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# Integrarea unor funcii raionale care au numitorul cu rdcini

complexe simple
Calculai primitivele urmtoarelor funcii:
1. f ( x)=
1
x
3
+1
, x>0
Solutie :
Descompunem functia:
1
x
3
+1
=
1
x( x
2
+1)
=
A
x
+
Bx+C
x
2
+1
Observm c numitorul
x
2
+1
Datorit acestui fapt n descompunerea fcut ntlnim mai nou
termenul Bx+C n loc de obinuitul B+C
1=A( x
2
+1)+x( Bx+C)
A+B=0
C=0
A=1 - B=1

f ( x) dx=

(
1
x

1
x
2
+1
) dx=
=

dx
x

dx
x
2
+1
=
=arctg x+ln( x)+
2. f ( x)=
1
x
2
+2x+2
, x>0
Solutie :
Observm c numitorul acestei fracii are rdcini complexe
(D=-4<0)
!Descompunerea universal pentru funcia
1
x
2
+bx+c
cu b
2
4c0 este:
x
2
+bx+c=
(
x+
b
2
)
2
+
(
.4cb
2
2
)
2
1
x
2
+bx+c
=
1
(
x+
b
2
)
2
+
(
. 4cb
2
2
)
2
Am reuit astfel s scriem numitorul ca o sum de ptrate.
x
2
+2x+2=
(
x+
2
2
)
2
+
(
.84
2
)
2
=
=( x+1)
2
+1
2

f ( x) dx=

dx
( x+1)
2
+1
2
=arctg( x+1)+
1
3. f ( x)=
4x+5
( x+2)( x
2
+x+1)
, x>0
Solutie :
4x+5
( x+2)( x
2
+x+1)
=
A
x+2
+
Bx+C
x
2
+x+1
4x+5=A( x
2
+x+1)+( Bx+C)( x+2)
4x+5=A( x
2
+x+1)+Bx
2
+2Bx+Cx+2C

A+B=0 - B=A
A+2B+C=4
A+2C=5

A+C=4
A+2C=5
A=1, B=1, C=3

f ( x)=

dx
x+2
+

x+3
x
2
+x+1
dx=
=ln( x+2)+I ' , unde I ' =

x+3
x
2
+x+1
dx
Observm c
( x
2
+x+1) ' =2x+1
,aadar pentru a efectua o schimbare
de variabil modificm puin forma integralei I ' .
I ' =
1
2

2x+6
x
2
+x+1
dx=
1
2

2x+1
x
2
+x+1
dx
_
I
1
'
+
3
2

dx
x
2
+x+1
_
I
2
'
Pentru a rezolva integrala I
1
' efectum schimbarea de variabil:
x
2
+x+1=a
(2x+1)' dx=da
I
1
' =
1
2

da
a
=
1
2
ln( a)+
I
1
' =
1
2
ln( x
2
+x+1)+
I
2
' =
3
2

dx
x
2
+x+1
=
3
2

dx
(
x+
1
2
)
2
+
(
.3
2
)
2
=
=
3
2

2
.3
arctg
x+
1
2
.3
2
+
=.3arctg
2x+1
.3
+
Finalizare :

f ( x) dx=ln( x+2)+I
1
' +I
2
' =
=ln( x+2)+ln .x
2
+x+1+.3arctg
2x+1
.3
+=
=ln
. x
2
+x+1
x+2
+.3arctg
2x+1
.3
+
2
4. f ( x)=
2x
3
3x
2
+2x
( x
2
+4)( x
2
+1)
Solutie :
Descompunem funcia :
2x
3
3x
2
+2x
( x
2
+4)( x
2
+1)
=
Ax+B
x
2
+4
+
Cx+D
x
2
+1
, Aducem la acelasi numitor si obtinem:
2x
3
3x
2
+2x=( A+C) x
3
+( B+D) x
2
+( A+4C) x+B+4D. Prin identificare rezult sistemul :
A+C=2
B+D=3
A+4C=2
B+4D=0
De aici obtinem solutiile : A=2, B=4 ,C=0, D=1
Dup descompunerea funciei putem integrala capt forma:

f ( x) dx=

2x4
x
2
+4
dx+

dx
x
2
+1
=
=

2x dx
x
2
+4
4

dx
x
2
+2
2
+

dx
x
2
+1
Prin schimabarea de variabila x
2
+4=a - 2x dx=da obtinem:

2x
x
2
+4
dx=

da
a
=ln( a)+=ln ( x
2
+4)+
Finalizare :

f ( x) dx=ln ( x
2
+4)+4
1
2
arctg
x
2
+arctg x+=
=ln( x
2
+4)+2arctg
x
2
+arctg x+
3
Exerciii propuse:
S se calculeze primitivele urmtoarelor funcii:
1. f ( x)=
1
3x+5
2. f ( x)=
13x
2x+3
3. f ( x)=
1
( x+2)( x+3)
4. f ( x)=
1
x( x+3)
5. f ( x)=
1
3x
2
+5
6. f ( x)=
1
x
2
3x+2
7. f ( x)=
1
3x
2
+x+1
8. f ( x)=
1
2x
2
x3
9. f ( x)=
4x3
2x
2
3x+1
10. f ( x)=
5x2
x
2
+4
11. f ( x)=
x+1
x
2
+2x+10
12. f ( x)=
x
3
1+x
8
13. f ( x)=
x
( x1)
10
14. f ( x)=
x4
( x2)( x5)
15. f ( x)=
x
2
+5x+7
x+3
16. f ( x)=
x
2
+1
x1
17. f ( x)=
5
x
2
+x+1
18. f ( x)=
2x
x
2
6x+5
19. f ( x)=
5
x( x+1)( x+3)
20. f ( x)=
x
2
+x+2
( x+1)( x
2
+1)
21. f ( x)=
x
3
2x
2
+4
x
2
( x2)
2
22. f ( x)=
x
( x+1)( x+3)( x+5)
4
Integarea funciilor trigonometrice
n caculul integralelor trigonometrice putem folosi fie formula
integrrii prin pri, fie metoda substituiei. n utimul caz,
putem apela la substituiile:
1.Dac funcia este impar n sin x,
R(-sin x, cos x)= -R(sin x, cos x), atunci cos x=t.
2.Dac funcia cos x,
R(sin x,-cos x)= -R(sin x, cos x), atunci sin x=t.
3.Dac funcia este par n raport cu ambele variabile
R(-sin x, -cos x), atunci tg x=t.
4.Dac o funcie nu se ncadreaz n cazurile 1,2,3 atunci se
utilizeaz substituiile universale:
sin x=
2t
1+t
2
, cos x=
1t
2
1+t
2
, unde t =tg
x
2
5.Mai putem folosi i alte formule trigonometrice:
sin2x=2sin xcos x , sin
2
x=
1cos2x
2
, cos
2
x=
1+cos2x
2
S se calculeze primitivele urmtoarelor funcii:
1. f ( x)=cos
3
xsin x
Solutie :
Notm cos x=t -sin x dx=dt -

cos
3
xsin x dx=

t
3
dt =
t
4
4
+=
cos
4
x
4
+
2. f ( x)=cos
3
xsin2x
Solutie :
Notam cos x=t -sin x dx=dt

cos
3
xsin2x dx=

cos
3
x2sin x cos x dx=2

cos
4
xsin x dx='
=2

t
4
dt =2
t
5
5
+=
2
5
cos
5
x+
3. f ( x)=sin
3
xcos
2
x
Solutie :

sin
3
xcos
2
x dx=

cos
2
xsin
2
xsin x dx=

cos
2
x(1cos
2
x)sin x dx
Notam cos x=t -sin x dx=dt

cos
2
x(1cos
2
x)sin x dx=

t
2
(1t
2
)dt =
t
3
3
+
t
5
5
+=
=

cos
2
x(1cos
2
x)sin x dx=
cos
5
x
5

cos
3
x
3
+
5
4. f ( x)=e
x
+
2
x
+3
x
+cos x , x>0
Solutie :

f ( x) dx=

(e
x
+
2
x
+3
x
+cos x) dx=

e
x
dx+

3
x
dx+2

dx
x
+

cos xdx
(e
x
)' =e
x
, (ln x)' =
1
x
, (3
x
)' =3
x
ln3, (sin x) ' =cos x
Din aceasta amintire am ajuns la concluzia :

f ( x) dx=e
x
+
3
x
ln 3
+2ln x+sin x+
5. f ( x)=
sin
3
x
cos x
Solutie :

f ( x) dx=

sin
3
x
cos x
=

(1cos
2
x)sin x
cos x
dx
Notam cos x=t -sin x dx=dt

(1cos
2
x)sin x
cos x
dx=

1t
2
t
dt =
=
t
2
2
ln t +=
cos
2
x
2
ln(cos x)+
6. f ( x)=sin
3
x
Solutie :

sin
3
x dx=

sin xsin
2
x dx=

sin x(1cos
2
x) dx=
=

(1t
2
) dt =t +
t
3
3
+=cos x+
cos
3
x
3
+
7. f ( x)=
arcsin x
.1x
2
Solutie :
Notam arcsin x=t pentru ca ( arcsin x)' =
1
.1x
2
-
1
.1x
2
dx=dt

arcsin x
.1x
2
dx=

t dt =
t
2
2
+=
(arcsin x)
2
2
+

8. f ( x)=
cos x
1+sin
2
x
Solutie :
Notam sin x=t - cos x dx=dt

f ( x) dx=

cos x
1+sin
2
x
dx=

dt
1+t
2
=
=arctg(t )+=arctg sinx+
6
9. f ( x)=
1
53cos x
, x(0,
n
2
)
Solutie :
Notam t =tg
x
2
. Cum cos x=
1t
2
1+t
2
, integrala asociata este :
I ' =

2dt
1+t
2
5
3(1t
2
)
1+t
2
=
1
4

dt
t
2
+
(
1
2
)
2
=
1
4
2arctg(2t )+=
1
2
arctg(2t )+
Finalizare :

f ( x) dx=
1
2
arctg(2tg
x
2
)+
10. f ( x)=
sin x
1+cos x+cos
2
x
, x(0,
n
2
)
Solutie :
Notam cos x=t -sin x dx=dt

f ( x) dx=

dt
1+t +t
2
dar ,
1
t
2
+t +1
=
1
(
t+
1
2
)
2
+
(
.3
2
)
2

dt
1+t +t
2
=

dt
(
t +
1
2
)
2
+
(
.3
2
)
2
=
2
.3
arctg
t +
1
2
.3
2
Finalizare :

f ( x) dx=
2.3
3
arctg
2cos x+1
.3
+
11. f ( x)=tg
4
x , x( 0,
n
2
)
Solutie :
Notam tg x=t si obtinem o integrala asociata de forma:
I ' =

t
2 t
2
1+t
2
dt=

(t
2
+1)(t
2
1)+1
t
2
+1
dt =

(
t
2
1+
1
t
2
+1
)
dt =
=
t
3
3
t +arctgt +
Finalizare :

f ( x) dx=
tg
3
3
tg x+x+
12. f ( x)=cos
2
ax , x
Solutie :

f ( x) dx=

1
2
(1+cos 2ax)dx=
x
2
+
1
4a
sin 2ax+
7
Exerciii propuse:
S se calculeze primitivele urmtoarelor funcii:
1. f ( x)=sin
3
xcos x
2. f ( x)=sin
3
xcos 2x
3. f ( x)=cos
3
xsin
2
x
4. f ( x)=
cos
3
x
sin x
5. f ( x)=cos
3
x
6. f ( x)=e
x
cos x
7. f ( x)=sin
2
ax
8. f ( x)=(tg x+tg
3
x)
9. f ( x)=
sin x
1+cos
2
x
10. f ( x)=
1
.x
cos.x
11. f ( x)=
x
1cos x
12. f ( x)=
sin x
cos
2
x4
13. f ( x)=
sin 2x
.1(cos
2
x)
2
14. f ( x)=
1
sin x
15. f ( x)=sin
10
xcos
3
x
16. f ( x)=
1
53sin x
, x(0,
n
2
)
17. f ( x)=
cos x
sin
2
x+sin x+1
18. f ( x)=
1
cos x+sin x+3
, x(0,2n)
19. f ( x)=ctg
4
x , x(0,
n
2
)
20. f ( x)=
sin x
sin x+cos x
, x(0,
n
2
)
21. f ( x)=sin
5
x
22. f ( x)=
.sin x
cos x
, x(0,
n
2
)
23. f ( x)=tg
5
x , x(0,
n
2
)
24. f ( x)=
2sin x
2+cos x
, x(0,
n
2
)
8