind power related. The general financing structure is as follows: Clients own financing: minimum 20% Period: maximum 15 years Main criterion: the cash flow generated by the project The Romanian Commercial Bank (BCR) concluded a financing agreement amounting to EUR 23 million with an industrial multinational group for development of a 42 MW wind park in the south-east of Romania. The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) granted a loan of EUR 10 million to Raiffeisen Bank Romania in order to finance sustainable efficiency projects on energy generation developed by local companies. This loan is part of the EU/EBRD Financing Facility related to power efficiency and will be used to support investment in efficient energy implemented by local companies through long term loans each amounting to EUR 2.5 million. According to EBRD, loans provided by the bank will be complemented by EU grants for technical assistance and payment incentives for final consumers, thus promoting investment in sustainable energy. The European Investment Bank (EIB) granted a loan of EUR 200 million at the end of 2010 in order to finance development of a wind park located in Fntnele in the Dobrogea region. The funds from the EIB will be used to cofinance the design, construction, commissioning and operation works related to the wind park as well as the construction of power transformers and grid connections. The project is developed by an energy producer with the Czech government as the majority shareholder that will implement the project through its Romanian subsidiaries.

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Fiind cea mai mare banc din Romnia, BCR este interesat n mod direct n finanarea dezvoltrii economiei locale, inclusiv de sectorul energiei regenerabile care este acum n dezvoltare. Astfel, BCR este interesat ndeosebi de finanarea proiectelor de energie regenerabil care ndeplinesc criterii de certitudine a profitabilitii.

As the largest bank in Romania, BCR is directly interested in financing the development of the local economy, including the renewable energy sector which is now opening up. Thus, BCR is particularly interested in financing renewable energy projects which meet established bankability criteria.

Due to the legal uncertainties Din cauza factorilor inceri de related to the incentive scheme natur juridic cu privire la (Law No. 220/2008 was not in schema de sprijin (Legea nr. force), there were only a limited 220/2008 nu era n vigoare), number of wind projects financed pn n prezent, a existat doar so far. Considering the recent un numar limitat de proiecte Ioana Gheorghiade legal developments, though, eoliene finanate. Lund totui Director Executiv EU Commission approved on 13 n considerare dezvoltrile Banca Comercial Romn July 2011 the Romanian Green legislative din ultima perioad, Executive Director Certificates Renewable Energy - Comisia European a aprobat Project Finance Support Scheme (notification) pe 13 iulie 2011 Schema de Banca Comercial Romn - the premises for financing such Sprijin prin Certificate Verzi projects will likely improve in the pentru Energia Regenerabil future. (notificare) probabil c se vor extinde premisele finanrii unor astfel de proiecte. We believe that the notification of the Green Suntem de prere c notificarea Certificatelor Certificates was a very important step forward Verzi a fost un pas important nainte i c and we hope that the secondary legislation (the drept urmare sperm c legislaia secundar legal framework) will be implemented accordingly. (cadrul legal) s fie implementat. Acest lucru This is especially important considering the fact este cu att mai important cu ct ne referim la that the awarding of Green certificates based faptul c acordarea Certificatelor Verzi la baza on the secondary legislation is decisive for the crora st legislaia secundar este decisiv bankability of a certain project (the green pentru certitudinea profitabilitii unor proiecte certificates are in fact accounted for revenues out (certificatele verzi sunt de fapt venitul obinut n of renewable energy projects). urma proiectelor de energie regenerabil). n plus, celelalte aspecte pe care le lum n considerare cnd evalum certitudinea profitabilitii proiectelor de energie regenerabil includ: experiena sponsorului / managementului, deinerea tuturor aprobrilor (proiectul trebuie s fie curat din punct de vedere legal), angajamentul clar al dezvoltatorilor proiectului sub forma unei alocri suficiente de capital. n ceea ce privete capitalul minim necesar, acesta depinde de planificarea corespunzatoare de business i variaz dup fiecare caz n parte. Putem trasa ca punct de referin - presupunnd c Legea nr. 220/2008 va fi implementat corespunztor - un prag minim de plecare de aproximativ 30% din costurile proiectului. Additionally, the other aspects we consider when assessing the bankability of renewable energy projects include: experienced sponsor/ management, all required permits should have been obtained (the project should be legally clean), a clear commitment of the project developers is necessary in the form of sufficient allocation of equity. As what regards the minimum equity requirement, that depends on the respective business forecasts and has to be checked on a case by case basis. As a benchmark we would indicate assuming that the law (No. 220/2008) will be implemented accordingly a minimum threshold of around 30% of the project costs.

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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

n Romnia schema de sprijin prin certificatele verzi, care este o tehnic bazat pe condiiile din pia, este gata de a fi utilizat, astfel ncat att preul Certificatelor Verzi, ct i al fiecarui MWh variaz n funcie de dezvoltarea pieei. Drept urmare, calculul fluxului de numerar planificat implic un grad de incertitudine mai mare comparativ cu alte ri n care sunt adoptate mecanisme bazate pe preuri fixe. innd seama de acest aspect, estimm condiiile necesare pentru acordarea mprumuturilor ca fiind uor mai stricte n Romnia, n raport cu alte ri. ncepnd cu anul curent, BCR a iniiat finanarea proiectelor n domeniul energiei regenerabile (ex. proiecte de energie eolian), ns suntem foarte selectivi n ceea ce privete alegerea proiectelor potrivite. Sectorul energiei regenerabile este un motor de dezvoltare a economiei romneti i suntem ncreztori c dup clarificarea cadrului legal, finanrile disponibile vor crete n mod corespunztor.

In Romania the green certificate scheme, which is a market based mechanism, is in place, so the price both for Green Certificates and the market price for each MWh vary depending on the market development. As a consequence there is a higher degree of uncertainty with regard to the calculation of the expected cash flow in comparison with other countries where fix prices mechanisms are enacted. Considering this fact we estimate the requirements for granting loans are a little bit stricter in Romania, as compared to other countries. BCR has started financing projects in the renewable energy area (e.g. wind energy projects) beginning with this year, but we are very selective regarding the finding the right projects. The renewable energy sector is growth driver of the Romanian economy and we assume that after the clarification of the legal framework the financing available for this sector will also increase accordingly.

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Constrngeri poteniale i perspective Business limitations and prospects

CAPITOL PART

4
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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

Capacitatea reelei i racordarea


Numeroase proiecte eoliene au fost deja dezvoltate, iar altele au fost anunate, mai ales n zone cu potenial eolian, precum Dobrogea, n sud-estul Romniei. Acest fapt a condus la o saturaie a capacitii reelei, care ar putea s nu mai suporte alte capaciti instalate, dac operatorii de reea nu vor efectua mbuntiri substaniale i lucrri de ntrire. Pe lng capacitatea reelei, racordarea la reea n sine constituie o alt problem delicat. Racordarea se obine numai dup emiterea avizului tehnic de racordare (ATR), ncheierea contractului i plata tarifului de conectare ntr-un interval de timp stabilit de la emiterea ATR-ului. Timpul este crucial. Anumii pai (ex. obinerea autorizaiei de construcie) trebuie s fie prioritari semnrii contractului. Tariful de racordare, care este n general destul de mare, impune ca finanarea s fie deja asigurat. Condiiile tehnice necesare pentru conectarea unui productor la reeaua public sunt deseori denumite Coduri de Reea. Pot exista i condiii tehnice adiionale ce nu sunt incluse n codurile de reea, dar care se aplic proiectului n urma contractului de racordare, contractului de furnizare a energiei sau ntr-o alt modalitate. Scopul acestor condiii este de a defini caracteristicile tehnice i obligaiile productorilor, precum i pe cele ale operatorului de sistem, adic: Operatorii sistemului energetic pot avea ncredere c sistemul lor va fi unul sigur independent de proiectele de generare a energiei i de tehnologiile aplicate; Minimizeaz timpul afectat negocierii tehnice specifice proiectului i planului; Productorii de echipament i pot crea echipamentul n condiii bine definite anterior i crora nu li se vor aduce modificri fr avertisment sau consultare. Dezvoltatorii de proiecte au o gam mai larg de furnizori de echipamente din care s aleag; Proiectele echivalente sunt abordate obiectiv; Tehnologiile diferite de producere sunt abordate n mod egal. n trecut, cu companiile de utiliti integrate vertical, aceeai organizaie rspundea de sistematizarea i operarea reelelor i a productorilor, ceea ce nsemna c nu era nevoie ca cerinele tehnice s fie clar definite sau obiective. n prezent, pentru a evita distorsiunea competiiei i pentru a corespunde unei piee energetice liberalizate n Europa, exist o direcie spre separarea legal a productorilor i operatorilor de sistem. n consecin, condiiile tehnice ce stau la baza legturii dintre productori i operatorii de sisteme trebuie s fie mai clar definite. Introducerea produciei regenerabile a complicat de multe ori n mod semnificativ acest proces, deoarece aceti productori au anumite caracteristici fizice diferite de capacitile de producere sincron conectate direct, utilizate n cadrul centralelor

Grid capacity and connection


Numerous wind projects have already been developed and others have been announced, especially in areas with high wind potential, such as Dobrogea, in southeast Romania. This has led to a certain saturation of the grid, which might not be able to cope with any further installed capacity unless substantial improvements are made by the network operators. In addition to grid capacity, the grid connection itself is also a highly sensitive issue. A connection is not obtained unless, after the technical connection permit (ATR) is issued, a connection agreement is concluded and the connection fee paid within a given timeframe from the date of issuance of the ATR. Timing is crucial. Certain steps (e.g. obtaining the building permit) should be completed prior to the signing of the connection agreement. The payment of the connection fee, which is generally substantial, means that the financing must already be secured. The technical requirements for connecting a generator to the public grid are often termed Grid Codes. There may also be additional technical requirements not referred to in the Grid Code, but which apply to the project through the connection agreement, the power purchase agreement or in some other way. The purpose of these technical requirements is to define the technical characteristics and obligations of generators and the system operator, meaning that: Electricity system operators can be confident that their system will be safe irrespective of the generation projects and technologies applied; The amount of project-specific technical negotiation and design is minimised; Equipment manufacturers can design their equipment in the knowledge that the requirements are clearly defined and will not change without warning or consultation; Project developers have a wider range of equipment suppliers to choose from; Equivalent projects are treated fairly; Different generator technologies are treated equally.

In the past, with vertically-integrated utilities, the same organisation was responsible for the planning and operation of networks and generators, which meant the technical requirements did not need to be particularly clearly defined or fair. Today, in order to avoid distortions of competition and to comply with a liberalised energy market in Europe, there is a trend towards the legal separation of generators and system owners/operators. As a result, the technical requirements governing the relationship between generators and system operators need to be more clearly defined. The introduction of renewable generation has often complicated this process significantly, as these generators have physical characteristics that are different from the directly connected synchronous generators used in
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energetice convenionale. n unele ri, aceast problem a cauzat ntrzieri majore n dezvoltarea unor cerine obiective ale Codului de Reea pentru producerea energiei eoliene. n Romnia, un cod de reea a fost redactat de operatorul de transport i de sistem, Transelectrica, i autorizat de ANRE n 2004, scopul fiind de a defini cerinele ntr-un mod care este ct se poate de independent de tehnologia centralelor energetice. Exist beneficii n a avea cerine care sunt ct se poate de generale i n a trata toate proiectele n mod egal. Totui, ar putea rezulta c proiectele mici s aib aceleai cerine ca cele mari, lucru care nu ar fi justificabil din punct de vedere tehnic. Cerinele sunt de obicei stabilite de operatorul de sistem i deseori supervizate de instituia de reglementare n domeniul energiei sau de guvern. Procesul de a modifica cerinele ar trebui s fie transparent i s includ consultarea productorilor, utilizatorilor de sistem, furnizorilor de echipamente i a altor pri afectate.

large conventional power plants. In some countries, this problem has caused significant delays in the development of fair grid code requirements for wind generation. In Romania, a grid code has been produced by the national system operator, Transelectrica, and authorised by ANRE in 2004, the aim being to define the requirements in a way that is as independent as possible from the power plant technology. There are benefits to having requirements that are as general as possible and treat all projects equally. However, this can result in small projects facing the same requirements as the largest projects, which may not be technically justifiable. Requirements are usually established by the system operator and often overseen by the energy regulatory body or government. The process to modify requirements should be transparent and include consultation with generators, system users, equipment suppliers and other affected parties.

Amendamente tehnice la specificaiile parcurilor eoliene


O alt problem se ridic n momentul n care investitorii preiau proiecte deja n curs de dezvoltare i doresc s implementeze anumite amendamente tehnice proiectului. Orice amendament al diverselor specificaii tehnice din cadrul unui proiect poate genera nevoia unui nou aviz sau a unuia modificat, deoarece fiecare aviz emis pentru nfiinarea unei uniti de energie regenerabil ine cont de specificaiile tehnice ale proiectului n ansamblu, ct i de prile sale componente, de exemplu turbine, cabluri, staie de transformare. De exemplu, schimbarea amplasamentului turbinelor influeneaz direct mai multe avize, cum ar fi: avizele privind scoaterea din circuitul agricol, deoarece numai anumite poriuni afectate de construcii ar trebui s fie scoase din circuitul agricol; i avizul emis de Autoritatea Aeronautic Civil, care ine de coordonatele geografice exacte a fiecrei turbine. Acest aviz este de asemenea afectat de schimbarea nlimii turbinei, care poate rezulta din alegerea unui tip diferit de turbin.

Technical amendments to wind farm specifications


Another issue arises when investors acquire projects already under development and wish to implement certain technical amendments to the project. Any amendment to various technical specifications of a project can trigger the need for a new permit or an amended one, as every permit issued for the establishment of a renewable energy unit takes into consideration the technical specifications of the project as a whole, as well as its components, e.g., turbines, cabling, transformer station. For example, changing the projects layout directly influences several permits, such as: permits pertaining to the change of land use, as only plots of land affected by construction works should be removed from the agricultural category; and the permit issued by the Romanian Civil Aeronautical Authority, which relates to the exact geographical location of each turbine. The latter permit is also affected by a change of turbine height, which may result from the choosing of a different type of turbine.

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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

PNE WIND AG intenioneaz s implementeze n Romnia aproximativ 244 MW cu provenien din energia eolian. Pentru PNE WIND acesta este un pas important n ceea ce privete stategia adoptat, iar datorit acestei investiii, PNE WIND va juca un rol important pe piaa energiei regenerabile din Romnia, care este extrem de interesant. n Romnia am nceput s dezvoltm proiectele n urm cu doi ani, astfel nct ne situm pe o direcie bun, iar n anumite zone din judeul Constana finalizrile lucrrilor pot avea loc pe termen mediu.

PNE WIND AG intends to implement around 244 MW stemming from wind energy in Romania. For PNE WIND Group this is an important step for its internalization strategy and due to this investment, PNE WIND will play an important role in this very interesting renewable energy market in Romania. We started to develop our Romanian projects two years ago, so that we are on a good track and some parts in Constanta County may reach operating maturity in the medium term.

Am realizat c au existat anumite We realized that there were Dana Dinescu probleme n trecut cu privire some problems with regard to Director Executiv la accesul la reea, pentru c the grid connection access in PNE Wind Transelectrica a semnat multe the past, because Transelectrica Executive Director contracte furniznd avize tehnice signed a lot of contracts PNE Wind pentru o gam larg de proiecte, providing technical approvals dintre care poate doar cteva for a wide range of projects, ar putea deveni operaionale. n out of which only a few might acest sens, ar trebui setat o limit superioar become operational. In this respect an upper aferent acestor tipuri de avize, iar condiiile limit for such kind of approvals should be in necesare pentru acordarea acestor avize ar place and the requirements required for receiving trebui de asemenea nsprite. n plus, amnarea such an approval should be increased as well. implementrii Legii 220/2008 reprezint bariera Furthermore, the delay of the implementation investiiilor pentru noi. Cu toate acestea, of the law 220/2008 represents an investment considerm cadrul legal din Romnia ca fiind barrier for us. However, basically we consider unul adecvat. Procesul de achiziie a terenurilor a the legal framework in Romania as suitable. fost destul de dificil, ntruct loturile erau mprite The land acquisition process was quite difficult n parcele mici i am fost nevoii s achiziionm as usually the land plots are divided into a lot of terenurile de la multe persoane diferite, motiv small units, so that we had to acquire the required pentru care a fost nevoie de mult activitate de plots from a large number of different people. As consultan. n fond, trebuie menionat faptul c a consequence a lot of consultancy work was lipsete tradiia n acest domeniu de afaceri. required. Basically it has to be mentioned that there is a lack of tradition in particular in this nainte de a pune bazele societii n Romnia, business field. am desfurat pe parcurs de mai bine de un an, Before establishing the company in Romania we activiti pregtitoare. Dup cteva luni am putut did a green field work for a period of more than s punem bazele unor parteneriate favorabile cu one year. After some months we were able to furnizori de servicii i cu autoritile responsabile. establish good partnerships with service proviPersonalul local are experien doar n ceea ce ders and the responsible authorities. Local staff privete sectorul energiei tradiionale, iar o parte had experiences only in the traditional energy din el s-a reprofilat pe domeniul afacerilor cu sector and some of them moved to the renewable energie regenerabil i astfel am avut posibilitatea energy business field, so that we were able to de a angaja personal nalt calificat. hire high qualified staff. Suntem ncreztori c noiunea de Certificat Verde, care este utilizat i care reprezint un We assume that the Green Certificate concept, instrument tranzacionabil, reprezint o soluie which is in place and is a market based scheme, alternativ la tarifele fixe folosite n alte ri i is an alternative solution to fixed feed-in tariffs, preferate de noi. Practic, noi pregtim drumul which are in place in other countries and which we n acest sector de afaceri att n Romnia ct i prefer. Basically we are pioneers in this business n alte ri din Europa Central i de Est (ex. n field in Romania but also in other CEE-countries Bulgaria), iar din cauza lipsei locale de experien (e.g. in Bulgaria), in which due to the lack of n domeniul energiei eoliene, este mult mai dificil history with regard to renewable wind energy s implementm astfel de proiecte, ns cu fiecare sector it is much more difficult to implement such pas nainte cldim bazele acestui domeniu. projects, but there is improvement to the better Sperm c autoritile vor fi mai flexibile i vor on a step to step basis.
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continua s sprijine mai mult acest sector de afaceri, observm o tendin pozitiv, energia eolian reprezentnd un aspect important pentru viitor, pentru care nu exist alternativ.

Our wish is that the official authorities become more flexible and keep on supporting this business fields more, however we recognized a positive trend as this is a very important issue for the future, there is no alternative to it.

Protecia Mediului
Obligaia de a obine o decizie de mediu favorabil reprezint una din cele mai dificile faze ale proiectului de execuie. Orice plan sau proiect care poate avea un impact semnificativ asupra unui amplasament (fie el localizat n limita amplasamentului sau nu), fie individual sau n combinaie cu alte planuri sau proiecte, va fi subiectul unei evaluri corespunztoare asupra implicaiilor asupra locului n vederea conservrii obiectivelor amplasamentului. Autoritile avizate vor fi de acord cu un plan sau un proiect dac integritatea locului este garantat. Activitile dunatoare care ar putea s deranjeze considerabil speciile i/sau habitatele pentru care locul a fost desemnat trebuie evitate n toate amplasamentele Natura 2000. Acolo unde este cazul, sunt luate msuri pozitive necesare pentru meninerea i restaurarea acestor habitate i specii la un statut de conservare favorabil n limita lor natural. Existena i expansiunea constant a suprafeelor acoperite de programul Natura 2000 constituie un obstacol serios n amplasarea parcurilor eoliene. Dup datele furnizate de Natura 2000, Ariile de Protecie Special Avifaunistic (SPA) acoper deja 11,89% din solul rii din care 13,21% cade n categoria poteniale Situri de Importan Comunitar (pSCI). Romnia are n acest moment 108 de Arii de Protecie Special i 273 de poteniale Situri de Importan Comunitar. Suprafaa total a siturilor Natura 2000 (att SPA ct i pSCI) reprezint 17,84% din suprafaa rii, multe din aceste situri mbinndu-se cu zone protejate din Romnia. Investitorii care i-au nceput investiia n zone destinate s fie acoperite de program n viitor vor ntlni obstacole oficiale i legale sau, n cazuri extreme, vor fi lipsii de posibilitatea dezvoltrii investiiei. De aceea au existat cereri ca lista final de arii Natura 2000 s fie adoptat ct mai repede cu putin. Comisia European a stabilit ca termen limit data de 1 octombrie 2011 pentru suplimentarea ariilor acoperite de program.

Environmental Protection
The obligation to obtain a favourable environmental decision constitutes one of the most difficult phases of project execution. Any plan or project likely to have a significant effect on a site (whether located within the site boundary or not), either individually or in combination with other plans or projects, shall be subject to appropriate assessment of its implications for the site in view of the sites conservation objectives. The competent authorities will agree to the plan or project if the integrity of the site is guaranteed. Damaging activities that could significantly disturb the species and/or habitats for which the site has been designated must be avoided on all Natura 2000 sites. Where necessary positive measures are taken to maintain and restore these habitats and species to a favourable conservation status within their natural range. The existence and consistent expansion of the areas covered by the Natura 2000 programme constitutes a serious obstacle to the establishment of wind farms. According to the Natura 2000 data, the Special Protection Area (SPA) already covers as much as 11.89% of the countrys landmass and 13.21% falls under Potential Areas of Significance for the Community (pSCI). Romania currently has 108 Special Protection Areas and 273 Potential Areas of Significance for the Community. The total area of Natura 2000 sites (both SPA and pSCI) currently represents 17.84% of the countrys landmass, many of these sites overlapping with protected areas in Romania. Investors who began their investment in areas destined to be covered by the programme in the future may face formal and legal obstacles or, in extreme cases, be deprived of the possibility to develop their investment. There have therefore been demands that the final valid list of Natura 2000 areas be adopted as soon as possible. The European Commission set 1 October 2011 as the deadline for supplementation of the areas covered by the programme.

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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

Proteste sociale
Nivelul de activitate a organizaiilor care se opun construirii de parcuri eoliene n apropierea zonelor rezideniale sau protejate crete n fiecare an. Oponenii parcurilor eoliene pun la cale proteste n care ii demonstreaz opoziia fa de distrugerea mediului natural i construirea instalaiilor energetice n proximitatea cldirilor rezideniale. Argumentele cheie mpotriva parcurilor eoliene includ: boli vibroacustice, riscul ca o elice a turbinei s cad, ururi care pot cdea de pe elice pe timpul iernii, omorrea psrilor, scderea valorilor proprietailor n urma anunului de a construi o ferm eolian i deformarea peisajului. Asemenea proteste au loc n multe ri n care energia eolian este n curs de dezvoltare, iar Romnia nu este diferit n aceast privin. Acest fenomen este n prezent foarte dinamic i foarte nociv pentru dezvoltarea industriei. Rspndirea unei imagini negative asupra investiiilor eoliene, fie bazate pe argumente verificabile sau nu, pune din ce n ce mai mult presiune pe administraia de stat, n ceea ce privete att legislaia naional, precum i metodele procedurale aplicate n cadrul procedurilor administrative de ctre administraiile locale, lucru care se va intensifica n viitor. ntmpinarea rezistenei sociale, prin urmare, ar trebui s fie vzut, n primul rnd, ca o tendin n cretere i n al doilea rnd, ca un fenomen care ar putea ntrzia sau chiar suspenda pregtirea i punerea n aplicare a unei investiii n energia eolian. Investitorii i organizaiile industriale ar trebui s adopte un rol n care dezbaterile publice sunt direcionate ctre meritele energiei eoliene bazate pe constatri extinse i bine documentate stiinific, i s previn rspndirea de informaii incorecte i nefondate de ctre adversarii energiei eoliene.

Social protests
The level of activity of organisations opposing the construction of wind farms in the proximity of residential or protected areas increases every year. Wind farm opponents stage protests at which they demonstrate their opposition to the destruction of the natural environment and the building of power facilities too close to residential buildings. The key arguments against wind farms include: vibroacoustic disease, the risk of a turbine propeller falling off, icicles falling from propellers during winter, bird slaughter, a decrease in property values following announcement of a plan to build a wind farm and landscape deformation. Such protests take place in a number of countries where wind energy is being developed, and Romania is no different in this respect. This phenomenon is currently very dynamic and explicitly harmful to the development of the industry. Spreading a negative image of wind investment, whether based on verifiable arguments or not, increasingly places pressure on the state administration in terms of both national legislation and the procedural methods applied in administrative proceedings by local governments, something that will only increase in future. The occurrence of social resistance should therefore be seen, firstly, as an increasing trend and, secondly, as a phenomenon that could even delay or suspend the preparation and implementation of a wind power investment. Investors and industry organisations should thus adopt a role in which direct public debate is directed towards the merits of wind energy, based on extensive and well-documented scientific findings, and prevent the opponents of wind energy from spreading incorrect and unreliable information.

Limitrile de infrastructur
Operatorul de sistem i transport, Transelectrica, a calculat c sistemul energetic romnesc actual ar putea face fa fr nicio restricie la aproximativ 4.000 MW putere eolian instalat. n ciuda acestui fapt, Transelectrica a ncheiat contracte pentru racordarea la reeaua electric de peste 8.000 MW i a emis avize tehnice de racordare (ATR-uri) pentru peste 6.000 MW. Se estimeaz c doar un numr mic din aceste proiecte vor deveni vreodat operaionale. Multe dintre aceste contracte i ATR-uri i vor pierde cu siguran valabilitatea, pentru c sunt eliberate numai pentru un an, la sfritul cruia sunt terse automat din lista furnizat de ctre OTS. Planul de mbuntire a reelei include lucrrile n curs privind inelul de 400 kV n jurul rii si unul mai mic n jurul Bucuretiului. Cu toate acestea, lucrrile necesare pentru proiecte eoliene sunt mult mai complexe dect att. Acestea necesit construirea de staii noi i de linii electrice, n special n zona Dobrogei, pentru a putea distribui energia spre restul rii i a se ocupa de problemele de congestie i legate de energia de echilibrare.

Infrastructural limitations
The transport and system operator Transelectrica has calculated that the Romanian power system could cope without any restrictions with around 4,000 MW of installed wind power. Despite this Transelectrica has concluded contracts for grid connections of over 8,000 MW and has issued technical connection permits (ATRs) for over 6,000 MW, it is estimated that only a small number of these projects will ever become operational. Many of these contracts and ATRs will naturally lose their validity, as they are only issued for one year, at the end of which period they are automatically erased from the list provided by the TSO. The plan for improving the grid includes the ongoing work on the 400 kV ring around the country and a smaller one around Bucharest. However, the required works for wind projects are far more complex than that. They require the building of new stations and electrical power lines, especially in the Dobrogea area, to evacuate the energy to the rest of the country and deal with congestion issues and back-up power.
Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

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Avnd n vedere resursele foarte limitate financiare ale OTS, productorii trebuie s furnizeze cele mai multe dintre mbuntirile reelei achitnd 100% din costuri, chiar dac legea prevede mprirea costurilor cu OTS. Exist deja o staie de 400 kV la Fntnele, construit de CEZ, i alte trei la Topolog, Deleni i Tariverde (toate sunt n Dobrogea). Aceste staii sunt vitale n ceea ce privete injecia de energie n reea i vor fi n cele din urm transferate n proprietatea OTS pentru exploatare. Pentru a distribui o parte din capacitatea energetic nou n strintate, Transelectrica plnuiete un cablu electric submarin care leag Romnia de Turcia. Acest lucru ar permite rii s exporte energia electric n exces ctre Turcia. Acest proiect este n prezent n faz de studiu de fezabilitate i nu este clar unde va fi pus n practic. O alt posibilitate de a exporta energie n Turcia este utiliznd un traseu pe uscat care trece prin Bulgaria.

Given the very limited financial resources of the TSO the producers must provide most of the improvements to the grid themselves by paying 100% of the costs, even though the law foresees the splitting of costs with the TSO. There is already one 400 kv station at Fantanele, built by CEZ, and another three at Topolog, Deleni and Tariverde (all of which are in Dobrogea). These stations are vital in terms of injecting energy into the grid and will eventually be transferred to the property of the TSO for exploitation. To channel part of the new power capacity abroad, Transelectrica is planning an undersea electrical cable linking Romania to Turkey. This would allow the country to export its excess electricity to Turkey. This project is currently in the feasibility study stage, and it is not clear where it will be put into practice. Another possibility to export energy to Turkey is via an overland solution passing through Bulgaria.

Sursa: .Transelectrica Source: Transelectrica

Creterea produciei de energie eolian necesit: Msuri administrative precum noi tipuri de contracte i noi tipuri de piee pentru energia electric (intra-zilnic); Investiii n construirea uneia sau mai multor hidrocentrale cu acumulare prin pompaj i n promovarea unitilor de producere moderne flexibile (central pe gaz cu ciclu combinat).

Increasing the amount of wind energy generation requires: Administrative measures such as new types of contracts and new types of electricity markets (intra-day). Investment in building one or more PSHPP (Pump Storage Hydropower Plant) and in promoting flexible, modern generation units (combined cycle and gas fired).

Centrala de gaz cu ciclu combinat de 800 MW construit de OMV Petrom n Brazi va putea furniza o important rezerv de energie ncepnd cu sfritul anului 2011; hidrocentralele planificate de la Tarnia, de pe rul Olt, i n alte locaii, vor produce mpreun
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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

The 800 MW combined cycle gas-fired plant built by OMV Petrom in Brazi will be able to provide an important back-up supply as of the end of 2011; the plans for the pump storage hydropower plants at Tarnia, on the river Olt, and at other locations will

peste 1000 MW, dar acestea sunt n stadii foarte timpurii i vor trece ani pn cnd ele vor deveni operaionale. Costurile de acces la reea ar trebui s fie suportate n proporie de 50% de operatorii reelei i 50% de productor; cu toate acestea, n realitate costurile sunt suportate n intregime de productori. n principiu producerea energiei eoliene are prioritate, dar n practic aceast prioritate nu este clar definit.

together produce over 1000 MW, but these are in their very early stages and it will take years before they become operational. The costs of the access to the grid should be 50% born by the grid operators and 50% by the producer; however, in reality the costs are supported entirely by the producers. In principle wind generation takes priority, but in practice this priority is not clearly defined.

Durata procedurii
n prezent, investitorii n energie eolian din Romnia sunt obligai s obin circa 85 avize i autorizaii, n scopul de a iniia i implementa un proiect. Aceast birocraie excesiv, precum i perioadele lungi de rspuns ale autoritailor locale, implic un interval de 2-3 ani pentru a trece de la faza de iniiere a unui proiect la implementare. Etapele tipice n dezvoltarea i implementarea investiiei n energia eolian sunt: 1. Identificarea locaiei parcului eolian; 2. Realizarea studiului geotehnic; 3. Realizarea studiului de pre-fezabilitate; 4. Obinerea dreptului de proprietate sau superficie/ drept de utilizare/uzufruct, etc; 5. nscriere n Cartea Funciar; 6. Executarea procedurii de expropriere (acolo unde este cazul); 7. Elaborarea i avizarea PUZ (Plan Urbanistic Zonal) 8. Realizarea studiului de fezabilitate (recuperare, randament al investiiilor, etc); 9. Realizarea studiului cu privire la soluia electric de racordare (alegere amplasament punct de racordare la reeaua de electricitate, investiia fie rmne n proprietatea investitorului sau devine proprietate public); 10. Proiectarea parcului eolian - elaborarea planurilor de construcie; 11. Obinerea avizelor de proiect i a autorizaiilor a. Certificat de urbanism (PUZ aprobat de consiliul local) b. Autorizaie de construcie c. Raport de impact de mediu necesar pentru a obine o decizie a municipalitii n ceea ce priveste consideraiile de mediu ale investiiilor. Aceast etap include consultri publice n raport cu zonele nvecinate, dac acestea sunt arii protejate (rezervaii ale biosferei, parcuri naionale, zonele protejate Natura 2000, etc) d. Certificat care s ateste ca turbinele nu se afl in zone care se suprapun cu coridoare de migraie a psrilor; 12. Obinerea avizului din partea aviaiei civile; 13. Autorizaie de nfiinare i licena de exploatare eliberate de ANRE; 14. Aviz de la operatorul sistemului naional; 15. Conectarea la reeaua de interes public: a. Studiul de soluie de racordare b. Avizul de amplasament c. Aviz tehnic de racordare d. Stabilirea termenilor i semnarea

Length of procedure
Currently, wind energy investors in Romania are required to obtain some 85 permits and authorisations in order to initiate and implement a project. This excessive bureaucracy, as well as the long response times of the local authorities, means it takes 2-3 years to pass from the initiation phase of a project to implementation. The typical stages in developing and implementing a wind energy investment in Romania are: 1. Identification of the wind farm location; 2. Performance of the geotechnical study; 3. Performance of the pre-feasibility study; 4. Obtaining the ownership right or superficies right/ right of use/usufruct, etc.; 5. Registration with the Romanian Land Register; 6. Execution of the expropriation procedure (where applicable); 7. Development and authorisation of the PUZ; 8. Performance of the feasibility study (recovery, return on investment, etc); 9. Performance of the study on the electrical solution (choice for the location of the grid connection, investment either stays in the ownership of the investor or becomes public property); 10. Development of the wind park drafting the building plans; 11. Obtaining the project permits and authorisations a. Urban Planning Certificate (PUZ approved by the local council) b. Building permit c. Environmental impact report required in order to obtain a decision of the municipal ity concerning the environmental considerations of the investment. This stage includes public consultations as regards the neighbouring areas if they are protected areas (biosphere reserves, national parks, Natura 2000 protected areas, etc.) d. Certificate stating the turbines are not located in the areas that overlap with bird migration corridors; 12. Obtaining the civil aviation permit; 13. Setting-up authorization and operation license issued by ANRE; 14. Permit from the national system operator; 15. Connection to the national system operator: a. Study of the grid connections solutions b. Approval of location c. Technical connection permit d. Establishing the terms and signing the
Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

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16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

acordului cu compania care distribuie i furnizeaz energie electric; Achiziia echipamentului: a. Desfurarea lucrrilor de construcii b. Asamblare; ncheierea contractului pentru energia produs i a contractului de service; Racordarea la reeaua electric; Punerea n funciune; Obinerea garaniilor de origine pentru energia electric generat din surse regenerabile de energie i obinerea certificatelor verzi.

16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

agreement with the company that distributes and supplies the electricity; Acquisition of equipment: a.Performance of construction works b.Assembly; Concluding the contract for the energy produced and service agreement; Grid connection; Commissioning; Obtaining guarantees of origin for the electric energy generated from renewable energy sources and obtaining green certificates.

Romnia deine poate cel mai mare potenial din estul Europei privind dezvoltarea n industria eolian pe urmtorii cinci ani. n prezent, avem aproximativ 500 MW i sperm ca pn la finalul anului, capacitatea s se dubleze la 1.000 megawatti. Cu siguran anul 2011 este favorabil n Romnia energiei eoliene, dac lum n considerare sfritul anului trecut, cnd am avut 469 MW, de la 14,1 MW, capacitatea instalat n 2009. n numele Asociaiei Romne pentru Energia Eolian, pot afirma c industria energiei eoliene face istorie chiar acum, n principal datorit intrrii n vigoare a mult ateptatei Legi 220/2008.

Romania has, maybe, the greatest potential for growth in the wind energy industry of Eastern Europe for the next five years. At this moment, we have approximately 500 MW and we hope the wind energy capacity will double to 1,000 megawatts by the end of this year.

Definitely 2011 is a good year for wind energy in Romania because we have made a big step, if we think about the end of the last year, when we had 469 MW, up from the 14.1 MW installed capacity in 2009. In the name of the Romanian Wind Energy Association I can say the wind energy industry Dana Duic is making history in Romania Preedinte AREE right now, mainly due to the President RWEA long expected moment of the enforcing Law 220/2008. Romania is attracting investors in wind power Romnia atrage investitori n energia eolian, because of its location along the western shore datorit locaiei sale de-a lungul coastei vestice a of the Black Sea, where the average wind speed Mrii Negre, unde viteza medie a vntului este n stands at about 7m/s and with the new legislation. jur de 7 m/s i datorit noii legislaii. Romnia poate produce 14.000 MW de energie eolian i se poate dezvolta ntr-o pia durabil. Sperm ca piaa romaneasc, care are cel mai mare potenial din zon pe termen scurt spre mediu, s devin o pia matur cu o capacitate de producie important n energia regenerabil i cu o infrastructur electric bun. Sincer, n momentul de fa suntem departe de aceast realizare, ns Asociaia Romn pentru Energia Eolian are ncredere n inteniile bune ale autoritilor de a sprijini o pia de energie bun i durabil cu potenial uria. Organizaia noastr a crescut de la 6 la 90 de membri n mai puin de 2 ani i a adoptat un rol important n procesul de modelare a legislaiei i a asigurat o baz important de comunicare, ce se dovedete a fi extrem de folositoare ntr-un sector nou aprut.
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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

Romania may produce as much as 14,000 MW of wind energy and may develop into a sustainable market. We hope that the Romanian market, which has the greatest potential on short- to medium-term in the region, becomes a mature market with an important production capacity in renewable energy and a good electric infrastructure. Honestly, right now, we are far away from this achievement, but the Romanian Wind Energy Association is trusting the good intentions of the authorities for supporting a good and a sustainable energy market with huge potential. Our organization grew from 6 to 90 members in less than 2 years and took active role in the process of shaping the legislation but also provided a good platform for networking, which proves to be extremely useful in an emerging sector.

Obstacole n calea investiiilor Romnia, n contextul UE


Bariere Administrative n ceea ce privete barierele administrative, Romnia nu difer de alte state membre ale Uniunii Europene. Procesul, care ncepe cu decizia de a construi un parc eolian i se termin cu punerea n funciune a parcului, este similar pe ntreg teritoriul Uniuni Europene i se bazeaz pe dou permise de baz care trebuie s fie obinute. Primul este autorizaia de construcie i al doilea se refer la conectarea parcului la reeaua electric. Exist diferene ntre ri n ceea ce privete documentele i analiza necesar pentru obinerea acestor autorizaii, precum i termenele n care autoritile sunt obligate s evalueze o cerere. Conform Asociaiei Europene pentru Energie Eolian17, n ceea ce privete durata medie total ntre depunerea unei cereri pentru autorizaie de construcie i conectarea la reea, Romnia pare s fie frunta cu un timp mediu de procesare n jurul valorii a 32 de luni, n comparaie cu media UE de 54,8 luni. n consecin, Romnia este unul dintre liderii n acest domeniu, alturi de Belgia, Marea Britanie, Italia, Frana i Danemarca. rile clasate pe ultimele dou locuri sunt Spania i Portugalia, care depesc media UE cu 16 i respectiv 21 de luni. Un alt criteriu de comparaie este numrul de funcionari publici a cror implicare este necesar pentru a pune n aplicare o investiie. n medie, n cele 27 de state membre ale UE sunt implicai 18 funcionari, ceea ce indic faptul c metoda un singur ghieu nu este excesiv de popular n sectorul energiei regenerabile. Chiar i n rile cele mai prietenoase industriei energiei eoliene, precum Danemarca, Olanda i Spania, care ofer cele mai mici valori n acest sens (respectiv 5, 6 i 10 funcionari), sunt nc departe de acest concept. n acest sens, Romnia se afl ntr-o situaie mai bun dect media UE, cu un investitor avnd contact direct sau indirect cu o medie de 13 funcionari. Cele mai frecvent menionate obstacole de investiii n UE cuprind, de asemenea, procedurile de obinere a unei evaluri a impactului investiiei asupra mediului i a planului de dezvoltare a terenurilor. Un numr mare de investiii au fost de asemenea ngreunate din cauza proceselor i a aciunilor ONG-urilor. La momentul actual, barierele pe care le percep investitorii de pe piaa romneasc se nscriu n tendinele la nivel european.

Obstacles to Investments Romania in the context of the EU


Administrative Barriers As far as administrative barriers are concerned, Romania does not differ from other European Union Member States. The process, which begins with the decision to build a wind farm and ends with the commissioning of the farm, is similar throughout the entire European Union and is based on two main permits that must be obtained. The first is the construction permit and the second concerns the farms connection to the power grid. There are differences between individual countries in terms of the documents and analysis required to obtain these permits and the deadlines by which the authorities are obliged to evaluate an application. According to the European Wind Energy Association17, as far as the total average time between submission of an application for the construction permit and connection to the grid is concerned, Romania appears to be ahead of the game with an average process time of around 32 months, compared with the EU average of 54.8 months. As a consequence, Romania is one of the leaders in this field, alongside Belgium, the United Kingdom, Italy, France and Denmark. The two lowest ranked countries are Spain and Portugal, who exceed the EU average by 16 and 21 months, respectively. Another criterion of comparison is the number of officials whose involvement is needed to implement an investment. The average among the 27 EU Member States is 18 officials, which indicates that the single counter model is not excessively popular in the renewable energy sector. Even the most wind industry-friendly countries, such as Denmark, the Netherlands and Spain, which boast the lowest values in this respect (5, 6 and 10 officials, respectively), are still nowhere near this concept. In this respect, Romania is better than the EU mean, with an investor having direct or indirect contact with an average of 13 officials. The most frequently mentioned investment barriers in the EU also comprise the procedures for obtaining an assessment of the investments environmental impact and land development plan. A large number of investments have also been hindered because of lawsuits and the actions of NGOs. The Romanian investment barriers market players currently perceive as being the most important matches the European trend.

17

Obstacole administrative i de conectare n domeniul energiei eoliene , Asociaia European pentru Energie Eolian, Iulie 2010

17

WindBarriers: Administrative and grid access barriers to wind power, The European Wind Energy Association, July 2010

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Piaa n ceea ce privete energia eolian, statele UE pot fi imprite n 4 grupe: pieele dezvoltate, pieele n cretere, pieele n curs de dezvoltare i pieele neexploatate. Romnia este n grupul pieelor n curs de dezvoltare, i anume grupul de piee n care sectorul energiei eoliene este ntr-o faz preliminar de dezvoltare, dar se fac progrese semnificative innd cont de ritmul schimbrilor de pe pia. Diferenele n nivelul de dezvoltare al sectorului energiei eoliene sunt reflectate n diferitele probleme cu care se confrunt investitorii. Pe pieele dezvoltate, ntrzieri i o lips de promptitudine din partea autoritilor n eliberarea permiselor par a fi o problem major. n cazul pieelor n curs de dezvoltare, absena unor reglementri transparente i stabile din punct de vedere juridic constituie un obstacol aparte. n cazul Romniei exist o perioad de ateptare de 16 luni pentru autorizaia de construire, ceea ce plaseaz Romnia mai bine dect media UE de 43 de luni.

Market In terms of wind energy EU states can be divided into 4 groups: developed markets, growing markets, emerging markets and unexploited markets. Romania is in the emerging markets group, i.e. the group of markets where the wind energy sector is in a preliminary phase of development but where significant progress is being made with regard to the pace of market change. Differences in the level of development of the wind energy sector are reflected in the different problems encountered by investors. In developed markets, delays and a lack of timeliness on behalf of the authorities in issuing permits seem to be a major problem. In case of emerging markets, however, the absence of transparent and stable legal regulations constitutes a specific barrier. In the case of Romania, there is a 16-month wait for the construction permit, making Romania much better than the EU average of 43 months for onshore projects. In the EU the average grid connection lead time is around 26 months (significantly lower than the administrative lead time) and Romania is part of the group of countries performing significantly better than average. However, generally the figures are not representative owing to the very low number of projects taken into consideration and installed at the time the survey was conducted.

n UE media timpului necesar pentru conectarea la reea este n jurul valorii de 26 de luni (semnificativ mai mici dect timpul de ateptare administrativ) i Romnia face parte din grupul de ri cu performane semnificativ mai bune dect media. Cu toate acestea, n general, cifrele nu sunt reprezentative din cauza numrului foarte redus de proiecte luate n considerare i instalate n momentul la care s-a desfurat studiul.

Dispersia Surselor
Romnia este caracterizat printr-o dispersie mare de surse de energie. Energia romneasc este dominat de combustibilii fosili, care au reprezentat 46% din producia 2010, urmat de hidroenergie la 34% i nuclear la 20%. A fost o parte neobinuit de mare de hidroputere n 2010 graie unui an deosebit de ploios. Producia de hidroenergie n Romnia se situeaz ntre 25% i 35%, n funcie de cantitatea de precipitaii. Clima rii i poziia sa geografic - cu Marea Neagr la est, Carpaii n centru i Dunrea trecnd prin partea de sud - ofer o posibilitate ampl de a exploata sursele de energie regenerabile. De peste 30 de ani, cea mai important surs de energie curat din Romnia a fost reprezentat de marile centrale hidroelectrice. Pn la i inclusiv 2009, alte surse regenerabile au reprezentat doar o foarte mic parte din producia de energie electric n Romnia. n 2010, situaia a nceput s se schimbe semnificativ n favoarea surselor de energie regenerabile (altele dect centralele hidroelectrice de mare putere), n special vntul. Cu toate acestea, energia eolian a reprezentat doar 0,48% din producia naional de electricitate n 2010. Prima turbin eolian a fost instalat n Romnia n anul 2004. A fost o turbin la mna a doua i a produs sub 1 MW.
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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

Dispersion of Sources
Romania is characterised by a high dispersion of energy sources. Romanian energy is dominated by fossil fuels, which accounted for 46% of production in 2010, followed by hydro power at 34% and nuclear at 20%. There was an unusually high share of hydro power in 2010 due a particularly rainy year. Hydro power production in Romania ranges between 25% and 35% depending on the amount of rainfall. The countrys climate and geographical position with the Black Sea to the East, the Carpathians in the centre and the Danube crossing the territory in the south provides ample opportunity to exploit its renewable energy sources. For over 30 years, Romanias most important source of clean energy has been large hydro power plants. Up to and including 2009, other renewable sources accounted for only a very small share of electricity production in Romania. In 2010 the situation began to change dramatically in favour of renewable energy sources (other than large hydro power plants), especially wind. However, wind power still accounted for only 0.48% of national electricity production in 2010. The first wind turbine was installed in Romania in 2004. It was a second hand turbine and produced under 1 MW.

n 2007 i 2008, sute de anemometre au fost instalate prin Romnia pentru a colecta date privind modelele de vnt. n plus, condiiile create prin Legea nr. 220/2008 au stimulat interesul investitorilor. Rezultatul a fost c 2010 a fost un an spectaculos din punct de vedere al pieei energiei eoliene. O capacitate total de 448 MW a fost instalat, aducnd suma total la 462 MW (33 de ori mai mult dect n 2009). La sfritul primului semestru al anului 2011, 570 MW au fost operaionali, cu un total de 1000 MW setat s primeasc certificate verzi n Romnia pn la sfaritul anului. n prezent, principalul juctor de pe piaa energiei eoliene este grupul CEZ, care deja genereaz 300 MW la Fntnele ca prima etap a ceea ce va fi cel mai mare parc eolian pe uscat din Europa, cu un total de capacitate de 600 MW. Ali investitori mari includ EDP, ENEL Green Power i Martifer. n viitorul apropiat GDF Suez, EON, Verbund, Iberdrola i PNE planific s intre pe pia. Prognoza este ca pn la sfritul anului 2013 producia instalat de energie eolian n Romnia va fi de pn la 3.000 MW n Romnia, n funcie de modul n care legea este pus n aplicare. Planul Naional de Aciune pentru Energie Regenerabil elaborat de Ministerul Economiei i prezentat Comisiei Europene prevede 4000 MW, pn n 2020. Aceeasi cifr este pstrat n strategia energetic revizuit.
Dispersia Surselor Dispersion of Sources MW 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0
560 560 3688 3400 1480 4715 4650 2600

In 2007 and 2008 hundreds of masts were installed around Romania to collect data on wind patterns. Additionally, conditions created by Law no. 220/2008 stimulated the interest of investors. The result was that 2010 was a spectacular year in terms of the wind energy market. A total capacity of 448 MW was installed, bringing the overall amount to 462 MW (33 times more than in 2009). At the end of the first semester of 2011, 570 MW was operational, with a total of 1000 MW set to receive green certificates in Romania by the end of the year. Currently the main player on the wind energy market is the CEZ group, which is already generating 300 MW at Fantanele as the first stage of what will be the largest onshore wind farm in Europe with a total of capacity of 600 MW. Other big investors include EDP, ENEL Green Power and Martifer. In the near future GDF Suez, EON, Verbund, Iberdrola and PNE are all planning to enter the market. It is forecasted that by the end of 2013 there will be up to 3,000 MW of installed wind energy production in Romania, depending on how the law is implemented. The National Action Plan for Renewable Energy drawn up by the Ministry of the Economy and presented to the European Commission forecasts 4,000 MW by 2020. The same figure is retained in the revised energy strategy.

6075 5345 5200 3250 5765 5650 4000 5850 4900

5000 4000 4500 4800

3200

2010

2015
Eolian / Wind

2020
Solar / Solar (fv)

2025

2030

2035

Biomas / Biomas

Sursa: Asociaia Romn pentru Energie Eolian Source: Romanian Wind Energy Association

n ceea ce privete turbinele n sine, 98% din capacitatea dat utilizeaz turbine noi. 80% din pia este mprit de ctre productorii General Electric i Vestas, cu Gamesa ocupnd 10%. Atunci cnd un numr semnificativ de aliproductori devin funcionali sunt ateptai s intrepe pia i ali productori. Pn n 2015 se ateapt ca Romnia s ating cota stabilit de legea privind E-SRE, adic 16% din consumul brut de electricitate. Energia eolian, estimat la 80-90% din E-SRE, va juca un rol important n realizarea acestei cifre.

In terms of the turbines themselves, 98% of the capacity yielded uses new turbines. 80% of the market is shared by the manufacturers General Electric and Vestas, with Gamesa occupying 10%. When a significant number of other producers become operational other manufacturers are also expected to enter the market. By 2015 Romania is expected to achieve the target quota established by the law on E-RES, i.e. 16% of gross electricity consumption. Wind energy, estimated at 80-90% of the E-RES, will play a major role in achieving this figure.
Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

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Stream Invest Holding AG este prezent n Romnia din anul 2008 prin filiala sa, SC Clean Energy Development SRL. Stream Invest Holding AG deine o experien considerabil cu privire la sistematizarea, construcia i funcionarea proiectelor de energie eolian. Noi am fost cei care am primit prima autorizaie de punere n funciune a unui parc eolian modern din Romnia, fiind competeni n ceea ce privete efectuarea unei ntregi game de servicii datorit experienei noastre internaionale i naionale. Avem o poziie puternic n acest domeniu de afaceri i am putea s mprtim Andreas S. Blutke acest tip de cunotine i cu ali Dipl.-Ing. investitori/persoane interesate. Stream Invest Holding AG Intenia noastr este aceea de Dipl.-Ing. a ne desfura activitatea pe Stream Invest Holding AG piaa romneasc, n scopul de a efectua i alte investiii viitoare (de exemplu, sub form de asociaii n participaiune), precum i servicii pentru parteneri de investiii. Bazndu-ne pe experiena noastr, dar i pe informaiile primite de la investitori strini, juctori i firme de construcii care ar dori s devin active n Romnia, considerm Romnia ca fiind una dintre cele mai atractive ri din Europa pentru afaceri n domeniul energiei eoliene (proiecte onshore). Un efect negativ pentru investiii, l constituie procesul foarte lent de punere n aplicare a Legii nr. 220/2008, beneficiind astfel doar de un singur Certificat Verde n loc de dou. Avnd n vedere aceast incertitudine juridic, atat noi precum i ali investitori suntem foarte precaui n ceea ce privete implementarea investiiilor planificate n Romnia. Cu toate acestea, modificrile legislative Comisia European (CE) a aprobat schema de sprijin a energiei regenerabile prin Cerificatele Verzi (notificare) la mijlocul anului 2011 reprezint un pas n diecia corect. Lipsa unui cadru legislativ adecvat constituie o barier pentru investiii, dar i exercitarea drepturilor legale cauzeaz motive de ngrijorare. Ca urmare, se constat o cerere mare de asisten juridic pentru a asigura ndeplinirea tuturor cerinelor legale, ceea ce conduce la costuri ridicate de consultan juridic sau pentru alt tip de consultan de afaceri, devenind astfel parte din cheltuielile obinuite ale afacerii. Un alt obstacol este lipsa de personal experimentat necesar pentru efectuarea unor astfel de afaceri n Romnia.

Stream Invest Holding AG has been present via its subsidiary SC Clean Energy Development SRL in Romania since 2008. Stream Invest Holding AG has a lot of experience with regard to the planning, building and running of wind energy projects. We received the first operation authorization for the running of a modern wind energy farm in Romania, so that we are able to carry out the full range of services due to our international and national background. We have a strong position in this business field and could share this kind of knowledge with other investors/interested people. Our intention is to stay within the Romanian market in order to carry out further investments (e.g., in form of joint ventures) and services for investment partners.

Based on our own experiences but also on the information received by international investors, players, and construction companies which would like to become active in Romania, we consider Romania as one of the most attractive country for wind energy business (onshore projects) in Europe. One negative effect for the investments is the very slow implementation process of the Law No. 220/2008, so that only one Green Certificate instead of two has been earned so far. Due to this legal uncertainty we and other investors are very cautious regarding the implementation of intended investments in Romania. However, the legal changes - the European Commission (EC) has approved the Romanian Green Certificates renewable energy support scheme (notification) mid 2011 are a step in the right direction. The lack of the appropriate legal framework represents an investment barrier but also the exercise of legal rights causes some concerns. As a consequence, a high demand of legal support is required in order to assert legal rights, so that high expenses for legal consultancy or other kind of business consultancy are part of normal business expense. Another barrier is a lack of experienced staff required for performing such kind of businesses in Romania.

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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

Spre deosebire de rile n care proiectele de energie eolian au o istorie mai ndelungat, formarea profesional a personalului romn trebuie s fie efectuat de ctre investitorii nii, ceea ce reprezint un proces care solicit costuri i timp. Investiia n Romnia n ceea ce privete energia eolian necesit unele ajustri fa de leciile nvate n rile vest-europene. Chiar i n comparaie cu rile eoliene relativ noi, precum Polonia, exist mai multe dificulti referitoare la interpretarea clar a aspectelor juridice (de exemplu, impozitarea activelor, aplicabilitatea de TVA i / sau rambursareaTVA-ului). Se estimeaz c ar mai dura civa ani pn cnd calitatea legislativ ar putea atinge un nivel ateptat pentru o ar a UE. Aa cum am menionat mai sus, notificarea CE este un pas important nainte. Totui, pe baza experienelor din trecut, suntem sceptici n ceea ce privete durata procesului de implementare a legii prezentate anterior. Iniial, legea trebuia s fi fost pus n aplicare n 90 de zile dup adoptarea sa n noiembrie 2008, iar pe o perioad mai mare de doi ani, dou certificate verzi ar fi trebuit acordate (n loc de unul). Investitorii ca noi, initiatori pe piaa energiei eoliene din Romnia, au realizat venituri extrem de mici ca urmare a acestor aspecte, ceea ce implic o mare dificultate n a atinge o investiie pozitiv. Ne ateptm ca legea pe baza notificrii CE sa fie n cele din urm pusa n aplicare n urmtoarele cteva luni, dar nu nainte de luna decembrie a acestui an. Din punctul nostru de vedere, recomandm ca investitorii pe termen lung n parcurile de energie eolian din Romnia s ia n considerare faptul c nu exist garanii cu privire la valoarea Certificatelor Verzi. Pentru energia curat produs de centralele eoliene din Romnia trecerea ateptat de la dou la un Certificat Verde pn la sfritul anului 2017, se estimeaz un efect de o turbulen puternic asupra preurilor de vnzare a GC. Faptul c preurile GC sunt reglate n funcie de pia i nu sunt fixe, constituie de asemenea un dezavantaj pentru finanarea bancar a unor astfel de proiecte de energie regenerabil, care pn la urm se traduce prin preuri ridicate de finanare, n comparaie cu ri n care preul este reglat exclusiv de valoarea energiei electrice i unde este posibil ncheierea contractelor de furnizare a energiei electrice pe termen lung (PPA).

In contrast to countries in which wind energy projects have a longer history, the training of Romanian staff has to be done by the investors themselves, which is a cost and time consuming process. Investing in Romania in wind energy requires some adjustments to lessons learned in western European countries. Even in comparison to relatively new wind countries such as Poland, there are more difficulties with the clear interpretation of legal issues (e.g., taxation of assets, VAT applicability and/or VAT refund). It is expected to take several more years until the quality of law might reach a level expected to be in place for an EU country. As described above the notification by the EC is a very important step forward. However, we are skeptical with regard to the duration process of the implementation of the above described law based on experiences made in the past. Originally the law should have been implemented 90 days after its enactment in November 2008 and two Green Certificates should have been granted (instead of one Green certificate) for a period of more than two years. Investors like us, who are pioneers in the wind energy market in Romania, realized substantial lower revenues due to the above described facts, which mean a great difficulty to reach a positive investment. We expect that the law based on the EC notification will finally be implemented during the next few months, but not before December of this year. Based on our point of view, we recommend that long-term Investors for wind energy farms in Romania will consider that there are no guarantees with regard to the value of Green Certificates being put in place. For clean energy produced from modern wind turbines in Romania, the expected change from 2 down to 1 Green Certificates by end of 2017 is expected to cause strong pricing turbulence for the sales price of GCs. The fact that GC prices are market-regulated and not fix, it is also a disadvantage for the bank financing of such renewable energy projects, which ultimately translates into higher finance prices compared to countries where the price is regulated solely by the price of electric power and where the installation of long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs) are possible.

Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

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Probleme fiscale
Impozitul pe proprietate n cadrul juridic existent aplicarea impozitului pe proprietate pentru parcurile eoliene reprezint o zon gri. Codul Fiscal romn nu definete n mod clar dac elementele de construcie a unei turbine eoliene, sau fundaia pe care o turbin este construit, sunt supuse impozitului pe proprietate. n timp ce definiia de cldire n cadrul Codului Fiscal romn nu las loc pentru ndoieli semnificative, rspunsul la ntrebarea dac elementele unei turbine eoliene constituie o construcie impozabil rmne neclar. n consecin, n februarie 2011, consultanii TPA Horwath au adresat o scrisoare ctre Departamentul de Impozite Directe din cadrul Ministerului Finanelor Publice. Rspunsul din partea autoritilor fiscale a fost clar i concis: Nu intr sub incidena impozitului pe cldiri construciile care nu au elementele constitutive ale unei cldiri, considerm c turbina eolian nu poate fi supus impozitului pe cldiri. Cu toate acestea, n practic, autoritaile locale (de exemplu, reprezentani ai anumitor consilii locale/ administraiei publice locale aparinnd anumitor municipii/comune nu mprtesc o abordare comun la tratamentul fiscal al turbinelor eoliene din perspectivele taxei pe proprietate. Unii sunt de prere c impozitul pe proprietate ar trebui s se aplice pentru o turbin eolian ntreag, n timp ce alii solicit ca impozitele i taxele locale s fie pltite numai pentru fundaie. De asemenea, Codul Fiscal romn conine reglementri referitoare la scutirea de impozite locale a cldirilor utilizate n scopuri hidroelectrice, termice i nucleare, fr a face nicio trimitere la parcurile eoliene. Noi vedem ca extrem de important aducerea nentrziat a unor clarificri la Codul Fiscal romn, care vor permite investitorilor din sectorul energiei eoliene s opereze n conformitate cu cerinele legale i s estimeze corect valoarea taxelor, evitnd n acelai timp orice sarcini fiscale suplimentare i prevenind abuzurile. Cu titlu de comparaie, n alte ri europene, precum Polonia, impozitul pe proprietate se aplic exclusiv pe prile structurale ale unei turbine (de ex., fundaie i turn). Amortizarea parcurilor eoliene Un alt aspect important care necesit clarificri n ceea ce privete expunerea fiscal a activitaii parcurilor eoliene este recunoaterea n contabilitate a activelor i a amortizrii asociate acestora. Cheltuielile efectuate pentru turbinele eoliene sunt deductibile fiscal sub forma amortizrii (alocarea costurilor activelor pentru perioadele n care activele sunt utilizate).
48
Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

Tax Issues
Property Tax In the existing legal framework the application of property tax to wind farms represents a grey area. The Romanian Tax Code does not clearly define whether the construction elements of a wind turbine, or the foundation on which a turbine is built, are subject to property tax. While the definition of building under the Romanian Tax Code leaves no room for material doubts, the answer to the question as to whether the elements of a wind turbine constitute a taxable construction remains unclear. Consequently, in February 2011, TPA Horwath consultants addressed a letter to the Direct Tax Department within the Ministry of Public Finance. The answer from the tax authorities was clear and concise: Constructions without the constitutive elements of a building are not subject to local taxes; we therefore do not consider wind turbines as buildings, and as such they cannot be subject to property tax. Nevertheless, in practice, the local authorities (i.e. the representatives of certain local councils/the local public administration of certain municipalities/ communes do not share a common approach to the fiscal treatment of wind turbines from a property tax perspective. Some believe property tax should be due for the entire wind turbine, while others request local taxes be paid only for the foundation. On a related note, the Romanian Tax Code contains regulations regarding the exemption from local taxation of buildings used for hydroelectric, thermal and nuclear power uses, without making any references to wind farms. We see it as of the utmost importance that fiscal clarification that place in terms of amendments to the Romanian Tax Code that will allow investors in the wind energy sector to meet their legal requirements and correctly estimate the value of taxes, while avoiding any additional tax burdens and prevent abuses. By way of comparison, in other European countries, such as Poland, property tax is charged exclusively on the structural parts of a turbine (e.g. the foundation and the tower). Wind Farm Depreciation Another important aspect that requires clarification in terms of the tax exposure of wind farm activities is the recognition in the accounting of assets and their associated depreciation. Expenditure incurred in relation to wind turbines is tax deductible in the form of depreciation write-offs (the allocation of the cost of assets to periods in which the assets are used).

Deseori este discutabil dac, n sensul amortizrii, turbina eolian ar trebui s fie abordat ca un ntreg sau mprit n seciuni separate (de exemplu fundaie, turn, generator, elice, nacel, etc), cu rate de amortizare diferite aplicate n mod corespunztor. Acest aspect nu este reglementat, iar cnd apare poate fi considerat ca o cerere neautorizat a autoritii fiscale de a aplica conceptul de divizare structural a proprietii n scopuri fiscale. Potrivit Ordinului Ministrului Finanelor nr. 3055/2009 i Catalogului de Clasificare a Activelor Fixe (FACC), care reprezint o extensie sistematic la legislaia fiscal ce reglementeaz termenii de amortizare, o turbin eolian constituie fie un singur activ fix care cuprinde ntreaga configuraie eolian mpreun cu fundaia, sau poate fi mprit n mai multe elemente care sunt amortizate individual. Potrivit catalogului FACC, exist mai multe elemente care pot fi considerate ca fundaii n contabilitate, i anume Alte cldiri industriale, Piste de beton i platforme; i Construcii speciale din beton toate fiind incluse n Grupa 1 din FACC, cu o depreciere contabil liniar pe o perioad cuprins ntre 24 i 36 de ani, n timp ce alte componente structurale, electrice i tehnice ale turbinelor eoliene nu sunt foarte clar definite (de exemplu turn, nacel i elice). n analiza noastr am identificat mai multe elemente care ar putea fi utilizate n scopul amortizrii componentelor turbinelor eoliene (incluse n grupa 2 din FACC): Generator de energie Motoarele eoliene Transformatoare Alte echipamente specifice centralei energetice 12-18 ani; 16-24 ani; 16-24 ani; 08-12 ani.

It is often debatable whether for the purposes of depreciation a wind turbine should be treated as a whole or divided into separate sections (i.e. foundation, tower, generator, blade, nacelle, etc.), with different depreciation rates applied correspondingly. This actually has no legal basis and where it occurs it can be considered as an unauthorised application by the tax authorities of the concept of structure division for the purposes of property taxation. Accordingto the Order to the Ministry of Finance no. 055/2009 and Fixed Assets Classification Catalogue (FACC), which represents a systematic extension to the tax law governing terms of depreciation, a wind turbine either constitutes a single fixed asset comprising the entire wind power set together with the foundation, or may be split into several elements that are individually depreciated. According to the FACC document, there are several items that can be considered as foundations in the accounting, i.e.Other industrial buildings, Concrete runways an platforms and Special concrete constructions, all of which are included in Group 1 of the FACC, with a linear accounting depreciation over a period of between 24 and 36 years, while the other structural, electrical and technical components of the wind turbine are not very clearly defined (i.e. tower, nacelle and blade). In our analysis we identified several elements that could be used for the purposes of the depreciation of wind turbine components (included in Group 2 of the FACC): Power generators 12-18 years; 16-24 years; Wind engines 16-24 years; Transformers Other equipments for the power plant 08-12 years. We are of the opinion that new regulations need to be incorporated into local legislation so as to update the FACC with the components of a wind farm, so that investors in this field are able to comply with the local requirements and avoid further financial risks.

Suntem de prere c noi reglementri ar trebui s fie ncorporate n legislaia local, astfel nct s se actualizeze FACC cu componentele unui parc eolian, pentru ca investitorii din acest domeniu s fie n msur s se conformeze cu cerinele locale i s evite n continuare riscurile financiare ce ar putea rezulta din neaplicarea corect a reglementrilor fiscale. Clauza proprieti imobiliare Investiia ntr-un parc eolian ridic, de asemenea, o alt ntrebare important: o turbin eolian poate fi clasificat ca un bun imobiliar? Rspunsul la aceast ntrebare ajut la determinarea locului i ratei de impozitare pe ctigurile de capital aplicabile profiturilor obinute de non-rezideni din vnzarea de aciuni deinute n societi formate n totalitate sau n principal din proprieti imobiliare situate n Romnia. Nici comentariile Organizaiei pentru Cooperare i Dezvoltare Economic (OCDE) cu privire la modelul de convenie, nici Codul Fiscal romn (CFR) nu prevd clarificri suficiente n acest sens. n timp ce comentariile OCDE spun c definirea conceptului de proprietate imobiliar prin raportarea la cadrul legal al statului n care este situat imobilul (adic Romnia),

Real estate clause Investing in a wind farm also raises another important question: can a wind turbine be classified as an immovable asset? The answer to this question helps to determine the place and rate of capital gains taxation applicable to gains derived by nonresidents from the sale of shares held in company assets consisting entirely or principally of immovable property located in Romania. Neither the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) commentaries on the Model Convention nor the Romanian Tax Code (RTC) provides enough clarification in this respect. While the OECD commentaries say that defining the concept of immovable property by reference to the law of the state in which the property is situated (i.e.
Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

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va ajuta la evitarea dificultilor de interpretare pentru a stabili dac un activ sau un drept trebuie s fie considerat ca bun imobiliar, CFR definete bunurile imobiliare ca fiind orice teren, cldiri sau alte construcii ridicate sau incorporate pe teren. Nu exist detalii suplimentare cu privire la definiia expresiei alte construcii ridicate sau ncorporate pe teren. n opinia noastr, n scopul impozitrii pe ctigurile de capital, o turbin eolian (sau cel puin componentele sale structurale, fundaia i turnul) ar trebui s fie tratate ca proprieti imobiliare. n ceea ce privete generatorul de energie, motorul eolian i alte componente considerate a fi echipamente de FACC, acestea nu ar trebui s se ncadreaze n categoria proprieti imobiliare.

Romania) will help avoid difficulties of interpretation as to whether an asset or a right is to be regarded as immovable property, the RTC defines immovable property as any land, building or other construction built upon or incorporated in land. There are no additional details regarding the definition of the expression other constructions built upon or incorporated in land. In our opinion, for purposes of capital gains taxation, a wind turbine (or at least its structural components, the foundation and tower) should be treated as immovable property. As to the power generator, the wind engine and the other components considered to be equipment by the FACC, these should fall outside the immovable property category.

10 Profitabilitatea energiei eoliene


Popularitatea tot mai mare a parcurilor eoliene n Romnia vine, printre altele, ca urmare a percepiei unei investiii eficiente cu profit garantat pe un numr de ani. Este bine cunoscut faptul c Romnia are un potenial mare pentru producerea de energie regenerabil, fiind considerat ara cu cel mai mare potenial eolian din sud-estul Europei. Cu toate acestea, rentabilitatea efectiv a unui proiect eolian depinde de o serie de factori care pot influena n mod semnificativ decizia final cu privire la executarea sau nu a unui proiect. Ar trebui remarcat c numrul mare de variabile (att n etapa de investiii ct i n timpul exploatrii unei ferme eoliene) ar putea duce la o diversificare semnificativ n analiz. Cheltuieli de investiii Investiiile ntr-un parc eolian implic o serie de cheltuieli tangibile i intangibile. Tabelul urmtor ofer un exemplu pentru structura de cost a investiiilor aferente unui parc eolian cu o capacitate instalat de 1 MW, bazat pe analiza datelor din pia pentru parcurile eoliene operaionale.

The Profitability of Wind Energy


The growing popularity of wind farms in Romania comes, among other things, as a result of their perception as a high return rate investment with guaranteed profits for a number of years. It is well known that Romania has great potential for renewable energy production, being considered the country with largest technical wind potential in south-east Europe. However, the actual profitability of a wind project depends on a number of factors that can significantly influence the final decision as to whether or not to execute a given project. It should be noted that the large number of variables (both at the investment stage and during exploitation of a wind farm) could lead to significant diversification in the analysis. Investment Expenditure Investment in a wind farm involves a number of tangible and intangible expenses. The table below provides an example of the investment cost structure for a wind farm per 1 MW of installed capacity, based on analysis of the market data for operating wind farms.

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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

Structura de cost a investiiilor Investment cost structure

Categorie de cost a investiiei / Investment cost category

Cheltuieli n mii euro/1MW / Expenditure in K EUR/1 MW

Proporia cheltuielii totale / Proportion of total expenditure

Turbine eoliene / Wind turbines

1 368

85%

Drumuri i fundaii / Roads and foundations

119

7%

Costuri de proiectare / Design costs Costuri de conectare la reea / Grid connection costs Sistemul electric intern / Internal power system Asigurri i alte costuri / Insurance and other costs Total / Total

68

4%

32

2%

17

1%

17

1%

1 621

100%

Sursa: TPA Horwath Source: TPA Horwath

Costurile de pregtire a investiiei Orice analiz a cheltuielilor de investiii trebuie s prevad costurile de pregtire i de proiectare efectuate n faza iniial a unui proiect (primii 1-4 ani). n prezent, aceasta cheltuial variaz ntre 55 mii euro i 70 mii euro pe MW de capacitate a parcului eolian proiectat (ceea ce constituie circa 3%-4% din valoarea investiiei). Aceste costuri includ, dar nu sunt limitate la: Dezvoltarea proiectului tehnic; Elaborarea studiului de fezabilitate; Montarea anemometrelor i efectuarea msurtorilor pentru densitatea vntului; Efectuarea studiului privind impactul parcului eolian asupra mediului natural i comunitatea local; Cercetarea geologic; Procedee administrative.

Investment Preparation Costs Any investment expenditure analysis must account for the preparation and design costs incurred during the initial stage of a project (the first 1-4 years). Currently this expenditure ranges between EUR 55 thousand up to as much as EUR 70 thousand per MW of capacity of the designed wind farm (which constitutes about 3%-4% of the investment value). These costs include, but are not limited to: Developing the technical design; Drafting the feasibility study; Erecting measuring masts and wind density measurements; Performing the study on the wind farm impact on the natural environment and local community; Geological research; Administrative proceedings.
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Costurile turbinelor i a construciei Achiziia turbinei reprezint partea cea mai important din structura costului de investiie, ajungnd pn la 85% din cheltuielile de investiii. Preurile turbinelor depind de o serie de factori, inclusiv, dar nu limitat la, capacitatea instalat, productorul, profilul turbinei i decizia cu privire la dac s se cumpere turbine noi sau la mna a doua. Valoarea medie de generare a energiei eoliene la 1 MW de capacitate variaz de la 1,3 la 1,7 milioane euro. n cazul proiectelor care presupun utilizarea de tehnologii de vrf care fac posibil mbuntirea eficienei de producie, costurile pentru fiecare MW instalat pot fi chiar mai mari. Trebuie remarcat c, din cauza duratei prelungite a procesului de investiii, investitorul se confrunt cu riscul schimbului valutar n situaia n care contractul cu furnizorul de turbine a fost ncheiat ntr-un stadiu timpuriu. Acest lucru ar trebui, de asemenea, luat n considerare atunci cnd se analizeaz viabilitatea proiectului. n afar de achiziionarea de echipamente, investitorul trebuie s suporte, de asemenea, costurile legate de dezvoltarea infrastructurii interne (drumuri, fundaii, racordarea la reeaua de energie), care constituie n medie 7% din valoarea proiectului i, n funcie de complexitatea parcului, pot varia ntre 5% i 10% (n funcie de condiiile terenului i ale apei, distribuia intern a turbinelor n incinta parcului, lungimea sistemului electric i de telecomunicaii, etc). Costurile de racordare la reeaua electric Costul de racordare la reeaua electric se bazeaz pe dispoziiile Legii Energiei i depinde n primul rnd de cheltuielile de investiie alocate pentru dezvoltarea reelei, precum i de capacitatea de racordare solicitat. Valoarea exact a tarifului devine cunoscut atunci cnd condiiile tehnice de racordare la reea sunt emise. Costul de conectare reprezint o component major a cheltuielilor de investiii i se poate ridica pn la 1,36 milioane de euro n cazul unui parc eolian cu o capacitate planificat de circa 40 MW (ntre 30,1 mii euro i 34 mii euro). Avizul tehnic de racordare la reea este valabil pentru minim 25 de ani. Achiziionarea terenului Achiziionarea terenului adecvat pentru un viitor parc eolian reprezint, de asemenea, o component substanial a cheltuielilor de investiii. Se presupune c pentru un regim optim, ntr-un parc eolian este nevoie de 2000-2500 m2 per turbin, n timp ce staia de alimentare necesit o suprafa de aproximativ 3.000 m2. De obicei, nc din faza de pregtire a investiiei dezvoltatorii vor suporta costurile legate de compensaii i taxe aferente proprietarilor de terenuri cu privire la pierderile recoltei din apropiere. Avnd n vedere c statutul juridic al proprietii este de cele mai multe ori nereglementat, structura proprietii este foarte dispersat, iar planurile de dezvoltare local a terenurilor nu exist, costurile legate de achiziionarea terenului pot constitui o component substanial de calcul i pot ajunge
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Wind Turbines and Building Cost The purchasing of the turbine accounts for the largest portion of the investment cost structure, representing up to 85% of the investment expenditure. Turbine prices depend on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the installed capacity, manufacturer, turbine profile and the decision as to whether to purchase new or secondhand turbines. The average value of wind energy generation per 1 MW of capacity ranges from EUR 1.3 to 1.7 million. In the case of projects that presume the use of cuttingedge technologies that make it possible to improve generation efficiency, the costs of each installed MW may be even higher. It should be noted that because of the prolonged duration of the investment process, the investor faces a foreign exchange risk in terms of having signed the contract with the turbine supplier at an early stage; this should also be taken into consideration when analysing the viability of the project. Apart from the purchase of the equipment, the investor must also incur costs related to the development of internal infrastructure (roads, foundations, power connections), which on average constitute 7% of the project value and, depending on the complexity of the farm, can range between 5% and 10% (depending on land and water conditions, internal turbine distribution over the premises of the farm, length of the electric and telecommunications system, etc.). Power Grid Connection Costs The cost of connection to the power grid is based on the provisions of the Energy Law and depends primarily on the investment expenditure allocated to grid development as well as the requested connection capacity. The exact value of the fee becomes known when the technical conditions of connection to the grid are issued. The connection cost represents a major component of investment expenditure and may amount to as much as EUR 1.36 million in the case of a wind farm with a planned capacity of around 40 MW (between EUR 30.1 thousand and EUR 34 thousand). The grid connection permit is valid for a minimum of 25 years. Land Acquisition Securing the appropriate land for a future wind farm also constitutes a substantial component of investment expenditure. It is assumed that the optimum arrangement of turbines in a wind park requires some 2000-2500 m2 per turbine, while the power station requires a land area of around 3,000 m2. Investors will incur costs related to compensation and fees for land owners in respect of occupancy of the area or harvest losses, and usually as early as the investment preparation stage. Since the legal status of property is often unregulated, ownership structure is highly dispersed and local land development plans do not exist, the costs pertaining to securing the land may constitute a substantial component of the calculation and reach 1-1.5% of the project value. It should also be noted

la 1-1,5% din valoarea proiectului. De asemenea, trebuie remarcat faptul c nu numai viitoarele terenuri destinate construciei turbinelor trebuie achiziionate, dar i terenul destinat transportului la linia electric i, din ce n ce mai frecvent, cel destinat elicei care se poate prelungi dincolo de limitele parcelei de teren ocupate direct de investiie. n afar de aceste costuri de dobndire a unor drepturi reale asupra terenului, investitorul va fi obligat s suporte costurile anuale de nchiriere pe ntreaga durat a proiectului. Presupunnd c se folosete echipament nou, i cu condiia s se efectueze reparaii standard i cele de ntreinere, perioada de utilizare caracteristic preconizat a unui parc eolian este de 20-25 de ani. Venituri Un parc eolian genereaz dou tipuri de venituri: Vnzri de energie electric, i Vnzri de certificate verzi. Experiena internaional indic faptul c, de cele mai multe ori, investitorii ncearc s incheie contracte pe termen lung cu centralele electrice la un nivel de pre specific, care se ajusteaz n funcie de inflaie. Lipsa unor astfel de contracte creeaz un risc suplimentar pentru investitor n ceea ce privete fluctuaia preurilor pe ntreaga durat a investiiei. ANRE (Autoritatea Naional de Reglementare n Domeniul Energiei), a stabilit preul energiei n Romnia pentru 2010, ntre 40 si 45 de euro/MWh. Rentabilitatea proiectelor eoliene este substanial afectat de schema de sprijin pentru surse de energie regenerabile bazate pe certificate verzi. Preul certificatelor depinde n principal de valoarea taxei de substituie i a condiiilor economice. Conform Legii nr. 220/2008, modificat ulterior, valoarea certificatelor verzi variaz ntre 27 de euro i 55 de euro/certificat. Lichiditile din piaa certificatelor rezult din obligaia companiilor, care vnd energie electric clienilor finali, s achiziioneze i s rscumpere certificatele, n conformitate cu cotele de energie minime prevzute din surse regenerabile, ca parte din vnzrile totale de energie. n Europa, sistemul certificatelor verzi, se nlocuiete treptat cu sistemul de tarifare preuri fixe,deoarece statele membre ale UE sunt libere s aleag instrumentele respective de ajutor. n cazul sistemului de tarifare pre fix, preul pltit de ctre companiile de electricitate ctre productorii de energie este stabilit de ctre autoritatea de reglementare, iar piaa decide volumul de energie care urmeaz s fie generat din surse regenerabile. Spre deosebire de Romnia, ri precum Austria, Germania, Croaia i Ungaria au ales sistemul de tarifare pre fix. Sistemul de sprijin prin certificate verzi din Polonia se confrunt, de asemenea, cu critici majore, iar organizaiile care reprezint companiile din sectorul de energie cer ca sistemul de ajutor s fie schimbat ntr-unul bazat pe tarif fix. Argumentul dat n susinerea acestei cereri este nevoia sporit de stabilitate a regimului de suport, astfel nct s se asigure o mai bun fundamentare pentru deciziile de investiii pe termen lung.

that not only the future farm land needs to be secured, but also the land related to the easement of the transmission to the power line and, increasingly frequently, the easement of the propeller that may extend beyond the borders of the plot of land occupied directly by the investment. Apart from these land security costs, the investor will be obliged to incur annual lease costs during the entire duration of the project. Assuming new equipment is used, and provided the standard repairs and maintenance are performed, the typical expected use period of a wind farm is 20-25 years.

Revenues A wind farm generates two types of income: Sales of electricity, and Sales of green certificates. International experience indicates that investors usually endeavour to enter into long-term contracts with power plants at a specific price level that is adjusted according to inflation. An absence of such contracts creates an additional risk for the investor in terms of price fluctuation over the entire duration of the investment. The ANRE (Romanian Energy Regulatory Authority) has set the energy price in Romania for 2010 at between EUR 40 and 45 EUR/ MWh. The profitability of wind projects is substantially affected by the renewable energy source support system based on green certificates. The price of certificates depends mainly on the value of the substitution fee and the economic conditions. According to the Law no. 220/2008 as subsequently amended, the value of green certificates ranges between EUR 27 and EUR 55 per certificate. The certificate market liquidity results from the obligation of the companies that sell electricity to end customers to purchase and redeem energy certificates in line with the prescribed minimum quotas of energy from renewable sources as part of total energy sales. In Europe, the green certificate system is gradually being replaced by the feed-in tariff system, as individual EU Member States are free to choose their respective aid instruments. In the case of the feedin tariff system, the price paid by power companies to energy manufacturers is set by the regulatory authority, and the market decides the volume of the energy to be generated from renewable sources. As opposed to Romania, countries such as Austria, Germany, Croatia and Hungary have chosen a feedin tariff system. The Polish green certificate aid system also faces growing criticism, and organisations representing power sector companies are demanding that the aid system be changed into a tariff-based one. The argument given in support of this request is the need for higher stability of the aid system so as to ensure better foundations for investment decisionmaking in a long-term perspective.
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Trebuie remarcat faptul c producerea i vnzarea energiei sunt produsul unui numr de variabile, inclusiv condiiile reale de vnt, numrul de zile fr activitate, termenii contractului de racordare i ai contractului de vnzare, precum i preurile la energia electric. Conform datelor obinute din studiile de energie eolian efectuate n Romnia, productivitatea minim a unui parc eolian, care permite o rentabilitate pozitiv este de 2.000-2.200 MWh pe an pentru fiecare 1 MW de capacitate instalat. n condiiile actuale, profitul anual la 40 MW de capacitate instalat ar trebui s fie, prin urmare, nu mai puin de 8 milioane euro. Costurile de exploatare ale parcurilor eoliene Dup ce o ferm eolian devine operaional, investitorul este obligat s suporte o serie de costuri de exploatare. Tabelul de mai jos conine elementele cheie privind costurile suportate n cursul fiecrui an de funcionare pentru un parc eolian de 40 MW:

It should be noted that energy generation and sale is the product of a number of variables, including actual wind conditions, the number of stoppage days, the terms of the connection agreement and sales agreement, as well as electricity prices. According to the data obtained from wind power studies conducted in Romania, the minimum productivity of a wind farm that allows for positive profitability is 2,000-2,200 MWh per year per 1MW of installed capacity. Under current conditions, the annual proceeds from 40 MW of installed capacity should therefore be no less than EUR 8 million. Wind Farm Exploitation Costs After a wind farm becomes operational, the investor is obliged to incur a number of exploitation costs. The table below contains the key cost items incurred during each year of operation for a 40 MW wind farm:

Structura costului anual de exploatare pentru un parc eolian de 40 MW Annual exploitation cost structure for a 40 MW wind farm

Tipul de cost / Cost type

Costurile estimate anual [n mii euro] / Annual estimated costs [in k EUR]. 1 248 228 223 56 37 33 18 1 843

Proporia costurilor totale [%] / Proportion of total costs [%]

Administrativ, ntreinere i exploatare / Operational, maintenance and exploitation Cheltuieli de regie / Overheads Costuri cu echilibrarea / Energy balancing Asigurri / Insurance Energia pentru necesitile interne / Energy for internal needs Diverse / Other Impozitul pe teren / Land tax Total / Total

68% 12% 12% 3% 2% 2% 1% 100%

Sursa: TPA Horwath Source: TPA Horwath

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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

Cea mai mare parte a costurilor de operare provine din costuri administrative de ntreinere i exploatare. Acestea depind de domeniul de aplicare al lucrrilor efectuate i de mrimea parcului eolian n sine, i sunt adesea mprite n trane fixe i variabile determinate de rentabilitatea proiectelor propriu-zise. Costurile cu echilibrarea sunt legate de certitudinea previziunilor asupra condiiilor de densitate a energiei eoliene pentru o perioad de 24 de ore urmnd n mod direct prognoza. Prin urmare, acest element de cost este extrem de dificil de determinat, cu toate c distribuia costurilor cu echilibrarea dintre investitor i centrala energetic este reglementat n mod diferit n contractele individuale de vnzare a energiei. n general, costul cu echilibrarea constituie o parte substanial din costurile totale i se poate ridica i pn la 2% - 5% din venitul anual al vnzrilor de energie. Asigurarea reprezint o alt component de cost care este n strns corelaie cu dimensiunea i valoarea parcului eolian, precum i cu vechimea acestuia. Trebuie remarcat faptul c valoarea taxei anuale va depinde de acoperirea asigurrii selectate (toate riscurile de proprieti, pierderile de profit, instalaii, pierderile de profit cauzate de defeciuni de utilaje, asigurare de rspundere civil, etc). Se estimeaz c, n funcie de alegerea tipului de asigurare, aceast cost anual va fi cuprins ntre 1.300 i 4.000 de euro per 1 MW de capacitate instalat. Un alt element de cost substanial l reprezint cheltuielile financiare sub form de dobnzi la mprumuturile obinute pentru a finana construirea unui parc eolian. Valoarea unor astfel de costuri depinde, printre altele, de structura de finanare, ratele dobnzilor i a ponderii surselor de capital. Presupunnd c finanarea este de 75% din valoarea proiectului pentru un parc de 40 MW, cu o valoare de 65 milioane de euro i o rat a dobnzii de 8%, costul dobnzii anuale n primii ani de investiii se va ridica la o valoare medie de 325 mii de euro pe lun. Mai mult dect att, dup cum am menionat deja, n cazul creditelor n valut investitorul se confrunt cu un risc suplimentar al fluctuaiei cursului de schimb valutar; pe de alt parte, investitorul poate beneficia de dobnzi mai mici. Analiza profitabilitii Analiza asupra a cinci investiii eoliene finalizate i n curs de dezvoltare confirm existena unor discrepane semnificative n ceea ce privete nivelul de cheltuieli n dezvoltarea proiectelor cu capaciti similare. Costurile pe 1 MW au variat de la 1,3 milioane euro / MW, la 1,7 milioane de euro / MW, media ponderat a valorii cheltuielilor pe 1 MW de capacitate instalat fiind de 1,5 milioane euro. Pe de alt parte, rata de rentabilitate medie s-a ridicat la 9%, cu valori cuprinse ntre 8% si 10%. Viitorul parcurilor eoliene va fi afectat nu numai de factori, precum alegerea corect a locaiei caracterizat prin densitatea adecvat a energiei eoliene, sau accesul la infrastructur, dar i de alegerea optim a turbinelor, ridicarea lor pe stlpi i o mentenan eficient. n Romnia, perioada medie de rentabilitate

The highest proportion of exploitation costs comes from the farms operational, maintenance and exploitation costs. These depend on the scope of the performed works and the size of the wind farm itself, and are very often divided into fixed and variable portions determined by the actual project profitability. Energy balancing costs are linked to the reliability of the forecast of wind power density conditions for the 24-hour period directly following the forecast. This cost item is therefore extremely difficult to determine, whereas the distribution of the balancing obligation between the investor and the power plant is regulated in different ways in individual energy sales contracts. Generally, the balancing cost constitutes a substantial share of the total costs and may amount to as much as 2%-5% of the annual income from energy sales.

Insurance represents another cost component that is closely correlated with the size and value of the wind farm as well as its age. It should be noted that the value of the annual fee will depend on the selected insurance coverage (property all-risk insurance, profit loss insurance, machinery failure insurance, insurance against loss of profits due to machinery failure, civil liability, etc.). It is estimated that depending on the choice of insurance cover, this annual fee will range between EUR 1,300 and as much as EUR 4,000 per 1 MW of installed capacity. Another substantial cost item is given by financial costs in the form of interest on loans obtained to finance the construction of a wind farm. The value of such costs depends, among other things, on the financing structure, interest rates and the share of preferential equity sources. Assuming financing of 75% of the project value for a 40 MW farm with a value of EUR 65 million and an 8% interest rate, the annual interest cost during the first years of the investment will on average amount to EUR 325 K per month. Moreover, as already mentioned, in case of foreign currency loans the investor faces the additional risk of foreign exchange fluctuations; on the other hand, the investor may benefit from lower interest rates.

Profitability Analysis Analysis of five selected in-progress and completed wind farm investments confirms the existence of substantial discrepancies with regard to the level of expenditure in the development of projects of similar capacities. The costs per 1 MW ranged from EUR 1.3 million/MW to EUR 1.7 million/MW, whereas the weighted average of expenditure value per 1 MW of installed capacity amounted to EUR 1.5 million. Meanwhile, the weighted average annual income to expenditure ratio amounted to 9%, with values ranging from 8% to 10%. The future wind farm producti-vity will be affected not only by such factors as the right choice of location as characterised by appropriate wind power density, and access to infrastructure, but also by the optimal selection of turbines, their elevation on the mast and efficient maintenance.
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a capitalului investit (RCI) este de aproximativ 13 ani. Cu toate acestea, perioadele de recuperare a investiiei pot diferi n mod semnificativ, n funcie de amploarea proiectului, tehnologia aplicat, locaia proiectului i de ali factori. Este de menionat faptul c durata de via a proiectului (care n medie este de 20 de ani) i costurile legate de modernizarea sau de lichidarea centralei electrice de la sfritul perioadei de funcionare trebuie, de asemenea, s fie luate n considerare atunci cnd se analizeaz profitabilitatea investiiei.

In Romania, the average period of return on equity (ROE) is about 13 years. However, periods of return on investment may differ significantly, depending on the scale of the project, the applied technology, project location and other factors. It should be noted that the project lifespan (which on average is 20 years) and costs pertaining to the modernisation or liquidation of the power plant at the end of the operating period also need to be taken into consideration when analysing investment profitability.

Ecologia este o Oportunitate Real de Business Sectorul austriac al tehnologiei mediului nconjurtor este bine pregtit pentru viitor, iar rolul su ar trebui sprijinit mai mult. Protecia mediului nconjurtor i dezvoltarea economic nu mai sunt n contradicie: ecologia este o oportunitate real de business. Rudolf Lukavsky, Consultant Comercial n cadrul Ambasadei Austriei la Bucureti.

Ecology is a True Business Opportunity The Austrian environmental technology sector is well prepared for the future and its position should be further strengthened. Protection of the environment and economic growth are no longer a contradiction: ecology is a true business opportunity. Rudolf Lukavsky, Commercial Counselor at the Austrian Embassy in Bucharest

Austrias environmental and Sectorul austriac al tehnologiei energy-technology sector energiei i mediului nconjurtor significantly contributes to both contribuie semnificativ att sustainable growth and the la dezvoltarea durabil , ct improvement of the environment, i la mbuntirea mediului even beyond the countrys nconjurtor chiar i n afara Rudolf Lukavsky borders. granielor rii. Consilier Comercial al A growing world population, Creterea populaiei globale, Ambasadei Austriei la Bucureti increasing pollution, climate poluarea tot mai mare, Commercial Counselor at the change and the growing scarcity schimbrile climatice precum i Austrian Embassy in Bucharest of natural resources are global deficitul tot mai acut al resurselor growth drivers: the world market naturale alctuiesc motorul for green technology with a current volume of 1.4 dezvoltrii la nivel global: piaa international a trillion Euros, is already larger than the market tehnologiei mediului cu un volum curent de 1,4 for mechanical engineering. By 2020, turnover trilioane euro este deja mult mai extins dect is going to double to 3.2 trillion Euros. Austrias piaa ingineriei mecanice. Pn n anul 2020 cifra government takes sustainable energy extremely de afaceri se va dubla pn la 3,2 trilioane de euro. serious, and the effects of its dedication to Guvernul Austriei consider energia durabil ecology and environmental consciousness can ca fiind un aspect extrem de serios, iar efectele be illustrated with a few examples: the share of dedicrii sale n raport cu ecologia i contiina renewable energies currently used amounts to mediului nconjurtor pot fi prezentate prin cteva 23.4% - the fourth highest figure in the entire exemple: ponderea energiilor regenerabile European Union. Austria now leads the world utilizate n prezent se ridic la 23,4% - a patra in the number of energy-efficient buildings per cifr din ntreaga Uniune European. Austria este capita. Environmental technologies have seen a pe primul loc n lume privind cldirile eficiente dynamic development over the past 15 years. The energetic pe cap de locuitor. Tehnologiile mediului number of companies in this field has increased nconjurtor au cunoscut o dezvoltare dinamic to more than 400, and they generate such a pe parcursul ultimilor 15 ani. Numrul firmelor ce large share of the GDP that Austria is second activeaz n acest domeniu a crescut la peste worldwide in terms of environmental investments. 400 i genereaz o cot parte att de important Environmentally friendly energy and energyn PIB, nct Austria se claseaz pe locul al storage technologies, efficient use of energy, doilea n lume n ceea ce privete investiiile n resources and materials, a circular economy, mediul nconjurtor. Energia favorabil a mediului sustainable water management and mobility nconjurtor i tehnologiile de stocare a energiei
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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

precum i utilizarea eficient a acesteia, alturi de resurse i materiale, economia circular, managementul apei continuabil cu efecte minime asupra mediului i mobilitatea reprezint creterea pieei. Cota de export a societilor specializate n tehnologia mediului nconjurtor se situeaz la aproximativ 65%. O mare parte din companiile austriece de succes din domeniile energiei regenerabile i a tehnologiei mediului nconjurtor sunt deja active pe piaa din Romnia, printre ele aflndu-se cele mai mari companii de construcii austriece precum Strabag, Alpine i Porr. Pe lng acestea, OMV/Petrom i-a demarat primul proiect la scar larg privind energia regenerabil, folosind un parc eolian cu o capaciate de 54 MW n zona Dobrogea data stabilit pentru operaii comerciale fiind 2011. Romnia are un potenial uria n producerea energiei regenerabile, ns pn n prezent realizarea cadrului legal s-a desfurat cu dificultate. Aceasta este o problem serioas pentru productorii de energie ntruct compensarea cu certificatele verzi nu este pus n practic n totalitate. Am discutat pe aceasta tem de multe ori, iar cu o ntrziere de aproape trei ani Guvernul Romniei a trimis o notificare Comisiei UE. Ateptam o soluie suntem ncreztori ntr-o realizare rapid att n favoarea energiei rege-nerabile, ct i pentru urmtoarele oportuniti de business.

represent growth markets. The export quota of Austrian environmental technology companies stands at approximately 65%.

Many of Austrias most successful companies in the fields of renewable energy and environmental technology are already active on the Romanian market, amongst them Austrias largest construction companies Strabag, Alpine and Porr. Also OMV/Petrom started its first large scale renewable energy project with the development of a wind farm with a capacity of 54 MW in the Dobrogea area planned date of commercial operation is 2011. Romania has a vast potential of renewable energy production but this far the execution of the legal framework is lagging behind. This is a serious issue for energy producers as the compensation with green certificates is not entirely put into practice. We have voiced this problem many times, with a delay of almost three years the Romanian government has now handed in the notification of the law to the EU Commission. A solution is expected we are confident for a fast realization for the sake of renewable energy production as well as for future business opportunities.

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Lista Abrevierilor ATR Avizul Tehnic de Racordare AEEE Asociaia European a Energiei Eoliene AREE Asociaia Romn pentru Energie Eolian ANRE Autoritatea Naional de Reglementare n domeniul Energiei BCR Banca Comercial Romn BEI Banca European de Investiii BERD Banca Romn de Reconstrucie i Dezvoltare CAE Contracte de Achiziie a Energiei CC Codul Civil din 1864 CE Comisia European CFR Codul Fiscal Romn CGEE Consiliul Global al Energiei Eoliene CV Certificate verzi EAFRD Fondul European Agricol pentru Dezvoltare Rural EIA Evaluarea impactului asupra mediului ERDF Fondul de Dezvoltare Regional European E-SRE Energia din resurse regenerabile EUR Euro FACC Catalog de Clasificare a Activelor Fixe GW Gigawatt HG Hotrre de Guvern Legea Energiei Legea nr. 13/2007 M - Metru m/s Metri/secund MW Megawatt MWh Megawatt or NCC Noul Cod Civil al Romniei OCDE Organizaia pentru Cooperare i Dezvoltare Economic ONG Asociaie Non-Guvernamental OPCOM SA Operatorul pieei de energie electric din Romnia OTS Transelectrica SA, operatorul de transport i de sistem PIE Productorii Independeni de Energie pSCI Poteniale Situri de Importan Comunitar PSHPP Pump Storage Hydropower Plant PUD Plan Urbanistic de Detaliu PUG Plan Urbanistic General PUZ Plan Urbanistic Zonal PZU Piaa pentru ziua urmtoare ROE Rentabilitatea Capitalului Propriu RON - Lei romneti SEA Evaluare Strategic de Mediu SPA Arii de Protecie Special Avifaunistice TVA Taxa pe valoarea adugat TWh Tera-watt or UCL Unicredit Leasing Corporation UE Uniunea European

List of Acronyms ATR Technical Connection Permit EWEA European Wind Energy Association RWEA Romanian Wind Energy Association ANRE Romanian Energy Regulatory Authority BCR Romanian Commercial Bank EIB European Investment Bank EBRD European Bank for Reconstruction and Development PPA Power Purchase Agreements ACC Civil Code of 1864 EC European Commission RTC Romanian Tax Code GWEC Global Wind Energy Council GC Green certificates EAFRD the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development EIA Environmental Impact Assessment ERDF The European Regional Development Fund E-RES Energy from renewable sources EUR Euro FACC Fixed Assets Classification Catalogue GW Gigawatt GD Governmental Decision Energy Law Law no. 13/2007 M - Meter m/s Meters/second MW Megawatt MWh Megawatt hour NCC Romanias New Civil Code OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ONG Non-governmental Organization OPCOM SA Romanian power market operator TSO Transelectrica SA, transport and system operator IPP Independent Power Producers pSCI Potential Areas of Significance for the Community PSHPP Pump Storage Hydropower Plant PUD Detailed Urban Plan PUG General Urban Plan PUZ Plan for Urban Zoning DAM Day-ahead market ROE Return on Equity RON - Romanian Lei SEA Strategic Environmental Assessment SPA Special Protection Areas VAT Value added tax TWh - Tera-watt hour UCL Unicredit Leasing Corporation EU European Union

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Energia eolian n Romnia | Wind energy in Romania

TPA Horwath este o firm internaional de consultan, contabilitate i audit. Am nfiinat birourile din Romnia n 1998, devenind astzi una dintre cele mai importante companii din Romnia n domeniul nostru de activitate. Serviciile oferite de ctre o echip tnr i dinamic de 70 de consultani, includ contabilitate, servicii privind resurse umane i salarizare, raportare IFRS, audit financiar, consultan fiscal i financiar, consultan juridic, cu sediul n Bucureti, acoperim toate regiunile Romniei. TPA Horwath Romnia ofer o abordare integrat a nevoilor investitorilor strini, specific mediului de afaceri din Romnia, pentru o mai bun calitate a asistenei administrativ-contabile, dar i pentru o practic multidisciplinar de calitate, n scopul optimizrii accesului investitorilor strini pe piaa romneasc. Grupul TPA Horwath, cu sediul central la Viena n Austria, este un grup ce si desfoar activitatea de la nivel local la nivel global. Cele 11 birouri regionale din Austria sunt completate de 9 birouri naionale din rile Europei Centrale i de Est: Bulgaria, Croaia, Republica Ceh, Ungaria, Polonia, Serbia, Slovacia, Slovenia i Romnia. Aceast reea regional ne permite s servim clienii n funcie de expansiunea afacerilor lor i de interesele lor regionale i globale. Avem mai mult de 950 de angajai specializai n 10 ri CEE i suntem astfel una din companiile de top din regiune n domeniile noastre. n plus, grupul TPA Horwath este membru al reelei de firme de specialitate independente Crowe Horwath International. La nivel mondial, Crowe Horwath International este clasat n Topul primelor 10 reele de contabilitate i audit, nsumnd peste 140 de firme, 640 de birouri regionale, 28.000 de angajai profesioniti, prezent n peste 100 de ri din toat lumea. TPA Horwath is an international consultancy, accounting and audit firm. We established our offices in Romania in 1998 and have since become one of the leading companies in the country in our field of activity. Our core services include accounting, payroll, IFRS reporting, auditing, financial and tax consulting, legal consulting, all of which are provided by a young and dynamic team of over 70 specialized consultants. The Romanian office of TPA Horwath was set up to offer an integrated solution that meets the needs of foreign investors in Romania in terms of higher quality administrative and accountancy assistance, and a quality multidisciplinary practice that optimizes foreign investors access to the Romanian market. The TPA Horwath Group, which is based in Vienna, Austria, acts both locally and globally. Its 11 offices in Austria are complemented by 9 other country offices in the CEE region: Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Romania. TPAs CEE regional network enables it to assist its clients with their expansion plans and to meet their regional and global needs. With over 950 professionals in 10 countries, it is one of the leading advisory groups in the region. TPA Horwath is also a member of the Crowe Horwath International network. Crowe Horwath International ranks among the top 10 global accounting networks thanks to its over 140 independent accounting and advisory service firms and nearly 640 offices and over 28,000 professionals and staff in more than 100 countries around the world.
Fondat n 1950 n Viena, Schoenherr a devenit una dintre cele mai importante case de avocatur din Austria i Europa Central i de Est i este una dintre puinele case de avocatur din Europa care a dezvoltat o reea de birouri n Europa Central i de Est. Astzi, jumtate din cei 310 avocai ai Schoenherr lucreaz n birourile din afara Austriei. Schoenherr a debutat n Bucureti (actualmente Schoenherr i Asociaii SCA) n 1996, fiind la acea vreme una dintre primele case de avocatur care a implementat n Romnia standarde calitative occidentale de consultan juridic. De-a lungul anilor, Schoenherr i Asociaii SCA a fost implicat n numeroase proiecte de anvergur i a acordat asisten n probleme de natur juridic din cele mai variate. Se impune a fi menionate achiziiile unor mari companii din industria grea sau industria alimentar, precum i proiecte de anvergur n domeniul consultanei juridice i al litigiilor n dezvoltarea unor importante reele de staii de distribuie de carburani ori de supermarketuri de ctre corporaii multinaionale. Schoenherr este una din primele 10 case de avocatur de afaceri din Romania (conform Ziarului Financiar/martie 2011).

Schoenherr was founded in 1950 in Vienna and has grown to become a leading corporate law firm in Austria and Central and Eastern Europe. Operating through offices in Belgrade, Bratislava, Brussels, Bucharest, Budapest, Kyiv, Ljubljana, Prague, Sofia, Vienna, Warsaw and Zagreb (cooperation office), Schoenherr is a truly European firm. Today, about half of the firms 310 lawyers are based in offices outside Austria. In Romania, Schoenherr started its operations in 1996, being at the time among the first law firms offering legal services at Western quality standards. Throughout the years, Schoenherr i Asociaii has been involved in projects of the biggest magnitude and offered legal solutions to problems of the most diverse types. The firm assisted the acquisitions of important companies in the heavy industry or food and beverage. Also, its team of lawyers advised multinational corporations on the development of supermarket chains or fuel distribution stations. Today, Schoenherr is among the top 10 law firms in Romania (according to Ziarul Financiar business newspaper, March 2011). Asociaia Romn pentru Energie Eolian este o organizaie non-guvernamental ce sprijin i promoveaz

dezvoltarea energiei eoliene. Scopul su este acela de a crea condiii favorabile pentru investiiile n doneniul energiei eoliene din Romnia i pentru extinderea durabilitii n ceea ce privete utilizarea energiei eoliene ca surs regenerabil a electricitii. Bazele Asociaiei au fost puse de un grup de persoane interesate de implementarea tehnologiei eoliene n Romnia i este una dintre cele mai eficiente organizaii cu putere de influen asupra conturrii unui cadru legislativ adecvat pentru a permite dezvoltarea i exploatarea surselor de energie regenerabil din Romnia, n special a energiei eoliene. Printre cei 92 de membrii ai Asociaiei, se numr companii de top active pe piaa romneasc a energiei eoliene: investitori, dezvoltatori, productori de turbine i componente, att din Romnia ct i din strintate.

The Romanian Wind Energy Association is a non-governmental organization supporting and promoting wind

power development. Its aim is to create favorable conditions for investing in wind power in Romania and for sustainable increase in use of wind energy as clean source for generation of electricity. The Association has been established by a group of people interested in implementation of wind power technologies in Romania. It is one of the most effective organizations lobbying for creation of a suitable legal framework allowing for development and operation of renewable energy sources in Romania, in particular of wind power. Among 92 members of the Association there are leading companies active on the wind power market in Romania: investors, developers, turbine and components manufacturers, both from Romania and abroad.

Contact:

Cristina Petrescu
Partner Tel: +40 /21/ 310 06 69 E-mail: cristina.petrescu@tpa-horwath.ro www.tpa-horwath.ro

Klaus Krammer
Head of Austrian & German Desk Austrian certified tax accountant (Steuerberater) Tel: +40 /21/ 310 06 69 E-mail: klaus.krammer@tpa-horwath.ro www.tpa-horwath.ro

Claudia Stanciu-Stnciulescu
Partner Tel: +40 /21/ 310 06 69 E-mail: claudia.stanciu@tpa-horwath.ro www.tpa-horwath.ro

Monica Cojocaru
Senior Associate Tel: + 40 21 319 67 90 E-mail: m.cojocaru@schoenherr.eu www.schoenherr.eu

Simona Chirica, PhD


Senior Associate Tel: + 40 21 319 67 90 E-mail: s.chirica@schoenherr.eu www.schoenherr.eu

Anca Velicu
Associate Tel: + 40 21 319 67 90 E-mail: a.velicu@schoenherr.eu www.schoenherr.eu