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nva i folosete corect limba englez

Cuprins Prefa...................................................................................................................................... 4 PARTEA I................................................................................................................................ 6 MORFOLOGIA VERBUL - TIMPUL ................................................................................. 6 VERB - PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE..................................................................................... 6 VERB - PAST TENSE SIMPLE............................................................................................. 9 VERB - FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE..................................................................................... 11 VERB PRESENT PERFECT............................................................................................. 13 VERB PAST PERFECT SIMPLE...................................................................................... 16 PARTEA I.............................................................................................................................. 18 MORFOLOGIA VERBUL - ASPECTUL ..........................................................................18 VERB - PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS........................................................................18 VERB - PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS................................................................................19 VERB- FUTURE CONTINUOUS ........................................................................................ 21 VERB PRESENT PERFECT COTINUOUS ..................................................................... 22 VERB PAST PERFECT COTINUOUS ............................................................................. 24 VERB - FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS .................................................................... 25 PERSOANA I NUMRUL................................................................................................. 29 ARTICOLUL I ALI DETERMINANI ........................................................................... 45 COMPLEMENTELE CIRCUMSTANIALE DE LOC, TIMP, MOD ............................... 67 TEST FINAL......................................................................................................................... 70 Cheia exerciiilor....................................................................................................................76 TIMPURILE LIMBII ENGLEZE - fi exemplu ..................................................................91 Verbul TO WORK -model..................................................................................................... 93 Bibliografie:........................................................................................................................... 94

Prefa

Gramatica de fa i propune s ofere mai mult dect un simplu set de reguli gramaticale
ale limbii engleze, iar prin metoda original de prezentare s ajute n crearea unui sentiment de siguran n ceea ce privete corectitudinea gramatical n exprimare. Numai n acest fel adulii pot scpa de un sentiment de inhibiie cu care au rmas, probabil din coal. Realitatea, situaiile reale de exprimare de la care se pornete confer originalitate. Se continu cu exemple, modele i explicaii gramaticale menite s conduc la stpnirea unui aspect gramatical al limbii engleze. Atenie! Nimic nu se pierde! Fiecare aspect gramatical este nsoit de cel puin un exerciiu astfel nct punerea n practic s conduc la o finalitate pe termen lung a stpnirii acelui aspect gramatical. Cel care studiaz are de asemenea cheia exerciiului la sfrit. Multitudinea de exerciii comparative variate sunt menite s sprijine nelegerea elementelor teoretice prin aplicaii practice. Citind aceast lucrare, vei fi confruntat cu probleme de gramatic i de vocabular, vei descoperi n ce msur putei formula idei, v putei exprima corect i coerent n limba englez i vei afla care sunt aspectele care v creeaz dificulti. Modelul v va nsoi la tot pasul. La sfritul crii avei un model de verb conjugat la timpurile modului indicativ. De asemenea avei i o fi cu regulile de formare a timpurilor, la afirmativ, negativ i interogativ. Autenticitatea exerciiilor propuse ofer o structurare a cunotinelor n seturi grupate pe probleme gramaticale. Scurte prezentri teoretice i o serie de exemple nsoesc aceste seturi de exerciii. Acestea vin s ilustreze tiparele structurale de baz ale limbii engleze. Deoarece va trebui s folosii din cnd n cnd dicionarul, vei avea ocazia s v mbogiti substanial cunotinele de vocabular. Timpul pe care suntei dispus s l alocai este bine distribuit pe probleme gramaticale. Nu v ia mai mult de 10 minute s parcurgei un aspect gramatical. Intuiia dumneavostr va funciona foarte bine n stpnirea corect a gramaticii. v va fi rspltit printr-un rezultat excelent la testul final propus la sfritul crii care ofer 150 ntrebri asupra cunotinelor de gramatic i de vocabular. Rezolvarea testului v va da cu siguran o imagine satisfctoare asupra stadiului la care ai ajuns n nsuirea limbii engleze. Atingerea obiectivului dumneavoastr este scopul principal al acestei cri care v pune la dispoziie ntr-o form concis i accesibil, informaiile necesare pentru a putea folosi limba englez corect din punct de vedere gramatical i pentru a asigura acurateea i nuanarea att de necesare n comunicare prin intermediul oricrei limbi.

Contiinciozitatea

INTRODUCERE

M numesc Gramatica limbii engleze i scopul meu principal este s v informez asupra regulilor referitoare la forma cuvintelor. Am dou fiice: Morfologia i Sintaxa. O s facei cunotin mai ales cu prima dintre ele. Ea este deosebit de important deoarece primul lucru care se nva n gramatica unei limbi strine este cum se formeaz categoriile gramaticale de baz: timpurile verbului, pluralul substantivelor, comparaia adjectivelor, pronumele, numeralul, etc. Morfologia cuprinde regulile privitoare la forma cuvintelor i la modificrile formale ale cuvintelor studiate pe pri de vorbire; sintaxa cuprinde regulile privitoare la mbinarea cuvintelor n propoziii i fraze.

PARTEA I

MORFOLOGIA VERBUL - TIMPUL

VERB - PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE VERBUL TIMPUL PREZENT SIMPLU


CITII TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT : I live with my husband and my children at the countryside. I am a doctor. I usually go to work in the morning. I have many friends in the village. My friend, Louise, she is a teacher. She goes to school in the afternoon, every day of the week: on Monday, on Tuesday, on Wednesday, on Thursday and on Friday. She does not go to school in the week end. She teaches English. My father, my mother, my brother and my sister live here, too. They are farmers. I like/enjoy living in nature. Haidei s observm cteva din cuvintele din text, apoi vom analiza verbele. Lets have a look at some words from the text, then we will see the verbs. a. Pronumele: (Pronouns) Cuvintele: I, she, they sunt pronume personale. Iat pronumele personale ale limbii engleze: I eu You tu He el She ea It el/ea (pentru obiecte, animale) We noi You voi They ei, ele b. Zilele sptmnii (Days of the week): Monday - Luni Tuesday - Mari Wednesday - Miercuri Thursday - Joi Friday - Vineri Saturday - Smbt Sunday Duminic

c. Momente ale zilei (Moments of the day) - In the morning dimineaa - In the afternoon dup-amiaza - In the evening seara d. Membrii familiei (Family members) father /dad / daddy tat mother / mum / mummy / mom - mam parent / parents printe, prini child / children copil, copii son - fiu daughter- fiic brother - frate sister - sor grandfather / granddad / grandpa - bunic grandmother / grandma / granny - bunic grandson - nepot granddaughter - nepoat uncle- unchi aunt - mtu cousin verior, verioar nephew - nepot niece - nepoat e. Verbele la Prezent Simplu (Verbs at Present Tense Simple) : I live, I am , I go, I have, she is, She goes, She does not go, She teaches , They live, They are, I like I live with my husband and my children at the countryside. Locuiesc cu soul i copiii mei la ar. I am a doctor.- Sunt doctor. I usually go to work in the morning. - Eu merg de obicei la lucru dimineaa. I have many friends in the village. - Am muli prieteni n sat. My friend, Louise, she is a teacher. - Prietena mea, Louise, este profesor. She goes to school in the afternoon, every day of the week: on Monday, on Tuesday, on Wednesday, on Thursday and on Friday.- Ea merge la coal dup-amiaza, n fiecare zi a sptmnii: luni, mari, miercuri, joi i vineri. She does not go to school in the week end. - Ea nu merge la coal n week-end. She teaches English. - Ea pred limba englez. My father, my mother, my brother and my sister live here, too.-Tatl meu, mama mea, fratele meu i sora mea locuiesc aici, de asemenea. They are farmers. - Ei sunt fermieri (agricultori). I like/enjoy living in nature. - mi place s triesc n natur. Verbele accentuate sunt la Present Tense Simple. Folosim acest timp verbal pentru a exprima: O aciune general, repetabil: - exemplu: I read daily. Citesc zilnic. Adevruri general valabile: The Earth spins round. Pmntul se nvrte. 8

O aciune regulat, obinuit, n perioada prezent. What do you do? (Cu ce te ocupi?) I am a student. Sunt elev. What time do you usually have breakfast? - La ce or iei de obicei micul dejun? Aciuni viitoare planificate n prezent ca urmare a unui program oficial. The plane takes off at 7:35.- Avionul decoleaz /va decola la ora 7:35. Conjugarea unui verb la Present Tense Simple: To work = a lucra, a munci Afirmativ I work You work He/she/it works We work You work They work Negativ I do not (dont) work You do not (dont) work He/she/it does not (doesnt) work We do not (dont) work You do not (dont) work They do not (dont) work Interogativ Do I work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do we work? Do you work? Do they work? Cu Present Simple Tense folosim adverbe cum ar fi: always, often, sometimes, usually, seldom, on Saturdays, rarely, never, every day, etc. Examples: 1. Philip gets up at 6 o'clock every morning .(n fiecare diminea) 2. I go to school every day. (n fiecare zi) 3. She sometimes goes out on Friday night (vineri noaptea). 4. I usually sleep late on Sunday morning.(de obicei) 5. Peter works for 8 hours every day. (n fiecare zi) 6. My children often watch TV in the afternoon. (adesea, des) 7. He always forgets his keys. (ntotdeauna) Exerciii Practice Situation: My friend and I dont do things in the same way: Example: Affirmative get up early/late I get up early, but my friend gets up late 9

Interrogative get up early/late Do you get up early? Does he get up late? Negative get up early/late I dont get up early. My friend doesnt get up late 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. leave home at 12 oclock/1 oclock go to work by car/by train speak English well/badly get home at six/seven have two kids/three

ACUM LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!

VERB - PAST TENSE SIMPLE TIMPUL TRECUT SIMPLU


CITII TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT : Last year I lived with my husband and my children at the countryside. I was a doctor. I used to go to work in the morning. I had many friends in the village. My friend, Louise, she was a good teacher in the village. She went to school in the afternoon every week day. She did not go to school in the week end. She taught English. My father, my mother, my brother and my sister lived here, too. They were farmers. I liked /enjoyed living in nature. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul trecut simplu: I lived - am locuit I was eram/am fost I used to go obinuiam s m duc/m duceam I had am avut She was a fost She went se ducea/mergea She did not go ea nu mergea She taught - a predat They lived - au locuit They were - au fost/erau I liked mi-a plcut Verbele la Past Tense Simple arat o aciune trecut, terminat, efectuat ntr-o perioad de timp trecut, terminat. Este timpul naraiunii. Se traduce, de obicei, cu perfectul compus din limba romn. Ex. Yesterday I went for a walk. - Ieri am mers la plimbare. Last year I traveled to England. Anul trecut am cltorit n Anglia. 10 10

To work (a lucra, a munci) la Past Tense Simple Afirmativ I/you/he/she/it/we/they worked Negativ I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not work Interogativ Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they work? Forma prescurtat a lui did not este didnt (I didnt work). Verbele limbii engleze pot fi regulate sau neregulate. Past Tense Simple se formeaz prin adugarea terminaiei ed n cazul verbelor regulate. Ex. to work worked Dac verbul este neregulat, Past Tense trebuie nvat din tabelul de verbe neregulate care indic cele trei forme de baza ale verbului: forma I infinitiv, forma II- Paste Tense, forma III participiul trecut. Ex. to speak spoke spoken Iat o list cu formele de Past Tense pentru verbe regulate i neregulate: Verbe regulate: I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they

+ verb

+-ed

Atenie le pronunie! Pay attention to the pronounciation! {t} a) wash washed washed (a se spla) cook cooked cooked (a gti) {d} b) play played played (a se juca) listen listened listened (a asculta) {id} b) need needed needed (a avea nevoie) skate skated - skated (a patina) Verbe neregulate: a) {e} met left said read sent spent {e} met (a ntlni) left (a pleca) said (a spune) read (a citi) sent (a trimite) spent (a petrece) 11 11 b) {} had sat {} had (a avea) sat (a sta jos)

meet leave say read send spend

have sit

c) {} wrote spoke broke

write speak break d)

written (a scrie) spoken (a vorbi) broken (a sparge)

f) do go eat forget g) get get up find h) got got up found got (a obine, a primi) got up (a se trezi) found (a gsi) did went ate forgot done (a face) gone (a merge) eaten (a mnca) forgotten(a uita)

run begin drink sing swim e)

{} ran began drank sang swam

{} run (a alerga) begun (a ncepe) drunk (a bea) sung (a cnta) swum (a nota)

be see

was/were saw

{i:n} been (a fi) seen (a vedea)

make lay come give

{ei} made laid came gave

made (a face) laid (a pune) come (a veni) given (a da)

Examples: Last year I bought a car and went to Boston. I spent my holiday there. Cele mai folosite adverbe pentru Past Tense Simple sunt: yesterday, last (month, year,) ago, (two days ago, 2 months ago, two years ago), on...., in....(on Monday, in 1987 ) Examples: I saw a movie yesterday. Am vzut un film ieri. I didn't see the play last year. Nu am vzut piesa anul trecut. I traveled to Japan two years ago. Am cltorit n Japonia acum doi ani. He went on holiday in August. A mers n vacan n august. Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! Situation: Daniel went on holiday in July (last month). Tell how he spent his holiday (Use Past Tense Simple). Example: Daniel (go) on holiday in July. Daniel went on holiday in July. 1. He (spend) three days in the Danube Delta last month. 2. Daniel (get up) early in the morning and (do) morning exercises. 12 12

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Then he (wash) and (eat/have) breakfast with his parents. After that he (go fishing) with his friends Irina and Larry. He (swim) in the Danube in the evening. The weather (be) fine all the time. Daniel (make) a lot of friends there. He (come back) home in September to go to school.

Put the sentences into the negative and interrogative forms. Examples: Negative form: Daniel (go) on holiday in July. Daniel did not go on holiday in July. Interrogative form: Daniel (go) on holiday in July. Did Daniel go on holiday in July?

VERB - FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE VERBUL TIMPUL VIITOR SIMPLU


CITII TEXTUL DE MAI JOS: READ THE TEXT: Next year I will live with my husband and my children at the countryside. I will be a doctor. I will go to work in the morning. I will have many friends in the village. My friend, Louise, she will be a teacher in the village. She will go to school in the afternoon every week day. She will not go to school in the week end. She will teach English. My father, my mother, my brother and my sister will live there, too. They will be farmers. I will enjoy living in nature. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul viitor simplu: I will live eu voi locui I will be eu voi fi I will go eu voi merge I will have eu voi avea She will be ea va fi She will go ea va merge She will not go ea nu va merge She will teach ea va preda They will live ei vor locui They will be ei vor fi I will enjoy - mi va face plcere

13 13

Future Tense Simple ( Viitorul simplu ) exprim un eveniment, o aciune care are loc ntr-un moment viitor, apropiat de momentul vorbirii. Example: I will visit him tomorrow. - O s-l vizitez mine. (l voi vizita mine.) We shall overcome . - Vom nvinge. n engleza modern forma shall este foarte puin utilizat. Cea mai des folosit n Engleza vorbit i scris este forma prescurtat 'll. I'll go to the seaside next week. - Sptmna viitoare voi pleca la mare. You'll spend the holiday in the mountains. - Voi vei petrece vacana la munte. Forma negativ se formeaz cu will not sau forma won't n faa verbului principal la prezent. I will not (won't) drink wine. - Nu voi bea vin. She will not (won't) play football. - Ea nu va juca fotbal. Forma interogativ se formeaz prin inversiunea dintre auxiliarul will i subiect. Will you work here? - Vei lucra aici? Will she sing beautifully? - Va cnta ea frumos? To work ( a lucra, a munci) la Future Tense Simple: Afirmativ I/you/he/she/it/we/they will work Negativ I/you/he/she/it/we/they will not work Interogativ Will I/you/he/she/it/we/they work? Adverbele cele mai utilizate pentru a exprima o aciune viitoare cu Future Tense Simple sunt: tomorrow, next (month, year) I'll finish this report tomorrow. - Voi termina acest raport mine. Will he come next week? - Va veni el sptmna viitoare? Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! Situation 1: Grandpa does not hear very well what Daniel is saying. Complete his questions and Daniels answers. Example: Daniel: Ill go to the Physics lab tomorrow. Grandpa: Where will you go tomorow? Daniel: To the Physics lab grandpa! Daniel: 1. Ill work in the lab tomorrow. 2. Ill do an interesting experiment tomorrow. 3. Ill obtain hydrogen in the Chemistry lesson. 14 14 Grandpa: Where.........? What.........? What .........?

4. Ill learn interesting things next week. 5. Ill study hydrogen next week. 6. Ill ask the teacher a lot of questions.

When .........? What .........? Who .........?

Situation 2. Daniel contradicts everything Irina says about her friend Larry. Example: Irina: Larry will go fishing tomorrow Daniel: Larry wont go fishing tomrrow. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Larry will read his lesson later. Larry will go to the cinema next Sunday. Hell go shopping tomorrow morning. Hell help you tomorrow evening. Hell have an experiment in the chemistry lab next week. Hell wash the car on Sunday morning. Hell buy a new car next year. Hell take a new project next month.

VERB PRESENT PERFECT


CITII TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I have lived with my husband and my children at the countryside for a long time. I have been a doctor. I have gone to work in the morning. I have had many friends in the village. My friend, Louise, she has been a teacher in the village. She has gone to school in the afternoon every week day. She has not gone/hasnt gone to school in the week end. She has taught English. My father, my mother, my brother and my sister have lived there, too. They have been farmers. I have enjoyed living in nature. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Present Perfect: I have lived eu am locuit I have been eu am fost I have gone eu am mers I have had eu am avut She has been ea a fost She has gone ea a mers She has not gone/hasnt gone ea nu a mers She has taught ea a predat They have lived ei au locuit They have been ei au fost I have enjoyed mi-a plcut Present Perfect - exprim o stare care a nceput n trecut i care nc se continu. Weve been friends for a long time. - Suntem prieteni de mult timp. 15 15

- exprim o stare terminat n trecut, pentru care momentul cnd a avut loc nu prezint interes; accentul este pus pe experiena n sine trit prin aciunea respectiv Ive never been to China. - N-am fost niciodat n China. - exprim o aciune trecut al crei rezultat este vizibil n prezent Hes broken his arm. - i-a rupt braul. To work (a lucra, a munci) la Present Perfect Afirmativ I/you/we/they have worked he/she/it has worked Negativ I/you/we/they have not worked (havent worked) he/she/it has not worked (hasnt worked) Interogativ Have I/you/we/they worked? Has he/she/it worked? Expresii cu care se folosete adesea Prezentul Perfect Simplu: already, just, yet Exemple: 1. He has already finished his classes. - A terminat deja orele. 2. Tom has just spoken on the phone with Mary.-Tom tocmai a vorbit la telefon cu Maria. 3. They haven't written the exercise yet. Ei nu au scris exerciiul nc. never, ever, often Exemple: 1. I have never heard such a thing.- Nu am mai auzit niciodat un astfel de lucru. 2. Have you ever read this news? Ai citit vreodat tirea aceasta? 3. I have often traveled by car to the countryside. Am cltorit adesea cu maina la ar. ever and before Exemplu: Have you ever heard this song before? Ai mai auzit vreodat cntecul acesta? for and since Exemple: 1. I've had my own car for four years. Am avut propria mea main timp de patru ani. 2. She has been ill since yesterday. Este bolnav de ieri. until now, so far, up to now Exemple: 1. I haven't had any Math problems up to now. Nu am mai avut probleme la matematic pn acum. 2. So far, he hasn't complained about his wage. Pn acum nu s-a pl ns de salariul su. 3. Until now, I haven't heard about this English singer. Pn acum nu am auzit de acest cntre englez. Exerciii Practice 16 16

LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII!

I. Pune verbele din parantez la Prezentul Perfect Simplu, ca n exemplul de mai jos: Exemplu: Tom .......... (write) .......... his homework. Tom has just written his homework. 1. I .......... (fix) .......... my car. 2. Father .......... (leave) .......... home. 3. They .......... (arrive) .......... to the theatre. 4. We .......... (see) .......... our Math teacher. 5. He .......... (begin) .......... to cry. II. Completeaz urmtoarele propoziii ca n exemplul de mai jos, folosind timpul Prezent Perfect Simplu: Exemplu: This is the most beautiful girl I .......... (see) This is the most beautiful girl I have ever seen. 1. That is the most interesting movie he .......... (see) 2. This is the best book she .......... (read) 3. This is the biggest mall they .......... (visit) 4. These are the most attractive souvenirs they .......... (buy) 5. Those are the most wonderful monuments they .......... (see)

VERB PAST PERFECT SIMPLE


CITII TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I had lived with my husband and my children at the countryside for a long time before I moved in Piteti. I had been a doctor. I had gone to work in the morning. I had had many friends in the village. My friend, Louise, she had been a teacher in the village. She had gone to school in the afternoon every week day. She had not gone/hadnt gone to school in the week end. She had taught English. My father, my mother, my brother and my sister had lived there, too. They had been farmers. I had enjoyed living in nature. Now everything is over. I have moved in town. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Past Perfect, corespondentul timpului mai mult ca perfect din limba romn: I had lived eu locuisem I had been eu fusesem I had gone eu mersesem I had had eu avusesem She had been ea fusese She had gone ea mersese She had not gone/hadnt gone ea nu mersese 17 17

She has taught ea predase They had lived ei locuiser They had been ei fuseser I had enjoyed mi plcuse Past Perfect - exprim o aciune anterioar altei aciuni din trecut sau anterioar unui moment din trecut The little boy said that he had seen a fairy in the garden. Bieelul a spus c vzuse o zn n grdin. The little spoke as if he had seen a fairy. Bieelul vorbea de parc vzuse o zn. - exprim o dorin nerealizat I wish/ wished I hadn't missed the flight. mi doresc s nu fi pierdut avionul. - exprim o aciune anterioar unei aciuni Tom said that he would go to France after he had learned French a little bit.- Tom a spus c se va duce n Frana dup ce va fi nvat puin francez. Verbul to work (a lucra, a munci ) la Past Perfect: Afirmativ I/you he/she/it /we/you/they had worked Negativ I/you he/she/it /we/you/they hadnt worked Interogativ Had I/you/ he/she/it /we/you/they worked? Expresii cu care se folosete adesea Past Perfect Simplu: Before, never, ever You had studied English before you moved to New York. Studiasei engleza nainte s te mui n NY. I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Crete. Nu vzusem niciodat o plaj aa de frumoas pn nu am mers n Creta. Had Susan ever studied Chinese before she moved to China? Studiase Susan vreodat chineza pn s se mute n China? Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! Situation: Daniel and Irina spent their last summer holiday at the seaside. Irina went there for the first time, Daniel had been there before. Ask and answer questions about them: Example: be to the beach Had Daniel been to the beach before? Yes, he had. Had Irina been to the beach before? No, she hadnt. 18 18

1. 2. 3. 4.

see the Black Sea swim in the sea sunbathe on the beach go fishing in the sea

5. walk down the beach 6. stay at a hotel 7. make the tour of Constan a 8. visit Eforie Nord

19 19

PARTEA I

MORFOLOGIA VERBUL - ASPECTUL

VERB - PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS


CITII TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: In this moment I am living with my husband and my children at the countryside. My friend, Louise, she is at school now. She is teaching English. My father, my mother, my brother and my sister are in the field now. They are woking in this moment. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Present Continuous I am living eu locuiesc She is teaching - ea pred They are woking ei lucreaz Present Tense Continuous exprim o aciune desfurat ce are loc n momentul vorbirii. Example: I am writing now. I am studying English now- in this moment o aciune temporar ce are loc n prezent ca o excepie de la regul. Example: I usually wake up early but today I am waking up late. o aciune obinuit care enerveaz. Example: She is always telling lies. Verbul to work (a lucra, a munci) la Present Tense Continuous: Afirmativ I am working You/we/you/they are working he/she/it is working Negativ I am not working You/we/you/they are not working he/she/it is not working Interogativ Am I working? Are you/we/you/they working? Is he/she/it working? 20 20

Adverbele cele mai des utilizate cu prezentul continuu: now, in this moment, always, She is sending emails right now to all her friends. Ea trimite emailuri acum tuturor prietenilor si. We are not working in this moment, we are on strike. Nu lucrm n acest moment. Suntem n grev. She's always coming in when we talk something important. ntotdeauna trebuie s intre n camer fix cnd vorbim noi lucruri importante. Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII Situation: Today is Monday. All the employees are at work, in various rooms of the building. It is nine oclock in the morning. Say what they are doing at the moment. Example: Irina is in the directors office. (give information) She is giving information at this moment/now. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Larry is in his office (work) Daniel is in the secretariate (type a letter) Ioana is in the conference room (present a project) Maria is in the hall (speak on the phone) Matei is in the guests room (meet some clients)

VERB - PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS


CITII TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I was living with my husband and my children at the countryside while my father, my mother, my brother and my sister were living in town. I was going to work in the morning. I was having many friends in the village. My friend, Louise was going to school in the afternoon every week day but my sister was going in the afternoon. They were not going to school in the week end. Louise was teaching English while my sister was teaching History. Verbele accentuate sunt la t impul Past Tense Continuous (echivalentul imperfectului din limba romn): I was living eu locuiam They were living ei locuiau I was going eu mergeam I was having eu aveam 21 21

Louise was going Louise mergea My sister was going sora mea mergea They were not going ei nu mergeau Louise was teaching Louise preda My sister was teaching sora mea preda Past Tense Continuous se folose te pentru a exprima o aciune care se desfura ntr-un moment bine definit n trecut. While she was watching TV yesterday, her friend came to see her. Verbul to work (a lucra, a munci) la Past Tense Continuous: Afirmativ I was working You/we/you/they were working he/she/it was working Negativ I was not working You/we/you/they were not working he/she/it was not working Interogativ was I working? were you/we/you/they working? was he/she/it working? Adverbele cele mai des utilizate cu past continuous: At this time yesterday, this time last week,

Examples: At seven oclock yesterday morning, I was in the bathroom. I was washing my face. La ora apte ieri diminea, eram n baie, mi splam faa. This time last week you were reading the magazine. Pe vremea asta sptmna trecut tu citeai revista. Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! Situation: Yesterd ay afternoon all the employees were at work. Say what they were doing when Mr Smith, the boss, came in. Example: Larry and Irina/discuss about a marketing project Larry and Irina were discussing about a marketing project when Mr Smith came in. 22 22

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Daniel and John / work in the office Matei and Maria / speak on the phone Ioana /write a report Martha / water the flowers Victor / talk to his colleague Angela/open the windows Mark and Chris /look at some pictures Fiona/read the newspapers

VERB- FUTURE CONTINUOU S


CITII TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I will be living with my husband and my children at the countryside at this time next year when my father, my mother, my brother and my sister will be living in town. I will be working in the morning, my friend, Louise will be going to school in the afternoon every week day but my sister will be going in the evening. They will not be going to school in the week end. Louise will be teaching English while my sister will be teaching History. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Future Continuous: I will be living voi locui They will be living vor locui I will be working voi lucra Louise will be going Louise va merge They will not be going - ei nu vor merge Louise will be teaching Louise va preda My sister will be teaching sora mea va preda Verbul to work (a lucra, a munci) la Future Tense Continuous: Afirmativ I /we shall/will be working You he/she/it /they will be working Negativ I /we shall/will not be working You he/she/it /they will not be working Interogativ Shall/will I /we be working? Will you he/she/it /they be working? Future Tense Continuous exprim o aciune n desfurare ntr-un moment viitor, posterior momentului vorbirii. Exemplu: I shall/will be walking at two oclock tomorrow. at this time next week. 23 23

M voi plimba mine la ora dou. sptmna viitoare la ora asta. - exprim o aciune n desfurare ntrerupt de o aciune momentan. Exemplu: When he comes, I will be eating. Cnd va veni, eu voi fi n mijlocul mesei. - exprim o aciune n desfurare n viitor n paralel cu o alt aciune n desfurare, de asemenea n viitor. Exemplu: She will be walking while I am sleeping.- Ea se va plimba n timp ce eu voi dormi. Adverbele cele mai des utilizate cu Future Continuous: when, while, at his time next week, month, year, etc Examples: You will be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight. Tu o vei atepta cnd sosete avionul disear. I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight. Cnd ea va sosi disear, eu voi fi la televizor. Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! Punei verbele din parantez la Future Continuous. Example: Mark on the computer when his mother arrives home. (to play) Answer: Mark will be playing on the computer when his mother arrives home. 1) She him next week. (to meet) 2) We in Piteti just about now. (to arrive) 3) At 8 o'clock on Tuesday they the new song. (to sing) 4) He when you call her. (to sleep) 5) It when I reach Madrid. (to rain, probably) 6) Mary a video when I arrive tonight. (to watch) 7) You spaghetti soon. (to eat) 8) This time next week he to Africa. (to fly) 9) Mary to the party on Sunday. (to come) 10) Tomorrow at nine I a test paper. (to write)

VERB PRESENT PERFECT COTINUOUS


CITII TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I have been living with my husband and my children at the countryside for 5 years. I have been going to work in the morning but my friend, Louise, has been going to school in the afternoon every week day. She has been teaching English for 5 years at the same village school and she is 24 24

still enjoying this. My father, my mother, my brother and my sister have been living there, too. They are farmers. We like living in nature. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Present Perfect Continuous: I have been living eu locuiesc I have been going eu merg Louise has been going Louise merge She has been teaching ea pred They have been living ei locuiesc Present Perfect Continuous - exprim o aciune care s-a desfurat pn acum i va continua probabil i n viitor. I have been working in the garden all day long. Am muncit n grdin toat ziua. They have been playing tennis for half an hour Joac tenis de jumtate de or. - exprim o aciune repetat frecvent, ntr-o perioad de timp care se ntinde din trecut pn n prezent He has been writing poems since he was a child.- Scrie poezii de cnd era copil. - exprim o aciune trecut, ncheiat recent, care este cauza unui efect simit n prezent A: Why are your hands dirty? B: Ive been repairing my bike. To work (a lucra, a munci) la Present Perfect Continuous Afirmativ I/you/we/they have been working he/she/it has been working Negativ I/you/we/they have not been working (havent been working) he/she/it has not been working (hasnt been working) Interogativ Have I/you/we/they been working? Has he/she/it been working? Expresii cu care se folosete adesea Present Perfect Continuous: since Exemplu: You have been living in Paris since 1996. Locuieti n Paris din 1996. for Exemplu: They have been watching TV for 3 hours. Se uit la televizor de 3 ore. so far Exemplu: So far, there have been arriving 10 passengers from London. Pn acum au sosit 10 pasageri din Londra.

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ever Exemplu: Have you ever been listening to the radio? Ai ascultat vreodat la radio? never Exemplu: I have never been travelling to France until now.- Nu am cltorit n Frana pn acum. Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! Completeaz spaiile goale cu "FOR"( de) i "SINCE"(din, de la). Pune verbele din parantez la Prezentul Perfect Continuu: Exemplu: Helen (study) English .......... last summer. Helen has been studying English since last summer. 1. We (talk) about that horrible accident .......... half an hour. 2. She (cook) a chicken soup .......... 1 hour. 3. They (phone) the manager .......... the last five minutes. 4. Mary (live) in Manhattan .......... June 1998. 5. It (rain) .......... morning.

VERB PAST PERFECT COTINUOUS


CITII TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I had been living with my husband and my children at the countryside before I came in town. I had been going to work in the morning. My friend, Louise, she had been going to school in the afternoon every week day before leaving the countryside, too. She had been teaching English. My father, my mother, my brother and my sister had been living there, too. Now everything is over. I have moved in town. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Past Perfect Contionuous: I had been living eu locuisem I had been going eu mersesem She had been going ea mersese She had been teaching ea predase They had been living ei locuiser Past Perfect Continuous - exprim o aciune n curs pn la un moment dat trecut cnd a fost oprit de o alt aciune a crei urmri continu i azi.

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They had been working on the new house before the fire destroyed it. (Ei) lucrau la casa cea nou nainte s fie distrus de foc. Verbul to work (a lucra, a munci ) la Past Perfect Continuous: Afirmativ I/you he/she/it /we/you/they had been working Negativ I/you he/she/it /we/you/they hadnt been working Interogativ Had I/you/ he/she/it /we/you/they been working Expresii cu care se folosete adesea Past Perfect Continuous: For five minutes" , "for two weeks", etc You had not been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived. Ai ateptat-o cel mult dou ore cnd n fin al a sosit. Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! Put the verbs into the correct form (past perfect continuous). She (sleep) for 10 hours when he woke us up. We (wait) at the station for 60 minutes when the train finally arrived. They (look for) her ring for three hours and then we found it in the bathroom. I (not / walk) for a long time, when it suddenly began to rain. How long (learn / she) English before she went to London? She (drive) less than an hour when he ran out of gas. They were very tired in the evening because they (help) on the farm all day. I (not / work) all day; so I wasn't tired and went to the disco at night. They (cycle) all day so their legs were sore in the evening.

VERB - FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS


CITII TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: When my friends will come to live at the countryside I will have been living with my husband and my children there for 5 years. I will have already been working for a couple of years as a doctor, Louise will have been teaching English in the afternoon for 5 years, too. Until next year, we will have been staying there for 6 years.

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Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Future Perfect Continuous: I will have been living voi fi locuit I will have been working eu voi fi lucrat Louise will have been teaching Louise va fi predat We will have been staying noi vom fi stat Verbul to work (a lucra, a munci) la Future Perfect Continuous : Afirmativ I / you he/she/it /we /they will have been working Negativ I / you he/she/it /we /they will not have been working Interogativ Will I / you/ he/she/it /we /they have been working? Future Perfect Continuous - acest timp se folosete rar n vorbire, fiind o form caracteristic limbii scrise i pune mai mult accentul pe perioada lung de timp dect Future Continuous Se traduce tot prin "voi fi lucrat", i ca toate formele de timpuri continue implic o aciune n derulare. Exemplu: By 2010 he will have been working for 40 years.- n 2010 el va fi lucrat de 40 de ani Adverbul cel mai des utilizat cu Future Perfect Continuous: for Example: By six oclock p.m., she will have been selling blouses for eight hours.- Pn la ora 18 ea va fi vndut bluze timp de opt ore . Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! Punei verbele din parantez la Future Perfect Continuous sau la Future Perfect Mike: Helen has been in the kitchen all day long. Ross: It doesn't sound like she's having a very good birthday party. Mike: She (cook) for over five hours by the time everyone arrives for dinner. Hopefully, she (finish) everything by then. Ross: Maybe we should give her a helping hand.

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PARTEA I

MORFOLOGIA VERBUL - DIATEZA


I DIATEZA ACTIV II DIATEZA PASIV I Verbul este la diateza activ cnd subiectul gramatical svrete aciunea, care se rsfrnge asupra subiectului (n cazul verbelor tranzitive). Exemplu: Lucy has written a letter.- Lucia a scris o scrisoare. II Verbul este la diateza pasiv cnd subiectul gramatical sufer aciunea svrit de obiect. Exemplu: This letter has been written by Lucy. Aceast scrisoare a fost scris de Lucia. Diateza pasiv se remarc prin: - utilizarea verbului be sau get - complementul de agent introdus de prepoziia by exemplu: She was met at the station by my brother. Ea a fost ateptat la gar de fratele meu. Conjugarea unui verb la diateza pasiv: Aspectul simplu: Present simple: Past Simple: Present Perfect Past Perfect: Future Future Perfect Aspectul continuu: Present Continuous: Past Continuous: Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! 1. Trecei urmtoarele propoziii la diateza pasiv, transformnd complementul persoanei n subiect. The classrooms are being cleaned now. The school was being cleaned when we wanted to visit it. I am seen. He is seen. We are seen. I was seen. We were seen. I have been seen. He has been seen I had been seen. I shall be seen. We will be seen. I shall have been seen. He will have been seen.

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Exemplu: The guide is showing them the museum. They are being shown the museum. They have appointed him president. She has given me a good dictionary. They will tell you what time the bus leaves. Ill pay the carpenter for his work. He promised them new bicycles. 2. Traducei urmtoarele propoziii n limba englez, folosind verbe la diateza pasiv: Exemplu: Aceast problem trebuie analizat. This matter must be looked into. Nu s-a dormit n acest pat. Copiii au fost bine ngrijii. Cinele a fost clcat de un autobuz. Vor rde de tine dac vei purta rochia asta.

PERSOANA I NUMRUL
Spre deosebire de verbul romnesc, verbul englez are puini indici formali care s marcheze persoana i numrul. Singura desinen specific este s/es pentru persoana a III-a singular, indicativ prezent. I play, you play, he plays, she plays, we play, you play, they play. I wash, you wash, he wash es, she wash es, we wash, you wash, they wash. Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! Folosii pronumele personal corect. Exemplu: often reads books. (Lisa) She often reads books.

1) is dreaming. (George) 2) is green. (the blackboard) 3) are on the wall. (the posters) 4) is running. (the cat) 5) are watching TV. (my mother and I) 6) are in the garden. (the flowers) 7) is riding his horse. (Marc) 8) is from Bucharest. (Victoria) 9) has got a sister. (Diana) 10) Have got a computer, Tom? 31

MODUL THE MOOD


I. MODUL INDICATIV (The Indicative Mood)
I. Modul indicativ prezint aciunea, starea, etc. exprimat de verb ca real , ndeplinit chiar.

Exemplu: - He returned the book to the library after he had read it.- A napoiat cartea la bibliotec dup ce a citit-o. - I can return the book now. I have read it. Pot s napoiez cartea la bibliotec acum. Am citit-o. - He will return the book to the library next Monday. He will have read it by then.- Va napoia cartea la bibliotec lunea viitoare. O va fi citit pn atunci.

II MODUL SUBJONCTIV (The Subjunctive Mood)


Modul subjonctiv prezint aciunea ca posibil cnd aciunea este proiectat n viitor , sau ireal, cnd aciunea trebuia s aib loc n trecut. SUBJONCTIVUL PREZENT exprim o aciune considerat posibil, deci nu contrar realitii. Exemplu: It is necessary that he be here.- Este necesar ca el s fie aici. come in time.- s vin la timp. SUBJONCTIVUL TRECUT coincide ca form cu Past Tense Simple. Exemplu: I wish he/they told the truth.- A dori s spun adevrul. Observaie: Verbul be are form unic pentru toate persoanele: were Exemplu: I wish he/they were here. SUBJONCTIVUL ANALITIC exprim o aciune posibil, presupus, pentru a sublinia ideea de aciune i nu aciunea propriu-zis sau ndeplinirea ei, care sunt redate cu indicativul. Exemplu: The idea is that sport facilities should be improved. (subjonctiv) The fact is that sport facilities will be improved. (indicativ) Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! 1. It is very important that all employees in their proper uniforms before 6:30 a.m. A. are dressed B. will be dressed C. be dressed 2. I wish my sister here. A. were B. was 32

3. The coach insisted that Mario the center position, even though he's much too short for that position.. A. plays B. play 4. Mary hoped that the meeting . A. was adjourned B. be adjourned 5. My mother would know what to do. Oh, would that she here with us now! A. were B. was 6. If only Mark a little more responsible in his choice of courses! A. was B. were 7. If Mrs. Smith ill that night, the Smiths would not have gone to the cinema. A. were B. had been 8. Her employees treated Mrs. Smith as though she a queen. A. was B. were 9. I wish I better today. A. feel B. felt

INFINITIVUL - THE INFINITIVE


to + verb = infinitive Infinitivul are doua forme: infinitivul lung (The Long Infinitive), marcat de particula to i infinitivul scurt (The Short Infinitive) fr particula to. Acesta se folosete de obicei dup verbe de percepie : hear, see, watch, notice, observe, perceive, sau dup have, let, make. Exemplu: To err is human. A grei este omenesc. I made her work harder. Am fcut-o s munceasc mai mult.

GERUNZIUL - THE GERUND


Gerunziul, adesea cunoscut sub denumirea de form n ing reprezint un substantiv format dintr- un verb la care se adaug terminaia ing. Exemplu: I adore reading your books. I detest going to supermarkets. I quit smoking. I cant remember doing/having done this exercise before. - are categoriile gramaticale de timp i diatez: - Diateza activ: Gerund: I enjoy learning English.- mi place s nv engleza. Perfect Gerund He denies having taken the books. Neag c a luat crile. -Diateza pasiv: Gerund: He cant stand being interrupted .- Nu suport s fie ntrerupt. Perfect Gerund He denies having been invited . Neag c a fost invitat. - caracteristici substantivale: Exemplu: The sound of a loud knocking at the door interrupted us. her coming in interrupted us. a babys crying interrupted us.

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Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! Pune verbul din paranteze la gerunziu sau la infinitivul lung (to-). Exemplu: They go on (read) the book. They go on reading the book.

1) I can't imagine Peter (go) by bike. 2) He agreed (buy) a new washing machine. 3) The question is easy (answer). 4) The man asked me how (get) to the railway station. 5) I look forward to (see) you at the weekend. 6) Are you thinking of (visit) Paris? 7) We decided (run) through the dark forest. 8) The teacher expected Sarah (study) hard. 9) She doesn't mind (work) the night shift. 10) I learned (ride) the bike at the age of 3.

PARTICIPIUL TRECUT - PAST PARTICIPLE


Este forma nepersonal a verbului care denumete aciunea ca rezultat. Se formeaz de la infinitiv la care se adaug terminaia ed (n cazul verbelor regulate), i forma a III-a n cazul verbelor neregulate. Exemple: He is an aged man. Este un om n vrst. He is a learned man Este un om nvat. A drunken man is unpleasant to look at. Un om beat este neplcut la vedere. Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! 1. Completai corect formele de participiu trecut. the (lose) son an (interest) audience a (break) leg an (empty) bottle a (close) door a (decorate) room two (pack) bags the (write) letters the (sell) car the (buy) apples

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VERBELE AUXILIARE - AUXILIARY VERBS


Au urmtoarele caracteristici: sunt golite de sens lexical: I shall leave after he comes.- Voi pleca dup ce vine el. nlociuesc verbele noionale n rspunsuri scurte i ntrebri disjunctive: Do you like this book? Yes, I do. He has written a good composition, hasnt he? apar adesea sub forme reduse: Ive got a book.- I have got a book. I havent got a book. I have not got a book. Hes come.- He has come Hes here.- He is here. Verbele auxiliare: 1. be/was/were/been 2. have/had/had 3. shall/should 4. will/would 5. may/might 6. let 7. do/does Exemple: 1. Infinitive: be reading Present: He is reading Past: He was reading Future: He will be reading Conditional: He would be reading Infinitive Perfect: have been reading Present Perfect: He has been reading Past Perfect: He had been reading Future Perfect: He will have been reading Conditional Perfect: He would have been reading 2. Perfect Infinitive: have read Perfect Gerund: having read Present Perfect: He has read Past Perfect: He had read Future Perfect: He will have read Conditional Perfect: He would have read 3. Future: I shall give Future Perfect:I shall have given Conditional: I should give Conditional Perfect: I should have given 4. Future: I will give Future Perfect: I will have given Conditional: I would give Conditional Perfect: I would have given 5. Hurry up, so that we may arrive in time.- Grbete-te ca s ajungem la timp. They hurried so that we might arrive in time.- S-au grbit ca s ajungem la timp. 6. Let me think! Las-m s m gndesc. 7. Do you live in this town?- Locuieti n acest ora? 35

Does he work here? Lucreaz aici? Did he attend this school? A urmat aceast coal? I dont like it. Nu-mi place. Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! Alegei auxiliarul potrivit:

What I

you done? not like this song. she know that you are here? The lesson not started yet. you drink milk? Who eaten my biscuits? It not matter. They not want to play outside. We not seen you for a long time. My friend sent me some photos. The train just arrived. you understand? They been learning English for two years. you heard that? My uncle not eat fish. I not live here. anybody rung up for me? She not play the piano. How we get there? Where he live?

VERBELE MODALE - MODAL VERBS


Verbele: can, may, must, ought to, shall, will i parial need i dare formeaz grupul de verbe modale. Aceste verbe nu formeaz infinitivul cu particula 'to'. can - a putea, cu nelesul de a fi n stare. n vorbirea curent mai ales n ntrebri se folosete n locul lui 'may' (nseamn i conserv i 'to can' = a face conserv) may - a putea, cu ntelesul de a avea voie. (nseamn i luna mai). n plus se folosete n urri, de exemplu poate fi tradus prin 'fie' . must - a trebui, a fi necesar (nseamn i must- suc de struguri), poate fi tradus uneori i prin probabil (sau 'trebuie ca') ought to- ar trebui, ar fi cazul shall - este o ntrire a unui ordin dac este spus apsat. Altfel formeaz viitorul persoanei nti. n acest ultim caz de obicei se nlocuiete cu 'will'. will - formeaz viitorul, particula 'voi' din romnete. I will come = Voi veni. Se folosete i la formarea viitorului. (nseamn i testament i voin). need - a trebui, cu nelesul de a avea nevoie dare - a ndrazni, a provoca pe cineva

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Exemple: I know I can.- tiu c pot. May I have this dance? (Pot s am acest dans) - mi acordai acest dans? May the force be with you! - Fie ca fora s te nsoeasc! din filmul StarWars, adic s ai noroc. If you must, you must - Dac trebuie, trebuie. I must be dreaming - Trebuie c visez (probabil c visez). You ought to stop smoking. Ar fi cazul /ar trebui/i recomand s nu mai fumezi. You shall not kill = Nu vei omor (s nu omori). I will survive = Voi supravieui. Need I go on? - E nevoie s continui? How dare you talk like this! - Cum ndrzneti s vorbeti aa! Caracteristicile generale ale verbelor modale Nu accept particula to pentru infinitiv, nu au participiu i nici forma cu -ing. Din aceast cauz multe timpuri lipsesc acestor verbe. Foarte important: Verbul care urmeaz unui verb modal nu are to n fa. Adic, n limba romn se spune: Trebuie s mnnc. n limba englez se spune: I must eat. Atenie: I need to eat - need aici nu e verb modal). Din exemplele de mai sus vedem c aceast regul a verbelor modale e respectat: I know I can (fr 'to'), May I have this dance? (fr 'to') etc. Forma negativ nu cere do. Adic n cazul celorlalte verbe se pune un do not sau does not pentru negaie. I eat meat - Mnnc carne. I do not eat meat - Nu mnnc carne. I can not eat meat - Nu pot s mnnc carne. (particula do cade) Forma interogativ nu cere do. Do you eat meat? - Mnnci carne? Can you eat meat? - Poi s mnnci carne? Must you eat meat? - Trebuie s mnnci carne? Aceste verbe nu se schimb dup persoan: I can, you can, he/she can etc. Adic persoana a treia singular nu primete 's'. Aceste verbe se pot contracta cu particula not din propoziii negative. can't = can not, mustn't = must not, won't = will not sunt verbele modale care folosesc cel mai mult aceast regul. Pentru formarea celebrului 'nu-i aa' din englez e necesar folosirea acestor verbe. Forma 'nu-i aa' depinde de verbul modal folosit n prima parte a ntrebrii. I can go, can't I? - Pot s m duc, nu-i aa? sau He will go, won't he? - Va merge, nu-i aa? CAN/COULD exprim capacitatea fizic sau intelectual Daniel can speak three foreign languages. Daniel tie trei limbi strine. Irina could run faster than you last year. Irina putea s alerge mai repede dect tine anul trecut. Viitor: Ill be able to skate next year. Condiional: Would you be able to manage by yourself if it was necessary ? Could you manage by yourself if it was necessary ? Te-ai putea descurca singur dac ar fi nevoie ? Observaie ! Diferena de sens ntre could i was/were able to se pierde la negativ sau cu verbe de percepie: I couldnt swim yesterday as the weather was very bad. 37

I wasnt able to swim yesterday as the weather was very bad. I couldnt see him in the dark. I wasnt able to see him in the dark. permisiunea A: Can I borrow your pen ? B: Of course you can. permisiunea n trecut On Sundays we could stay in bed until ten oclock.- Duminic aveam voie s stm n pat pn la ora 10. n acest sens, can/could poate fi nlocuit de be allowed to, be permitted to : On Sundays we were allowed to stay in bed until ten oclock. MAY/MIGHT folosit pentru a cere (a) sau a acorda (b) permisiunea (mai oficial dect can): a) May I go ? Pot s plec ? b) You may go. Poi s pleci. exprim o cerere, o rugminte politicoas (may este mai politicos i oficial dect can/could): May I use your phone ? mi dai voie s dau telefon ? exprim o posibilitate prezent sau viitoare He may come today- Se poate s vin azi. might este folosit n cereri insistente sau atunci cnd vorbitorul este iritat de nendeplinirea unei aciuni You might give me an answer. (Please, give me an answer) MUST / HAVE TO / NEED MUST Must se folosete pentru a exprima: 1) obligaia: They must stop because the traffic light is red now. Must exprimnd obligaia poate fi nlocuit de have to sau ve got to. 2. deducia logic: She must be at home. She left two hours ago. HAVE TO. ntre must i have to exist urmtoarele diferene de sens: a) Must exprim o obligaie impus de ctre vorbitor, pe cnd have to exprim o obligaie impus din exterior: I must go. (Its my decision). We have to go. (The shop is closing). b) Must exprim o obligaie important, urgent: I must be at the hospital at two. Its most important. Have to exprim o obligaie obinuit, repetat (habitual obligation): I have to be at the hospital at seven oclock every morning. I begin work at seven. Prezent: You must stay home for a few days. Youve got flu. You have to stay home when you have flu. Past Tense: He had to stay home last week. He was quite ill. Viitor: You must stay home tomorrow if you dont feel better. Youll have to stay home when you feel feverish again. HAVE GOT TO n vorbirea familiar, se adaug got la have to, iar have se contrage obinndu-se Ive got/I havent got to phone her. NEED/NEEDNT folosit pentru a exprima lipsa obligativitii You neednt come early to work= You dont have to come early. (nu era nevoie) SHALL/SHOULD. 38

Shall este folosit: pentru a exprima obligaie, n stil oficial (acte, regulamente, etc. la persoana a II-a i a III-a) The employer shall supply the necessary documents in due time. Angajatorul va furniza documentele necesare n timp util. Shall este folosit n propoziii interogative, la persoana I singular sau plural: a)- pentru a cere un sfat, o sugestie, un ordin: Where shall we put the flowers ? Unde s punem florile ? Shall we go to the cinema tonight ? (Ce spui), mergem la cinema disear ? What shall we do ? Ce trebuie s facem ? b)- pentru a face o ofert: Shall I help you ? S te ajut ? Should este folosit pentru a exprima: a) obligaia, necesitatea logic de nfptuire a unei aciuni, de obicei sub form de sfat de ctre vorbitor: The novel is very interesting. You should read it. Romanul este foarte interesant. Ar trebui s-l citeti. He shouldnt tell lies. N-ar trebui s mint . b) o presupunere: He should be there by now. Ar trebui s fi ajuns acolo deja. OUGHT TO La fel ca i should, ought to exprim obligaia sau datoria, de obicei sub forma unui sfat dat de ctre vorbitor: You ought to start packing before 12 oclock to make the check out. WILL/WOULD exprim o comand:You will do that immediately! exprim insistena: He will work as a doctor no matter what! o invitaie:Will you have another slice of pizza? o cerere, o rugminte: Will you sign the papers, please? o rugminte foarte politicoas- cu would : Would you do me a favor? insistena, hotrrea de a efectua ceva n trecut: He would continue writing for hours, no matter what I said. probabilitatea: That would be his pen.- Probabil c acela este stiloul lui. USED TO exprim o aciune repetat, un obicei trecut care nu mai este repetat n prezent: I used to call him when I was a student, I dont do this anymore. Obinuiam s l sun cnd erma student, nu mai fac asta acum. o aciune repetat, un obicei trecut care nc mai este repetat n prezent: They used to go there every year and it is likely to find them there, too. Obinuiau s se duc acolo n fiecare an i e posibil s i gseti acolo. BE TO folosit pentru a exprima o comand sau instruciuni ntr-un mod impersonal: He is to stay in the building till midnight. Trebuie/va sta /urmeaz s stea n cldire pn la miezul nopii. o aciune planificat: The meeting is to start at 7:30.- ntlnirea urmeaz s nceap la 7:30. DARE este folosit cu sensul de a ndrzni, a avea curajul, mai ales n propoziii interogative: How dare you say that? Cum ndrzneti s spui asta? Exerciii Practice

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LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! EX. 1. Alegei varianta corect de rspuns. 1.We go to the party. We're going to a wedding. A won't be able to B will can't C couldn't D want be able to 2. He pass the exam if he studied harder. A can B will be able to C would be able to 3. I remember his name. A 'm not able to B can't C fish 4. They go. The weather was too bad. A weren't able to B can't C couldn't 5. Sorry, Teacher. I do it yet. A wasn't able to B couldn't C haven't been able to EX.2. Alegei ntre must i have to: 1. I be at the meeting by 10:00. I will probably have to take a taxi if I want to be on time. 2. You submit the application if it has not been completely filled out. If the form is not complete, you will be rejected and you reapply at a later date. 3. Tina: Look at these flowers - they're beautiful! But, there's no card. Who could have sent them? Stephanie: It David. He's the only one who would send you flowers, you know. 4. You forget to pay the rent. Mr Daniel is very strict about paying on time. 5. You be like this! Why don't you try saying "please" once in a while. EX 3. Alegei verbul modal potrivit situaiilor de mai jos: 1. Mike's flight from Paris took more than 7 hours. He quite exhausted after such a long flight. 2. The books are optional. My teacher said we read them if we needed extra credit. But we read them if we don't want to. 3. Daniel hear a word because the crowd was cheering so loudly. 4. The refrigerator isn't working. It damaged during the move. 5. Mike: you hold your breath for more than a minute? Jack: No, . 6. You be rich to be famous. Some of the most successful people I know haven't got a penny. 40

7. I've redone this math problem at least ten times, but my answer is wrong according to the answer key. So, the answer in the book wrong! 8. You do the job if you didn't speak three languages fluently. 9. You worry so much. It doesn't do you any good. Either you get the promotion, or you don't. If you don't, just apply for another job. 10. You leave the table once you have finished your dinner and politely excused yourself. 11. Jenny's engagement ring is speechless! It cost a fortune. 12. we move into the living room? There's a beautiful view of the forest from there. 13. You had better take along some cash. The shop accept credit cards. 14. The machine start moving by pressing the left button. 15. I stand these people - I don t understand their priciples, so you get rid of them! 16. Do you always have to say the first thing that pops into your head. you think once in a while before you open your mouth? 17. Daniel and Mathew said they would come over right after work, so they be here by 5:00. 18. You no longer suffer this injustice! Freedom shall be yours! 19. If I had gone to an University in England, I participated in their English immersion program. 20. The lamp be broken. Maybe the light bulb just burned out or something.

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PARTEA I

MORFOLOGIA - SUBSTANTIVUL
Definiie: Substantivul: a) denumete obiecte n sens foarte larg, adic fiine, lucruri, fenomene (woman, desk, rain, go, happiness); b) are categorii gramaticale de gen, numr i caz; c) poate ndeplini n propoziie funciile de subiect, nume predicativ, atribut, apoziie, complement, element predicativ suplimentar, sau poate fi echivalentul unei propoziii sau fraze. Clasificare: a) substantive simple: boy, meal, day; b) substantive formate din derivare cu sufixe sau prefixe: childhood, disgust, unhappiness; c) substantive formate prin compunere (substantivele compuse): schoolboy d) substantive formate prin conversiune, din alte pri de vorbire: - adjective: the good, the evil, the rich, the poor; - verbe la infinitiv: cook, fall; - verbe la Gerund: reading, boxing; - verbe la participiul trecut: the injured; e) substantive formate prin contragere: ad (advertisement), fridge (refrigerator), gym (gymnasium), lab (laboratory), liv (livingroom), poly (polytechnic), pub (public house); f) abrevieri: MP (Member of Parliament), Dr (doctor), Mr Brown (Dl. Brown), Mrs Brown (dna Brown), Miss Brown (dra Brown), Ms Brown (apelativ pentru femei, cstorite sau necstorite) g) substantive comune i substantive proprii - Substantivele comune pot fi: - substantive colective, care denumesc obiecte constnd din mai multe elemente de acelai fel: family, people; - substantive concrete, care denumesc obiecte sau substana constitutiv a unor obiecte: table, wood, steel; - substantive abstracte, care denumesc abstraciuni: difficulty, worry, peace Substantivele (numele) proprii au capacitatea de a individualiza un obiect dintr-o categorie de obiecte de acelai fel, denumind n principiu un singur element dintr-o categorie. n limba englez, substantivele proprii denumesc: - nume de persoane: John, Larry, Daniel; - denumiri geografice - nume de localiti: London, Paris - nume de ri i continente: Romania, France, Europe - nume de ape i muni: London River, Carpathians - diviziuni temporale - lunile anului: January, February, March, April, June, July, August, September, October, November, December - zilele sptmnii: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday - srbtori: Halloween d) nume de cri, ziare, reviste: The English Magazine, Nine o Clock e) nume de instituii 42

Numrul substantivelor : I. Substantive numrabile (Count nouns) II. Substantive nenumrabile (Mass nouns). I. Substantivele numrabile denumesc noiunile ca uniti separate, care pot fi numrate: a boy, two boys, a few boys, etc. Au urmtoarele caracteristici: a) sunt variabile ca form, avnd att numrul singular, ct i numrul plural: museum - museums, child - children; b) pot fi precedate de numerale cardinale sau cuantificatori: one book, three books, several apples, a lot of brushes; c) la numrul singular se acord cu verbe la singular: The book is on the table. /The apples are in the basket. Formarea pluralului substantivelor numrabile: Formele de plural sunt de dou feluri: A. regulate, cnd pluralul se formeaz prin adugarea desinenei -s la forma de singular: book - books. B. Neregulate, cnd pluralul se formeaz n alte moduri: - Substantivele terminate n -s, -z, -x, -ch, -sh adaug es: bus - buses; glass - glasses; buzz buzzes; box - boxes; watch - watches; brush brushes - cnd -o e precedat de o vocal: cuckoos; kangaroos; radios; scenarios; studios, zoos; - adaug -es la substantive ca: echoes, heroes, mosquitoes, Negroes, potatoes, tomatoes - Substantivele terminate n -y precedat de o consoan transform pe y n i i adaug -es: city cities; factory - factories. Transformarea nu are loc dup vocale: boy - boys, play - plays; 1) -th ths: bath - baths; mouth - mouths; path - paths; 2) -f(e) [f] ves [vz]: calf - calves; elf - elves; half - halves; knife - knives; leaf - leaves; life lives; loaf - loaves; self - selves; shelf - shelves; 3) -se [s] ses [ziz]: house - houses II. Substantivele nenumrabile - denumesc noiuni vzute ca un ntreg. - pot fi concrete: sugar, coal, steel sau abstracte: beauty, kindness. Substantivele nenumrabile au urmtoarele caracteristici: a) sunt invariabile ca form: tea, information, cattle. b) neavnd contrastul singular - plural, ele nu pot fi numrate cu ajutorul numeralelor sau al altor cuantificatori: I need (some) tea. I need (some) information. I need (some) scissors. c) Se acord cu verbul singular: Chinese tea is very good. Ceaiul chinezesc este foarte bun, sau la plural: The scissors are on the table. Foarfeca este pe mas. d) Unele substantive englezeti fac parte att din clasa substantivelor numrabile, ct i din a celor nenumrabile, cu diferene de sens: She is a beauty. (Ea) este o frumusee. Beauty is to be admired. Frumuseea trebuie admirat. She has got a new iron. Are un nou fier de clcat. This tool is made of iron. Aceast unealt este din fier. n limba englez fac parte din clasa substantivelor invariabile la singular unele substantive care sunt numrabile sau invariabile la plural n limba romn: - advice, business, furniture, homework, income, information, knowledge, luggage, merchandise, money etc He always gives me good advice. Totdeauna mi d sfaturi bune. You must do your homework carefully. Trebuie s-i faci cu atenie leciile. 43

I need further information. Am nevoie de informaii suplimentare. His knowledge of English is poor. Cunotinele lui de englez sunt slabe. Numrul substantivelor invariabile Substantivele invariabile nu au opoziia singular - plural. Ele au numai singular: gold, sau numai plural the police, cattle etc. Cuantificarea substantivelor invariabile la singular se poate realiza cu ajutorul unor cuvinte ca: a piece of, an item of, a bar of, a bag of etc. Substantive concrete: a piece of bacon a slice of cake a piece of bread a loaf of bread a piece of land a strip of land a piece of furniture an article of furniture a bit of grass a blade of grass a piece of paper a sheet of paper Substantive abstracte: a piece of advice a word of advice a piece of information an item of news an item of business a bit of business a piece of work a bit of work a word of abuse a fit of passion an attack of fever

Genul substantivelor (Gender of Nouns) - genul este marcat formal: boy - girl, lion - lioness, - se poate identifica de obicei cu ajutorul pronumelor care se refer la substantive i care au forme diferite dup gen: The librarian is at his desk. He is writing something. (el) The librarian is at her desk. She is writing something. (ea) Clasificare: A. substantive nume de persoane B. substantive nume de animale C. substantive nume de obiecte A. brother/sister earl/countess father/mother king/queen lord/lady man/woman uncle/aunt - ess: actor/actress count/countess god/goddess master/mistress waiter/waitress -ine: hero/heroine; -er: widow/widower -groom: bride/bridegroom 44

alte substantive nume de persoane au o singur form att pentru masculin ct i pentru feminin. Ele aparin genului comun: artist, chairman, cook, cousin, doctor, foreigner, friend, quest, musician, parent, teacher, writer. Apartenena la genul masculin sau feminin se precizeaz n context.

B: horse: stallion/mare ox: bull/cow sheep: ram/ewe pig: boar/sow deer: stag/hind lion/lioness tiger/tigress cock/hen dog/bitch drake/duck cock sparrow/hen sparrow he goat/she goat Tom cat/she cat C: Sunt masculine substantivele care denumesc: a) pasiuni intense i aciuni violente: anger, fear, murder. b) fenomene naturale puternice: ocean, river, sun. c) nume de fluvii: the Danube, the Thames. d) nume de muni: the Carpathians, the Cheviot. Sunt feminine: a) substantivele care sugereaz o caracteristic feminin, un caracter blnd, afectuos, cele care indic fertilitatea: affection, devotion, faith, hope, justice; b) substantivele care denumesc trsturi negative de caracter: ambition, folly, jealousy, revenge, vanity; c) substantive abstracte ca: fortune, liberty, mercy, nature, peace, science Cazul substantivelor: n limba englez, categoria gramatical a cazului este marcat prin: - desinen: the childs book- cartea copilului - topic: The man (N) opened the window (Ac).- Brbatul a deschis fereastra. - prepoziii: I bought it for Mary.- Am cumprat-o pentru Mary. Cazul nominativ (The Nominative Case) The girl is waiting for her friend.- Fata i ateapt prietenul. Cazul acuzativ (The Acusative Case) I ate a pizza an hour ago.- Am mncat o pizza acum o or. Cazul dativ (The Dative Case) n limba englez, cazul dativ este marcat de prepoziia to sau for sau prin topic: She gave some sweets to the children. Le-a dat nite dulciuri copiilor. I bought a present for my mother.- Am cumprat un cadou pentru fratele meu. I lent her (D) a book (Ac).- I-am mprumutat o carte. Cazul genitiv (The Genitive Case). Substantivul n cazul genitiv exprim n principal ideea de posesiune: Marcs car is new.- Maina lui Marc este nou. the girls dress; the pupils question rochia fetei, ntrebarea elevului for goodness sake; for convenience sake pentru numele lui Dumnezeu, de dragul comoditii Observaie: Apostroful nu este obligatoriu n acest caz. 45

Apostroful singur, fr desinena -s se adaug: - la forma de plural a substantivelor regulate: the boys bicycles (bicicletele bieilor); the drivers attention (atenia oferilor) - la substantivele nume de persoane terminate n -s: Dickens life (viaa lui Dickens); Charles books (crile lui Charles). Obs: 1. La numele proprii terminate n -s se poate ntlni i genitivul cu s: Dickenss novels Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! EX 1. Scrie forma de genitiv n spaiile libere: Example: I met sister yesterday. (Mary) Answer: I met Mary's sister yesterday. 1) This is book. (Peter) 2) Let's go to the . (Smiths) 3) The room is upstairs. (children) 4) sister is twelve years old. (John) 5) and bags have blue stickers. (Susan - Steve) 6) shoes are on the second floor. (men) 7) My car was not expensive. (parents) 8) CD player is new. (Charles) 9) This is the bike. (boy) 10) These are the pencils. (boys) EX 2. Punei forma de plural corespunztoare substantivelor: Put in the correct form of the plural of the given nouns. Example: car Answer: car - cars

1) half - 2) kilo -3) woman - 4) mouth - 5) foot - 6) sheep - 7) penny - 8) bus - 9) day - 10) fish EX. 3. Completai spaiile cu urmtoarele cuvinte: advice, chocolate, jam, lemonade, meat, milk, oil, rice, tea, tennis Example: a cube of Answer: a cube of sugar 1) a piece of 2) a packet of 3) a bar of 4) a glass of 5) a cup of 6) a bottle of 7) a slice of 8) a barrel of 9) a game of 10) a jar of

EX 4. Creai substantive nenumrabile din literele de mai jos. Exemplu: ira = air aet ikn ilo fgo eber einw doow acek 46 aclo ahir

ARTICOLUL I ALI DETERMINANI


Determinanii propriu-zii ai substantivului Articolul hotrt the child Articolul nehotrt a child, an elephant Articolul zero men, books, schools Adjectivul demonstrativ this tree, that tree, these trees, those trees Adjectivul posesiv my, your, his, her, our, your, their car, its tail Adjectivul interogativ what/which/whose car do you want? Adjectivul nehotrt each, person every, person, either side, some notebooks, any idea , no idea, neither student Articolul nu poate fi o parte de vorbire independent, el contribuind doar la determinarea unic sau individual a substantivului pe care l nsoete. Articolul este redat prin articolul hotrt the, articolul nehotrt a sau an sau prin articolul zero. Aceste articole se folosesc pentru a realiza: 1) referina unic (unique reference) i 2) referina individual (individual reference) 1) The girl was running very fast. - Fata alerga foarte repede. 2) Where are the books I gave you? Unde sunt crile pe care i le-am dat? There is a pen on the table. There is an orange on the table. There are (some) books on the table Observaie: a) articolul hotrt the, articolul nehotrt a( n) sau articolul zero pentru substantivele numrabile: The cow gives us milk. A cow gives us milk. Cows give us milk. b) articolul zero pentru substantivele nenumrabile: Milk is good for our health. Articolul hotrt (The Definite Article) Articolul hotrt are forma unic the Ex:the door, the window, the table, etc The United Kingdom, the United States, the Art Gallery, The Sahara, etc. Articolul nehotrt (The Indefinite Article) Articolul nehotrt are dou forme: a i an Ex: a story, a magazine; a water-melon, a year an architect, an egg, an orange, an hour, an heir, an honest man Articolul zero (The Zero Article) n unele cazuri, substantivele nenumrabile, substantivele numrabile la plural i numele proprii par nensoite de articol: She drinks tea every day. Clothes do not make the man. n astfel de cazuri, absena articolului echivaleaz ca funcie cu prezena unui articol. Acesta este de obicei numit articolul zero. Omisiunea articolului (The Elypsis of the Article) Ex: a) I like honey. mi place mierea. (articolul zero = funcia generic) I like the honey they sell here. mi place mierea care se vinde aici. (articolul hotrt the) 47

Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! A, an, the sau articolul zero. Pune rspunsul corect: This coat was designed by famous New York artist. Can you tell me how to get to bank from here? city museum is closed today. He is one of smartest people I know. I recommend you eat apple pie at this restaurant. milk is good for you. Would you like to see movie? apple a day keeps doctor away. I can't believe I failed yesterday's test! Do you have dictionary that I can borrow? ALI DETERMINANI : Adjectivul demonstrativ (The Demonstrative Adjective) This acesta, aceasta That acela, aceea These acetia, acestea Those aceia, acelea This house is more expensive than that one. Aceast cas este mai scump dect aceea. Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! Completai cu this/that/ these/ those 1. beach was quite empty last year. 2. exhibition will be open until the end of May. 3. people come from that hotel over there. 4. What does notice say? 5. exhibition closed a month ago. 6. He was dismissed on the 13th. night the factory went on fire. 7. Do you see birds at the top of the tree? 8. are the old classrooms. Those are the new ones. 9. is my cousin, Jessica. 10. Wasn't a horrible thing to say?

Adjectivul posesiv (The Posesive Adjective) nlocuiete posesorul i determin numele obiectului posedat: Peters bike is excellent for him to keep fit. His bike is excellent ... Adjectivul posesiv se acord n gen i numr cu numele obiectului posedat: Her book - cartea ei; 48

His bike - bicicleta lui; Their toys - jucriile lor. Comparai: Adjectiv posesiv This is my book. That is your book. That is her/his/its food. This is our classroom. That is their classroom. Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! Completai propoziiile cu adjective posesive: 1 He's from Spain. name's Alberto. 2 They're married. children's names are Lauren and Daniel. 3 We're brothers. parents are French. 4 She's eight. brother's nine. 5 I'm British. name's Peter. 6 You're students. books are in the classroom. Adjectivul interogativ (The Interrogative Adjective) determin numele obiectului asupra cruia se cer informaii: who are forme flexionare pentru caz, which i what sunt invariabile. Caz Pronume who what which Nominativ who what which Genitiv whose what which Dativ to whom (form literar) who ... to (vorbire curent) what which Acuzativ whom (form literar) who (vorbire curent) what which Exemplu: What film did you see last night ?- Ce film ai vzut asear? Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! Completai spaiile cu adjectivul interogativpotrivit. 1. time is the flight ? 2. girl has a red bag ? 3. mother is a nurse ? 4. subject do you like ? 5. books are these ? Pronume posesiv This book is mine. That book is yours. That food is hers/his . This classroom is ours. That classroom is theirs.

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Adjectivul nehotrt (The Indefinite Adjective) determin substantivul ntr-un mod global (all the pens, every child) sau parial (each pupil, either side) Some = ceva, nite, puin, unii, unele, civa, cteva, vreun, vreo, se ntrebuineaz n propoziii afirmative i indic existena unui numr restrns de lucruri, fiine, a unei cantiti restrnse. There are some books on his desk. Any = vreun, vreo, nici un(ul), nici o, nici una, se ntrebuineaz: - n propoziii afirmative cu sensul: oricare, orice: Any student in your class could answer the question. - n propoziii interogative i negative: There isnt any milk in the cup. Every = fiecare (se refer la membrii unui grup fr a-i individualiza) Every woman in the room has the right to speak. Each = fiecare (se refer la membrii unui grup luai individual) Each pupil must bring some plants to school. Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! Completai cu "any", "some", "no" or "none": Exemplu: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Are there any onions? No, there aren't any. Do black people work in your company? Yes, there are . She hasn't clothes to wear to the party. No problem, I can give her . Mary, there is gas in the car. Oh, no. We had better get . Are there good movies this weekend? No, there are . I want to take a shower; is there hot water? I'm sorry, there is hot water.

50

NUMERALUL THE NUMERAL


este partea de vorbire care exprim un numr, determinarea numeric a obiectelor (numeralul cardinal) sau ordinea obiectelor prin numrare (numeralul ordinal) a. Numeralul cardinal : one, two, three etc. b. Numeralul ordinal : the first, the second etc. a. Numeralul cardinal: 0 zero (nought) 1 one 11 eleven 2 two 12 twelve 3 three 13 thirteen 4 four 14 fourteen 5 five 15 fifteen 6 six 16 sixteen 7 seven 17 seventeen 8 eight 18 eighteen 9 nine 19 nineteen 100 200 900 1,000 one hundred two hundred nine hundred one thousand

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

ten twenty thirty forty (no "u") fifty (note "f", not "v") sixty seventy eighty (only one "t") ninety (note the "e")

b. Numeralul ordinal: 0th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th zeroth or noughth first 11th eleventh second 12th twelfth third 13th thirteenth fourth 14th fourteenth fifth 15th fifteenth sixth 16th sixteenth seventh17th seventeenth eighth 18th eighteenth ninth 19th nineteenth 10th 20th 30th 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th tenth twentieth thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth

c. Numeralul fracionar (The Fractional Numeral) sunt redate sub forma unor fracii. Numrul fraciei este exprimat printr-un numeral cardinal, iar numitorul printr-un numeral ordinal: 1/2 = a/one half = o jumtate, o doime; 1/3/ = a/one third = o treime 1.5 = one point nought five d. Numeralul colectiv (The Collective Numeral) arat c obiectele sunt considerate n grup i nu izolat Numeralele colective sunt: couple, pair, team, dozen, score, yoke Ex: two dozen of eggs, several pair(s) of shoes 51

e.Numeralul multiplicativ (The Multiplicative Numeral) once - odat; twice - de dou ori; three times - de trei ori, four times, five times, etc. Numeralul distributiv (The Distributive Numeral) f. Numeralul distributiv (The Distributive Numeral) exprim gruparea numeric a obiectelor. exemplu: two at a time; two by two; by twos; two and two; in tows (in pairs): The pupils left the classroom two by two/in twos. Elevii au prsit clasa cte doi. g. Numeralul adverbial (The Adverbial Numeral) arat: de cte ori are loc o aciune: once, twice, three times (thrice); ten times, a hundred times; once more; once again; twice as fast etc. They have French twice a week. Au franceza de dou ori pe sptmn. Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! 1. of people sat quietly in the hall. ? Hundred ? Hundreds ? Five hundreds ? Five hundred ? 2. Eggs are cheap. I bought . ? two dozens ? two dozen ? two a dozen ? two dozens of them? 3. He wrote a report. ? five-thousand-words ? five-thousands-word ? five-thousands-words ? five-thousand-word 4. Next week, we are going to study . ? Lesson Nine ? Lesson Ninth ? Lesson Nineth ? the nineth lesson 5. About of the workers are young people. ? third-fifths ? three-fifth ? three-fifths ? third-fifth 6. About old people died of the flu last winter. ? two thousand of ? two thousand ? two thousands ? two thousands of 7. The scientist is in his . ? thirties ? thirtys ? thirty's ? thirtieths 8. "C" is letter of the English alphabet. ? a third ? third ? the third ? the third of the 9. He's been in the United States for . ? one year and a half ? one year and half ? one year and an half ? one and half years 10. The experiment will last for one hundred fifty days. Today is day. ? the one hundred fourty-ninth ? the one hundred forty-nineth ? one hundred forty ninth ? the one hundred forty-ninth

PRONUMELE -THE PRONOUN


poate nlocui substantive: The man is here; He is here desemneaz direct vorbitorul i asculttorul (I, you) sau desemneaz global sau parial obiecte sau fenomene (all, each); are categoriile gramaticale de persoan, gen, numr i caz; Clasificarea pronumelor: 52

Pronumele personal Pronumele reflexiv Pronumele posesiv Pronumele relativ Pronumele interogativ Pronumele demonstrativ Pronumele nehotrt pozitiv universal :each, all, every afirmativ: many, much, few, little, several, enough, one, seria some neafirmativ: seria any, either, negativ: seria no, neither Pronumele personal: Nominativ Dativ/Acuzativ I me you you he him she her it it we us they them Exemple: You like me and I like you.- ie i place de mine i mie mi place de tine. Pronumele reflexiv are terminaia -self la singular i -selves la plural Persoana Singular Plural I myself ourselves a II-a yourself yourselves a III-a himself (masc.) herself (fem.) themselves itself (neutru) Exemple: He looked at himself in the mirror. Pronumele posesiv nlocuiete att numele obiectului posedat ct i al posesorului Formele pronumelui posesiv sunt: Persoana I singular mine I plural ours a II-a singular/plural yours a III-a masculin singular his plural theirs feminin singular hers plural theirs Exemplu: Is this his pen? No, its not ours. Ask Irina if is hers. Is it yours, Irina? Adjective posesive It's my food It's your food It's his food It's her food It's its food Pronume posesive It's mine It's yours It's his It's hers -Pronume personal It belongs to me It belongs to you It belongs to him It belongs to her It belongs to it 53

It's our food It's ours It belongs to us It's your food It's yours It belongs to you It's their food It's theirs It belongs to them Pronumele interogativ who este folosit pentru fiine what pentru lucruri which pentru fiine i lucruri how much pentru cantiti how many pentru numr what kind of pentru caliti, etc Exemple: Who are they waiting for?- Pe cine ateapt ei? What did he tell you? Ce i-a spus? What time is it? Ct este ceasul? Which of these books do you prefer ? Pe care din aceste cri o preferi? From what country does he come from? Din ce ar vine? Pronumele relativ se refer la un substantiv sau nlocuitor al acestuia menionat anterior i face legtura ntre propoziia n care se afl i cea pe care o nsoete: I know people who dont like this kind of food. I know people that dont like this kind of food. Pronumele relative sunt: who, which i that Nominativ Dativ/Acuzativ Genitiv Who Who(m) Whose Exemplu: I dont know whose car is this one.- Nu tiu a cui este maina aceasta. whoever -oricine. Whoever speaks must translate . Oricine vorbete trebuie s traduc. Whichever- oricare. He will take whichever is his. O/l va lua pe oricare este a/al lui. Pronumele nehotrt desemneaz global ( all) sau parial (each, either) obiecte sau fenomene Some = ceva, nite, puin, puin, unii, unele, civa, cteva, vreun, vreo, se ntrebuineaz n propoziii afirmative, interogative (ptr a pune accentul pe ceva) Exemplu: She bought some. (vegetables, items, etc) Did you visit some of the museums the tourist guide recommended ? Any = vreun, vreo, niciun(ul), nicio, niciuna se ntrebuineaz: n propoziii afirmative cu sensul: oricare, orice: Any of you could answer this question. n propoziii interogative i negative: Have you got any ? I havent got any. Compuii lui some, any i no: somebody/someone - anybody/anyone - nobody/no one none something - anything - nothing Exemple: I saw somebody in your room. I saw something in your room. I saw nobody in your room. I saw nothing in your room. Each = fiecare: Each of them - Fiecare (dintre ei) Either (forma negativ neither) = fiecare: Have you seen either of them ? L-ai vzut pe vreunul dintre ei (doi) ? 54

Every =fiecare: Every pupil must do his homework. All = tot, toat, toi, toate: Ive seen them all. Le-am vzut pe toate. One = un, unul, una cineva:There were two children in the room: one was good and one was bad. Pronumele negativ nobody, no one (nimeni), none (nici unul), neither (nici unul din doi), nothing (nimic): Exemple: Neither of them is right. Nici unul dintre ei (doi) nu are dreptate. What have you bought ? Nothing. Ce-ai cumprat ? Nimic. Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! EX1. Folosii pronumele personale potrivite.Atenie la cuvintele din parantez. Example: often reads books. (Lisa)- She often reads books. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) is dreaming. (George) is green. (the blackboard) are on the wall. (the posters) is running. (the dog) are watching TV. (my mother and I)

EX.2.Alegei pronumele posesiv corect Example: I have got a pet. name is Cookie.- I have got a pet. Its name is Cookie. Hi Daniel, name is John. This is friend Jason. He's 32. sister is 34 and workplace is very near. Jason and I work in the same office. There are 150 employees in company. EX.3. Alegei pronumele reflexiv corect din lista de mai jos: myself - yourself - himself - herself - itself - ourselves - yourselves - themselves 1) Robert made this T-shirt . 2) Lisa did the homework 3) We helped to some cola at the party. 4) Emma, did you take the photo all by ? 5) I wrote this poem . 6) He cut with the knife while he was doing the dishes. 7) The lion can defend . 8) My mother often talks to . 9) Tim and Gerry, if you want more milk, help . 10) Alice and Doris collected the stickers . EX.4. Alegei pronumele relativ corect: who, which or whose: 1) I talked to the boy car had broken down in front of the building. 2) Mr John, is a taxi driver, lives in the neighbourhood. 3) We often visit our aunt in Bucharest is in the south of Romania. 4) This is the boy comes from France. 5) That's Irina, the girl has just arrived at the airport. 6) Thank you very much for your e-mail was very interesting. 7) The man, father is a professor, forgot his umbrella. 55

8) The children, shouted in the street, are not from our school. 9) The car, driver is a young man, is from England. 10) What did you do with the money your parents lent you? EX 5. Alegei pronumele corecte din lista de mai jos: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves or each other. Example: Daniel and Irina have known since 2007. Answer: Daniel and Irina have known each other since 2000. 1) John and Angela haven't met for a very long time. 2) My friends enjoyed at the party. 3) Daniel repaired computer car . 4) We helped with our written task. 5) People often give presents at Christmas. 6) I bought a new record player. 7) Katie, did you do the homework ? 8) They looked at and smiled. 9) They often write e-mails to because they're best friends. 10) She only thinks of . She's a little bit selfish.

ADJECTIVUL- THE ADJECTIVE


este partea de vorbire care: a) exprim o calitate a unui obiect (an interesting class, a young man) b) are categoria gramatical a comparaiei: He is taller than his sister. Comparaia adjectivelor (The Comparison of Adjectives) 1. Adjectivele monosilabice primesc -(e)r la comparativ i the -(e)st la superlativ: small - smaller - the smallest ( mic-mai mic-cel mai mic) short - shorter - the shortest (scurt- mai scurt-cel mai scurt) Observaie: La ortografiere pot aprea unele modificri: big - bigger - the biggest (mare-mai mare- cel mai mare) hot - hotter - the hottest (fierbinte- mai fierbinte-cel mai fierbinte) fat - fatter - the fattest (gras-mai gras-cel mai gras) thin - thinner - the thinnest (subire-mai subire-cel mai subire) happy - happier - the happiest (fericit-mai fericit- cel mai fericit) angry - angrier - the angriest (nervos- mai nervos- cel mai nervos) 2. Adjectivele formate din dou sau mai multe silabe formeaz comparativul i superlativul cu ajutorul lui more i the most : careful - more careful - the most careful (grijuliu- mai grijuliu- cel mai grijuliu) difficult - more difficult - the most difficult (dificil- mai dificil- cel mai dificil) 3. Adjectvele compuse formeaz gradele de comparaie n felul urmtor: a) cnd primul element este un adjectiv care i pstreaz sensul, acesta se schimb la comparativ i superlativ: well-known better-known - the best-known (binecunoscut) ill-paid - worse-paid - the worst-paid (prost pltit) intelligent-looking, - more intelligent-looking - the most intelligent-looking (privire inteligent) 56

b) cnd cele dou elemente formeaz un tot din punct de vedere al sensului comparaia se realizeaz cu ajutorul lui more i the most : heart-broken - more heart-broken - the most heart-broken (inima frnt) comparativului de egalitate i inferioritate: My room is as large as hers (la fel de mare ca) My homework is not as easy as yours. This film is less interesting than the previous one. (mai puin interesant dect) superlativul absolut se construiete cu ajutorul adverbelor very, too, highly, extremely, utterly : The film was very amusing . It is extremelly difficult to make such a film. 4.Adjective neregulate good - better - the best ( bun- mai bun- cel mai bun) bad - worse - the worst (ru- mai ru- cel mai ru) much- more- the most (mult- mai mult- cel mai mult) old- older- the oldest (btrn, vechi- mai btrn, vechi- cel mai btrn, vechi) old elder- the eldest (n vrst- mai n vrst- cel mai n vrst) little -less - the least (puin, mai puin- cel mai puin) far - farther - the farthest (deprtat mai deprtat- cel mai deprtat) sau further - the furthest Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! Fill in the correct form of the words in brackets (comparative or superlative). My house is than yours. This red flower is than that yellow one. This is magazine I have ever read. Non-smokers usually live than smokers. Which is insect in the world? A holiday by the sea is than a holiday in the mountains. It is strange but often a coke is than a beer. Who is man on earth? The weather is even than last summer. He was student of all.

ADVERBUL THE ADVERB


a)arat o caracteristic a unei aciuni, a unei stri sau a unei caliti; b) poate avea categoria gramatical a comparaiei; c) ndeplinete funcia sintactic de complement circumstanial Exemplu: Is this idea really good? Locuiuni adverbiale : as a rule = de obicei; by the way = apropo; as a matter-of-fact = de fapt; at once = imediat; once in while, now and then = din cnd n cnd; to-and fro = ncoace i ncolo... Adverbele de mod sau timp se formeaz prin adugarea sufixului -ly la forma adjectivului: slow- slowly, week- weekly Excepii: true - truly; due - duly; whole wholly, beautifully, etc. Adverbele de mod (Adverbs of manner). Adverbele de mod indic modalitatea propriu-zis: well, badly, quickly, slowly etc. Ele mai pot fi adverbe: - de ntrire: actually, certainly, obviously, really; 57

- de amplificare: absolutely, completely, greatly, barely, hardly; - de afirmaie sau negaie: yes, no, of course, not at all; - de probabilitate: maybe, perhaps, probally. Adverbele de loc (Adverbs of Place) Unele adverbe de loc indic locul propriu-zis: here, there, somewhere. Altele indic direcia: aside, foward(s), backward(s), righ, left. Majoritatea adverbelor de loc pot fi folosite pentru a exprima att locul ct i direcia: Loc: He doesnt live far (Nu locuiete departe). Direcie: He didnt go far (Nu s-a dus departe). Adverbele de timp (Adverbs of Time). Adverbele de timp indic: - momentul aciunii: now, nowadays, today, then; - succesiunea n timp: afterwards, before, eventually, formerly, previosly, soon; - durata: lately, recently, since, still, yet; - frecvena: definit: weekly, three times a day; nedefinit: often, usually, seldom, once in a while. Comparaia adverbelor: Comparativ: fast - faster; early earlier quickly - more quickly; carefully - more carefully Comparativul de egalitate: She dances on ice as quickly as her brother. Comparativul de inferioritate: She dances on ice less carefully than her brother. Superlativul absolut: se formeaz cu ajutorul unor adverbe ca very, quite, most care preced adverbul respectiv. Superlativul relativ: (the) most intelligently (of all). (the) least + adverb Comparaia neregulat a adverbelor : Gradul pozitiv Gradul comparativ well (bine) better (mai bine) badly (ru) worse (mai ru) much (mult) more (mai mult) Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! Gsii adjectivul din prima propoziie i completai spaiile libere cu adverbul corespunztor: Joanne is happy. She smiles . The boy is loud. He shouts . Her English is fluent. She speaks English . Our mum was angry. She spoke to us . My neighbour is a careless driver. He drives . The painter is awful. He paints . Jim is a wonderful piano player. He plays the piano . This girl is very quiet. She often sneaks out of the house . She is a good dancer. She dances really . This exercise is simple. You have to put one word in each space.

Gradul superlativ (the) best (cel mai bine) (the) worst (cel mai ru) (the) most (cel mai mult)

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PREPOZIIA - PREPOSITION
leag pri de vorbire diferite: substantive, adjective, verbe sau adverbe de substantive sau substitute ale acestora: In the picture, I can see a woman who is sitting at a table. She is sitting on a chair. There is another chair next to the woman. Unele cuvinte sunt urmate n mod obligatoriu de anumite prepoziii: a) Substantive: - interest, progress, satisfaction + in; - cause, chance, opportunity + of; - exception, invitation, kindness + to; b) Adjective: - anxious, enthusiastic + about; - alarmed, amazed, astonished, clever, good + at; - bound, eager, famous, fit, sorry + for; - disappointed, rich, successful + in; - afraid, ashamed, aware, characteristic, fond, full, jealous, proud, sure, tired, typical, worthy + of; - affectionate, appropiate, attentive, contrary, cruel, deaf, indifferent, kind, parallel, polite, rude, thankful + to; - angry, busy, charmed, consistent, delighted, dizzy, faint, identical, pale, satisfied, stiff, wet + with; c) Verbe: - aim, arrive, fire, gaze, glance, look + at; - account, ask, blame, care, leave long + for; - conceal, die, differ, escape, hide, prevent, protect + from; - abound, believe, end, fail, originate, succeed (+-ing), + in; - accuse, boast, cure, deprive, die, remind take care + of; - agree, comment, concentrate, congratulate, mediate + on; - adapt, adjust, apply, attribute, belong, cling, conform, consent, link, listen, prefer, reduce, refer, report, sell, sail, subscribe, turn + to; - complete, flush, glow, shake, shiver, side, subscribe, supply, threaten, tremble + with. Prepositions In At On by, next to, beside Under Below Over Above Across Through To Into Towards Onto From Of Example in the kitchen, in London, in the book,in the car, in a taxi at the door, at the station, at the table, at a concert, at 45 on the table, on the left, on the first floor, on the bus, Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car. the bag is under the table the fish are below the surface put a jacket over your shirt, over 16 years of age, a path above the lake walk across the bridge, swim across the lake drive through the tunnel go to the cinema, go to London ,go to bed go into the kitchen / the house go 5 steps towards the house jump onto the table a flower from the garden, a present from Jane a page of the book, the picture of a palace 59

By Off Out of By About

a book by Mark Twain get off the train get out of the taxi by car, by bus talking about you

Prepositions of place: at, in, within, by, beside, next to, near, close to, against, over, above, on, top of; under, beneath, below, underneath, in front of, before; behind, after, between, among Prepositions of time at, on, in, by, before, after from... to, till/until, during, for, (all) through/throughout, over Prepositions of manner With (cu), without (fr), in... manner/way Prepositions of direction: to, into, onto, towards, through, across, over, up, down, along, past, by, about, around, off, out of, from Prepositions of reference : as to, as for, regarding, in regard to, concerning (formal), About, on (despre): Prepositions of cause: because of, on account of (formal), from, out of, for, through (din cauz de) Prepositions of concession: in spite, despite (formal), for all, with all (familiar) ( n ciuda, cu toat / toate... Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! EX.1. Alege prepoziia de loc corect: We live London. Would you like to go the cinema tonight? No, thanks. I was the cinema yesterday. We are going holiday next week. There is a bridge the river. The flight Bucharest Lecce was Berlin. my wall, there are many picture postcards. Who is the person this picture? Come the sitting room, we want to watch TV. The town lies 530 meters sea level. EX.2. Alege prepoziia de timp corect: 1. What are you doing the weekend? 2. I don't know yet. Maybe I'll go to the cinema Saturday. 3. That's interesting. I haven't been to the cinema so many years. 4. We could go there together the afternoon. 5. That would be great. But I would prefer to go there the evening. I am visiting my grandma Saturday. 6. That's okay. The film starts eight o'clock. 7. I can pick you up half seven. How long does the film last? 8. It lasts two hours and forty-five minutes. 9. eight a quarter to eleven. 10.That's right. But I must hurry home the film. I have to be home eleven o'clock.

60

CONJUNCTIA - THE CONJUNCTION


(lat.: conjunctio, con = impreuna; junctio = legatura) Conjunciile coordonatoare : a) copulative: and - i; as well as - precum; both... and - att... ct i; not only... but also - nu numai...dar i; b) disjunctive: or - sau; ori; either...or - sau... sau; neither...nor - nici...nici; c) adversative: but - dar, ci; exemple: I see a boy and a girl. = Vd un biat i o fat. He speaks English as well as German. = El vorbete engleza precum i germana. Conjunciile subordonatoare - universale: that - c; if, whether dac - specializate: de loc: where - unde; wherever - oriunde; b) de timp: when - cnd; since - de cnd; till/until - pn cnd; while/as - n timp ce; before nainte ca; after - dup ce; c) de mod: (exactly) as; (just) as - (aa) cum; (exact) cum; d) de cauz: as, since, because - deoarece, fiindc; e) de scop: so that, in order that/so (that) (mai formal) - (pentru) ca, cu scopul ca. f) condiionale: if - dac; provided (that) / on condition (that) as long as/so longs as - cu condiia; unless - afar dac, numai dac nu; g) consecutive: so that - nct; so (familiar) - nct; so/such... (that) - aa/astfel... nct; h) concesive: though, although (mai formal), while, whereas (formal), even if.though - dei, cu toate c, chiar dac; i) comparative: as...as - mai (mult)... dect; as if/as though - ca i cum, de parc. Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! EX.1. Alegei conjuncia coordonatoare potrivit din urmtoarele: and, but, or, so 1. Daniel was cold, he put on a coat. 2. Maria tried to translate the text, it was too difficult. 3. To get from Piteti to Bucharest, you can take a bus, you can go by car. 4. I bought a bottle of wine, we drank it together. 5. The teacher was not very nice, the mark was good. 6. I went to buy my favorite CD, the shop didn't have it. 7. Irina needed some money, she took a part-time job. 8. There's so much noise in the building lately! Maybe it's because of the new family who has just moved in , maybe it's just coincidence. 9. Julie has a guitar, she plays it really well. 10. The concert was cancelled, we went to a disco instead. EX.2 Alegei conjuncia subordonatoare potrivit: Daniel couldn't buy any presents he didn't have any money. a. even though b because I don't drink coffee it makes me nervous. a. as b. although it was snowing, I wasnt cold. a. Although b. Because She doesn't speak English, she can't translate that text. 61

a. Whereas b. Since Daniel passed the exam first time his brother had to retake it four times. a. as b. while Paula got the job she wanted she had no experience. a. even though b. as I will be late today my car has broken down. a. because b. though my wife likes to travel abroad, I prefer to stay at the countryside for my vacations. a. Whereas b. Since

INTERJECIA- INTERJECTION
Clasificare: Cu ajutorul interjeciilor se exteriorizeaz: 1) senzaii i sentimente : a) bucurie: Ah ! Ooh ! Jippee ! Hurray ! (a, ah, ura!). b) surpriz: Oh ! Wow ! (a, ah, oh!). Oh, what a nice dress ! c) mirare: Oh, dear ! Dear me ! Indeed ! (vai drag, vai de mine, ntr-adevr) Oh, dear, I cant find my purse. Dear me ! What are you doing over there ? d) admiraie: Whew !(ah, doamne): Whew, how beautiful she is ! e) nelegere: Aha ! (a, aha!): Aha, these gloves are exactly what I was looking for. f) dispre: Fie ! Pshaw ! What a shame! (Ptiu, pah, ce ruine!): Fie upon you ! You ought to be ashamed at what you have done. g) dezgust: Ugh! (h!): Ugh, how dirty your hands are ! h) aprobare: Well done ! Congratulations ! (Foarte bine! Felicitri!) Well done, Peter ! Youve passed all your exams brilliantly. i) dezaprobare: Nonsense! What a nuisance! (Prostii ! Ce pacoste!): What a nuisance! Now Ill have to do it all over again! j) regret: Ah! Oh! What a pity! (a!, oh! ce pcat!): What a pity you couldnt come! It was a good play. k) durere: Ouch! Ow! (vai, ah, aoleu!): ouch, it hurts! 2) manifestri de voin : a) o rugminte, un ndemn: Oh! Help! (oh! Ajutor!); Ssh! Hush! Silence! (Sst, linite!): Hush! The babys sleeping! b) o ncurajare: Cheer up! Come on! (Curaj! Haide!): Come on, dont be afraid! Youll be fine. c) o avertizare: Look Out! Fire! (Atenie! Foc!): Fire ! The house is on fire! 3) se reproduc sunete i zgomote din mediul nconjurtor : Bow - wow ! Miaow! Baa! Buzz! (Ham - ham ! Miau! Beh! Bzzz!): Bang! Click! Crash! Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! Alegei interjecia potrivit situaiilor de mai jos. Putei folosi interjecii ca: ah, hello, dear, eh, allas, hmm, oh, well, er, uh-huh, ouch, etc. 1. " , that feels good" 2. " , she's dead now" 3. " Oh ! Does it hurt ?" 62

4. "What do you think of that, ?" 5. "Lima is the capital of.... ...Peru" 6. " John, How are you today ?" 7. " , I'm not so sure" 8. " , please say 'yes' !" 9. " , what did he say " 10. " 85 divided by 5 is... ...17" 11. "Shall we go ? " " " 12. " ! That hurts !"

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PARTEA A II-A

PRILE DE PROPOZIIE (The Parts of the Sentence)


Prile de propoziie se clasific n: 1) pri principale de propoziie: subiectul i predicatul; 2) pri secundare de propoziie: complementul direct, indirect, prepoziional, elementul predicativ suplimentar, complemente circumstaniale (de timp, loc, mod, cauz etc.) i atributul.

SUBIECTUL THE SUBJECT


Subiectul este partea principal de propoziie despre care se spune ceva cu ajutorul predicatului. Exemple:He is a really nice guy. My dog attacked the burglar. David plays the piano The police interviewed all the witnesses. The man who had followed us inside walked over to the telephone. Subiectul simplu: man Subiectul complex: the man who had followed us inside Subiectul compus: The man and the woman walked over to the telephone.

PREDICATUL - THE PREDICATE


Predicatul este partea principal de propoziie care atribuie subiectului o aciune, o stare sau o nsuire. Predicatul nominal este alctuit din: un verb copulativ + un nume predicativ. Verbe copulative: a. verbul be: He is clever. El este detept b. verbe ale devenirii: become, get, grow, turn : Her hair has turned grey. A ncrunit. She is getting old. mbtrnete. c. Verbe ale continurii n aceeai stare : continue, keep, remain, hold, stay . He kept silent. Tcea. d. verbe ale aparenei: appear, look, seem : She seemed ill. Prea bolnav. He looks pale. Este palid. Numele predicativ este exprimat: a) printr-un substantiv sau echivalent al acestuia: My nephew has become a doctor. b) printr-un adjectiv, singur sau cu o complinire: She was happy. She was eager to come. c) printr-un participiu trecut: The village seemed deserted .

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Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! EX.1.ncercuii subiectele i subliniai predicatele din propoziiile de mai jos. 1. Yesterday, Ross and Monica took their children to the zoo. 2. The elephants, the lions, and all of the other animals were outside. 3. The president of the bank looked everywhere for the papers. 4. They listened quietly. 5. The yellow race car with red stripes finished the first in the race. 6. After his speech, the president of the meeting shook hands with all members of the crowd. EX.2. Potrivii subiectul cu predicatul. Mai multe variante sunt posibile. Un exemplu este fcut pentru a v ajuta: Subjects The dirty yellow cat We Tom and his brother The taxi driver Anna's elderly mother The green tree snake The detective in the gray raincoat Seven rats Predicates stood outside the hotel all night. prowled through the dark alley. lived in the attic last winter. baked delicious apple pies. were late yesterday. sold used cars. was from the Middle East. waited patiently for his victim.

COMPLEMENTUL DIRECT -THE DIRECT OBJECT


I havent seen him for a long tim. Nu l-am vzut de mult. I drink milk every day. Beau lapte n fiecare zi. We enjoyed ourselves at the cinema. Ne-am distrat la cinematograf. We sing a song every day.- Interpretm un cntec n fiecare zi. Did she ask you any questions ? i-a pus vreo ntrebare ? Cuvintele subliniate sunt complemente directe. Rspund la una din ntrebrile pe cine?, ce? O alt metod pentru a afla dac un cuvnt este sau nu complement direct, este aceea de a transforma fraza respectiv la diateza pasiv. Complementul direct va trebui sa devin subiectul propoziiei la diateza pasiv. Exemplu: 1. Todd sang a song. => Passive: A song was sung by Todd. 2. Ashley became a rock star. " a rock star " nu este complement direct i deci nu poate deveni subiectul propoziiei la diateza pasiv. Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! Identificai complementul direct , apoi traducei propoziiile. 1. The computer programmer is testing his new software. 2. We suddenly realized that someone was listening. 65

3. Amy has decided to go to university. 4. They can't read what you've just written. 5. This exercise involves clicking on the screen.

COMPLEMENTUL INDIRECT- THE INDIRECT OBJECT


Please, send an email to me. Te rog trimite-mi un email. He sold his car to his best friend . i-a vndut maina celui mai bun prieten. She bought a new shirt for her husband . A cumprat o cma nou soul ei. Cuvintele subliniate sunt complemente indirecte. Rspund la ntrebarea cui? sau pentru cine? Acestea pot fi precedate sau nu de prepoziii: Exemplu: Tom sold us his old house. She bought her brother a new shirt. Complementul indirect este exprimat de regul printr-un substantiv sau echivalent al acestuia, precedat de prepoziia to sau for: We offered presents to our teacher. We offered flowers to her. She bought books for her children . Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! Identificai att complementele directe ct i indirecte din propoziiile de mai jos: 1. I owe you some money. 2. The students read English writers in their literature class. 3. Tell them the news now. 4. Will you give Mary the candy? (Hint: change it to a statement) 5. Mrs. Jones gave the students a difficult homework. 6. The principal excused the boys early last Wednesday. 7. Who taught them about the Civil War? 8. Mr. Smith gave us a long speech about science. 9. Have you written many letters this summer? 10. Mr. John gave his son the keys to his car. 11. I like rain. 12. Traffic controllers in the towers at the airport control air traffic.

COMPLEMENTUL PREPOZIIONAL - THE PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT


Complementul prepoziional este exprimat prin: a) un substantiv sau echivalent al acestuia precedat de o prepoziie: He is looking for his suit. i caut costumul. I ran after her. Am fugit dup ea. b) o construcie infinitival sau gerundial, precedat de o prepoziie: Would they agree to leave at once? Ar fi de acord s plecm imediat? He boasts of being the best football player in the school. Se laud c este cel mai bun juctor de fotbal din coal. c) o propoziie subordonat: He boasts that he is the best football player in the school . Complementul prepoziional este ntrebuinat dup: 66

a) verbe intranzitive cu prepoziie obligatorie: care for, complain of, depend on, hint at, insist on, long for, look at, pass for, warn of, wonder at, worry about : The success of the meeting will depend on the speaker s inspiration. b) verbe intranzitive cu dou prepoziii: agree with smb about smth, argue with smb about smth. He agreed with me about the plan. c) verbe tranzitive cu prepoziie obligatorie: acquaint smb with smth, advise smb. about smth, assure smb of smth, blame smb for smth, bother smb. with smth, convince smb, of smth, entrust smb with smth, mistake smb. for smth, warn smb about smth: I convinced him about the plan. d) adjective sau participii care ndeplinesc funcia de nume predicativ ntr-un predicat nominal, urmate de o prepoziie obligatorie: about: He was reasonable about her decision. at: She is good at chemistry. in: He is interested in astronomy. of: Romanias foreign trade is based on co-operation and equal rights. with: He is angry with your behaviour. Alte adjective i participii urmate de aceste prepoziii sunt: - angry, glad, happy, mad, annoyed, pleased worried + about; - angry, clever, hopeless, terrible, alarmed, amused, annoyed, delighted, pleased + at; - efficient, fortunate, lucky, persistent, (un)successful + in; - afraid, certain, conscious, fond, glad, convinced, scared + of; - dependent, insistent, keen, lent, set + on; - busy, (un)comfortable, (in)compatible, content, furious, (un)happy, impatient, sick, uneasy, annoyed, bored, concerned, delighted, disaplointed, excited, exhausted, horrified, obsessed, occupied, overcome, pleased, satisfied, upset + with. Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! Completai spaiile libere cu prepoziia potrivit: He reminds me your brother in some ways. You have similar temperaments. The must not message is designed to prevent people entering. The judge banned him driving for six months. This new software enables the user get lots of reports for the management. I don't smoke at home; I don't want to encourage the children smoke. The team manager wouldn't allow the press interview his players. The police wouldn't provide the press any details about the crime. The salesman failed to interest me any of his products.

CONSTRUCIILE COMPLEXE - COMPLEX CONSTRUCTIONS


Acuzativ cu - infinitiv - participiu prezent - participiu trecut Nominativ cu - infinitiv - participiu prezent Infinitiv cu for - to 67

Nominativul absolut cu Construciile gerundiale

-infinitivul - participiu prezent - participiu trecut

a) n construciile infinitivale ne intereseaz aciunea n sine, faptul petrecut, care este vzut ca ncheiat: We saw him sleep (= that he fell asleep ). Am vzut c a adormit. b) n construciile cu participiul n -ing, aciunea este vzut n desfurare: We saw him dancing (= that he was dancing ). L-am vzut dansnd. c) n construciile cu participiul trecut, aciunea este privit ca un rezultat: We found the dog dead. Am gsit celul mort. cu acuzativul Ac + infinitiv I saw him cross the street. cu nominativul N+ infinitiv Daniel seems to speak English fluently. N+ part. prez He was seen smoking in the living. nominativul absolut N + infinitiv He sent the tests first, the comments to come later. N absolut + part. prezent The investigation being done, the policemen headed to the station. N absolut + part.trecut: The game finished, the players left the football ground.

Ac + part. prez. She could hear her friend laughing. Acuzativ cu participiu trecut: I want this homework done immediately. Exerciii Practice

LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! EX.1.Recunoatei construciile folosite n exemplele de mai jos: 1. The day being rainy, we didnt go out. 2. The two women, their business concluded , retired to the bar. 3. The Prime Minister happened to be in Greece at the time. 4. I would like him to come. 5. The letter being written , he left to the post office. EX.2. Transferai construciile Acuzativ cu infinitiv n construcii Nominativ cu infinitiv. Exemplu: They knew her to be a good teacher. She was known to be a good teacher. 1. We expected the manager to speak first. 2. They thought him to be gifted in singing. 3. I heard him walk slowly in the dark. 4. We advised him to go to the hospital as soon as possible 5. They told us not to worry. 6. The manager asked him to explain the semester report. 7. They saw him steal the money. 8. You consider his thoughts to be very weird.

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COMPLEMENTELE CIRCUMSTANIALE DE LOC, TIMP, MOD ADVERBIALS


Complementul circumstanial de loc indic locul, punctul de plecare, direcia sau limita unei aciuni sau stri. Complementul circumstanial de timp indic: a) momentul aciunii: now, nowadays, today, then; b) succesiunea de timp: afterwards, before, eventually, formerly, previously, soon. c) durata: lately, recently, since, still, yet; d) frecvena: weekly, three times a day, often, usually, seldom, once in a while. Complementul circumstanial de mod indic modul n care se ndeplinete o aciune sau apare o nsuire. Complementul circumstanial de loc (The Adverbial of Place) este exprimat prin: a) un adverb sau o perifraz advebial de loc: He is here. He was walking to and fro. b) un substantiv cu sau fr prepoziie: Helen is in town for the moment./ They went home. c) un substantiv n cazul genitiv precedat de o prepoziie: We buy vegetables at the greengrocer's . d) o propoziie circumstanial de loc: We do our shopping where everybody else does . Complementul circumstanial de timp (The Adverbial of Time) este exprimat prin: a) un adverb de timp: My parents arrived yesterday. b) o perifraz adverbial de timp: They visit their relatives from time to time. c) o construcie adverbial: Tom was born in 1965. d) nominativul absolut cu participiul trecut: His homework written the boy went out to play. e) un participiu prezent sau trecut, precedat de o conjuncie temporal: He doesnt feel quite well when sailing by their ship. f) un gerund precedat de o prepoziie: On leaving the house, she asked me to make certain the lights were off.. g) un substantiv introdus ntr-o conjuncie temporal: While in Romania he learned to manage by himself. 3) o propoziie circumstanial de timp: He is always air sick when he travels by plane. Complementul circumstanial de mod (The Adverbial of Manner) - indic felul, modalitatea n care decurge aciunea sau starea: well, badly, quikly, slowly. Ele mai pot reda i alte sensuri: - cantitatea: enough, much, a little; - ntrire: actually, certainly, really; - amplificare: absolutely, completely, greatly, highly, barely, scarcely; - de afirmaie sau negaie: yes, no, of course, not at all; - probabilitate: maybe, perhaps, possibly. Exemplu: The merchandise was slowly moved into the warehouse. Complementul circumstanial de mod comparativ (The Adverbial of Comparison) este exprimat: a) printr-un substantiv sau pronume precedat de prepoziia like: I slept like a baby.. b) printr-un substantiv cu prepoziie, un adjectiv, un verb la infinitiv sau participiu prezent/trecut introduse prin as if, as though : She cried as if in a terrible danger. 69

c) un substantiv, un adjectiv, pronume sau numeral, o construcie infinitival sau gerundial introduse prin conjunciile as, not so/as, than : She is as smart as her parents. d) o propoziie circumstanial de mod comparativ: She smiled as if she were extremely happy, but... . Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! Rewrite the sentences and put the adverbs in correctly. Rescriei propoziiile i punei adverbul la locul potrivit. Menionai felul adverbelor. We were in London. (last week) He walks his dog. (rarely) She waited. (patiently) My father goes fishing. (always) Your bedroom is. (upstairs) We don't go skiing. (in summer) Cats can hear. (well) I saw him. (there) The girl speaks English. (fluently) I have seen that film. (never) / (before)

ATRIBUTUL - THE ATRIBUTE


Atributul modific sau determin un substntiv sau pronume care ndeplinete n propoziie funcia de: 1) subiect: The tall girl is my sister-in-law. 2) o parte secundar de prepoziie: a) complement direct sau indirect: They made an extraordinary attempt. b) complement circumstanial (de loc, timp etc.): They often go out quiet evenings. Atributul prepus: this exercise, my youngest brother,etc Atributul postpus: Did you find anything new ? Ai gsit ceva nou ? Exerciii Practice LUCREAZ SINGUR I VERIFIC LA SFRITUL CRII! 1. Those are probably boys in the school. Fanciest/ fanciest/ most fanciest 2. Uncle Daniel is really man. an old sweet/a sweet, old/ a sweet old 3. Dacia used to be car. a fine German / a German, fine/ a fine, German 4. All the family was home for the holidays. What could make for a merrier/ the merriest/ a merrier 5. They were raised in house in Bucharest. a comfortable, little/ a little, comfortable/ a comfortable little 6. Four weddings and a funeral is the movie I've ever seen. most excited/most exciting/most exciteable 7. She wanted to take a course with professor. 70

Christmas?

that interesting new Japanese economics / that Japanese interesting, new economics that interesting,new, Japanese, economics 8. Of all the mechanics in the shop, he is surely . the less competent/ the least competent/ the competentest. 9. In the fall, the valleys tend to be than the hilltops. foggy/more foggier/foggier 10. My cold is definitely this morning. worse/ worst/worser

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TEST FINAL
1.Q: What you (do)? I'm working. do you do are you doing did you do 2. Q: you always (get up) at 6 o'clock? Do you always get up Are you always getting up Do always you get up 3. Q: Daniel (have, got) a motorbike? Does John have got Has John got Have John got 4. Q: At the moment he (have) dinner. is having having has 5. Q: John doesn't like playing basketball, but he (love) playing tennis. is loving love loves 6. Q: Last winter he (go) by train from Rome to London. goed has gone went 7. Q: Mary (not, be) at work at the moment. She's at home. isn't being isn't doesn't be 8. Q: Next Wednesday my sister (go) to Paris. went goes is going 9. Q: They (take) their children to Italy last year. did take took taked 10. Q: What time he (arrive) home last Thursday? did he arrives did he arrive does he arrive 11. Q: What they (do)? They're studying. is they doing are they doing do they do 12. Q: When you (go) to France last year? you went did you go did you went 13. Q: you (have, got) any brothers or sisters? Has you got Do you have got Have you got 14. Q: John doesn't like going to the beach, but he (love) going to the mountains. loves doesn't love is loving 15. Q: Next Sunday John (come) to visit his family. comes is coming will come 16. Q: Peter (be) on holiday now. He isn't at home. will be is is going to be 17. Q: She (teach) her husband cooking last summer. did teach teached taught 18. Q: he always (have) breakfast at 7 o'clock? Is he always having Does he always has Does he always have 19. Q: Last winter she (drive) to Bulgaria. drove drived did drive 20. Q: you (have, got) a good summer job? Do you got Have you got Has you got 21. Q: Where she (study) french last year? did she study did she studied has she studied 22. Q: Mary likes visiting relatives, but she (like) talking on the telephone. doesn't like likes isn't liking 23. Q: She (watch) a documentay at the moment. watched watches is watching 24. Q: He (take) his friend to the theater last week. tooked has taken took 25. Q: Mary (not, be) on holiday now. She's at home. isn't won't be isn't being

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26. Q: What you (do)? I'm playing the guitar. is you doing do you do are you doing 27. Q: Next Saturday my brother (visit) the new museum. will visit visits is going to visit 28. Q: you always (finish) work at 8 o'clock? Do you always finish Are you always finishing Did you always finished 29. Q: They (ride) the train to England last spring. did ride rode have ridden 30. Q: What you (do) this evening? I'm doing my English homework. will you do do you do are you doing 31. Q: she often (telephone) in the evening? Does she often telephone Is she often telephoning Will she often telephones 32. Q: they (have, got) a van? Have they got Do they have got Has they got 33. Q: At the moment they (read) a magazine. are going to read reads are reading 34. Q: I (teach) my students about the mammals yesterday. taughted taught have taught 35. Q: Maria doesn't like working in the office, but she (love) working at home. loves doesn't love isn't loving 36. Q: Next Tuesday my sister (have) dinner at that new restaurant. is going to have will have has 37. Q: She (fly) to the USA last summer. flied has flown flew 38. Q: Irina (not, be) at the office tomorrow. He's on holiday. isn't going to be won't been isn't 39. Q: What she (do) yesterday evening? did she do does she do is she doing 40. Q: Daniel (have, got) a television? Have Daniel got Has Daniel got Does Daniel has got 41. Q: Where they (go) on holiday last winter? did they went have they gone did they go 42. Q: Alice loves walking in the countryside, and she (like) going to the swimming pool. doesn't like like likes 43. Q: At the moment she (listen) to some music. listens is listening has listened 44. Q: he always (play) tennis on Sundays? Do he always play Does he always plays Does he always play 45. Q: I TV when the telephone rang. watched was watching are watching have watched 46. Q: I'm afraid I'm not hungry. I've eaten breakfast. Yet still already ever 47. Q: My father let me late when I was a child. to stay out stayed out stay out staying out 48. Q: Would you like chicken? any a some one 49. Q: He has friends in London. Few few of a lot much 50. Q: She dinner by the time we arrived. had finished finished have finished finishing 51. Q: What shall we do tonight? How about a film? to see see seeing going

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52. Q: you ever to Paris? Did ... go Have .... go Have ... gone Shall .... go 53. Q: Have you finished your work ? Yet already still just 54. Q: Jack is really geography, especially Japanese history. interested at interesting in interested in interested for 55. Q: These images by an artist named John Smith. are photographed were photoed photographed were photographed 56. Q: He'll give you a call as soon as he . will arrive arrives is arriving is going to arrive. 57. Q: He found his watch the papers on the table. In among between through 58. Q: Would you mind me a hand? to give give giving given 59. Q: I think Piteti is exciting Bucharest. as ... as so ... than as ... than so ... as 60. Q: He he wanted to come. told said me said told to me 61. Q: What at work? do you have to do must you do have you to do do you 62. Q: How is he? - Daniel? He . 's fine s tall with blond hair 's quite a shy person actually 's twenty three 63. Q: He will meet you the station at 9 o'clock sharp. in front ahead in front of behind of 64. Q: If you want to be healthy, you smoke or drink alcohol. needn't couldn't shouldn't mustn't to 65. Q: He's politics. interested interesting interested to interested in 66. Q: Where was Dany yesterday? - I don't know. He seeing the doctor. might has been might have been couldn't have been mustn't have been 67. Q: Yes, that is the woman horse almost trampled her! which whose who that 68. Q: Would you like me to the kids next week? look to look at look after look into 69. Q: I missed the bus, so I take the next one. musted must had to had 70. Q: Why are your hands so dirty? - Well, I in the garden for the last two hours. have worked worked am working have been working 71. Q: Fiestas in an old city in Germany for many years now. have been making have made have been made are made 72. Q: Let me ! I didn't really want to eat all the cakes, I just couldn't help myself. to say you say you explain me explain 73. Q: Yes, we have bought the tickets to the concert and we next Saturday. I'm so excited. will go won't go shall be going are going 74. Q: Most people like rugby, but my opinion it's too chaotic. Of from in with 75. Q: Are you travelling to Prague business or holiday? For on to in 76. Q: Have you read the article Time magazine Google? on on to on in on from on 77. Q: What's that book ?

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about to from of 78. Q: I stayed the Ritz Hotel my stay in New York. in to to while at while at during 79. Q: I looked this word in the dictionary, but I still don't understand its meaning. from on up over 80. Q: We need some sugar. We're almost completely it. out out of over through 81. Q: Luckily, I made it to the station time to catch the last train. in for at to 82. Q: My house is the end of the street the left. in on at in in at at on 83. Q: The post office doesn't open 9 a.m. For until still just 84. Q: Are you or the prime minister? pro con for against with against proto contra 85. Q: Were you time for your appointment? Or were you late? to on at of 86. Q: Throw the ball Daniel, please. next beneath to against 87. Q: I got home late last night. To at _ in 88. Q: Please talk the manager and don't shout me! to to at to to at with to 89. Q: You can start the computer pressing that button. with to by from 90. Q: She was born Spain March 16, 1992. in in in to in on to in 91. Q: He was born Germany April. in to on in in in in at 92. Q: Be careful! You're going to set the paper fire! to on in with 93. Q: I need to learn these verbs heart tomorrow. by on by to from by by by 94. Q: She'll be finished the end of the week. By from to in 95. Q: You must take the medicine the next five minutes. Since until within at 96. Q: I haven't seen Larry ages! At in since until 97. Q: It is years I last played tennis. For when since at 98. Q: Jack will be out 3.30. Since at from until 99. Q: Daniel (live) in New York for the past 15 years. has lived lives lived 100. Q: Jane (work) for H &M before she came to work for us. Works worked has worked 101. Q: Are there peaches in the kitchen? Much any some a 102. Q: That is interesting book. The a an 103. Q: I went church last Sunday. At in to on

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104. Q: What he like? - He is very friendly. Does did is has 105. Q: I a new car last month. bought have bought buyed did bought 106. Q: How money do you have in your wallet? many few much some 107. Q: She came home late last night. at to in 108. Q: Daniel is a nice boy, and I like . him his it 109. Q: I get up eight o'clock every day. In on at to 110. Q: I like music. Listen listen to listening to to listening to 111. Q: What in your free time? you do do you do are you doing does you do 112. Q: My father in a software company. Works work is working is worked 113. Q: Would you like coffee? Any an some to 114. Q: I drive a car. can't to can want have 115. Q: He likes watching TV evening. in the at during in 116. Q: I drove my car the garage. In at into onto 117. Q: . Is there a bank near here? Please Excuse me Pardon Hey 118. Q: I live in . italy Italy Italian italian 119. Q: The bank is at the end of this street the left. at in on over 120. Q: The bank is the post office. near of next to next close 121. Q: There are magazines on the table. any an some a 122. Q: I would like rice. a one some any 123. Q: I went to London three years . last ago time past yet 124. Q: I would love to visit Prague sometime. Unfortunately, I (be/never) there. have never been was never will never be 125. Q: Daniel (play) tennis for five years when he (be) at school. has played was played was has played - has been 126. Q: : Do you like Chinese food? an some the 127. Q: I (work) in Spain for 5 years. I (begin) work as soon as I arrived. work began have worked - have begun have worked began 128. Q: I'm afraid I'm not hungry. I (eat/already). didn't eat already have already eaten haven't already eaten 129. Q: When Daniel was at school, he (learn) to play the piano. He (play) it ever since. has learned - has played learned - has played learned played

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130. Q: Could you give me some advice? I (buy) this sweater yesterday. Do you think I should take it back? Bought have bought buyed 131. Q: George lives in New York. Before she (move) here, she (live) in Seattle for 3 years. moved - has lived moved lived has moved lived 132. Q: Peter (go) to Paris last year. That means that he (be) to Paris 3 times! went - has been went was has gone was 133. Q: Just a moment! I (not think) of a good idea yet! haven't thought didn't think don't think 134. Q: Irina (believe) that for ages! believes has believed was believed 135. Q: How long (you/live) there before coming here? have you lived did you live do you live 136. Q: She (write) the email but doesn't know how to send it. has written writes written 137. Q: I (just/have) something done to my hair. Do you like it? have just had just have had just have 138. Q: Hurry up! The concert (begin) and we are late. Begins has begun began 139. Q: Andra (record) many albums and will probably make many more. records has recorded recorded 140. Q: Nat King Cole (record) many albums during his great career. records has recorded recorded 141. Q: How many magazines (read) this year? did you read do you read have you read 142. Q: How many books (read) last year? do you read have you read did you read 143. Q: (newspaper/arrive)? Yes, Daniel is reading it at the moment. Did the newspaper arrived Does the newspaper arrive Has the newspaper arrived 144. Q: Where (you/find) that book? - I (find) it in the library. have you found - have found did you find found did you find - have found 145. Q: (you/smoke) a lot before becoming a non-smoker? Have you smoked Did you smoked Did you smoke 146. Q: He (leave) the shop a few minutes ago. was left left has left 147. Q: She (not leave) the house yet. has left hasn't left didn't leave 148. Q: I (not know) you (be) here! (you/be) here long? haven't known - were - Have you been didn't know - were - Have you been didn't know - have been - Have you been 149. Q: (you/see) today's paper? Do you see Have you seen Are you seeing 150. Q: I'm tired. I (not get) much sleep last night. haven't got didn't get wasn't get

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Cheia exerciiilor
Present Tense Simple Afirmativ: I leave home at 12 oclock but my friend leaves home at 1 oclock. I go to work by car but my friend goes to work by train. I speak English well but my friend speaks English badly. I get home at six but my friend gets home at seven. I have two kids but my friend has three. Interogativ: Do you leave home at 12 o clock? Does he leave home at 1 oclock? Do you go to work by car? Does he go to work by train? Do you speak English well? Does he speak English badly? Do you get home at six? Does he get home at seven? Do you have two kids? Does he have three kids? Negativ: I dont leave home at 12 oclock. My friend doesnt leave home at 1 oclock. I dont go to work by car. My friend doesnt go to work by train. I dont speak English. My friend doesnt speak English badly. I dont get home at six. My friend doesnt get home at seven. I dont have two kids. My friend doesnt have three kids. Past Tense Simple Afirmativ He spent three days in the Danube Delta last month. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Daniel got up early in the morning and (do) morning exercises. Then he washed and ate/had breakfast with his parents. After that he went fishing with his friends Irina and Larry. He swam in the Danube in the evening. The weather was fine all the time. Daniel made a lot of friends there. He came back home in September to go to school.

Interogativ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Did he spend three days in the Danube Delta last month? Did Daniel get up early in the morning and do morning exercises? Did he wash and eat/have breakfast with his parents? After that did he go fishing with his friends Irina and Larry? Did he swim in the Danube in the evening? Was the weather fine all the time? Did Daniel make a lot of friends there? Did he come back home in September to go to school? 78

Future Tense Simple Situation 1 Daniel: 1. Ill work in the lab tomorrow. 2. Ill do an interesting experiment tomorrow. 3. Ill obtain hydrogen in the Chemistry lesson. 4. Ill learn interesting things next week. 5. Ill study hydrogen next week. 6. Ill ask the teacher a lot of questions. Situation 2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Larry will not /wont read his lesson later. Larry will not /wont go to the cinema next Sunday. He will not /wont go shopping tomorrow morning. He will not /wont help you tomorrow evening. He will not /wont have an experiment in the chemistry lab next week. He will not /wont wash the car on Sunday morning. He will not /wont buy a new car next year. He will not /wont take a new project next month.

Grandpa: Where will you work? What will you do? What will you obtain? When will you learn? What will you study? Who will you ask ?

Present Perfect I. Pune verbele din parantez la Prezentul Perfect Simplu: 1. I have just fixed my car. 2. Father has just left home. 3. They have just arrived to the theatre. 4. We have just seen our Math teacher. 5. He has just begun to cry. II. Completeaz urmatoarele propoziii folosind timpul Prezent Perfect Simplu: 1. That is the most interesting movie he has ever seen. 2. This is the best book she has ever read. 3. This is the biggest mall they have ever visited. 4. These are the most attractive souvenirs they have ever bought. 5. Those are the most wonderful monuments they have ever seen. Past Perfect 1. Had Daniel seen the Black Sea before? Yes, he had. Had Irina seen the Black Sea before? No, she hadnt. 2. Had Daniel swum in the sea before? Yes, he had. Had Irina swum in the sea before? No, she hadnt. 79

3. Had Daniel sunbathed on the beach before? Yes, he had. Had Irina sunbathed on the beach before? No, she hadnt. 4. Had Daniel gone fishing in the sea before? Yes, he had. Had Irina gone fishing in the sea before? No, she hadnt. 5. Had Daniel walked down the beach before? Yes, he had. Had Irina walked down the beach before? No, she hadnt. 6. Had Daniel stayed at a hotel before? Yes, he had. Had Irina stayed at a hotel before? No, she hadnt. 7. Had Daniel made the tour of Constan a before? Yes, he had. Had Irina made the tour of Constan a before? No, she hadnt. 8. Had Daniel visited Eforie Nord before? Yes, he had. Had Irina visited Eforie Nord before? No, she hadnt. Present Continuous 1. Larry is working in his office now. 2. Daniel is typing a letter in the secretariate 3. Ioana is presenting a project in the conference room. 4. Maria is speaking on the phone in the hall now. 5. Matei is meeting some clients in the guests room. Past Tense Continuous 1. Daniel and John were working in the office when Mr Smith came in. 2. Matei and Maria were speaking on the phone when Mr Smith came in. 3. Ioana was writing a report when Mr Smith came in. 4. Martha was watering the flowers when Mr Smith came in. 5. Victor was talking to his coleague when Mr Smith came in. 6. Angela was opening the windows when Mr Smith came in. 7. Mark and Chris were looking at some pictures when Mr Smith came in. 8. Fiona was reading the newspapers when Mr Smith came in. Future Continuous 1) She will be meeting him next week. (to meet) 2) We will be arriving in Pitesti just about now. (to arrive) 80

3) At 7 o'clock on Monday they will be singing the new song. (to sing) 4) He will be sleeping when you call her. (to sleep) 5) It will probably be raining when I reach Madrid. (to rain) 6) Mary will be watching a video when I arrive tonight. (to watch) 7) You will be eating spaghetti soon. (to eat) 8) This time next week he will be flying to Africa. (to fly) 9) Peggy will be coming to the party on Sunday. (to come) 10) Tomorrow at nine I will be writing a test paper. (to write) Present Perfect Continuous 1. We have been talking about that horrible accident for half an hour. 2. She has been cooking a chicken soup for 1 hour. 3. They have been phoning the manager for the last five minutes. 4. Mary has been living in Manhattan since June 1998. 5. It has been raining since morning. Past Perfect Continuous She had been sleeping for 10 hours when he woke us up. We had been waiting at the station for 60 minutes when the train finally arrived. They had been looking her ring for three hours and then we found it in the bathroom. I had not been walking for a long time, when it suddenly began to rain. How long had she been learning English before she went to London? She had been driving less than an hour when he ran out of gas. They were very tired in the evening because they had been helping on the farm all day. I had not been working all day; so I wasn't tired and went to the disco at night. They had been cycling all day so their legs were sore in the evening. Future Perfect Continuous Mike: Helen has been in the kitchen all day long. Ross: It doesn't sound like she's having a very good birthday party. Mike: She will have been cooking for over five hours by the time everyone arrives for dinner.Hopefully, she will have finished everything by then. Ross: Maybe we should give her a helping hand. Diateza: 1. He has been appointed president. I have been given a good dictionary. You will be told what time the bus leaves. The carpender will be paid for his work. They were promised new bicycles. 2. This bed has not been slept in. The children were well looked after. The dog was run over by a bus. You will be laughed at if you wear this dress.

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Persoana i numrul 1) He is dreaming. 2) It is green. 3) They are on the wall. 4) It is running. 5) We are watching TV. 6) They are in the garden. 7) He is riding his bike. 8) She is from Bristol. 9) She has got a brother. 10) Have you got a computer, Mandy? Subjonctivul 1. It is very important that all employees be dressed in their proper uniforms before 6:30 a.m. 2. I wish my sister were here. 3. The coach insisted that Mario play the center position, even though he's much too short for that position.. 4. Mary hoped that the meeting be adjourned. 5. My mother would know what to do. Oh, would that she were here with us now! 6. If only Mark were a little more responsible in his choice of courses! 7. If Mrs. Smith had been ill that night, the Smiths would not have gone to the cinema. 8. Her employees treated Mrs. Smith as though she were a queen. 9. I wish I felt better today. Infinitivul i gerunziul 1) I can't imagine Peter going by bike. 2) He agreed to buy a new car. 3) The question is easy to answer. 4) The man asked me how to get to the airport. 5) I look forward to seeing you at the weekend. 6) Are you thinking of visiting London? 7) We decided to run through the forest. 8) The teacher expected Sarah to study hard. 9) She doesn't mind working the night shift. 10) I learned to ride the bike at the age of 5. Participiul trecut: the lost son an interested audience a broken leg an emptied bottle a closed door a decorated room two packed bags the written letters the sold car the bought apples 82

Verbele auxiliare What have you done? I do not like this song. Does she know that you are here? The lesson has not started yet. Do you drink milk? Who has eaten my biscuits? It does not matter. They do not want to play outside. We have not seen you for a long time. My friend has sent me some photos. The train has just arrived. Do you understand? They have been learning English for two years. Have you heard that? My uncle does not eat fish. I do not live here. Has anybody rung up for me? She does not play the piano. How do we get there? Where does he live? Verbele modale Ex.1. 1.We couldn't go to the party. We're going to a wedding. 2. He would be able to pass the exam if he studied harder. 3. I can't remember his name. 4. They weren't able to go. The weather was too bad. 5. Sorry, Teacher. I haven't been able to do it yet. Ex. 2 1. I must be at the meeting by 10:00. I will probably have to take a taxi if I want to be on time. 2. You mustn't submit the application if it has not been completely filled out. If the form is not complete, you will be rejected and you will have to reapply at a later date. 3. Tina: Look at these flowers - they're beautiful! But, there's no card. Who could have sent them? Stephanie: It must have been David. He's the only one who would send you flowers, you know. 4. You mustn't forget to pay the rent. Mr Daniel is very strict about paying on time. 5. You don't have to be like this! Why don't you try saying "please" once in a while. Ex 3. 1. Mike's flight from Paris took more than 7 hours. He must be quite exhausted after such a long flight. 2. The books are optional. My teacher said we could read them if we needed extra credit. But we don't have to read them if we don't want to. 3. Daniel couldn't hear a word because the crowd was cheering so loudly. 4. The refrigerator isn't working. It must have been damaged during the move. 5. Mike: Can you hold your breath for more than a minute? Jack: No, I can't. 83

6. You don't have to be rich to be famous. Some of the most successful people I know haven't got a penny. 7. I've redone this math problem at least ten times, but my answer is wrong according to the answer key. So, the answer in the book must be wrong! 8. You couldn't do the job if you didn't speak three languages fluently. 9. You shouldn't worry so much. It doesn't do you any good. Either you get the promotion, or you don't. If you don't, just apply for another job. 10. You may leave the table once you have finished your dinner and politely excused yourself. 11. Jenny's engagement ring is speechless! It must have cost a fortune. 12. Shall we move into the living room? There's a beautiful view of the forest from there. 13. You had better take along some cash. The shop may not accept credit cards. 14. The machine can start moving by pressing the left button. 15. I can't stand these people - I dont understand their priciples, so you get rid of them! 16. Do you always have to say the first thing that pops into your head. Can't you think once in a while before you open your mouth? 17. Daniel and Mathew said they would come over right after work, so they should be here by 5:00. 18. You shall no longer suffer this injustice! Freedom shall be yours! 19. If I had gone to an University in England, I could have participated in their English immersion program. 20. The lamp might not be broken. Maybe the light bulb just burned out or something. Substantivul: Ex 1. 1) This is Peter's book. 2) Let's go to the Smiths'. 3) The children's room is upstairs. 4) John's sister is twelve years old. 5) Susan and Steve's bags have blue stickers. 6) Men's shoes are on the second floor. 7) My parents' car was not expensive. 8) Charles's CD player is new. 9) This is the boy's bike. 10) These are the boys' pencils. Ex. 2. 1) half halves 2) kilo kilos 3) woman women 4) mouth mouths 5) foot feet 6) sheep sheep 7) penny pence 8) bus buses 9) day days10) fish fish Ex 3. 1) a piece of advice 4) a glass of milk 7) a slice of meat 10) a jar of jam Ex.4. ira = air eber = beer

2) a packet of rice 5) a cup of tea 8) a barrel of oil

3) a bar of chocolate 6) a bottle of lemonade 9) a game of tennis

aet = tea einw = wine

ikn = ink ilo = oil doow = wood acek = cake

fgo = fog aclo = coal

ahir = hair

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Articolul This coat was designed by a famous New York artist. Can you tell me how to get to a bank from here? The city museum is closed today. He is one of the smartest people I know. I recommend you eat the apple pie at this restaurant. milk is good for you. Would you like to see the/a movie? An apple a day keeps the doctor away. I can't believe I failed the yesterday's test! Do you have a dictionary that I can borrow? Adjectivul demonstrativ 1. THIS beach was quite empty last year. 2. THIS exhibition will be open until the end of May. 3. THESE people come from that hotel over there. 4. What does thatnotice say? 5. THAT exhibition closed a month ago. 6. He was dismissed on the 13th. THAT night the factory went on fire. 7. Do you see THOSE birds at the top of the tree? 8. THESE are the old classrooms.Those are the new ones. 9. THIS is my cousin, Jessica. 10. Wasn't THAT a horrible thing to say? Adjectivul posesiv 1 He's from Spain. His name's Alberto. 2 They're married. Their children's names are Lauren and Daniel. 3 We're brothers. Our parents are French. 4 She's eight. Her brother's nine. 5 I'm British. My name's Peter. 6 You're students. Your books are in the classroom. Adjectivul interogativ 1. What time is the flight ? 2. Which girl has a red bag ? 3. Whose mother is a nurse ? 4. What subject do you like ? 5. Whose books are these ? Adjectivul nehotrt 1. Do any black people work in your company? Yes, there are some. 2. She hasn't any clothes to wear to the party. No problem, I can give her some. 3. Mary, there is no gas in the car. Oh, no. We had better get some. 4. Are there any good movies this weekend? No, there are none. 85

5.

I want to take a shower; is there any hot water? I'm sorry, there is no hot water.

Numeralul 1. hundreds 2. two dozen 3. five-thousand-word 4. Lesson Nine 5. three-fifths Pronumele EX. 1. 1) He is dreaming. 2) It is green. 3) They are on the wall. 4) It is running. 5) We are watching TV. EX.2. My name is John. This is my friend Jason. He's 32. His sister is 34 and her workplace is very near. Jason and I work in the same office. There are 150 employees in our company. EX.3. 1) Robert made this T-shirt himself. 2) Lisa did the homework herself 3) We helped ourselves to some cola at the party. 4) Emma, did you take the photo all by yourself? 5) I wrote this poem myself. 6) He cut himself with the knife while he was doing the dishes. 7) The lion can defend itself. 8) My mother often talks to herself. 9) Tim and Gerry, if you want more milk, help yourselves. 10) Alice and Doris collected the stickers themselves. EX. 4. 1) I talked to the boy whose car had broken down in front of the building. 2) Mr John, who is a taxi driver, lives in the neighbourhood. 3) We often visit our aunt in Bucharest which is in the south of Romania. 4) This is the boy who comes from France. 5) That's Irina, the girl who has just arrived at the airport. 6) Thank you very much for your e-mail which was very interesting. 7) The man, whose father is a professor, forgot his umbrella. 8) The children, who shouted in the street, are not from our school. 9) The car, whose driver is a young man, is from England. 10) What did you do with the money which your parents lent you? EX.5. 1) John and Angela haven't met each other for a very long time. 2) My friends enjoyed themselves at the party. 3) Daniel repaired computer car himself. 4) We helped each other with our written task. 86 6. two thousand 7. thirties 8. the third 9. one year and a half 10 the one hundred forty-ninth

5) People often give each other presents at Christmas. 6) I bought myself a new record player. 7) Katie, did you do the homework yourself? 8) They looked at each other and smiled. 9) They often write e-mails to each other because they're best friends. 10) She only thinks of herself. She's a little bit selfish. Adjectivul My house is bigger than yours. This red flower is more beautiful than that yellow one. This is the most interesting magazine I have ever read. Non-smokers usually live longer than smokers. Which is the most dangerous insect in the world? A holiday by the sea is better than a holiday in the mountains. It is strange but often a coke is more expensive than a beer. Who is the richest man on earth? The weather is even worse than last summer. He was the cleverest student of all. Adverbul Joanne is happy. She smiles happily . The boy is loud. He shouts loudly. Her English is fluent. She speaks English fluently. Our mum was angry. She spoke to us angrily . My neighbour is a careless driver. He drives carelessly. The painter is awful. He paints awfully. Jim is a wonderful piano player. He plays the piano wonderfully. This girl is very quiet. She often sneaks out of the house quietly. She is a good dancer. She dances really well. This exercise is simple. You simply have to put one word in each space. Prepoziia EX. 1. We live in London. Would you like to go to the cinema tonight? No, thanks. I was at the cinema yesterday. We are going on holiday next week. There is a bridge across the river. The flight from Bucharest to Lecce was via Berlin. On my wall, there are many picture postcards. Who is the person in this picture? Come into the sitting room, we want to watch TV. The town lies 530 meters above sea level. EX.2. 1. What are you doing at the weekend? 2. I don't know yet. Maybe I'll go to the cinema on Saturday. 3. That's interesting. I haven't been to the cinema for so many years. 4. We could go there together in the afternoon. 87

5. That would be great. But I would prefer to go there in the evening. I am visiting my grandma on Saturday. 6. That's okay. The film starts at eight o'clock. 7. I can pick you up at half past seven. How long does the film last? 8. It lasts for two hours and forty-five minutes. 9. From eight till a quarter to eleven. 10.That's right. But I must hurry home after the film. I have to be home by eleven o'clock. Conjuncia EX.1. 1. Daniel was cold, so he put on a coat. 2. Maria tried to translate the text, but it was too difficult. 3. To get from Piteti to Bucharest, you can take a bus, or you can go by car. 4. I bought a bottle of wine, and we drank it together. 5. The teacher was not very nice, but the mark was good. 6. I went to buy my favorite CD, but the shop didn't have it. 7. Irina needed some money, so she took a part-time job. 8. There's so much noise in the building lately! Maybe it's because of the new familz who has just moved in ,or maybe it's just coincidence. 9. Julie has a guitar, and she plays it really well. 10. The concert was cancelled, so we went to a disco instead. EX.2. Daniel couldn't buy any presents because he didn't have any money. I don't drink coffee as it makes me nervous. Although it was snowing, I wasnt cold. Since she doesn't speak English, she can't translate that text. Daniel passed the exam first time while his brother had to retake it four times. Paula got the job she wanted even though she had no experience. I will be late today because my car has broken down. Whereas my wife likes to travel abroad, I prefer to stay at the countryside for my vacations. Interjecia 1. " AH , that feels good" 2. " ALAS, she's dead now" 3. " Oh DEAR ! Does it hurt ?" 4. "What do you think of that, EH ?" 5. "Lima is the capital of.... ER....Peru" 6. " HELLO John, How are you today ?" 7. " HMM, I'm not so sure" 8. " OH , please say 'yes' !" 9. " WELL, what did he say " 10. " 85 divided by 5 is... UM...17" 11. "Shall we go ? " " UH-HUH " 12. " OUCH ! That hurts !" Subiectul i predicatul EX.1. 1. Yesterday, (Ross and Monica )took their children to the zoo. 2. (The elephants, the lions, and all of the other animals) were outside. 88

3. (The president of the bank ) looked everywhere for the papers . 4. (They) listened quietly. 5. (The yellow race car with red stripes) finished the first in the race . 6. After his speech,( the president of the meeting) shook hands with all members of the crowd . EX.2. 1. The dirty yellow cat prowled through the dark alley/ lived in the attic last winter. 2. We stood outside the hotel all night./ baked delicious apple pies./ were late yesterday. 3. Tom and his brother stood outside the hotel all night./ baked delicious apple pies./ were late yesterday./ sold used cars. 4. The taxi driver stood outside the hotel all night./ was from the Middle East. 5. Anna's elderly mother baked delicious apple pies./ was from the Middle East. 6. The green tree snake was from the Middle East. 7. The detective in the gray raincoat stood outside the hotel all night./ waited patiently for his victim. 8. Seven rats lived in the attic last winter. Complementul direct 1. The computer programmer is testing his new software. Programatorul i testeaz noul soft. 2. We suddenly realized that someone was listening . Deodat ne-am dat seama c cineva asculta. 3. Amy has decided to go to university. Amy s-a hotrt s mearg la facultate. 4. They can't read what you've just written . Ei nu pot citi ceea ce tocmai ai scris. 5.This exercise involves clicking on the screen. Acest exerciiu implic a da click pe ecran. Complementul indirect 1. Indirect object: you. Direct object: some money 2. Direct object: English writers (no indirect object) 3. Indirect object: them. Direct object: news 4. Indirect object: Mary. Direct object: candy 5. Indirect object: students. Direct object: homework 6. Direct object: boys (no indirect object) 7. Direct object: them (no indirect object) 8. Indirect object: us. Direct object: speech 9. Direct object: letters (no indirect object) 10. Indirect object: son. Direct object: keys 11. Direct object: rain (no indirect object) 12. Direct object: traffic (or air traffic)

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Complementul prepoziional He reminds me of your brother in some ways. You have similar temperaments. The must not message is designed to prevent people from entering. The judge banned him from driving for six months. This new software enables the user to get lots of reports for the management. I don't smoke at home; I don't want to encourage the children to smoke. The team manager wouldn't allow the press to interview his players. The police wouldn't provide the press with any details about the crime. The salesman failed to interest me in any of his products. Construcii complexe: EX.1. a. nominativul absolut b. nominativul absolut 3- N+ infinitiv 4- Ac + infinitive 5- N absolut + part. prezent EX.2. 1. The manager was expected to speak first. 2. He was thought to be gifted in singing. 3. He was heard walking slowly in the dark. 4. He was advised him to go to the hospital as soon as possible 5. We were told not to worry. 6. He was asked him by the manager to explain the semester report. 7. He was seen stealing the money. 8. His thoughts are considered to be very weird. Complementul circumstanial de loc,timp, mod They were in Paris. (last week) They were in Paris last week.- adverbial of time She walks his dog. (rarely) She rarely walks his dog. - adverbial of manner She waited. (patiently) She waited patiently. - adverbial of manner My father goes fishing. (always) My father always goes fishing. - adverbial of time Your bedroom is. (upstairs) Your bedroom is upstairs. - adverbial of place We don't go skiing. (in summer) We don't go skiing in summer. - adverbial of time Cats can hear. (well) Cats can hear well. - adverbial of manner I saw him. (there) I saw him there.- adverbial of place The boy speaks English. (fluently) The boy speaks English fluently. - adverbial of manner I have seen that movie. (never) / (before) I have never seen that movie before. - adverbial of time Atributul 1. Those are probably the fanciest boys in the school. 2. Uncle Daniel is really a sweet old man. 3. Dacia used to be a fine Romanian car. 4. All the family was home for the holidays. What could make for a merrier Christmas? 5. They were raised in a comfortable little house in Bucharest. 6. Four weddings and a funeral is the most exciting movie I've ever seen. 7. She wanted to take a course with that interesting new Japanese economics professor. 8. Of all the mechanics in the shop, he is surely the least competent . 9. In the fall, the valleys tend to be foggier than the hilltops. 10. My cold is definitely worse this morning. 90

TEST FINAL

1. are you doing 2. Do you always get up 3. Has John got 4. is having 5. loves 6. went 7. isn't 8. is going 9. took 10. did he arrive 11. are they doing 12. did you go 13. Have you got 14. loves 15. is coming 16. is 17. taught 18. Does he always have 19. drove 20. Have you got 21. did she study 22. doesn't like 23. is watching 24. took 25. isn't 26. are you doing 27. is going to visit 28. Do you always finish 29. rode 30. are you doing 31. Does she often telephone 32. Have they got 33. are reading 34. taught 35. loves 36. is going to have 37. flew 38. isn't going to be 39. did she do 40. Has Thomas got

41. did they go 42. likes 43. is listening 44. Does he always play 45. was watching 46. already 47. stay out 48. some 49. Few 50. had finished 51. seeing 52. Have ... gone 53. Yet 54. interested in 55. were photographed 56. arrives 57. among 58. giving 59. as ... as 60. said 61. do you have to do 62. 's fine 63. in front of 64. shouldn't 65. interested in 66. might have been 67. whose 68. look after 69. had to 70. have been working 71. have been made 72. explain 73. are going 74. in 75. on 76. in on 77. about 78. at during 79. up 80. out of

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81. in 82. at on 83. until 84. for against 85. on 86. to 87. _ 88. to at 89. by 90. in on 91. in in 92. on 93. by by 94. by 95. within 96. in 97. since 98. until 99. has lived 100. has worked 101. any 102. an 103. to 104. is 105. bought 106. much 107. 108. him 109. at 110. listening to 111. do you do 112. works 113. some 114. can 115. in the 116. into 117. Excuse me 118. Italy 119. on 120. next to

121. some 122. some 123. ago 124. have never been 125. played was 126. 127. have worked began 128. have already eaten 129. learned - has played 130. bought 131. moved lived 132. went - has been 133. haven't thought 134. has believed 135. did you live 136. has written 137. have just had 138. has begun 139. has recorded 140. recorded 141. have you read 142. did you read 143. Has the newspaper arrived 144. have you found - have found 145. Did you smoke 146. left 147. hasn't left 148.didn't know - were - Have you been 149. Have you seen 150. didn't get

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TIMPURILE LIMBII ENGLEZE - fi exemplu


PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE Affirmative: S + V (s/es for IIIrd person sg): He goes to school everyday. She drinks milk everyday. Interrogative: Do/Does + S +V Do I go to school everyday? Does she go to school everyday? Negative: S + Do/Does + Not + V I do not go to school everyday. He doesnt read this novel everyday. - Aciune general, repetabil: I read daily. - Adevruri general valabile: The Earth spins round. - Aciuni viitoare planificate n prezent ca urmare a unui program oficial PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE Affirmative: S + Have/Has (IIIrd person sg) + V3 I have met Mr. Brown. She has met Mrs. Brown. Interrogative: Have/Has + S + V3 Have you met my girlfriend? Has he met his cousin? Negative: S + Have/Has + Not + V3 I havent read his last novel. She hasnt left already. - Aciune nceput n trecut, terminat n trecut, (neprecizat timpul): I have eaten. (am mncat) - Aciune terminat n perioada de timp neterminat : I have already read the newspaper today. - Aciune nceput n trecut care se continu i n prezent: I have met her. PAST TENSE SIMPLE Affirmative: S + V2 You went to your friend yesterday. Interrogative: Did + S + V PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS Affirmative: S + Be (present) + V ing: I am eating now. Interrogative: Be (present) + S + V ing: Am I eating now? Negative: S + Be (present) + Not + V ing: I am not eating now - Aciune care se petrece n momentul vorbirii: I am reading. - Aciune temporar: This week, I am doing the homework, you are doing the cleaning and he is going shopping. - Aciune viitoare planificat n prezent (neoficial): We are spending the week end in the country.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS Affirmative: S + Have/Has + Been + Ving You have been waiting here for two hours. She has been waiting here for two hours. Interrogative: Have you been waiting here for two hours? Negative: S + Have/Has + not + Been + Ving You have not been waiting here for two hours. - Aciune nceput n trecut care se continu i n prezent: DIFERENA DINTRE PRESENT CONTINUOUS I PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS: 1. Plou= It is raining 2. Plou de mult / de= It has been rainig for

PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS (imperfect) Affirmative: S + Be (past) + V ing I was watching TV when she came. Interrogative: Be (past) + S + V ing 93

Did you go to work yesterday? Negative: S + Did + Not + V They didnt go to work yesterday? Aciune trecut terminat n moment precizat: (ago, last, yesterday, in 2004): I met her in 1981. PAST PERFECT SIMPLE (m.m.c.p.) Affirmative: S + Had + V3 They had watched TV for half an hour. Interrogative: Had + S + V3 Had they watched TV for half an hour? Negative: S + Had + Not + V3 They hadnt watched TV for half an hour. Aciune trecut terminat naintea altei aciuni trecute:ex: I had already eaten for long when you came. FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE Affirmative: S + Will/Shall + V They will go to the seaside tomorrow. Interrogative: Will/Shall + S + V Shall we go to the mountains next week? Negative: S + Will/Shall + Not + V They will not read this novel tomorrow. FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE Affirmative: S + shall/will + have + V3 They will have gone by now. Interrogative: Shall/will + S + have + V3 Will you have gone by now? Negative: S + shall/will+ Not + have + V3 They will not have gone by now.

Were you reading when I entered the room? Negative: S + Be (past) + Not + V ing He wasnt eating when she phoned. Aciune trecut n desfurare n prezent: When you entered my room, I was watching TV.

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS Affirmative: S + Had + Been + V ing She had been living in that house since 1993. Interrogative: Had + S + Been + V ing Had she been living in that house since 1993? Negative: S + Had + Not + Been + V ing She had not been living in that house since 1993. Aciune trecut nceput naintea altei aciuni trecute i continundu-se i n momentul nceperii celei de-a doua: I had been watching TV for 2 hours when you came. FUTURE CONTINUOUS Affirmative: S + Will/Shall + Be + V ing They will be going to the mountains. Interrogative: Will/Shall + S + Be + V ing Shall we be reading this novel tomorrow? Negative: S + Will/Shall + Not + Be + V ing You will not be reading this poem.

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS Affirmative: S + shall/will + have been + Ving They will have been building that house for 2 years next Christmas. Interrogative shall/will + S + have been + Ving Will they have been building that house for 2 years next Christmas? Negative: S + shall/will + not + have been + V-ing They will have been building that house for 2 years next Christmas. Exprim faptul c o aciune se va afla nca n desfurare la un anumit moment n viitor. 94

Verbul TO WORK -model


Indicative Present I work you work he/she/it works we work you work they work Present continuous I am working you are working he/she/it is working we are working you are working they are working Past perfect continuous I had been working you had been working he/she/it had been working we had been working you had been working they had been working Past perfect I had worked you had worked he/she/it had worked we had worked you had worked they had worked Future perfect I will have worked you will have worked he/she/it will have worked we will have worked you will have worked they will have worked Future perfect continuous I will have been working you will have been working he/she/it will have been working we will have been working you will have been working they will have been working Infinitive to work Past Tense I worked you worked he/she/it worked we worked you worked they worked Past continuous I was working you were working he/she/it was working we were working you were working they were working Present perfect I have worked you have worked he/she/it has worked we have worked you have worked they have worked Future I will work you will work he/she/it will work we will work you will work they will work Future continuous I will be working you will be working he/she/it will be working we will be working you will be working they will be working Present perfect continuous I have been working you have been working he/she/it has been working we have been working you have been working they have been working Participle Present Past working worked

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Bibliografie:
Leon Levichi, Ioan Preda - Gramatica limbii engleze, Ed. tiinific 1967; Alice Bdescu - Gramatica limbii engleze, Ed.tiinific, 1963; Georgiana Gleanu, Ecaterina Comiel, - Gramatica limbii engleze, pentru uz colar, Editura didactic i pedagogic Bucureti,1982 Catedra de limb i literatur englez. Universitatea din Bucureti - Gramatica limbii engleze, Ed. tiinific, 1962; Ioana tefnescu - Lectures in English Morphology, Univ. din Buc., 1978.

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