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Liceul Tehnologic Aurel Persu Trgu Mure

Prof. Soan Ioan-Ciprian


LIMITE REMARCABILE
1.

lim
x0

sin x
=1
x

lim
x a

Ex.1. Calculai limita:

sin u(x)
= 1,dac
u(x)

x 0

x a

sin 3 x
.
x

lim
x 0

lim

lim u(x) = 0

sin 3x
sin 3 x
sin 3 x
= lim 3
= 3 lim
= 3 1
3x
3x
x
x 0
x 0

Ex.2. Calculai limita:

sin 2 x

lim sin 3x .
x 0

sin 2 x
sin 2 x 2 x 3 x
sin 2 x
2
3x
= lim

= lim
lim lim
=
lim
2 x 3 x sin 3 x
2x
x 0 sin 3 x
x 0
x 0
x 0 3
x 0 sin 3 x
2
1
2 1 2
= 1 lim
= 1 =
3 x0 sin 3 x
3 1 3
3x
sin (x 1)
Ex.3. Calculai limita: lim 2
.
x 1
x 1
Facem substituia y = x 1
Observm c dac x 1 atunci y 0
x 2 1 = (x 1) ( x + 1) = y ( y + 2 )
Rescriem limita dat innd cont de substituie:
sin ( x 1)
sin y
sin y
1
1
= lim
= lim
lim
= 1
lim
2
y
(
y
2
)
y
y
2
2

+
+
x 1
x 1
y 0
y 0
y 0

2.

lim

tgx
=1
x

lim

arcsin x
=1
x

lim

arctgx
=1
x

x 0

3.

x 0

4.

x 0

lim
x a

tgu(x)
= 1,dac
u(x)

lim
x a

lim
x a

Ex1. S se calculeze limita:

lim u(x) = 0
xa

arcsin u(x)
= 1,dac
u(x)

arctgu(x)
= 1,dac
u(x)

lim
x 0

lim u(x) = 0
x a

lim u(x) = 0
xa

tg 3 x
x

Liceul Tehnologic Aurel Persu Trgu Mure


Prof. Soan Ioan-Ciprian

lim
x 0

tg 3 x
tg 3 x
3 tg 3 x
= lim
= lim 3 lim
= 3 1
x
x
3x
x 0 3
x 0
x 0

Ex2. S se calculeze limita:

lim
x 1

tg ( x 1)
x2 1

Facem substituia y = x 1
Observm c dac x 1 atunci y 0
x 2 1 = (x 1) ( x + 1) = y ( y + 2 )
Rescriem limita dat innd cont de substituie:
tg ( x 1)
tgy
tgy
1
1 1
= lim
= lim
lim
= 1 =
lim
2
y y 0 y + 2
2 2
x 1
x 1
y 0 y ( y + 2)
y 0

Ex3. S se calculeze limita:

lim
x 2

arcsin ( x 2 )
x2 4

Facem substituia y = x 2
Observm c dac x 2 atunci y 0
x 2 4 = (x 2 ) ( x + 2 ) = y ( y + 4 )
Rescriem limita dat innd cont de substituie:
arcsin( x 2 )
arcsin y
arcsin y
1
1 1
= lim
= lim
lim
= 1 =
lim
2
x 4
y
4 4
x 2
y 0 y ( y + 4 )
y 0
y 0 y + 4
x

1
5. lim 1 + = e (Cazul 1 )
x
x
1
atunci pentru x , t 0 .
x
Atunci limita se mai scrie:

Obs. Dac punem t =

lim (1 + t )t

=e

t 0

Mai general, avem limitele:

1
1 +

lim
u ( x )
x a
sau

u(x)

lim (1 + u (x ))u ( x )
1

x a

=e

dac

lim u(x ) =
x a

=e

dac

lim u(x ) = 0
x a

Ex1. S se calculeze limita: lim 1 +


3x
x

3x
x
x
3x
3 x lim
1

1
1 3x
1 3x
1 x 3 x

3
1
+
=
1
+
=
1
+
=
1
+
=
e
=3 e.

lim
lim
lim
lim
3
x
3
x
3
x
3
x
x

x

x

Liceul Tehnologic Aurel Persu Trgu Mure


Prof. Soan Ioan-Ciprian

Ex2. S se calculeze limita: lim 1 +

x +1
x

3x

3x

x +1 x +1
x +1 lim x +1

x
3
3
3
3
3

1
+
=
1
+
=
1
+
= e3 .


lim
lim
lim

x +1
x + 1
x +1
x
x
x

x 2 2x + 3
2

lim
x x 3 x + 2

Ex3. S se calculeze limita:

x +1

Rescriem fracia din limit:


x 2 2 x + 3 x 2 2 x x + x + 2 + 1 x 2 3x + 2 + x + 1
=
=
=
x 2 3x + 2
x 2 3x + 2
x 2 3x + 2
x 2 3x + 2
x +1
x +1
+ 2
= 1+ 2
2
x 3x + 2 x 3x + 2
x 3x + 2
Limita dat va fi:

x 2x + 3

2
3 x + 2

lim x
x

x +1

x +1

= lim 1 + 2

x 3x + 2
x

x +1
1 +

lim

x 2 3x + 2
x

6.

lim
x 0

ln (1 + x )
= 1;
x

x +1

= lim 1 + 2

x 3x + 2
x

x +1

x +1

3 x + 2
x +1

x 2 3 x + 2

( x +1)

x + 2 x +1

3 x + 2
x +1

lim
x a

Ex1. S se calculeze limita:

2
x x 3 x + 2
lim

= e1 = e.

ln (1 + u (x ))
=1= e
u(x )

lim
x 0

dac

lim u(x ) = 0.
xa

ln (1 + ex )
x

ln (1 + ex )
ln (1 + ex )
ln (1 + ex )
= lim e
= lim e lim
= e 1 = e.
lim
x
ex
ex
x 0
x 0
x 0
x 0
lg(1 + 10 x )
x
x 0
Transformm logaritmul zecimal n logaritm natural:

Ex2. S se calculeze limita:

lg(1 + 10 x ) =

ln (1 + 10 x )
ln 10

lim

formula de schimbare a bazei log aritmului : log a b =

log c b
log c a

Liceul Tehnologic Aurel Persu Trgu Mure


Prof. Soan Ioan-Ciprian
ln (1 + 10 x )
ln (1 + 10 x )
ln (1 + 10 x )
ln (1 + 10 x ) 10
lg(1 + 10 x )
= lim ln 10
= lim
= lim
= lim

=
lim
x
10
x
x
x ln 10
10 x
ln 10
x 0
x 0
x 0
x 0
x 0
ln 10
10
ln (1 + 10 x )
10
10
10
= lim
lim
= 1
=
.
10 x
ln 10 ln 10
x 0
x 0 ln 10

7.

a x 1
= ln a,
lim
x
x 0

a>0

a u (x ) 1
= ln a,
lim
u (x )
x 0
eu(x) 1
= 1,
lim
u (x )
x 0

a>0

a>0

ex 1
= 1;
lim
x
x 0
dac

lim u(x ) = 0.
xa

dac

lim u(x ) = 0.
xa

e 3x 1
lim
5x
x 0
3x
3x
3x
3
3 3
e 1
e 1
e 1 3
e 3x 1
=
=

=
lim = 1 = .
lim
lim
lim
lim
3
5x
3x 5
3x
5 5
x 0
x 0
x 0
x 0
x 0 5
5 x
3
e5x e 4x
Ex2. S se calculeze limita: lim 3 x
ex
x 0 e
x
e5x e 4x e 4x e x 1
2x 1
3x e 1
=
=
e

2x

3x
x
x
2x
x
e e
e e 1
e 1 2

Ex1. S se calculeze limita:

)
)

3x e x 1 2x 1
e e
ex 1
2x
1
3x

=
e

=
e

lim 2 x
lim =
lim
lim
lim
lim
3x
x
2x

x
x
e
e 1 2 x 0
1 x 0 2
x 0 e
x 0
x 0
x 0 e
5x

= e 0 1 1

4x

1 1
= .
2 2