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N 1 FIZIOLOGIA SISTEMULUI NERVOS ORGANIZARE FUNCIONAL A S.N. S.N.central i peri eric S.N. al !ie"ii #e rela"ie i !e$etati!

Re"ea%a ne%r&nal' ( )* +iliar#e - ne%r&nii intercalari . c&n!er$en"a i #i!er$en"a . p&,t#e,c'rcarea - circ%ite - .ntrarile ,i ie,irile . %nc"ia re le/' - %nc"ia #e c&n#%cere - 0&ne #e inte$ra"ie NEURONUL SINA1SA NEVROGLIA REFLE2UL ELEMENTAR -arc%l re le/ .,&+atic .!e$etati!

3. FIZIOLOGIA M4UVEI S1INRII )* +eta+ere 56C7 13T7 8L7 8S9 Ner!ii ,pinali FUNCIA REFLE2 Re le/e ,&+atice re le/%l +i&tatic - e/ten,ie -c&+p&nenta a0ic' ( re le/%l ten#in&, .a:&lire ( arc re le/ .ntrer%pt .e/a$erare ( le0i%ne pira+i#al' -c&+p&nenta ,tatic' ( t&nic'7 p&,t%ral' .;ipert&nie-cl&n%, ( le0i%ne pira+i#al' re le/%l n&cicepti! - le/ie - e/ten,ie .ncr%ciat' - recr%tare pr&$re,i!' - in#%c"ie Re le/e c%tanate ( #epen#en"' c&rtical' -a:#&+inal7 cre+a,terian 5#i,par la .ntrer%perea c'ii c&rticale9 -c%tanat plantar ( le/ia #e$etetel&r Se+n%l <a:in,=i - e/ten,ia

) Re le/e !e$etati!e +e#%lare Si+patic ( t&rac&- l&+:ar 5C6-L39 - p%pil&#ilatat&r i cili&,pinal 5,in#r&+%l Cl.<ernar#->&rner? en& tal+ie7 +i&0'7 .n$%,tarea antei palpe:rale9 - car#i&accelerare - !a,&+&t&r - :r&n;&#ilatat&r - pil&+&t&r i ,%#&ra"ie - ,ali!ar - a#renalin&,ecret&r - $a,tr&-inte,tinali in;i:it&ri - c&nten"ia %rinar' - c&nten"ia ecal' - e@ac%lare 1ara,i+patic ( ,acral 5LA-S89 - +ic"i%ne - #e eca"ie - erec"ie

A FUNCTIA 4E CON4UCERE C'i a,cen#ente ( ale ,en,i:ilit'"il&r 5e/ter&cepti!7 pr&pri&cepti!7 !i,cer&cepti!9 - tactil' . ,pin&-tala+ic' !entral' . ,pin&-:%l:ar' 5G&ll-<%r#ac;9 - ter+ic' i #%rer&a,' 5,pin&-tala+ic' #&r,al'9 - !i,ceral' 5ter+ic i #%rer&,9 - pr&pri&cepti!' c&ntient' (,pin&:%l:ar' - pr&pri&cepti!' inc&ntient' 5 ,pin&-cere:el&, #irect i .ncr%ciat9 C'i #e,cen#ente 1ira+i#al .ncr%ciat 5B*-C* D9 1ira+i#al #irect E/trapira+i#ale 5!e,ti:%l&-7r%:r&-7 tect&-7&li!&-7retic%l&-9

8. INTERRELAII CERE<RO-S1INALE OMUL S1INAL >EMISECIUNEA M4UVEI - ;&+&lateral . a:&lirea +&tilit'"ii . t%l:%r'ri ,en,i:ilitate pr&pri&cepti!' - ;eter&lateral .ane,te0ie ter+&al$e0ic' - :ilateral ( #i+in%area ,en,i:ilit'"ii tactile LEZIUNI ZONALE -c&arne anteri&are ( parali0ii -preepen#i+are -.ncr%ciare ,pin&-tala+ic' 5#i,&cia"ie ,irin$&+ielic'- a:&lire ter+&al$e0ic'9 -c&r#&ane p&,teri&are ( ,en,i:ilitate pr& %n#' 5ta:e,9.

E T R U N C > I UL C E R E < RA L -Sit%a"ie ( .ntre +'#%!a ,pin'rii i e+i, erele cere:rale - Ner!i cranieni #in tr. cere:ral - 1* - Are i %nc"ii #e inte$ra"ie -C&+p&nente ( :%l:7 p%nte i pe#%nc%li cere:ral ( +e0ence al F%nc"ii - re le/' - c&n#%cere - ,peci ice #e inte$ra"ie <UL<UL RA>I4IAN Ner!i VIII - VESTI<ULO-CO>LEAR COM1ONENTA ACUSTIC A%0 ( ,c&ar"a cere:ral' Re le/e #e ac&+&#are i a#aptare COM1ONENTA VESTI<ULAR Ec;ili:r%7 p&,t%r' ( re#re,are

B I27 GLOSOFARINGIAN - Sen0iti! ( arin$e7 !'l palatin7 a+i$#ale7 %rec;ea +e#ie7 ,in%, car&ti#ian7 GUST - M&t&r ( arin$e - Ve$etati! ( $lan#a par&ti#' Re le/e -!&+' -#e$l%ti"ie -,ali!ar -#epre,&r 27 VAGUL Sen0iti! - arin$e7 larin$e7 perete p&,reri&r al c&n#%ct%l%i a%#iti! e/tern7 &r$ane t&rac&-a:#&+inale M&t&r ( arin$e7 !'l palatin7 larin$e Ve$etati! ( c&r#7 !a,e t&rac&a:#&+inale7 :r&n;&-p%l+&nar7 t%: #i$e,ti!7 icat7 pancrea, Re le/e -#e$l%ti"ia - &na"ia -!&+a - $a,tr&-inte,tinale -t%,ea - ;epat&-:iliare -re,pira"ia - pancreatice

6 2I7 S1INAL 5ACCESOR9 M&t&r ( +. intrin,eci ai larin$el%i7 !'l palatin7 ,tern&cle&#&+a,t&i#ian7 trape0 - 2II7 >I1OGLOS ( +%c;ii li+:ii REFLE2E <UL<ARE Centrii !itali ai re,pira"iei i circ%la"iei -car#i&-!a,&+&t&ri -re,pirat&r -,ali!ar -#e$l%ti"ie -,ecret&rii i +&t&rii #i$e,ti!e -#e ap'rare ( !&+'7 t%,e7 ,tr'n%t7 ,%$;i" -,tatice7 ,tat&c;inetice CENTRII FI FUNCII INTEGRATIVE - S%:,tan"a retic%lat' c% centrii re le/el&r !e$etati!e :%l:are7 ,tatice i ,tat&=inetice - Oli!a :%l:ar' ( re le/e larin$&- arin$&!el&palatine7 #e$l%ti"ie i &na"ie7 &c%l&ce al&$ire - N%cle%l !e,ti:%lar ( ec;ili:r%7 re le/e ,tatice i ,tat&c;inetice N%cleii G&ll-<%r#ac;

C 1ROTU<ERANA 51UNTEA9 NERVII - V7 TRIGEMEN - Sen0iti! ( a"a7 $%ra7 li+:a7 #in"ii - M&t&r ( +%c;ii +a,ticat&ri7 +il&;i&i#ian - VI7 A<4UCENS (+. #rept e/tern &c%lar - VI. FACIAL - Sen0iti! ( li+:a 5$%,t97 %rec;ea e/tern' - M&t&r ( +%c;ii +i+icii - Ve$etati! ($lan#ele ,ali!are ,%:+a/ilare i ,%:lin$%ale7 $lan#ele lacri+ale REFLE2ELE 1ONTINE 5c&ne/i%ne c&rte/9 - lacri+al - ,ali!ar ( centr% ,ali!at&r ,%peri&r - c&rnean #e clipire ( a:&lit .n c&+' - a%#iti! #e clipire - a%#iti!&-&c%l&$ir - +a,ticat&r - ,%$ere - +i+ica e/pre,i!' - &pti+i0at&r al re,pira"iei - +a,eterin - ,tatice i ,tat&c;inetice

1* MEZENCEFAL 5pe#%nc%lii cere:rali i tect%+9 NERVII -III7 OCULOMOTOR - +&t&r7 A +. e/trin,eci &c%lari - !e$etati!7 +.circ%lari iri, i ciliari -IV7 TRO>LEAR +. &:lic +are -patetic REFLE2E 1E4UNCULARE - +&tilitate &c%lar' e/trin,ec' REFLE2E 1U1ILARE - &t&+&t&r7 iri#&c&n,trict&r 5#i,pare - ta:e,9 - ac&+&#are la #i,tan"' 5apr&ape9 - c&n!er$en"' CENTRII INTEGRATIVI -N%cle%l r&% -S%:,tan"a nea$r' -S%:,tan"a retic%lat' COR1II CVA4RIGEMENI 5TECTUM9 - p&,teri&ri ( &pti+i0are a%#iti!' - anteri&ri ( &pti+i0are !i0%al' Re le/e a%#iti!&-&c%l&-ce al&$ire 5aria 67 ar;icere:el7 n. !e,ti:%lar9

11 REFLE2E STATICE-STATOC>INETICE -+en"inerea p&0i"iei .n ,pa"i% - +ecani,+ele p',tr'rii ec;ili:r%l%i SE4IU 1RIMAR ( tr%nc;i%l cere:ral7 +ai ale, +e0ence al9 1ARTICI1ARE CORTICAL 5le0i%ni c&rticale ( ri$i#itate #e #ecere:rare9 AFERENE - !e,ti:%lare 5e eren"e !e,ti:%l&-,pinale7 ar;icere:elare7 retic%l&-,pinale.!a$ale7 +e0ence alice9 - pr&pri&cepti!e- re le/e t&nice cer!icale ( pale&cere:el ( ,%:,tan"a retic%lat'. - e/ter&cepti!e ( lanc%l %nilateral - !i0%ale -c&n#i"i&nare 5!aria"ii #e t&n%, i +ic'ri ( p&0i"ie %n#a+ental'9 Re le/e ,tatice +ini+e - 'r' +e+:r.,%p. Re le/e ,tatice +a/i+e

13 REFLE2E STATICE 1OSTURALE ( t&nice -reac"ia #e +a$net -reac"ia #e ,%,"inere - #e c&ntracarare .e/ten,ie .ncr%ciat' ..ntin#ere c% #epla,are lateral' .$enerale ( la ,c;i+:area p&0i"iei cap%l%i La:irintice - laten"' 38* , ( ni,ta$+%, 5,ec%,a lent' #e partea #e!ia"iei t&nice9 Cer!icale ( laten"' E , C&n#i"i&narea re#%ce laten"a REFLE2E 4E RE4RESARE 5rel%area p&0i"iei n&r+ale a"' #e cea ne&:in%it'9 -la:irintic' -a cap%l%i .n #ec%:it lateral -cap%l i+&:ili0at in#%ce re#re,area c&rp%l%i -t&r,i%nea $Gt%l%i re#re,ea0' c&rp%l -re#re,area cap%l%i prin c&ntr&l !i0%al Re le/e #e re#re,are prin c&n#i"i&nare

1) REFLE2E STATOC>INETICE 5anticipare9 1H. #e accelera"ie-#ecelera"ie lineare ( +ac%le &t&litice 5#epla,area centr%l%i #e $re%tate la rGnare9 3H. #e accelera"ie-#ecelera"ie %n$;i%lar' ( cre,te a+p%lare 5p&0i"ie #e #i,c&:&l9 )H.reac"ia a,cen,&r%l%i AH.reac"ia #e ateri0are

1A CERE<ELUL - &r$an #e inte$ra"ie - .n #eri!a"ia c'il&r ,en0iti!e i +&t&rii - circ%ite &pti+i0at&are a +&tricit'"ii C&+p&nente ( ar;i-7 pale&- i ne&cere:el AR>ICERE<EL 5l&:%l l&c%l&-n&#%lar9 - c&nectat c% aparat%l !e,ti:%lar - t&n%, +%,c%lar 5#e ec;ili:r%7 re#re,are9 - +ic'rile $l&:%l%i &c%lar c&ne/e re le/el&r ,tatice-,tat&c;inetice Le0i%ni (+er, #e &+ :eat 1ALEOCERE<EL 5l&:%l anteri&r i partea #e !er+i, al l&:%l%i p&,teri&r9 -in &r+a"iile ,&+e,te0ice7 a%#iti!e i !i0%ale ce in#%c e/cita"ii-in;i:i"ii prin tr.cere:ral - a@%,tarea t&n%,%l%i p&,t%ral 5in &r+a"ii ,pin&-cere:el&a,e9 Le0i%ni ;ipert&nie a +. anti$ra!ita"i&nali e/a$erarea re le/el&r &,te&-ten#in&a,e t%l:%r'ri #e ,tatic' i la #e:%t%l +er,%l%i

18 NEOCERE<EL -e+i, ere cere:el&a,e -le$'t%ri :ilaterale c% ,c&ar"a cere:ral' -c&&r#&narea +icaril&r !&l%ntare ine ( c&+pararea inten"iei c% per &r+an"a 5circ%it c&rtic&-cere:el&-c&rtical9 Le0i%ni -;ip&t&nie -ata/ie .tre+%r't%ri inten"i&nale7 .#i,+etrie c% ;iper+etrie .a#ia#&c&cine0ie 5:ilateral9 .a,iner$ie SIN4ROMUL CERE<ELOS Acti!itate +&t&rie e/ce,i!' i #e0&r#&nat' - at&nie - a,ta0ie - a,tenie SCOARA CERE<ELOAS - a eren"e? . i:re +%c;i&a,e . i:re a$'"'t&are - e eren"e ( cel%la 1%r=in@e ,pre n%cleii cere:el&i ( pre#&+inant in;i:it&rii

1E Circ%ite +&#%lat&are 1H.retr&ac"i%ne in;i:it&rie 3H.in;i:i"ie anticipat' 5 ee# &rIar#9 4IENCEFALUL -0&n' inte$rati!' ,&+atic' i !e$etati!' -rele% pentr% a eren"e c&rtical C&+p&nente? epitala+%,7 ,%:tala+%,7 tala+%,7 +etatala+%,7 ;ip&tala+%,. TALAMUSUL - %nc"i&nal incl%#e i +etatala+%,%l -,ta"ie #e rele% a c'il&r ,pre ,c&ar"a -re$larea acti!it'"ii c&rticale 1H. Tran,+iterea +e,a@el&r ,en,i:ilit'"il&r e/ceptGn# cea &l acti!' -pr&iec"ie .n centrii ,peci ici c&rticali -inte$rea0' in &r+a"iile i le n%an"ea0' .n pl'c%t-nepl'c%t- inte$rare intratala+ic' -c&n#%cere peri erie-centr% .n 8-13 +,ec -,inap,ele c&rticale ,%nt a/&,&+atice - ,en,i:ilitatea inter&cepi!' are .n preala:il rele% ;ip&tala+ic

1B 3H. Tran,+itere ,en0&rial' a,&ciati!' -#eri!a"ii ale c'il&r ,peci ice .n ,%:,tan"a retic%lat' -pr&iec"ie #i %0' prin ,inap,e a/&#en#ritice -i+plicat .n re$larea t&n%,%l%i c&rtical )H. Tran,+itere ne,en0&rial' 5cere:el7 n%cleii :a0ali7 ;ip&tala+%,9 AH. Re$larea ,t'rii c&rticale - acilitat&r ( ,i,te+%l retic%lat acti!at&r 5#e,incr&ni0at&r ( ,tare !i$il'9 - in;i:it&r ( ,i,te+%l #e recr%tare tala+ic 5,incr&ni0at&r ( ,tare #e ,&+n9 SIN4ROMUL TALAMIC +ani e,t'ri c&ntralaterale - ane,te0ie - #%reri !ii par&/i,tice ( c% t&nalitate a ecti!'7 #eclanate #e in l%en"e nepl'c%te - +ic'ri in!&l%ntare

16 >I1OTALAMUSUL Centr% #e inte$ra"ie c&+ple/ - !e$etati! - en#&crin - +eta:&lic - c&+p&rta+ent +&ti!a"i&nal ele+entar Caracteri,tici %nc"i&nale -,i,te+ reac"i&nal !e$etati!&-en#&crin -le$'t%r' #irect' c% &l ac"ia -le$'t%r' in#irect' c% ,i,te+%l ,en0&rial -c&nectat :ilateral c% rinence al%l i ,i,te+ retic%lat -c&+p&nent' a ,i,te+%l%i li+:ic -i+plicat .n c&+p&rta+ent in,ticti!&-a ecti! -le$'t%r' c% ;ip& i0a -centr% #e inte$rare ,%:c&rtical !e$etati! ROL? 1H. Centr% #e inte$ra"ie !e$etati!' -,i+patic' ( er$&tr&p' 5p&,ter&-lateral9 -para,i+patc' (tr& &tr&p' 5anter&-+e#ian9 3H.Centr% ter+&re$lat&r 5ter+&,tat9 - centr% ter+&$enetic

- centr% ter+&litic 1C )H. Centr% en#&crin -,i,te+ ;ip&tala+&-a#en&;ip& i0ar 5par!&cel%lar9 ( n%cle% arc%at -,i,te+ ;ip&tala+&-ne%r&;ip& i0ar 5+a$n&cel%lar9 (n. ,%pra&ptic7 para!entric. AH. Centr% +eta:&lic&-n%tri"i&nal - p&n#er&,tat . &a+e-,a"ietate . #ep%nere i +&:ili0are a#ip&a,' - +eta:&li,+%l lipi#ic ( ;ip&t. +e#ial . ,in#r&+ a#ip&0&-$enital (t%+&ri ,%praelare - +eta:&li,+ $l%ci#ic 5,i+patic9 - +eta:&li,+ pr&teic - ec;ili:r%l ;i#r&-+ineral 8H. Centr% rit+&$en (:i&rit+%ri centrale Varia"ii peri&#ice re$%late ale %nc"iil&r A#aptarea %n&r acte c&+p&rta+entale .c&+p&nent' .nn',c%t' .c&+p&nent' #&:Gn#it'

3* - rit+ circa#ian ( ,&+n-!e$;e . ter+ic i +eta:&lic7 . car#i&!a,c%lar7 . ;&r+&nal - rit+ l%nar - rit+ ,e0&nier - rit+%ri #e .nalt' rec!en"' EH. Centr% c&+p&rta+ental ele+entar -a% la :a0' alternan"a ,&+n (!e$;e -,%nt c&n#i"i&nate #e c%pl%l e+&"i&nal . a$rea:il-#e0a$rea:il . pl'cere-,% erin"' S%nt ) c&+p&rta+ente %n#a+entale -c&+p&rta+ent%l a%t&c&n,er!are-ap'rare -c&+p&rta+ent ali+entar -c&+p&rta+ent%l ,e/%al

31 FORMAIUNEA RETICULAT C&+p&nente #.p.#.!. %nc"i&nal -tr%nc;i%l cere:ral .centrii re,pirat&ri .centrii car#i&-!a,c%lari .arii #e in;i:i"ie a re le/%l%i +i&tatic -;ip&tala+%,%l p&,ter&r C&ne/i%ni? AFERENE -,en0&riale c&laterale ( ne,peci ice -#ience alice i rinencelalice -ne&c&rticale EFERENE -c&rticale 5tala+ic i e/tratala+ic9 -+&t&ne%r&ni ,pinali -cere:el F%nc"ii? 1. M&tricitatea ,&+atic' - e/trapira+i#al' - acilitat&are 5#&r,&lateral'9 ( t&n%, pr&pri% -in;i:it&are 5!entr&+e#ian'9 ( #epen#ent #e Cere:el7 n%cleii :a0ali7 n%cle%l r&%7 arii ,pre,&are c&rticale

33 3.Ve$etati!e ( centrii re,pirat&ri7 !a,&+&t&ri77 ,ali!ai7 !&+'7 #e$l%ti"ie7 $a,tr& ( inte,tinali7 ter+&re$lat&ri7 +eta:&lici7 +ic"i%ne. ).Stare !i$il' i c&+p&rta+ent (t&n%, c&rtical Sti+%lat #e -;ip&/ie i ;ipercapnia -,i+patic&+i+e+tice 4epri+at #e -;ip&cania -:ar:it%rice7 p,i;&tr&pe

3) NUCLEII <AZALI -Str%ct%ri ,%:c&rticale ,it%ate .ntre tala+%, i +e0ence al -re$lat&r-inte$rat&r al +&tricit'"ii N%cle%l ca%#at N%cle%l lentic%lar 1%ta+en Gl&:%, palli#%, R&l? in;i:it&r -+&#%lea0' ariile c&rticale +&t&rii pri+are -&pti+i0ea0' +ic'rile pe cale e/trapira+i#al' Le0i%ni ( ri$i#itate #e #ecere:rare Ne&,triat%l - ,e +ielini0ea0' la 8 l%ni - .n repa%, +en"ine p&,t%ra - .n +icare &pti+ea0' rela"ia #intre anta$&niti7 a$&niti .n i/itatea +ic'rii 1alli#%+ -t&n%, +%,c%lar #e &n# -reparti"ia t&n%,%l%i +%,cilat%rii neparicipante .n +icarea !&l%ntar'

3A Circ%ite re$lat&are -,tri&-ni$r& 5#&pa+ina9 -,triat 51ar=in,&n9 -c&rtic&-,tri&-pali#&-tala+&-c&rtical -c&rtic&-,tri&-ni$r&-te$+ent&-&li!&cere:el&-r%:r&-tala+&-c&rtical SISTEMUL E2TRA1IRAMI4AL Cale +%ltine%r&nal' ce re$lea0'? -t&n%,%l p&,t%ral :a0al -atit%#inea i +ic'rile a%t&+ate -+ic'rile in!&l%ntare Trei eta@e ce ,e ,%cce#? CORTICAL ( arii +&t&rii r&nt&-pariet&&ccipital SU<CORTICAL ( n%cleii :a0ali 4IENCEFALO-MEZENCEFALO-1ONTO <UL<AR

38 CI E2TRA1IRAMI4ALE? - N. r&% ( pre#&+inant in;i:it&r - S%:,tan"a retic%lat' ( acilitat&r i in;i:it&r - c&rpii c!a#ri$e+eni ( +ic'rile $Gt%l%i i &c;il&r - N.!e,ti:%lar ( acilitat&r pentr% e/ten,&ri i in;i:it&r pentr% e/ten,&ri - Oli!a :%l:ar' ( +. larin$el%i7 !'l%l%i palatin i +. tri:%tari +'#%!ei cer!icale LEZIUNI - ;ipert&nie ( re0i,ten"' cer&a,' - ;iper=ine0ii ( .n ,tare #e !e$;e7 e/acer:ate .n e+&"ii . tre+%r't%ri #e repa%, . +ic'ri atet&0ice ( erp%it&are . +ic'ri c&reice ( repe0i7 ,'lt're"e . ;e+i:ali,+ . tic%ri7 +i&cl&nii SIN4ROAME E2TRA1IRAMI4ALE - ;ipert&n&-;ip&=inetic 51ar=in,&n9 - ;ip&t&n&-;iper=inetic 5c&ree9

3E SISTEM NERVOS AUTONOM 5VEGETATIV9 - a%t&re$lare i a#aptarea %nc"iil&r !i,cerale - reac"ii ne%r&re le/e l&cale i $enerale - ,%nt relati! in#epen#ente #e !&in"' Centrii #e c&+an#' -tr%nc;i%l cere:ral -+'#%!a ,pin'rii Centrii #e inte$rare -,%:,tan"a retic%lat' -#ience al -,c&ar"a cere:ral' ( prin ;ip&tala+%, M&#alit'"i #e inte$rare - ,i+patic&-para,i+patic' - ,&+at&-!e$atati!' - ne%r&-en#&crin' REFLE2UL VEGETATIV

3B ME4IATORI C>IMICI E2TRANEVRA2 -c&liner$ic -a#rener$ici -tripta+iner$ic ( ple/%rile n. t%: #i$e,ti! -,er&t&niner$ic ( inte,tin7 %ter -;i,ta+inici ( ple/ Mei,,ner -a#en&0ina ( ple/ A%er:ac; RECE1TORI COLINERGICI -N 5nic&tinici9 ( $an$li&nari 5i. >e/a+et&ni9 -M 5+%,carinici9 ( e ect&ri 5i.atr&pin'9 RECE1TORI A4RENERGICI -al a 5Ca9 -<eta 5AM1c9 1 ( +i&car#7 "e,. A#ip&, 3 - :r&nie7 %ter7 !a,e

TONUS VEGETATIV - !a$&t&n - ,i+patic&t&n - a+ &t&n EFECTE

M.G. E/a+en Si,te+ ner!&, I 1. 3. ). A. 8. E. B. 6. C. 1*. 11. 13. 1). Fi0i&l&$ia +'#%!ei ,pin'rii Fi0i&l&$ia :%l:%l%i ra;i#ian Fi0i&l&$ia pr&t%:eran"ei Fi0i&l&$ia +e0ence al%l%i Re le/ele ,tatice i ,tat&=inetice Fi0i&l&$ia cere:el%l%i Fi0i&l&$ia tala+%,%l%i Fi0i&l&$ia ;ip&tala+%,%l%i Fi0i&l&$ia &r+a"i%nii retic%late Fi0i&l&$ia n%cleil&r :a0ali Si,te+%l e/trapira+i#al Si,te+%l ner!&, a%t&n&+ ,i+patic Si,te+%l a%t&n&+ para,i+patic

36

SCOARA CERE<RAL 1A-1B +iliar#e ne%r&ni Gr&,i+e 178 ( A78 ++7 )** c+c 1ale&c&rte/ ( 6 D Ne&c&rte/ ( E ,trat%ri Or$ani0are c&l%+nar' - Z&n' ,%pre+' #e inte$ra"ie - C&n er' la &+ c&ntien"'7 $Gn#ire ,t'ri p,i;&-a ecti!e c&+p&rta+ent ,&cial ZONE CORTICALE - ) M&t&rii Sen0iti!e A,&ciati!e FUNCII GENERALE 1H. F%nc"ia ,en0&rial' 3H. F%nc"ia #e inte$rare a &r$anel&r e ect&are - e ect&ri ,&+atici - e ect&ri !e$etati!i

3C )H. F%nc"ia #e interac"i%ne c% +e#i%l a+:iant - acti!itatea ner!&a,' ,%peri&ar' %+an' ( anali0' i ,inte0' - c&+p&rta+ent - !ia"' p,i;ic' %+an' - li+:a@ FIZIOLOGIA CENTRILOR CORTICALI - l&:i7 circ%+!&l%"ii ( $ir%,%ri7 an"%ri - AB arii c&rticale LO<UL FRONTAL Sc&ar"a precentral' ( +&t&rie 5A97 ;&+%nc%l%, +&t&r - e+i, er #&+inant AA ( li+:a@ A8 - e/pri+are +%0ical' AE -,cri, Sc&ar"a pre r&ntal' 5a,&cia"ie9 ( intelect7 c&ne/i%ne c% aria i#e&+&t&rie. )*

E/tirpare :ilateral' ( inc&eren"'7 t%l:%r'ri #e +e+&rie7 i #e ini"iati!'7 ,in#r&+ MORIA? e% &rie7 $l%+e7 er&ti,+7 :%li+ie. LO<UL 1ARIETAL Sc&ar"a ,&+e,te0ic' 5)737197 $%,tati! 5A)9 ;&+%nc%l%, ,en0iti!7 A,&ciati! ( i#e&+&t&r 5)C97 li+:a@ i pra/ii 5A*97 inte$rea0' in &r+a"iile a%#iti!e7 !i0%ale i ,&+e,te0ice LO<UL TEM1ORAL A%0 5A17A37 3397 ec;ili:r% A,&cia"ie-a%#i&p,i;ic7 !er:ali0are7 e+&"ii 5,i,te+%l li+:ic9. LO<UL OCCI1ITAL Vi0%al 51B71671C9 A,&cia"ie ( !i0%&p,i;ic7 !i0%&$n&0ic

)1

SISTEMUL LIM<IC t&talitatea &r+a"i%nil&r ner!&a,e i+plicate .n i+p%l,%l i c&+p&rta+ent%l +&ti!a"i&nala ecti!e+&"i&nal c% r',%net ,&+at&-!i,cer&!e$etati!7 &pti+i0area acti!it'"ii intelect%ale C&+p&nente a9 .pale&c&rte/ ( .n rela"e c% ,i,te+%l &l acti! :9 .ne&c&rte/ (0&nele +e#iale r&nt&pariet&-te+p&r&-&ccipitale7 l&:%l &r:ital7 l&:%l in,%lei c9 . &r+a"i%ni ,%:c&rticale centrate pe ;ip&tala+%,7 la care ,e a#a%$' &r+a"i%nea retic%lat' i tala+%,%l. #9 .n%cle%l a+i$#alian ( erea,tra ,i,te+%l%i li+:ic .n rap&rt c% +e#i%l7 i+plica"i .n c&+p&rta+entele %n#a+entale Sti+%lare ( ric'7 %rie Le0i%ne ( #&cil7 ;iper,e/%al

)3

e9.;ip&ca+p%l(canal in &r+a"i&nal ,e0&rial c% r&l .n +e+&rie recent' i .n!'"are Sti+%lare ( a:,en"e7 acce,e epileptice Le0i%ne ( a+ne0ie Circ%it%l li+:ic al e+&"iei ( 1ape0 ? ;ip&ca+p- &rni/-c&rpi +a+ilarin%cleii tala+ici anteri&ri-c&rte/ cin$%li;ip&ca+p - p&,t#e,c'rcare prel%n$it' -,'r'cia c&ne/i%nil&r c% ne&c&rte/%l .le$'t%r' #irect' c&rte/ r&ntal .le$'t%r' in#irect' pe cale tala+ic'

)) ACTIVITATEA SU1ERIOAR UMAN NERVOAS

- %nc"ia ,c&ar"ei cere:rale .n interac"i%ne re!er:erant' c% ,tr%ct%ri ,%:c&rticale -c&n#i"ii a+:ientale ,&ciale +&#elat #e e/perien"a in#i!i#%al' -re lectat #e !ia"a p,i;ic' %+an' .c&$niti! .a ecti! .!&liti! -c&ncreti0at .c&+p&rta+ental .c&ntient .e!&cat prin li+:a@ CONFTIENA -,tare %nc"i&nal' acti!' ( ,tare #e !e$;e -capacitate #e a r',p%n#e la ,ti+%li -&rientare i aten"ie -p&,i:ilitatea +ental' i i0ic' #e a r',p%n#e a#ec!at la ,&licit'ri

)A STARE 4E VEG>E ( !i$il'7 #e recep"ie - c&+p&rta+ent !&li"i&nal n%an"at a ecti! - r&l%l SRAA i circ%it%l%i c&rtic&-retic%l&c&rtical -r&l%l act&ril&r %+&rali -r&l%l ,i,te+%l%i li+:ic REFLECTAT 1RIN EEG M&#alit'"i #e tre0ire? - a#rener$ic ( c% reac"ie +&t&rie 5alert'9 - c&liner$ic ( 'r' reac"ie +&t&rie 5 a ecti!9 A%t&intre"inerea ,t'rii #e !e$;e -t&n%,%l +%,c%lat%rii ,&+atice ( p&ten"at e/trapira+i#al ( ni$r&-,triat -+ecani,+ ,i+pat&-er$&tr&p -+ecani,+ c&rtical -+ecani,+ en#&crin 5;ip& i0'7 tir&i#'7 +e#%l&,%prarenal'9

)8 SOMNUL -a:&lirea c&ntien"ei -inacti!itate c&+p&rta+ental' -;ip&reacti!itate -+eta:&li,+ #i+in%at Alternan"a ,&+n-!e$;e 4%rata ,&+n%l%i SISTEM >I1NOGEN Mecani,+%l pa,i! ( &:&,eala Mecani,+ acti! -,ti+%li ,en0iti!&-,en0&riali -pre,&recept&rii $a,trici 5,t&+ac%l plin9 -pre,&recept&ri ,in&-car&ti#ieni 5>TA9 -c&n#i"i&narea Mecani,+ :i&c;i+ic (,er&t&nina SOMNUL LENT (NONREM 5B6-6* D9 -,ca#e ;&r+&ne+ia #ar crete ST> -,ca#e t&n%,%l ,i+patic -;ip&!entila"ie #ar crete pCO3 -,c'#erea TA #ar creterea #e:it%l%i cere:ral -re#%cerea +eta:&li,+%l%i -;ip&t&nie i ;ip&re lecti!itate &,te&ten#in&a,' -OC>I? ple&ape .nc;i,e7 +i&0'7 #i!er$.,%p.

)E A ,ta#ii ( EEG ,incr&ni0at 1. ,&+n lent ,%per icial7 A-8 >0 ;ip&!&ltat 3. ,&+n lent ,%per icial c% %n#e plate7 %,e #e ,&+n7 c&+ple/e J la ,ti+%li ,&n&ri ). ,&+n lent pr& %n#7 1-) >0 #e !&lta@ +are7 %,e #e ,&+n i c&+ple/e J A. ,&+n lent pr& %n#7 *78-1 >0 a+ple 1eri&a#' #e re acere. SOMNUL 1ARA4O2AL (REM7 &niric - la C* +in. - at&nie i are le/ie - tre,'riri - !aria"ii ten,i&nale i a rec!en"ei ini+ii - crete #e:it%l ,an$%in cere:ral - re,pira"ie nere$%lat'7 peri&a#a #e apnee - erec"ie - EEG ( 3-E >0 ;ip&!&ltat7 $r%pa@e #e 3-) >07 ;iper!&ltate 5.n #in"i #e iere,tr'%9 C&#i ic' +e+&ria #e l%n$' #%rat'7

)B ORIENTARE i ATENIE Caracteri,ticile ,t'rii c&ntiente ORIENTARE 5c&+p&rta+ent #e &rientare9 Capacitatea #e a l&cali0a pr&pri%l c&rp .n rap&rt c% a+:ien"a 4i er' #e re le/%l ,%:c&rtical #e &rientare Reac"ia c&+p&rta+ental' #e &rientere? -+ani e,t'ri +&t&rii le$at #e ,%r,' -+ani e,t'ri !e$etati!e ( &prirea re,pira"iei7 ta;icar#ie -,en0&riale7 a+pli icat pentr% ,ti+%l%l ,peci ic -EEG ( pe &n# al a #e,incr&ni0are Se#i%? e+i, er%l +in&r7 l&: parietal E!&l%"ie? -,tin$ere (,ti+%l ne,e+ni icati! -aten"ie (,ti+%l ,e+ni icati! ATENIA C&ncentrare ,electi!' la ,ti+%li in &r+a"i&nali ,a% +ne0ici 5a%t&e!&cat'97 #eclanat' acti! ,a% pa,i!7 c% +ani e,t'ri c&+p&rta+entale i ,%:iecti!e.

)6 Caracteri,tici? -,electi!itate - &rientat -+&:ilitate ( p&,i:ilitatea c&+%t'rii -c&ncentrare ( inten,'7 #etaare7 ,ta:il' -#i,tri:%ti!' ( 3-E ac"i%ni ,%cce,i!e 1&ten"area aten"iei? -a+:ian"' -,e+ni ica"ie ( ,elec"ia7 iltra@ in &r+a"i&nal -+&ti!a"ia ( c%ri&0itatea7 c&intere,area F&r+a"i%ni ner!&a,e i+plicate? -l&:%l r&ntal -,i,te+%l retic%lat -,i,te+%l li+:ic Neaten"ia 5inaten"ia9 - prin in;i:i"ie 5apare & n&%' #&+inant'9 - prin ;a:it%are 5&:in%in"'9

)C COM1ORTAMENTUL MOTIVAIONAL C&+p&rta+ent? ac"i%ni i rela"ii a+:ientale i a"' #e ne!&ile pr&prii M&ti!a"ia? +&:il%rile interne ale c&n#%itei - tre:%in"e i0i&l&$ice ( ne!&i pr&prii - i#eal%ri NEVOIA7 IM1ULSUL7 TINTA 4ECLANSAREA7 REALIZAREA7 SATIETATEA 1HCOM1ORTAMENT INSTINCTIV - inn',c%t ( pale&c&rtical i ,%:c&rtical - &pti+i0at ne&c&rtical 5 acilitat&rrenat&r9 prin .n!'"are 3H COM1ORTAMENT VOLUNTAR -.n!'"are -c&n#i"i&nare &perant' -pra/ii -li+:a@ )H COM1ORTAMENT 1SI>O-SOCIAL -!ia"a ,&cial'

-acti!itate ( c&n#%it' -pr&ce,e a ecti!e A* 1ROCESELE AFECTIVE A ecti!itatea -,t'ri ,%:iecti!e i tr'iri ,pirit%ale -reac"ie atit%#inal' Cla,i icare? 4i,p&0i"ie ( #e &n#7 nep&lari0at' #e +ic' inten,itate7 #%rat' &re ( 0ile Senti+ent%l ( e/pre,ia per,&nalit'"ii7 #e inten,itate +e#ie7 ec;ili:rat'7 ,ta:il' 5;&t'rGt7 %+il7 ,er!il7 a%t&ritar9 A ecte ( tr'iri p%ternice7 :r%te7 #e ,c%rt' #%rat'7 +i+ic&-$e,t%ale7 reac"ii !e$etati!e 1a,i%ne ( #&+inant'7 #e +are inten,itate7 :ine #irec"i&nat' !&liti! EMOIA ( in,tantanee7 p%ternic'7 #e ,c%rt' #%rat'7 &rientat'7 c% +&#i ic'ri %nc"i&nale. Re lect' e/perien"a per,&nal' tr'it'. Generarea e+&"iei are la :a0' rela"ii c&+p&rta+entale c% per,&ane i ,it%a"ii care e!&cate p&t in#%ce #&%' tip%ri #e +ecani,+e? 1H 1articipat&rii (n&%tatea e,te inte$rat'

i+plicGn# an$a@are7 +ani e,tGn#%-,e prin %i+ire7 a ec"i%ne7 a#+ira"ie7 !enera"ie ,a% c&+pa,i%ne. Generea0' ,ati, ac"ie. A1 37 1reparat&rii (tin0Gn# la eli+inarea nep&tri!iril&r ce in#%c ric'7 tea+'7,%p'rare7 #e0$%,t7 %rie7 #epre,ie. 1&ate $enera ,t'ri c&n lict%ale. F&r+e e/tre+e re0%ltante ale e/pre,iil&r a ecti!-e+&"i&nale? -tri,te"e-!e,elie -pl'c%t-nepl'c%t - %rie-:lGn#e"e - ric'-c%ra@ E!&l%ti! ,e re lect' printr-%n c&+p&rta+ent p&0iti!7 ne$ati! ,a% in#i erent7 CUNOAFTEREA -re lectarea .n c&ntiin"' a realit'"ii -e/plicarea Tip%ri #e c%n&atere -,en0&rial' - c&ncret' -a:,tract' (i+a$inat' -ra"i&nal' ( c&ncret%l l&$ic

INVAREA -c%n&tin"e -#eprin#eri A3 M&#alit'"i #e .n!'"are? -i+itare -i+pri+are - #e #%rat' -c&n#i"i&nare &perant' ( .ncercare-er&are -c&n#i"i&nare re,p&n,i!' -e/pl&rat&rie ( .ncercare -.ncercare a ecti!' -percept%al' ( &pti+i0are -,t&care #e in &r+a"ii -in,tr%ctare -.n"ele$erea in &r+a"iei tran,+i,e INTELIGENA -.n"ele$erea rela"iil&r -act%ali0area l&r c&rect' i rapi#' Sta#iile &r+ati!e? -,en0&ri&-+&t&rii - pri+ii 3 ani -prec&ncept%ale ( #e percep"ie - 3-A ani -int%iti!' - :a0at pe percep"ie - A-B ani -&pera"i%ni c&ncrete (,&l%"i&nare B-11 ani -&pera"i%ni &r+ale ( n&"i%ni a:,tracte

A) MEMORIA -ac;i0i"i&narea -en$ra+area -e!&carea Cla,i icare -ne!er:al' -!er:al' a9 :9 c9 #9 F&r+e ale +e+&riei ,en0&rial' ( rac"i%ni #e ,ec%n#' pri+ar' ( ,ec%n#e ,ec%n#ar' ( +in%te-ani7 ,t&care prin e/erci"ii ( rela"ii7 %itare prin nerepetare ter"iar' ( t&at' !ia"a7 n% ,e %it'

AA Mecani,+e -circ%it re!er:erant -c;i+ic'7 ARN7 pr&tein' ,peci ic' GKN4IREA i LIM<ALUL GKN4IREA -re lectarea i pr&,pectarea realit'"ii -repr&#%cerea i#eatic' a realit'"ii -&pti+i0area c&+p&rta+ent%l%i C&+p&nente? -.n"ele$ere -e/plica"ia -re0&l%ti!itatea E icien"a -rapi#itate #eci0i&nal' -ac"i&nare a#ec!at'

A8 In,tr%+entele $Gn#irii -n&"i%ni -a:,tracti0are -@%#ec'"i -ra"i&na+ente 5in#%cti!e ,a% #e#%cti!e9 Opera"i%ni #e :a0' -anali0a i ,inte0a -c&+para"ia -$enerali0area -,i,te+ati0area -a:,tracti0are Mecani,+%l $Gn#irii -c%n&tin"e c&n r%ntate c% en$ra+ele ,t&cate -:aleia@ re!er:erant pGn' la c&n$r%en' .circ%ite ,tere&tipe ere#itare .circ%ite &pti+i0ate .n &nt&$ene0' -e/pri+are prin li+:a@

AE LIM<ALUL -,e+nale c&#i icate e/pri+ate prin ,%nete -+i@l&c #e c&+%nicare a i#ea"iei Cla,i icare -li+:a@ interi&r ( $Gn#it7 eliptic -li+:a@ e/teri&r e/pri+at !er:al M&#alit'"i #e e/pri+are -!&r:it -,cri, -+%0ical -$e,t%al SU<STRATUL CENTRAL -intrea$a ,c&ar"' cer:ral' -aria A1 (a%#iti!' -aria 1B (!i0%al' -,c&at"a +&t&rie ( aria A -,c&ar"a #e a,&cia"ie a e+i, er%l%i #&+inant -l&: te+p&ral #&+inant -pli%l c%r: #e trecere pariet&-te+p&r&-&ccip7 -parietal (i#e&+&t&r -A* (pra/ii

AB CENTRII GNOZEO-1RA2ICI Sen0&rial Mernic=e a%#i&p,i;ic 5$n&0ia a%#iti!'9 ( te+p&ral 33 -!i0%&p,i;ic 5$n&0ia !i0%al'9 -1671C M&t&r <r&ca - li+:a@%l artic%lat ( r&ntal AA 5anartria9 -li+:a@ ,cri, ( AE 5a$ra ia9 COM1ONENTA 1ERIFERIC ( &nat&r - $ra ic

AB SISTEMUL NEUROMOTOR SOMATIC - %nitatea +&t&rie - re le/%l ele+entar TONUSUL MUSCULAR -circ%it t&ni$en -circ%it &pti+i0at&r-c&rect&r7 :%cla $a++a N ,i,te+ acilitat&r N ,i,te+ in;i:it&r MOTILITATEA VOLUNTAR - Si,te+ 1ira+i#al ( c&rtic&-,pinal - Si,te+ E/trapira+i#al N eta@ c&rtical N eta@ ,%:c&rtical (n%cleii :a0ali Ca%#at Lentic%lar N eta@ #ience al&-+e0ence alic&-p&nt&:%l:ar

A6 1RA2IILE ( c% ,c&p - Netran0iti!e - Tran0iti!e SISTEMUL SENZITIVO-SENZORIAL SENSI<ILITATEA SOMATIC -Sen,i:ilitatea e/ter&cepti!' ( c%tanat' tactil'7 ter+ic' i #%rer&a,' -Sen,i:ilitatea pr&pri&cepti!' Cale trine%r&nal' C&rte/%l ,en0&rial FUNCIA VIZUAL 5l%+in'7 &r+'7 c%l&are7 ,pa"ial'9 1%pila Ac&+&#a"ia FUNCIA AU4ITIV FUNCIA EC>ILI<RULUI

AC FUNCIA GUSTATIV 58-#%lce7 ,'rat7 acr%7 a+ar7 %+a+i9 FUNCTIA OLFACTIV 5B-ca+ &r7 +&,c7 l&ral7 +ent'7 eteric7 .n"ep't&r7 p%tri#9 SENSI<ILITATEA VISCERAL SENSI<ILITATEA 4UREROAS 5al$&recep"ia9 -,en0a"ie nepl'c%t' ( !aria:il' inten,itate n%an"' - #i,c&n &rt #%rat' l&cali0are-ira#iere +ani e,tari ne%r&-p,i;&-!e$etati!&-+&t&rii -a!erti0are -#%rere pri+ar' 5!ie9 i ,ec%n#ar' 5,%r#'9 -recept&rii i a$en"ii al$&$eni

8* -c'ile i centrii ner!&i -&pia"ii en#&$eni -anal$e0ia #e ,tre, 4UREREA 4ENTAR -la ;&tar%l #intre ,+al" i #entin' -#entina nepr&te@at' #e ,+al" -p%lpa #entar' -papile $in$i!ale

AN II MG. S.N.III 1.F%nc"iile $enerale ale ,c&ar"ei cere:rale 3.Fi0i&l&$ia ariil&r i centril&r #in ,c&ar"' ).Si,te+%l li+:ic A.Starea #e !e$;e i ,tarea #e ,&+n 8.Fi0i&l&$ia &rient'rii i aten"iei E.C&+p&rta+ent%l +&ti!a"i&nal B.Fi0i&l&$ia .n!'"'rii i +e+&riei 6.Fi0i&l&$ia $Gn#irii i a li+:a@%l%i C.Re$larea t&n%,%l%i +%,c%lar 1*. Sen,i:ilitatea ,&+atic' 11. F%nc"ia !i0%al' 13. F%nc"ia a%#iti!' 1). F%nc"ia $%,tati!' i &l acti!' 1A. Fi0i&l&$ia #%rerii

An II St&+a II Si,te+ ner!&, 1. 3. ). A. 8. E. B. 6. C. 1*. F%nc"ia re le/' a ,i,te+%l%i ner!&, Fi0i&l&$ia +'#%!ei ,pin'rii Fi0i&l&$ia :%l:%l%i ra;i#ian Fi0i&l&$ia pr&t%:eran"ei Fi0i&l&$ia +e0ence al%l%i Re le/ele ,tatice i ,tat&c;inetice Fi0i&l&$ia cere:el%l%i Fi0i&l&$ia tala+%,%l%i Fi0i&l&$ia ;ip&tala+%,%l%i Fi0i&l&$ia n%cleil&r :a0ali i ,i,te+%l e/trapira+i#al 11. Fi0i&l&$ia ,i,te+%l%i ner!&, a%t&n&+ 5!e$etati!9 13. Fi0i&l&$ia ,c&ar"ei cere:rale 1). Fi0i&l&$ia ,i,te+%l%i li+:ic

1A. Acti!itatea ner!&a,' ,%peri&ar' %+an'

FIZIOLOGIA SISTEMULUI EN4OCRIN - re$lare-inte$rare ne%r&en#&crin&%+&ral' - $lan#e en#&crine -6 .;ip& i0a .tir&i#a .paratir&i#a .pancrea,%l .,%prarenala .$&na#ele .placenta .,t&+ac-inte,tin%l ,%:"ire Se +ai a#a%$' Ti+%,%l Rinic;ii 4ience al%l >&r+&nii l&cali ( ti,%lari 1r&,ta$lan#ine

CO3 R&l ( ac"i%ne .re$lat&r +eta:&lic .+&r &$ene0' .#i eren"iere i %nc"ie ,e/%al' .;&+e&,ta0ia +e#i%l%i intern . a#aptare . ,tare p,i;&-a ecti!' Str%ct%ra c;i+ic' -pepti#ici -+&n&a+inici -,ter&i0i Recept&r%l ;&r+&nal - Me+:ranari ( ;&r+&ni ;i#r&,&l%:ili - intracel%lar ( ;&r+&ni lip&,&l%:ili Re$larea ,ecre"iei en#&crine - prin retr&ac"i%ne 5 ee#:ac=9 - c&ntr&l ner!&, - c&ntr&l rit+&$en .circa#ian

.l%nar 4IENCEFALUL ca ,i,te+ en#&crin GLAN4A 1INEAL 5epi i0a9 -pineal&cite ( parane%r&ni (tra#%ct&ri ne%r&en#&crini ( #epen#ent #e a eren"e ner!&a,e .iner!a"ie ,i+patic' 5$$ cer!ical ,%p9 .retin'7;ip&tala+%, rinence al7+e0ence al -rit+%ri :i&l&$ice #epen#ent #e l%+in' - %nc"ia repr&#%cti!' MELATONIN ( SEROTONIN ( ,&+n IZORENIN-ANGIOTENSIN ( ,ecre"ia #e A4> i +ineral&c&rtic&i0i (,ete ANTIGONA4OTRO1 Le0are (p%:ertate prec&ce >I1OFIZA -,i,te+ ;ip&tala+&-ante;ip& i0ar - p&rt -,i,te+ ;ip&tala+&-retr&;ip& i0at (tract >I1OFIZA ANTERIOAR

ST> ( ,&+at&tr&p -cretere7 #e0!&ltare7 re acere-reparare -+eta:&li,+%l pr&teic ( ,inte0a #e pr&teine -;iper$lice+iant -lip&litic Re$lare 1ert%r:'ri Gi$anti,+ ( acr&+e$alie Nani,+ ;ip& i0ar TS> (tir&tr&p ACT> GONA4OTRO1 FS> ( &lic%l&,ti+%lant L> ( l%teini0ant7ICS> 1ROLACTINA -+a+&tr&p -lact&tr&p

>I1OFIZA 1OSTERIOAR 5ne%r&;ip& i0a9

A4> (;&r+&n%l anti#i%retic7 Va,&pre,ina - re$larea ec;ili:r%l%i &,+&tic i !&le+ic - #%rerea inten,i ic' ,ecre"ia #e A4> - etan&l%l in;i:' ,ecre"ia #e A4> O2ITOCINA - c&ntrac"ia %terin' - $lan#a +e+a+r' .n lacta"ie - e@ec"ia laptel%i

>ORMONUL TIROI4IAN - &lic%l%l tir&i#ian ( c&l&i# &lic%lar -tir&$l&:%lina - ;&r+&n i&#at #eri!at #in tir&0in' . TA ( tir&/in' . T) (Trii&#&tir&nin' ( &r+a acti!'

EFECTE -cretere i #e0!&ltare -#e0!&ltare i +at%rare ne%r&-p,i;ic' -+eta:&li,+%l ener$etic -;ipr$lice+ie -lip&li0a -+eta:&li,+%l pr&teinic . ana:&lic . cata:&lic .n #e icit ener$etic -,ti+%lant ner!&, i car#i&-!a,c%lar REGLARE EN4OCRINO1ATII >iper %nc"ii >ip& %nc"ii 4e icit #e i&# Mi/e#e+ GLAN4ELE SU1RARENALE -C&rtic&,%prarenala Mineral&c&rtic&i0i Gl%c&c&rtic&i0i An#r&$eni -Ne#%l&,%prarenala

CORTICOSU1RARENALA - ;&r+&ni ,ter&i0i - acti!itatea l&r ,e ,%prap%ne par"ial - ACT>-%l ,ti+%lea0' ,ter&i#&$ene0a .n ,%prarenal' GLUCOCORTICOIZII 5C&rti,&l9 E ecte ec;ili:r% +eta:&lic cata:&li,+ pr&teinic lip&li0a ;iper$lice+ie rea:,&r:"ie t%:%lar' renal' #e ,&#i% antiin la+at&r ( antialer$ic ;iperaci#itate ( .n ca0 #e e/ce,

Re$lare (ACT> MINERALOCORTICOIZI 5Al#&,ter&n9 Ac"i%ni -renale (rea:,&r:"ia #e Na i eli+inare #e J

-e/trarenal ( .n e/ce, crete !&le+ia i ten,i%nea arterial' Re$lare -;ip&natre+ia -;iperp&ta,e+ia -,i,te+%l renin'-an$i&ten,in' AN4ROGENII SU1RARENALI 54e;i#r&epian#r&,ter&n9 E ecte -ana:&lice -+a,c%lini0are

ME4ULOSU1RARENALA 5A#renalina9 E ecte -car#iace ( in&tr&p i cr&n&tr&p p&0iti! -!a,c%lare ( !a,&c&n,trict&r .n $eneral7 la

!a,ele +%,c%lat%rii ,c;eletice (!a,&#ilatat&r -re,pirat&r (:r&n;&#ilatat&r -&c%lar ( +i#ria0' -+eta:&lic ( ;iper$lice+ie7 lip&li0'7 inten,i icarea +eta:&li,+%l%i ener$etic -ner!&, (crete t&n%,%l c&rtical 4&pa+ina -,c'#erea re0i,ten"ei peri erice

>ORMONII CU ROL ON >OMEOSTAZIA FOSFO-CALCIC FI OSTEO-4ENTAR Intere,ea0' #e apt .ntrea$a CONSTELAIE >ORMONAL centrat' pe CREFTERE-4EZVOLTARE 7META<OLISM7

Al't%ri #e ALIMENTAIE 4IGESTIE EFORT MUSCULAR CALCIUL ( 13** $ #in care CC D .n ,c;elet i #in"i -c&+p&nenta i/at' -1*** $7 ;i#r&/iapatit'7 #in care c&+p&nenta #e ,c;i+: )-A $ - calci%l pla,+atic 7 C-11 +$H1** +lP 378 ++&liHl #in care @%+'tate ,%: &r+' i&nic' -calci%l cel%lar -1* $ FOSFORUL -E**-C** $ #in care 6*-C* D .n ,c;elet i #in"i 5 &, at tricalcic .n ;i#r&/iapatit'9 - &, at pla,+atic7 1* +$H1** +lP1-178 ++&liHl - &, at cel%lar AT17 aci0i n%cleici EC>ILI<RUL FOSFO-CALCIC -ali+enta"ia a,i$%r' 1 $ Ca H0i7 1 -,% icient -a:,&r:"ia inte,tinal' Ca 8* D7 1 (neli+itat ( -eli+inare renal'7 Ca *71-*73 $7 &, at 3-E $H0i >ip&calce+ia >ipercalce+ia CALCITRIOL

1738-#i;i#r&/ic&lecalci er&l ( ;&r+&n ,ter&lic 1re;&r+&n !ita+ina 4) Ac"i%ne inte,tinal' ( a:&r:"ia calci%l%i Ac"i%ne &,&a,' ( +inerali0are Ac"i%ne renal' (rea:,&r:"ie &, &calc' 1ARAT>ORMON Inte,tin ( a:,&r:"ia calci%l%i i &, at%l%i O,&,- +&:ili0area caci%l%i i &, at%l%i Renal (crete rea:,&r:"ia calci%l%i ,ca#e rea:,&r:"ia &, at%l%i Re$lare ( ,ti+%lat #e ;ip&calce+ie >ip&paratir&i#ia -;ip&calce+ie7 ;ip& &, ate+ie - ;ipere/cita:ilitate ne%r&-+%,c%lar' -tetania paratire&pri!' ( Ca ,ca#e la 17B8 ++&lHl CALCITONINA Ac"i%ne &,&a,' ( &,te&$ene0a 1ANCREASUL EN4OCRIN In,%lele l%i Lan$er;an, -cel%le A ($l%ca$&n -cel%le < (in,%lin'

-cel%le 4 (,&+at&,tatin' INSULINA 1ri+ea0' - captarea cel%lar' a $l%c&0ei - ac"i%ne ;ip&$lice+iant' In,%lina i captarea ti,%lar' #e $l%c&0' -+%,c%lat%ra -"e,%t%l a#ip&, -$lan#a +a+ar' -cri,talin%l Nein l%en"ate #e in,%lin' pentr% captare -creier -enter&cit -ne r&cit Ac"i%nea ;epatic' -$lic&$en&$ene0' -acti!area ,inte0ei #e lipi#e -#i+in%area cet&$ene0ei Re$larea ,ecre"iei #e in,%lin'

-$lice+ia -!a$%l -;&r+&nii $a,tr&inte,tinali -a+in&aci0ii -:etacet&aci0ii GLICEMIA -in,%lina -;&r+&ni ;iper$lice+ian"i ST> Tir&i#ian Gl%c&c&rtic&i0i Gl%ca$&n%l A#renalina 1ert%r:'ri - 4ia:et%l 0a;arat - >ip&$lice+ia GLUCAGONUL E ecte -$lic&$en&li0a -$l%c&ne&$ene0a -lip&li0a

-cet&$ene0a -e ect in&tr&p -,ti+%lat&r al ,ecre"iei #e ST> i in,%lin' Re$lat&r Sti+%lat&r - ,i+pat&-a#renal - e &rt%l i0ic - ,it%a"ii ,tre,ante

TESTICULUL EN4OCRIN -Cel%le inter,ti"iale LeQ#i$ -Te,t&,ter&n

E ecte -intrae+:ri&nar (in;i:' ,tr%ct%ril&r e+inine -la p%:ertate (+a,c%lini0are -ana:&li0ant Re$lare -;ip&tala+%, -LR> -ICS> S1ERMATOGENEZA COM1ORTAMENTUL SE2UAL

&r+area

OVARUL EN4OCRIN ESTROGENI ( &lic%lina 5FS>9 - e+ini0are - a0a pre&!%lat&are a cicl%l%i -pr&li erarea +%c&a,ei i +%,c%larei %terine -$lan#a +a+ar' ( canalele $alact& &re

-+eta:&lic Sca#e lipe+ia i c&le,ter&le+ia Crete i/area calci%l%i .n &a,e 1ROGESTERONUL 5L>9 - ;&r+&n%l +aternit'"ii ni#a"ia +&#i ic'ri ,ecret&rii %terine ,ca#e c&ntractilitatea %terin' $lan#a +a+ar' ( acini $lan#%lari ter+&$enetic CICLUL MENSTRUAL GESTAIA

An II M.G. ,e+.IHIII En#&crin 1. 3. ). A. 8. E. B. 6. C. 1*. 11. 13. 1). 1A. >ip& i0a anteri&ar' >ip& i0a p&,teri&ar' >&r+&nii tir&i#ieni C&rtic&,%prarenala Me#%l&,%prarenala >&+e&,ta0ia &, &calcic' 1ancrea,%l en#&crin Te,tic&l%l C&+p&rta+ent%l ,e/%al :'r:'te,c Cicl%l &!arian Fi0i&l&$ia tract%l%i $enital e+inin Ge,ta"ia Gra!i#itatea Fi0i&l&$ia $lan#el&r +a+are

An.II St&+aHIII 1.4i$e,tia $a,tric' 3.4i$e,tia i a:,&r:"ia inte,tinal' ).Fi0i&l&$ia inte,tin%l%i $r&, A.Fi0i&l&$ia ;ip& i0ei 8.Fi0i&l&$ia tir&i#ei E.>&r+&nii i+plica"i .n ec;ili:r%l &, &calcic B.1ancrea,%l en#&crin 6. >&r+&nii ,e/%ali :'r:'teti C. C&+p&rta+ent%l ,e/%al :'r:'te,c 1*.>&r+&nii ,e/%ali e+inini 11.Cicl%l +en,tr%al 13.Fi0i&l&$ia $ra!i#it'"ii i +aternit'"ii

META<OLISMUL -re lect' +eta:&li,+%l .n,%+at al an,a+:l%l%i cel%lar -e,te re lectat #e ,tarea n%tri"i&nal' CLASIFICARE - +eta:&li,+%l ener$etic

- +eta:&li,+%l $l%ci#ic7 lipi#ic i pr&ti#ic META<OLISMUL ENERGETIC Re0%ltat #in &/i#a"ia :i&l&$ic' a $l%ci#el&r7 lipi#el&r i pr&teinel&r -+eta:&li,+%l :a0al -+eta:&li,+%l #e repa%, -+eta:&li,+%l #e ,&licitare Meta:&li,+%l :a0al7 la a#%lt%l tGn'r e,te #e A* CalH+p.&r' A* / 17B / 3A P 1E)3 Meta:&li,+%l #e repa%,P 1 CalH=$.&r' B8/3A P 16** Meta:&li,+%l #e ,&licitare -,e#entar c% ,&licit'ri c&ti#iene ( 3A** Cal -+e#ic #enti,t -)*** Cal -+%nc' $rea -8*** Cal A$re+ent -+er, pe teren plat A78 =+ (,%rpl%, 1E* Cal -:icicleta- 18 =+ ( ,%rpl%, )1* Cal - %$a -3* =+ ( ,%rpl%, 38** Cal -.n&t le@er & &r' ( ,%rpl%, E** Cal - ,c;i &n# ( 1A =+ ( ,%rpl%, 1*** Cal

REZERVELE ENERGETICE Gl%ci#e -$lic&$en ;epatic ( 1** $ -$lic&$en +%,c%lar -38* $ Lipi#e -te,%t%l a#ip&, al: -3* D 51A =$9 .&+ental .,%:c%tan 7 .n @%r%l &r$anel&r -"e,%t%l a#ip&, :r%n ( 1D 1r&teine ( #in cele 3 =$7 *7E =$ 51H)9 >OMEOTERMIA - TERMOREGLAREA - ran#a+ent%l +eta:&lic 38-)* D - pr&#%c"ia #e c'l#%r' 7 #ee%l cal&ric7 .n repa%, B*-B8 D - Te+perat%ra central' n&r+al' ( )B $ra#e Cel,i%, - Ec;ili:r%l ter+ic - Ter+&,tat%l ;ip&tala+ic - Re$larea ne%r&-en#&crin' A4A1TAREA LA FRIG -ter+&$ene0' -ter+&re$lare c;i+ic&-+eta:&lic'

Inten,i icarea ter+&$ene0ei ( ener$ie +eta:&lic' - .n repa%, pe ,ea+a icat%l%i i "e,%t%l%i a#ip&, :r%n - +%,c;i%l ,triat e,te cel +ai e icient . creterea t&n%,%l%i +%,c%lar . ri,&narea . acti!itate +%,c%lar' !&l%ntar' 4i+in%area ter+&li0ei -!a,&c&n,tric"ie c%tanat' -;&ripila"ie -re#%cerea ,%pra e"ei c&rp%l%i e/p%, -ac"i%ni c&ntiente -r&l%l ,i,te+%l%i ,i+pat&-a#renal i al ;&r+&nil&r tir&i#ieni A4A1TAREA LA CL4UR -ter+&li0' -ter+&re$lare i0ic' Mecani,+e -ra#ia"ie

-c&n#%c"ie -c&n!ec"ie -e!ap&rare .per,pira"ia in,en,i:il' .tran,pira"ia ter+ic'- $lan#e ,%#&ripare ecrine .tran,pira"ie n&nter+ic' ( $lan#e ,%#&ripare-ap&crine5a/ilar7peri+a+el&nar7 p%:ian9 ( #e ,tre, . tran,pira"ia rece ( r&ntal' 5 ric'7 &:&,eal'7 e &rt +intal9 -p&lipneea ter+ic' -,c'#erea ter+&$ene0ei ( apatie7 iner"ie7 an&re/ie -ac"i%ni c&ntiente -re$larea ne%r&-;&r+&nal' 5,ete7 A4>9

META<OLISMUL 1ROTEINIC R&l ,tr%ct%ral- %nc"i&nal R&l ener$etic R&l re$lat&r AMINOACIZII E,en"iali Valina Le%cina I0&le%cina Li0ina

Meti&nina Tript& an Tre&nina Fenilalanina Ar$inina >i,ti#ina

-F&a+e-,a"ietate -r&l%l ,en,i:ilit."ii c;i+ice -,ete ( apetit%l pentr% ,are -centrii ner!&i

>OMEOSTAZIA 1ON4ERAL -p&n#er&,tat%l -&:e0itatea NECESITILE ALIMENTARE -ener$etic -$l%ci#ic -lipi#ic -pr&teinic -;i#r&-+ineral -!ita+inic ALIMENTAIA Nece,ar%l la a#%lt -pr&teine *76 $ =$c.0i -$l%ci#e 1** $H0i -lipi#e *7E-*7CH=$cH0i VITAMINE -A -178 +$ -4 -3** U.I. 5E* %$9 -E ( 8-1* +$ -J ( 1%$H=$cH0i

-C ( 1+$H=$cH0i -<1 ( 3 +$ -<3 -1-3 +$ -11 5<)9 ( 1*-3* +$ 5tript& an9 -Ac. &lic -1**-3** %$ -Ac.pant&tenic 5<89 -<E ( 1-3 +$ -<i&tina 5>7 <B9 1*-1** +$ -<13 -1-3 %$ >I4ROMINERAL -Na -8 $ -J ( 3-A $ -Ca ( 1 $ -M$ (O7A $

1 CAR4IOVASCULAR Or$ani0area Si,te+%l%i car#i&!a,c%lar INIMA

VASE SANGUINE Artere Vene Capilare MAREA CIRCULATIE MICA CIRCULATIE 1rincipi% %nc"i&nal 1H Circ%it .nc;i, 4i,p%nere .n ,erie 4i,p%nere .n paralel 3H Gra#ient #e pre,i%ne Marea circ%la"ie -1** ++ >$ Mica circ%la"ie ( 38 ++ >$ Str%ct%ra %nc"i&nal' a ini+ii 3 MIOCAR4 En#&car# 1ericar# Mi&car# - +%,c%lat%ra #e l%cr%

- ,i,te+%l e/cit&c&n#%ct&r Fi:r&cel%la +%,c%lar' car#iac' #e l%cr% - V -p&ten"ial%l #e repa%, -C* +V -p&ten"ial #e ac"i%ne ( 13* +V7 )** +, - a0a * (#ep&lari0are rapi#' 5Na in l%/9 - a0a 1 (rep&lari0arerapi#' 5Cl in l%/9 - a0a 3 ( plat&% 1** +, 5Ca in l%/9 - a0a ) - rep&lari0are 5J e l%/9 +&+ent ;ipere/cita:il - a0a A ( rep&lari0are inal' 5J e l%/9 +&+ent ;ip&e/cita:il Vite0a #e c&n#%cere *.)-*78 +H, 1&ten"ial%l cel%lei atriale (,%: 3** +,

) SISTEMUL NO4AL -ini"ierea i+p%l,%l%i

- c&n#%cerea ace,t%ia NO4UL SINOATRIAL -B*-6*H+in NO4UL ATRIOVENTRICULAR -8*-E*H+in -:l&c i0i&l&$ic n&#al -,in#r&a+e #e pree/citare SISTEMUL >IS-1URJINLE -)*-A*H+in AUTOMATISMUL CAR4IAC -+i&$en -cel%le #e tip pace+a=er -pace+a=er -INFLUENE -,i+pat&a#renal -c&liner$ic -:l&can"ii canalel&r #e Ca A REVOLUIA CAR4IAC -atrial' - atri&$ra+a -!entric%lar'- !entric%l&$ra+a

-$l&:al' STU4IU MECANIC -+an&+etric -i+a$i,tic -p&li i0i&$ra ic STU4IU ELECTRIC (ECG MECANICA CAR4IAC -,i,t&l' ( #ia,t&l' -,%cce,i%nea atri&-!entric%lar' -r&l%l aparatel&r !al!%lare atri&-!entric%lare ,i$+&i#e 8 ELECTROCAR4IOGRAMA UN4 - 1R SR RR SR TR U

SEGMENT ( .ntre #&%' %n#e ( 1-S7 S-T INTERVAL ( %n#' i ,e$+ent ( 1S7 ST ELECTROATRIOGRAMA 1 ( #ep&lari0are atrial' -*71* , Se$+ent%l 1S ( *71* , Inter!al%l 1S 5R9 ( *73* , ELECTROVENTRICULOGRAMA C&+ple/%l SRS ( #ep&lari0are ! -*71* , Se$+ent%l ST ( ,ta#i%l #ep&lari0at ! T (rep&lari0are !entric%lar' Inter!al S-T 5c&+ple/ !entric%lar9

SI