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ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

ACADEMIA DE STUDII ECONOMICE A MOLDOVEI

ECONOMICA
Revist tiinifico-didactic

An. XX, nr.3 (81), septembrie 2012

Departamentul EditorialPoligrafic al ASEM

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012 1


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

COLEGIUL DE REDACIE:
Prof. univ. dr. hab. Ion BOLUN, Academia de Studii Economice a Moldovei
Prof. univ. dr. hab. Vasile BUCUR, Academia de Studii Economice a Moldovei
Prof. dr. Piotr BULA, Academia de Economie din Kracowia, Polonia
Prof. univ. dr. hab. Eugenia FEURA, Academia de Studii Economice a Moldovei
Prof. dr. hab. Iurii MACAGON, Universitatea Naional, Ucraina
Prof. univ. dr. hab. Vitalii MACAROV, Academia de tiine, Rusia
Prof. univ. dr., acad. Anatolie MAZARACHI, Universitatea Naional de Comer i Economie din Kiev, Ucraina
Prof. univ. dr. hab. m.c. al AM Gheorghe MICOI, Academia de tiine a Moldovei
Prof. univ. dr. hab. m.c. al AM Dumitru MOLDOVAN, Academia de Studii Economice a Moldovei
Prof. univ. dr. Ion PETRESCU, Universitatea Spiru Haret, Braov, Romnia
Prof. dr. Alban RICHARD, Universitatea Pierre Mends France de Grenoble, Frana
Prof. dr. Agop SARKISEAN, Academia de Economie din Svitov, Bulgaria
Prof. univ. dr. Ioan-Franc N. VALERIU, Institutul de Cercetri Economice al Academiei Romne
Prof. univ. dr. Gheorghe ZAMAN, m.c. al Academiei Romne, Institutul de Economie Naional
Prof. univ. dr. hab. Rodica HNCU, Academia de Studii Economice a Moldovei
Prof. univ. dr. Oleg STRATULAT, Academia de Studii Economice a Moldovei
Conf. univ. dr. Nadejda BOTNARI, Academia de Studii Economice a Moldovei
Conf. univ. dr. Oxana SAVCIUC, Academia de Studii Economice a Moldovei
Conf. univ. dr. Liubomir SCORIC, Universitatea de Comer, Economie i Cooperaie de Consum, Gomel, Belarus
Conf. cercet. dr.Corneliu GUU, Academia de Studii Economice a Moldovei

ECHIPA REDACIONAL:

Redactor-ef: Grigore BELOSTECINIC,


prof. univ. dr. hab., m.c. al AM
Redactor ef-adjunct: Mihai MEREU
Redactor (l. englez): Ludmila RURAC
Corector: Vera CHIRU
Operatori: Tatiana BOICO, Natalia IVANOVA
Redactor tehnic: Feofan BELICOV
Designer copert: Elena POPOVSCHI

Redactor responsabil de ediie: Mihai MEREU

ADRESA REDACIEI:
Str. Mitropolit G. Bnulescu-Bodoni 59,
ASEM, blocul B, b.501,
tel: 402-995; 402-986
Cod: MD 2005, Chiinu,
Republica Moldova
E-mail: rev_economica@yahoo.com

Revista este acreditat de Consiliul Naional


pentru Acreditare i Atestare al RM, categoria B

Certificat de nregistrare nr.112 din 25.02.2002


Index potal: PM-31627
ISSN 1810-9136

Editura ASEM, Chiinu-2012


Redacia nu este responsabil pentru coninutul articolelor publicate

2 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

ACADEMY OF ECONOMIC STUDIES OF MOLDOVA

ECONOMICA
Scientific and didactic journal

Year XX, nr.3 (81), September 2012

Editorial-Polygraphic Department of AESM

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012 3


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

EDITORIAL BOARD:
Univ. Prof. Dr. Hab. Ion BOLUN, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova
Univ. Prof. Dr. Hab. Vasile BUCUR, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova
Prof. PhD. Piotr BULA, Krakow Academy of Economy, Poland
Univ. Prof. Dr. Hab. Eugenia FEURAS, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova
Prof. Dr. Hab. Iurii MACAGON, National University, Ukraine
Univ. Prof. Dr. Hab. Vitalii MACAROV, Academy of Science, Russia
Univ. Prof. PhD, Acad. Anatolie MAZARACHI, Kyiv State University of Commerce and Economics, Ukraine
Univ. Prof. Dr. Hab. c.m. of ASM Gheorghe MISCOI, Academy of Science of Moldova
Univ. Prof. Dr. Hab. c.m. of ASM Dumitru MOLDOVAN, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova
Univ. Prof. PhD. Ion PETRESCU Spiru Haret University, Brasov, Romania
Prof. PhD. Alban RICHARD Pierre Mends France de Grenoble University, France
Prof. PhD. Agop SARKISEAN, D. A. Tsenov Academy of Economics, Svishtov, Bulgaria
Univ. Prof. PhD. Ioan-Franc N. VALERIU, National Institute of Economic Research of Romanian Academy
Prof. PhD. Gheorghe ZAMAN, c. m. of Romanian Academy, Institute of National Economy
Univ. Prof. Dr. Hab. Rodica HINCU, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova
Univ. Prof. PhD. Oleg STRATULAT, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova
Assoc. Prof. PhD. Nadejda BOTNARI, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova
Assoc. Prof. PhD. Oxana SAVCIUC, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova
Assoc. Prof. PhD. Liubomir SCORIC, Belarusian Trade-Economic University of Consumers Cooperation, Gomel, Belarus
Assoc. Prof. Researcher PhD. Corneliu GUTSU, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova

EDITORIAL STAFF:

Editor-in-chief: Grigore BELOSTECINIC,


Univ. Prof. Dr. Hab., c.m. of ASM
Vice-Editor-in-chief: Mihai MEREUTSA
Editor (English): Ludmila RURAC
Operators: Tatiana BOICO, Natalia IVANOVA
Technical editor: Feofan BELICOV
Designer of cover: Elena POPOVSCHI

Responsible editor: Mihai MEREUTSA

ADDRESS OF PUBLISHING DEPARTMENT:


59, Mitropolit G. Banulescu-Bodoni street
AESM, block B, office 501,
tel: 402-995; 402-986
Postcode: MD 2005, Chisinau,
Republic of Moldova
E-mail: rev_economica@yahoo.com

The journal is accredited by the National Certification


and Accreditation Council of RM, Category B

Registration certificate nr.112 of 25.02.2002


Postcode: PM-31627
ISSN 1810-9136

Publishing department AESM, Chisinau-2012


The editorial is not responsible for the content of the published articles

4 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

SUMAR:
ECONOMIE GENERAL
Economia Republicii Moldova: unele realiti i perspective 7
Dr. hab. n economie, prof. univ. Grigore Belostecinic, m.c. al AM
Reflectarea crizei financiar-economice globale n activitatea de creditare a bncilor comerciale
din Bulgaria 27
Conf. univ. dr. T. P. Dimitrov, Academia Economic D. A. enov,
Republica Bulgaria, Svishtov

RELAII INTERNAIONALE
Evoluia schimbrilor structurale din comerul exterior al Republicii Moldova 39
Prof. univ., dr. Prachi Ion, ASEM
Lector superior univ. ican Natalia, ASEM
Geneza abordrilor tiinifice ale migraiei forei de munc 46
Drd. Natalia Branaco, ASEM

MANAGEMENT
Determinanii culturii organizaionale universitare 52
Dr. hab. prof. univ. Ala Cotelnic;
Iulia Albot, ef birou DSDCNC, ASEM
nvmntul vocaional: provocri i posibiliti de redresare 62
Conf. univ. dr. Aurelia Toma;
Drd. Veronica Midari, ASEM
Abordri ale gestiunii corporative n condiii de certitudine/ incertitudine n mediul productiv-economic 69
Prof. univ. dr. hab. Petru Ion Roca, ULIM Chiinu
Drd. Maria Gf-Deac, ULIM, (Bucureti)
Modele de ascensiune n carier caracteristice pentru Republica Moldova 77
Slonovschi Dumitru, Doctorand, Director general Magenta Consulting
Casap Lucia, Cercettor principal Magenta Consulting
Gremalschi Anatol, Doctor habilitat, Profesor universitar, Director de programe la Institutul de Politici
Publice

FINANE
Impactul fiscalitii asupra activitii investiionale 88
Prof. univ. dr. hab. Rodica Hncu;
Drd. lect. univ. sup. Olga Conencov, ASEM
Absolventul masteratului IPC Leonid Bogheanu, inspector fiscal superior la
Inspectoratul Fiscal de Stat pe raionul Hnceti
Rolul impozitelor indirecte la formarea veniturilor bugetului de stat 95
Conf. univ. dr. t. econ. Eugenia Bumachiu
Lect. sup. Marcelina Ignat
Dezvoltarea cadrului metodologic privind politica financiar a unitilor economice
din agricultur n contextul strategiilor lor de dezvoltare 103
Conf. univ. dr. Nadejda Botnari;
Drd. Vitalii Bulgac, ASEM

INFORMATIC
Sperana matematic a Abaterii relative medii n sisteme RP 111
Prof. univ. Ion Bolun
Armonizarea statisticilor business pe termen scurt cu standardele europene: Abordri i realizri n
practica statistic naional 136
Prof. univ., dr. Ion Prachi, ASEM
Lect. univ. sup. drd. Oleg Cara, ASEM

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012 5


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

CONTENT:
ECONOMICS
Moldovas Economy: Some Realities and Perspectives 7
Dr. Hab. in Economics, Professor, Grigore Belostecinic, c. m. of ASM
The Impact of the Global Financial and Economic Crisis on the Lending Activities of
Commercial Banks in Bulgaria 27
Assoc. Prof., PhD Teodora Dimitrova
D.A. Tsenov Academy of Economics, Bulgaria, Svihstov

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
The Evolution of Structural Changes of the External Trade of the Republic Moldova 39
Professor, PhD., Dr. Ion Prachi;
Senior Lecturer, Natalia Siscan, AESM
Genesis of Scientific Approaches of Labor Migration 46
PhD candidate Natalia Branasco, AESM

MANAGEMENT
Determinants of University Organizational Culture 52
Dr. Hab., Professor Ala Cotelnic;
Head of Undergraduete studies office Iulia Albot, AESM
Vocational Education: Challenges and Opportunities for Recovery 62
Assoc. Prof., PhD, Aurelia Tomsa;
PhD candidate Veronica Midari, AESM
Corporate Management Approaches in Certainty / Uncertainty Conditions on the Productive
and Economic Environment 69
Dr.Hab. Professor Petru Ion Roca, ULIM (Chisinau)
PhD candidate Maria Gaf-Deac, ULIM, (Bucharest)
Models of Career Growth Characteristic for the Republic of Moldova 77
Dumitru Slonovschi PhD candidate, General Director Magenta Consulting
Lucia Casap Senior Researcher Magenta Consulting
Anatol Gremalschi Dr.Hab., Professor, Programme Director, Institute for Public Policy

FINANCE
Taxation Impact on Investment Activity 88
Dr.Hab,Professor Rodica Hincu;
PhD candidate, Sen. Lect. Olga Conencov, AESM;
MA Leonid Bogheanu, Chief tax inspector,
State Tax Inspectorate of Hincesti district
The Role of Indirect Taxes to the Revenues Formation of State Budget 95
Assoc. Prof., PhD Eugenia Busmachiu;
Senior Lect. Marcelina Ignat, AESM
Development of Methodological Framework on Financial Policy of Economic Units Engaged in
Agriculture within the Context of Their Development Strategies 103
Assoc. Prof., PhD Nadejda Botnari;
PhD candidate Vitalii Bulgac, AESM

INFORMATICS
Mathematical Expectancy of Mean Relative Deviation in PR Systems 111
Professor Ion Bolun, AESM
The Harmonisation of Short-Term Business Statistics with the European Standards: Aproaches
and Achivements in the National Statistical Practice 136
Professor, PhD. Ion Prachi;
Senior Lect., PhD candidate Oleg Cara, AESM

6 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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ECONOMIA REPUBLICII MOLDOVAS ECONOMY: SOME


MOLDOVA: UNELE REALITI REALITIES AND PERSPECTIVES
I PERSPECTIVE
Dr. Hab. in Economics, Professor, Grigore
Dr. hab. n economie, prof. univ. Grigore BELOSTECINIC, c. m. of ASM
BELOSTECINIC, m.c. al AM
This paper presents an overview of Moldovas
Lucrarea reprezint o viziune general asupra economic development since 1992, including the
evoluiei economiei Republicii Moldova ncepnd din financial and economic crisis of 2008-2009. In the
1992 ncoace, inclusiv n circumstanele crizei economice context of possible scenarios related to negative
i financiare din anii 2008-2009. n contextul scenariilor developments in Moldovas economy and comparative
ce in de eventualele evoluii negative din economia rii i analysis of indicators of monetary policy, foreign trade
n urma analizei comparative a unor indicatori de politic and investment, concluded that at present the Republic
monetar, comer exterior i investiii, s-a ajuns la of Moldova lacks prerequisites triggering a new wave
concluzia c, actualmente, n Republica Moldova, lipsesc of economic and financial crisis and the danger of
premisele declanrii unui nou val al crizei economice i downturn is coming from abroad as a result of lower
financiare, iar pericolul ncetinirii creterii economice demand for products exported from Moldova in some
vine din afara rii, drept consecin a reducerii cererii European countries.
pentru produsele moldoveneti exportate n unele state
europene. Little else is requisite to carry a state to the
highest degree of opulence from the lowest barbarism
Pentru a ridica un stat de la cea mai joas but peace, easy taxes, and a tolerable administration of
treapt a barbarismului la cea mai nalt treapt a justice: all the rest being brought about by the natural
bunstrii, este nevoie de pace, impozite uoare i course of things.
ngduin n dirijare toate celelalte le va face mersul (Adam Smith)
natural al evenimentelor
(Adam Smith) Let the laws be clear, uniform and precise; to
Dai-ne legi clare i precise, de neschimbat; a interpret laws is almost always to corrupt them.
interpreta legile este aproape acelai lucru cu a le corupe (Voltaire)
(Voltaire)
Since the declaration of Independence, in 1991,
ncepnd cu anul 1991, anul declarrii Indepen- the Republic of Moldova has started a path of political,
denei sale, Republica Moldova a pornit pe drumul economic and social transformations. Under the market
anevoios al transformrilor politice, economice i sociale. economy conditions, which imposed themselves as an
n condiiile economiei de pia, ce s-au impus ca o legitate objective law of history, and after the collapse of the
obiectiv a istoriei, i dup destrmarea Uniunii Sovietice, Soviet Union, our country was founded basically from
ara noastr s-a constituit ca stat pornind, practic, de la un the very beginning. In this situation, the development
nou nceput. n aceast situaie, dezvoltarea economiei of the national economy became an important
naionale devenise condiia primordial pentru fortificarea condition for strengthening the countrys security and
statalitii i securitii rii. statehood.
Totodat, lipsa total a experienei n edificarea However, the total lack of experience in state
statal i tranziia de la o economie centralizat-planificat building and the transition from a centrally-planned
la o economie de pia, constituirea noii stataliti simultan economy to a market economy, in establishing a new
cu destrmarea vechiului sistem, lipsa unui plan unic de statehood simultaneously with breaking the old system,
nfptuire a reformelor, provocrile cu care s-a ciocnit ara, the lack of a single plan of making reforms, challenges
ncercrile de a rezolva problemele doar intuind cu the country faced, attempts to solve problems just
aproximaie rezultatele, a fcut ca Republica Moldova s guessing the approximate results, Moldova faced in the
se confrunte, n primii ani ai perioadei de tranziie, cu early years of the transition period, a number of
multe probleme, specifice tuturor statelor ex-sovietice. n problems, specific to all ex-Soviet states. Under these
aceste condiii, schimbrile produse n sectorul real al conditions, during this period, changes in the real
economiei au fost, n acea perioad, puin impresionante, i economy were less impressive, and only in 1997, for
abia n 1997, pentru prima dat de la nceputul anilor 90, a the first time since the early 90s, there has been
fost nregistrat o cretere neesenial a PIB-lui (figura registered a slight increase of the GDP (figure 1), and
1), iar criza economic din Rusia din 1998 a avut din nou o the economic crisis in Russia in 1998 had extremely
consecin extrem de negativ pentru economia Republicii negative consequences for the Moldovan economy,
Moldova, ndeosebi pentru comerul su exterior. particularly for foreign trade.

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012 7


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

120

100
100
83
80

59 58
60

40 39 40 42
37 38 35 35 37
40 34

20

0
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

Figura 1. Dinamica PIB fa de anul 1990 (%)/


Figure 1. GDP dynamics compared to 1990, %

Vorbind despre primul deceniu al reformelor Speaking about the first decade of economic
economice din Republica Moldova, constatm, spre reforms in the Republic of Moldova, we unfortunately
regret, c ara noastr a nregistrat cel mai mare state, that our country has registered the highest
declin al produciei fa de toate rile CSI, iar decline in production of all CIS countries and the
prestigioasa publicaie The Economist plaseaz prestigious publication The Economist ranks the
Republica Moldova pe primul loc n lume dup Republic of Moldova first in the world by the average
scderea medie anual a PIB-lui, n perioada 1991- annual decline of GDP during 1991-2001 8.5%,
2001 8,5%, fiind urmat de Georgia 8,2%, followed by Georgia 8.2%, Tajikistan 7.6%,
Tadjikistan 7,6%, Ucraina 6,6 %, Congo 5,4%, Ukraine 6.6%, Congo 5.4%, Sierra Leone 3.7%,
Sierra Leone 3,7%, Letonia 3,6%, Rusia 3,3%, Latvia 3.6%, Russia 3.3%, Kyrgyzstan 3.2%,
Krgzstan 3,2%, Lituania 2,9%. Lithuania 2.9%.
Trebuie menionat ns i faptul c, ncepnd cu It is worth mentioning the fact that, since 1998
anul 1998, dup o scdere de aproape 70% fa de after a decrease by almost 70% compared to 1990, the
anul 1990, declinul economic a fost stopat i au economic decline has been stopped and there
aprut premisele unei recuperri i creteri appeared prerequisites for recovery and economic
economice. Deja n 2000, a fost nregistrat o cretere growth. Already in 2000 was registered an annual
anual de 2,1%, iar n urmtorii opt ani de 5-7%. increase of 2.1%, and over the next eight years by 5-
Totodat, ritmul de cretere al PIB-ului este inferior 7% annually. However, the growth rate of GDP is
celui atins, la nivel mondial, de statele din Europa lower than the one achieved by countries of Central
Central i de Est i chiar de statele CSI, i, doar n and Eastern Europe and even in the CIS, and only in
anii viitori, Republica Moldova s-ar putea apropia, the next years Moldova might approach to the level
dup mrimea acestui indicator, de nivelul anului reached in 1992, by the size of this indicator (figure 2).
1992 (figura 2). Situaia este similar i n ceea ce The situation is similar as regards to the size of GDP
privete mrimea PIB-ului per capita, dup paritatea per capita by purchasing parity of the national
de cumprare a valutei naionale, acesta fiind, n 2011, currency, which is in 2011 was 9.4 times lower than in
de 9,4 ori mai mic dect n statele Uniunii Europene i the EU countries and 3.5 times lower than the average
de 3,5 ori mai mic dect cel n medie pe statele CSI in the CIS countries (figure 3). According to this
(figura 3). Conform acestui indicator, rezultatele indicator the results of the Republic of Moldova are
Republicii Moldova sunt mult inferioare, n much lower in comparison with many post-Soviet
comparaie cu multe din statele post-sovietice sau din countries or the region. Thus, in 2011 the GDP per
regiune. Astfel, n 2011, PIB-ul per capita a constituit capita in Estonia was 64.5% of the EU average, in
n Estonia 64,5% din media nregistrat de statele UE, Lithuania 59.7%, Russian Federation 52.9%, Latvia
iar n Lituania 59,7%, Federaia Rus 52,9%, 43%, Ukraine 22.9%, while in Moldova only
Letonia 43%, Ucraina 22,9%, n timp ce Republica 10.7% (figure 4).
Moldova a realizat doar 10,7% (figura 4).

8 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

Figura 2. Dinamica PIB-ului, la nivel mondial, pe grupe de ri i Republica Moldova,


fa de anul 1992 (preuri curente, n dolari SUA)/
Figure 2. Dynamics of global GDP, by groups of countries and Moldova
compared to 1992 (current prices, USD)

Figura 3. Dinamica PIB-ului per capita, calculat la paritatea puterii de cumprare


din unele state n perioada 1992-2011 (n dolari SUA)/
Figure 3. Dynamics of GDP per capita calculated at purchasing power parity
in some states during 1992-2011 (USD)

Figura 4. Dinamica PIB-ului per capita, calculat la paritatea puterii de cumprare din unele state,
n comparaie cu media UE, n perioada 1992-2011 (n dolari SUA)/
Figure 4. Dynamics of GDP per capita calculated at purchasing power parity
in some countries compared to the EU average during 1992-2011 (USD)

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012 9


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

Un impact negativ asupra dezvoltrii economice A negative impact on the economic


a Republicii Moldova l-a avut criza financiar global development of the Republic of Moldova had the
i recesiunea principalelor economii ale lumii, dar i a global financial crisis and the recession of in major
partenerilor comerciali ai rii noastre. Criza a afectat economies of the world and of our countrys trading
toate domeniile economiei naionale, iar n mod partners. The crisis has affected all areas of the national
deosebit transporturile, construciile, producia economy, particularly - transport, buildings, industrial
industrial, comerul interior i exterior, dar i production, domestic and foreign trade, and budget
veniturile bugetare. n consecin, PIB-ul a sczut, n revenues. As a consequence the GDP declined in 2009
2009 fa de 2008, cu 7,7%, R. Moldova fiind, alturi compared to 2008 by 7.7%, being, along with Ukraine
de Ucraina i Armenia, printre statele cu cea mai mare and Armenia among the countries with the greatest
descretere economic din CSI, iar dup deficitul economic decline in the CIS, and by the budget deficit
bugetar (-9%) lider, ca i Ucraina (tabelul 1). (-9%) the leader, along with Ukraine (table 1)

Tabelul 1/ Table 1
Dinamica produsului intern brut i a finanelor publice din statele CSI, n anul 2009/
GDP and public finances dynamics in CIS countries in 2009

Profit/ deficit
PIB, bugetar, n % raportat la PIB/
Nr.
ara/Country n % fa de anul 2008/ GDP Budgetary profit/deficit related to
crt.
compared to 2008, % GDP, %
2008 2009
1. Azerbaidjan +9,3 +0,2 -0,7
2. Armenia -14,4 -0,7 -7,4
3. Belarus +0,2 +1,4 -1,0
4. Kazahstan/ Kazakhstan +1,1 -2,1 -3,4
5. Krgzstan/ Kyrgyzstan +2,3 +0,8 -0,6
6. Moldova -7,7 -1,0 -9,0
7. Federaia Rus/ -7,9 +4,8 -6,4
Russian Federation
8. Tadjikistan/ Tajikistan +3,4 +2,3 -0,5
9. Turkmenistan +6,1 - -
10. Uzbekistan +8,1 -1,0 -0,5
11. Ucraina/ Ukraine -15,0 -3,2 -9,0

Privind n urm, nu se poate s nu recunoatem c, Looking back, we must admit that in the
n situaia n care omenirea nu s-a confruntat anterior cu situation when the mankind has not previously faced
cazuri similare celor prin care a trecut Republica Moldova, similar cases that hit Moldova, along with other ex-
alturi de alte state ex-sovietice, din 1991 ncoace, i tiina soviet states, since 1991, the Economics proved to be
economic s-a dovedit a fi nepregtit pentru a oferi unprepared to provide solutions. Even under these
soluii. Chiar i n aceste condiii, economitii din conditions, the Moldovan economists have made a
Republica Moldova i-au adus o contribuie apreciabil la valuable contribution to the theoretical and practical
fundamentarea teoretic i practic a reformelor economic reforms, created in our country institutions
economice, crearea instituiilor i legislaiei specifice unei and legislation specific to a market economy,
economii de pia n ara noastr, dezvoltarea sectorului developed the private sector and the business
privat, formarea i dezvoltarea mediului de afaceri etc. Nu environment, etc. It is evident the fact that currently,
putem s nu observm faptul c, n prezent, ntregul the entire economic mechanism has changed, there
mecanism al economiei este deja altul, altele sunt exists different basic economic structures, different
structurile de baz ale economiei, s-a impus o alt gndire economic and managerial thinking, a different
economic, exist o alt gndire managerial i un alt behavior of businesses and the positive trends during
comportament al ntreprinderilor, iar tendinele pozitive the recent years demonstrate that the Moldovan
din ultimii ani demonstreaz c economia Moldovei, ncet, economy, slowly but surely adapts to market
dar sigur, se adapteaz la condiiile de pia. Problemele conditions. The main problems that need to be solved
principale care necesit soluionare in de ameliorarea are related to improving the quality of economic
calitii creterii economice, reducerea migraiei masive a growth, reducing massive labor migration, creating a
forei de munc, crearea unui mediu cu adevrat atractiv truly attractive environment for entrepreneurship and
pentru activiti de antreprenoriat i atragerea investiiilor attracting foreign investment. Under the doctrinal

10 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

strine. Dar sub aspectul doctrinar, este nevoie de un aspect, we need a model of economic development
model de dezvoltare economic bazat pe libera concuren, based on free competition, free enterprise, equal
libera iniiativ, egalitatea n drepturi i oferirea de anse rights and opportunities for businesses and its binder
egale pentru agenii economici, iar liantul acestuia trebuie must be the successful combination of the interests of
s-l reprezinte mbinarea reuit a intereselor tuturor all market participants: individuals, businesses, the
participanilor la procesele din cadrul pieei: individul, State and the society as a whole. This will lead to a
agenii economici, statul i societatea n ntregime. Aceasta more successful allocation of resources, and the state
va duce la o alocare mai reuit a resurselor, iar statul should make this model work for the benefit of the
trebuie s pun acest model n slujba ntregii societi. Cu whole society. Of course this does not negate the state
certitudine, aceasta nu nseamn negarea prezenei statului presence in the economy. An economic system can
n economie. Un sistem economic poate rmne viabil remain viable only as long as the society has solutions
doar atta timp, ct societatea are soluii de contracarare a against abuses, either of state or market.
abuzurilor fie ale statului, fie ale pieei. It is noteworthy the fact that the economic and
Merit menionat i faptul c criza economic i financial crisis has generated processes capable of
financiar a generat procese n stare s schimbe sistemul changing economic and social system globally and
economic i social la nivel global, iar recuperarea the recovery rates of economic growth in the pre-
ritmurilor de cretere economic din perioada de precriz, crisis period, the economic recovery as a whole, could
redresarea economiei, n ansamblu, ar putea s devin, become, for some states a long process full of
pentru unele state, un proces de durat i cu multe uncertainties. The proof is the public debt crisis in
incertitudini. Ca dovad, servete i criza datoriilor publice Euro zone, which continues to be a factor of
din zona euro, care continu s rmn un factor de instability. Along with harsh fiscal policies, there is a
instabilitate. Odat cu politicile bugetare foarte dure, se decrease in the share of funds gathered in the capital
constat i o diminuare a ponderii resurselor financiare of European banks, which could lead to reduced
atrase n capitalul bncilor europene, ceea ce ar putea duce lending of the real economy, why not, of the capital
la reducerea creditrii sectorului real al economiei i, de ce export to countries with developing economies.
nu,a exportului de capital spre statele cu o economie n Another problem is unemployment. During the
formare. O alt problem o reprezint omajul. n perioada economic crisis in 2008-2009 has been registered a
crizei economice din 2008-2009, a fost nregistrat o considerable increase in productivity, particularly in
cretere considerabil a productivitii, n mod deosebit, n the sectors of production, including as a result of
sectoarele de producie, inclusiv ca urmare a massive layoffs, and the services sector was not able
disponibilizrilor masive, iar domeniul serviciilor nu a fost to absorb laid off labor force. However, so far there is
n stare s absoarb fora de munc disponibilizat. Cu no reason to declare that European countries are
toate acestea, deocamdat, nu exist motive pentru a entering a new crisis, even though some of them are
declara c statele europene intr ntr-o nou criz, chiar facing problems related to economic growth. The
dac unele dintre acestea se confrunt cu probleme ce in main paradox is the fact that markets need budgetary
de creterea economic. Paradoxul const n faptul c stability, but, as a consequence, reacts negatively to
pieele au nevoie de stabilitate bugetar, dar, n consecin, economic growth.
reacioneaz negativ la aceasta, n sensul creterii Eventually, the measures taken by the
economice. European countries, including monetary policy
Pn la urm, msurile ntreprinse de statele instruments, along with optimism generated by some
europene, inclusiv prin instrumente de politic monetar, positive developments in the US economy, could
nsoite de optimismul generat de unele evoluii pozitive n positively affect the global growth and prevent a new
economia american, ar putea influena benefic creterea wave of economic crisis.
economic mondial i asigura evitarea unui nou val al According to IMF forecasts of April 2012
crizei economice. (quite positive though), the global economic growth
Conform prognozelor FMI din aprilie 2012 (de by 4% in 2011 might reduce to 3.5% in 2012 and will
altfel, destul de pozitive), creterea economiei mondiale cu return to 4% in 2013. For countries with a developed
4%, n 2011, s-ar putea reduce la 3,5%, n 2012, revenind economy, the growth could be 1.5% in 2012 and 2%
la nivelul de 4%, n 2013. Pentru statele cu o economie in 2013 and for countries with developing economies
dezvoltat, creterea ar putea constitui 1,5%, n 2012, i and in transition, 5.75% in 2012 and 6% in 2013. For
2%, n 2013, iar pentru statele cu o economie n formare i Russias economy, accounting 3, 5% of the global
de tranziie respectiv, 5,75%, n 2012, i 6%, n 2013. i economy (sixth economy in the world), and one of the
pentru economia Rusiei, cu o pondere de 3,5% n main economic partners of the Republic of Moldova
economia mondial (a asea economie din lume) i unul in foreign economic activity, is expected 4% of
dintre partenerii economici principali ai Republicii economic growth in 2012.
Moldova n activitatea sa economic extern, se ateapt o Scenarios regarding possible negative
cretere economic de 4%, n 2012. economic evolutions for the Republic of Moldova
Pentru Republica Moldova, scenariile privind during the next period are mainly related to the

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eventualele evoluii negative din economia sa, n perioada reduction of remittances, of domestic demand, of
ce urmeaz, prevd, preponderent, reducerea remitenelor, exports and hence of budget revenues, but also of
scderea cererii interne, a exporturilor i, implicit, a public spending, increase of energy prices with
veniturilor la buget, dar i a cheltuielilor publice, creterea possible negative inflation consequences. We already
preurilor la resursele energetice, cu eventuale consecine can state that in the first half of 2012 the growth rate
negative inflaioniste. Deja putem constata c, n prima of the leading indicator of the overall economy, as the
jumtate a anului 2012, ritmul de cretere al principalului gross domestic product is defined, would register a
indicator al sntii unei economii n ansamblu, precum lesser increase than the one achieved in 2011 only
este definit produsul intern brut, a nregistrat o cretere 0.8 %. It is considered that the GDP slowdown was
mult mai mic dect cea din anul 2011 de doar 0,8%. Se caused by lower external demand for goods produced
consider c ncetinirea creterii PIB-ului a fost in Moldova, the weakening of internal demand due to
condiionat de diminuarea cererii externe de bunuri domestic consumption and drought in agriculture.
fabricate n Moldova, de slbirea celei interne, din contul Similar trends can be also observed in industry,
consumului final, i de seceta din agricultur. Tendine including manufacturing, food and beverage, with a
similare pot fi observate i n sectorul industrial, inclusiv n high share in exports (figure 5).
industria prelucrtoare i cea alimentar i a buturilor, cu
pondere mare n volumul de exporturi (figura 5).

Figura 5. Dinamica lunar a sectorului industrial n anii 2008-2012 fa de ianuarie 2008 (%)/
Figure 5. Monthly dynamics of industry during 2008-2012 compared to January 2008 (%)

Cu toate acestea, n prezent, situaia din R. Moldova However, today, the situation is a bit different
este un pic alta dect n anul 2009, cnd a fost nregistrat un than in 2009, when we had a huge budget deficit, lack
deficit bugetar enorm, lipsea susinerea financiar din of financial support from outside, strained relations
exterior, erau tensionate relaiile cu statele vecine, parteneri with neighboring countries, key partners in foreign
principali n activitatea economic extern, i exista o economic activity and political instability marked by
instabilitate politic pronunat, cu perspective imprevi- unpredictable prospects. Today the country is more
zibile. Astzi, ara este mai pregtit, iar conducerea rii e prepared, and the countrys leadership is more
mult mai preocupat de analiza i elaborarea msurilor de concerned with analyzing and preparing for measures
prentmpinare a unui nou val al crizei. aimed at preventing a new wave of the crisis.
n primul rnd, politica monetar a Bncii Naionale First, the National Banks monetary policy is
este mai eficient, att n ce privete asigurarea stabilitii more effective in both, macroeconomic stability and
macroeconomice, ct i n vederea mbuntirii creditrii improvement of the real lending sector of economy.
sectorului real al economiei. Astfel, inflaia a constituit, n Thus, in June of the current year (the latest data
luna iunie curent (ultimele date prezentate de Biroul provided by the National Bureau of Statistics),
Naional de Statistic), doar 1% fa de luna decembrie a inflation was only 1% compared to December of
anului 2011, nivel mult mai sczut n comparaie cu 2011, a much lower level compared to the respective
perioadele respective precedente (5,0%, n iunie 2011, i period of the previous years (5.0% in June 2011 and
5,4%, n iunie 2010), cu o rat medie lunar de cretere de 5.4% in June 2010), with an average monthly growth
0,2%. Pentru ntreaga perioad ianuarie-iunie 2012, inflaia of 0.2%. For the entire period January to June 2012
a constituit 5,1%, n comparaie cu perioada similar a inflation was 5.1% compared to the same period of
anului 2011, fiind, de asemenea, mai mic dect n anii 2011, also being lower as compared to previous years.
precedeni. Totodat, trebuie s recunoatem c aceste At the same time we must admit that these drastic

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msuri drastice pot avea i unele consecine negative measures may have some negative consequences on
asupra creterii economice, or stoparea inflaiei nseamn economic growth, or, halting inflation means some
i anumite sacrificii aduse activitii de producere, sacrifices to production activities, investment
activitii investiionale i, nu n ultimul rnd, dinamicii activities and, not least, unemployment, considering
ratei omajului, n sensul diminurii acesteia. its downward.
Evoluiile pe piaa financiar demonstreaz c avem Financial market evolutions show that we have
un sistem financiar-bancar stabil, dar trebuie s recunoatem a stable banking system, but also less integrated into
c i puin integrat n circuitele financiare internaionale. Se international financial flows. It is known that the main
tie faptul c principala problem cu care se confrunt problem our business environment is facing during
mediul de afaceri n perioada de criz este accesul la finane. the crisis is the access to finance. However, we can
Cu toate acestea, putem vorbi despre o tendin general de speak of a general trend of continuous increase of
cretere continu a soldului creditelor acordate de sectorul credits granted by banking sector, which at the end of
bancar, care, la finele lunii iunie 2012, a constituit 32,9 June 2012 amounted 32.9 billion MDL (figure 6), a
miliarde lei (figura 6), o tendin diferit de cea constatat n different trend compared to the one during the crisis
perioada de criz 2008-2009. in 2008-2009.

Figura 6. Dinamica soldurilor creditelor, acordate de sectorul bancar,


la finele perioadei 2008-2012 (miliarde de lei)/
Figure 6. Dynamics of the balance of credits offered by the banking sector at the end
of the period 2008-2012 (billion MDL)

Aceasta se datoreaz i tendinei generale de This is due to the general decreasing trend of
micorare a ratei dobnzii stabilite de bncile comerciale interest rates set by commercial banks for loans given
pentru creditele acordate att n lei moldoveneti, ct i n both in MDL and foreign currency, as well as reducing
valut strin, precum i de reducere a marjei bancare att the bank margin both in national and foreign currency
la operaiunile n lei, ct i la cele n valut (figurile 7, 8). operations (figures 7, 8).

Figura 7. Dinamica ratei dobnzii la credite i depozite, a marjei bancare, la creditarea n lei, n perioada 2008-2012/
Figure. 7 Dynamics of interest rates on loans and deposits, lending bank margin in MDL during 2008-2012

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Figura 8. Dinamica ratei dobnzii la credite i depozite, a marjei bancare,


la creditarea n valut, n perioada 2008-2012/
Figure 8. Dynamics of interest rate on loans and deposits, lending bank margin
in foreign currency during 2008-2012

Poate fi considerat pozitiv, cu mici excepii, i With few exceptions, the increase of banking
creterea depozitelor atrase de sectorul bancar, drept surs deposits, as a source of increased liquidity of banks can
de cretere a lichiditii bncilor, care, la sfritul lunii be regarded as positive, which at the end of June was
iunie, a constituit 22,5 miliarde de lei, din care 12,1 22.5 billion MDL, of which 12.1 billion MDL and 10.4
miliarde n lei i 10,4 miliarde n valut strin (figura 9). billion in foreign currency (figure 9).

Figura 9. Dinamica soldului depozitelor din sectorul bancar la finele perioadei 2008-2012 (miliarde de lei)/
Figure 9. Dynamics of deposits balance in the banking sector during 2008-2012 (billion MDL)

Chiar dac, deocamdat, remitenele provenite de Even though the remittances from the people
la populaia plecat la munc peste hotare nu au atins working abroad have not reached the level of 2008,
nivelul anului 2008, i la acest capitol, pentru ultimii trei for the past three years there is a tendency of
ani, exist o tendin general de cretere. n luna iulie a increase. In July of the current year they reached 144
anului 2012, acestea au atins nivelul de 144 milioane de million USD (figure 10) and during the first 6
dolari SUA (figura 10), iar n primele 6 luni ale aceluiai months of 2012 794 million (figure 11). Even if
an 794 de milioane SUA (figura 11). Chiar dac the share of foreign remittances in the GDP has a
ponderea transferurilor bneti din strintate n formarea decreasing tendency (20.6% in 2011 compared to
PIB-ului are o tendin general de descretere (20,6%, n 27.4 in 2009), they remain a major source of
2011, n raport cu 27,4, n 2009), acestea rmn a fi o stimulating domestic demand and supplying the
surs important de stimulare a cererii interne i de liquidity of the banking system.
alimentare a lichiditii sistemului bancar.

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Figura 10. Dinamica transferurilor de mijloace bneti din strintate, efectuate de persoane fizice
(rezidente i nerezidente), prin bncile din Republica Moldova, n perioada 2008-2012 (7 luni)/
Figure 10. Dynamics of money transfers from individuals living abroad (residents and nonresidents)
through Moldovas banks during 2008-2012 (7 months)

Figura 11. Ponderea n PIB a transferurilor de mijloace bneti din strintate, efectuate de persoane
fizice, prin bncile din Republica Moldova, n perioada 1999-2012 * (6 luni)/
Figure 11. Share of money transfers from individuals living abroad in GDP through Moldovas banks
during 1999-2012 * (6 months)

De menionat i faptul c Banca Naional a It is also noteworthy that the National Bank of
Republicii Moldova, n ultimul timp, nu s-a implicat activ Moldova has not been lately involved in the sale of
n vnzarea de valut, similar aciunilor ntreprinse n currency, similar to actions in 2009, on the contrary,
2009. Din contra, a completat valoarea rezervelor valutare has contributed to the increase of the state foreign
ale statului, acestea atingnd suma de 2 231,6 milioane de exchange reserves, which reached 2231.6 million USD
dolari SUA, n luna august a anului n curs (figura 12), in august of the current year (figure 12), coverage of
gradul de acoperire a importurilor prin activele de rezerv imports by reserve assets constituting 5.1.
constituind 5,1. Even though the total external debt of the
Chiar dac datoriile externe totale ale Republicii Republic of Moldova for the last 10 years have an
Moldova, pe parcursul ultimilor 10 ani, au avut o tendin increasing tendency, in the first quarter of 2012
general de cretere n ritmuri rapide, atingnd, n primul reaching the amount of 5663 million USD, we should
trimestru al anului 2012, suma de 5 663 de milioane dolari point out that the greatest share is belongs to the
SUA, trebuie s menionm c cea mai mare parte a private sector, while the public debt increases at much
acestora revine sectorului privat, datoriile publice crescnd smaller rates (figure 15). The coverage of external debt
cu ritmuri mult mai mici (figura 15). La fel, este n cretere through states exchange reserves is also growing,
i gradul de acoperire a datoriei externe din rezervele constituting 36.7% in the first quarter of the current
valutare ale statului, acesta constituind 36,7%, n primul year (figure 16).
trimestru al anului respectiv (figura 16).

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Figura 12. Activitatea Bncii Naionale a Moldovei pe piaa valutar n perioada 2008-2012/
Figure 12. Activity of the National Bank of Moldova on the exchange market during 2008-2012

Figura 13. Dinamica activelor oficiale de rezerv ale Republicii Moldova n perioada 2008-2012 (6 luni)/
Figure 13. Dynamics of official reserve assets of the Republic of Moldova during 2008-2012 (6 months)

Figura 14. Dinamica activelor oficiale de rezerv ale Republicii Moldova i gradul de acoperire
a importurilor n perioada 2008-2012 (6 luni)/
Figure 14. Dynamics of official reserve assets of the Republic of Moldova and coverage
of imports during 2008-2012 (6 months)

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Figura 15. Dinamica datoriei externe a Republicii Moldova n anii 2000-2012


(stocul la sfritul perioadei)/
Figure 15. Moldovas external debt dynamics during 2000-2012 (stock at end of the period)

Figura 16. Dinamica datoriei externe i a activelor oficiale de rezerv ale Republicii Moldova
n perioada 2000-2012 (trimestrul I)/
Figure 16. Dynamics of Moldovas external debt and official reserve
assets during 2000-2012 (first quarter)

Gradul de integrare a unei ri n circuitele The degree of a countrys integration into the
economice mondiale, precum i gradul de protecionism global economic flows, as well as the degree of
sau de deschidere, pot fi apreciate i prin prisma protectionism or opening, can be appreciated in
performanelor la export. terms of export performance.
De remarcat i faptul c, n ultimii ani, contextul It is worth mentioning that in the recent years
internaional al comerului se schimb n ritmuri rapide. the international trade has been changing fast.
Liberalizarea i globalizarea au indus o mobilitate mai Liberalization and globalization have induced a
mare a factorilor de producie, delocalizarea rapid a greater mobility of factors of production, their rapid
acestora, specializarea mai avansat a activitilor pe relocation, higher specialization of the business
lanurile valorice de produse i servicii. n consecin, value chains of products and services. Therefore,
comerul manifest o tendin continu de avansare, ritmul trade has a continuous growing trend, the growth
de cretere depind de dou ori ritmul de cretere a rate exceeding twice the growth rate of gross world
produsului mondial brut. product.
Vorbind despre tendinele stabilite n evoluia Talking about the trends established in
comerului extern al Republicii Moldova, cercetrile Moldovas foreign trade development, the
efectuate ne permit s le menionm, ca fiind mai researches allow us to point out the most important
importante, pe urmtoarele: ones:
1. Implicarea tot mai activ a rii noastre n 1. Countrys more active involvement in
procesele economice europene i internaionale, European and international economic processes, a

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fenomen care poate fi redat printr-o tendin continu (cu phenomenon that can be shown by a continuous
excepia perioadei de criz) de cretere a volumului trend, except during the crisis, growth in foreign
comerului exterior (figura 17). trade (figure 17).

Figura 17. Dinamica comerului exterior de bunuri al Republicii Moldova n perioada 1992-2011 (mil. USD)/
Figure 17. Moldovas foreign trade dynamics of goods during 1992-2011 (million USD)

Avnd n anul 2011 un volum al comerului extern In 2011 we had a volume of foreign trade of
de 7 414 milioane de dolari SUA (respectiv, importuri 7414 million USD (imports 5192 and exports
5192 i exporturi 2222 milioane de dolari SUA), 2222 million USD), the deficit of balance of
deficitul balanei de pli a constituit 2970 milioane de payments was 2970 million USD, the coverage of
dolari SUA, gradul de acoperire a importurilor cu imports with exports representing 42.8%. With few
exporturi constituind 42,8%. Cu mici excepii, n ntreaga exceptions, throughout the independence of the
perioad de independen a Republicii Moldova, deficitul Republic of Moldova, the trade deficit had an
comercial a avut tendina de cretere, iar proporiile ascending trend, and its considerable proportions
considerabile ale acestuia pot afecta deja securitatea may already affect the countrys economic security
economic a rii prin creterea dependenei statului de by increasing dependence on the foreign exports,
exporturile strine, fiind posibil un impact negativ i this being possibly a negative consequence for the
asupra stabilitii valutei naionale i creterii omajului. stability of the national currency and rising
Deficitul comercial se datoreaz att creterii cu ritmuri unemployment. The trade deficit is caused by the
rapide a importurilor, ct i, mai ales, scderii exporturilor rapid growth of imports, but especially by lower
spre pieele strine. n acelai timp, o analiz mai detaliat exports towards foreign markets. At the same time, a
a comerului exterior din perioada 2008-2012 more detailed analysis of the foreign trade during
demonstreaz c, dup o cretere continu a acestuia n 2008 - 2012 demonstrates that after a continuous
ultimii doi ani, n primele 6 luni ale anului 2012, se growth over the past two years, during the first six
constat o tendin lent de reducere att la componenta months of the current year there is a slow reducing
exporturi, ct i la componenta importuri (figurile 18, 19). trend of both exports and imports (figures 18, 19)
Cu certitudine, cauza acestor tendine negative Certainly, these negative trends are caused by
const n reducerea cererii de produse moldoveneti reduced demand for Moldovan products on foreign
pe pieele externe i, n special, pe cele ale Uniunii markets, and primarily those of the European Union,
Europene, iar soluionarea acestei probleme ine, n and solving this problem is primarily related to
primul rnd, de creterea competitivitii produselor increasing the competitiveness of local products on
autohtone pe potenialele piee de desfacere. potential markets.

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Figura 18. Comerul exterior lunar de bunuri al Republicii Moldova n perioada 2008-2012 (mil. USD)/
Figure 18. Monthly foreign trade of goods in Moldova during 2008-2012 (million USD)

Figura 19. Exporturile, importurile de bunuri i gradul de acoperire


a importurilor, n perioada 2008-2012, fa de luna ianuarie a anului 2008 (%)/
Figure 19. Exports and imports of goods and coverage imports during 2008-2012
compared to January 2008 (%)

2. Prezena unor schimbri considerabile 2. Significant changes in the structure of


n structura comerului exterior al Republicii Moldovas foreign trade, emphasizing an
Moldova, accentundu-se, tot mai mult, o orientare increasingly pro-EU orientation and decrease of its
pro-UE a acestuia i scderea ponderii CSI. Astfel, share in CIS. Thus, in 2011 the total exports to EU
n anul 2011, statelor Uniunii Europene le-au revenit countries were 49% and total imports to Moldova were
49% din totalul exporturilor i 43,5% din totalul 43.5%, to CIS countries respectively, 41.4% and
importurilor din i n Republica Moldova, iar statelor 33.0%.
CSI 41,4, respectiv 33.0%.

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Tabelul 2/ Table 2
Structura comerului exterior cu bunuri al Republicii Moldova
dup destinaie n perioada 1992-2011(dolari SUA)/
Structure of foreign trade of goods from the Republic of Moldova
by destination in partner countries during 1992 2011(dollars USA)

Valoarea exportului i importului, n 2011/


Structura/Structure, %
Export and import value in 2011
n % fa de 2010/
mil. USD 2009 2010 2011
and comparend to 2010
Export total
Inclusiv/ including 2221,6 144,1 100,0 100,0 100,0
n statele UE 27/ in UE countries 1087,8 149,2 51,9 47,3 49,0
n statele CSI/ in CIS countries 919,3 147,3 38,1 40,5 41,4
n alte state/ in other states 214,5 113,8 10,0 12,2 9,6
Import total
inclusiv/ including 5191,6 134,7 100,0 100,0 100,0
din statele UE/ from UE countries 2256,6 132,4 43,4 44,2 43,5
din statele CSI/ from CIS countries 1713,4 136,3 34,8 32,6 33,0
din alte state/ from other states 1221,6 136,6 21,8 23,2 23,5
Balana comercial -2970,0 128,4

3. Pentru comerul exterior al Republicii Moldova, 3. Excessive concentration on geographical


continu s rmn specific o concentrare excesiv pe areas continues to be specific for Moldovas foreign
arii geografice. Astfel, n anul 2011, din volumul global al trade. Thus, in 2011, 66.7% of the total exports from
exporturilor Republicii Moldova, primelor cinci state Moldova are directed to the top 5 importing
importatoare (Rusia, Romnia, Italia, Ucraina i Germania) countries (Russia, Romania, Italy, Ukraine and
le-au revenit 66,7%, iar primelor 10 (la cele sus-indicate mai Germany) and top 10 (to the listed above are added
sus, se adaug Marea Britanie, Polonia, Belarus, Turcia i Great Britain, Poland, Belarus, Turkey and
Kazahstan) 83,9%. n acelai timp, primelor cinci state Kazakhstan) 83.9%. Meanwhile, the top 5
(Rusia, Ucraina, Romnia, China i Germania), din volumul countries (Russia, Ukraine, Romania, China and
global al importurilor Republicii Moldova, le-au revenit Germany) amount 54.6% of Moldovas total
54,6%, iar primelor 10 (la cele indicate mai sus se adaug imports, and the top 10 (to those listed above are
Turcia, Italia, Belarus, Polonia i Ungaria) 76,7%. Gradul added Turkey, Italy, Belarus, Poland and Hungary)
foarte nalt de concentrare a comerului exterior al 76.7%. The high degree of concentrating Moldovas
Republicii Moldova a condus la o dependen foarte mare a foreign trade has led to a great dependence of our
economiei sale de evenimentele negative, care se produc economy to the negative events that occur regularly
periodic n Rusia (28,8% n totalul exporturilor i 15,9% n in Russia (28.8% of total exports and 15.9% of total
totalul importurilor, din anul 2011), iar multiplele bariere imports in 2011) and the numerous economic
economice (tarifare i netarifare), pe care Ucraina (cu o barriers (tariff and non-tariff) which Ukraine
pondere de 6,9 % n totalul exporturilor i de 12,3% n (representing 6.9% of total exports and 12.3% of
totalul importurilor, din anul 2011) le pune n faa total imports in 2011) puts in front of Moldovan
exporturilor moldoveneti, a condus la o balan de pli exports to this market, has led to an extremely
extrem de negativ n relaiile economice cu aceast ar, negative balance of payments in economic relations
care a constituit, n anul 2011, 488,1 milioane de dolari with Ukraine, which were 488.1 million USD in
SUA, Republica Moldova exportnd pe aceast pia bunuri 2011. Moldova exported on Ukrainian market goods
de doar 153,0 milioane de dolari SUA, iar importurile of 153.0 million USD, while imports accounted for
constituind 641,1 milioane de dolari SUA. 641.1 million USD.
Trebuie s recunoatem i faptul c agregatul We have to admit the fact that the political and
politic i economic, pe nume CSI, ca i ideea formrii economic unit named CIS, as well as the idea of
unui spaiu economic unic pentru toate statele forming a single economic area for all participating
participante, este pe cale de falimentare total. De countries, is close to total bankruptcy. Similarly, faced
asemenea, confruntndu-se cu un ir de probleme n a number of problems within the country, Russia loses
cadrul rii, Rusia i pierde atractivitatea n formarea its attractiveness in the formation of political or
unor aglomerate de ordin politic sau economic, economic unions, often showing lack of consistency
adesea, demonstrnd lips de consecven i and political sincerity in relations with neighboring
sinceritate politic n relaiile sale cu statele vecine. countries.

20 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

Tabelul 3/ Table 3

Structura exportului de bunuri al Republicii Moldova n statele partenere n anii 2010-2011/


Structure of export of goods from the Republic of Moldova to partner countries during 2010 2011

2011 Ponderea/Share, %
n % fa
de 2010/in
Statele/States million
% 2010 2011
USD
compared
to 2010
Export total, inclusive:/
2221,6 144,1 100 100
Export total, including:
1. Federaia Rus/ Russian Federation 625,5 154,8 26,2 28,2
2. Romnia/ Romania 376,4 152,8 16,0 16,9
3. Italia/ Italy 215,1 145,9 9,6 9,7
4. Ucraina/ Ukraine 153,0 167,1 5,9 6,9
5. Germania/ Germany 111,2 147,4 4,9 5,0
6. Marea Britanie/ Great Britain 101,8 124,0 5,3 4,6
7. Polonia/ Poland 85,9 183,9 3,0 3,9
8. Belarus 75,6 94,2 5,2 3,4
9. Turcia/ Turkey 73,4 108,8 4,4 3,3
10. Kazahstan/ Kazakhstan 45,5 148,8 2,0 2,0
Total pe primele 5 state partenere/
1481,2 62,6 66,7
Total for the top 5 partner countries
Total pe primele 10 state partenere/
1863,4 82,5 83,9
Total for the top 10 partner countries

Tabelul 4/ Table 4

Structura importului de bunuri al Republicii Moldova din statele partenere n anii 2010-2011/
Structure of imports of goods to the Republic of Moldova from the partner countries during 2010 2011

2011 Ponderea/share, %
n % fa
de 2010/in
Statele/States
mil. USD % 2010 2011
compared
to 2010
Import total, inclusiv/ Import - total,
5191,6 66,9 100 100
including:
1. Federaia Rus/ Russian Federation 823,0 140,3 15,2 15,9
2. Ucraina/ Ukraine 641,1 121,3 13,7 12,3
3. Romnia/ Romania 574,2 148,5 10,0 11,1
4. China 399,8 124,9 8,3 7,7
5. Germania/ Germany 396,2 134,4 7,6 7,6
6. Turcia/ Turkey 366,9 178,3 5,3 7,1
7. Italia/ Italy 348,1 128,6 7,0 6,7
8. Belarus 194,7 163,5 3,1 3,8
9. Polonia/ Poland 134,6 128,1 2,7 2,6
10. Ungaria/ Hungary 100,1 156,9 1,7 1,9
Total pe primele 5 state partenere/
2834,3 54,8 54,6
Total for top 5 partner countries
Total pe primele 10 state partenere/
3978,7 74,6 76,7
Total for top 10 partner countries

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012 21


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

4. Republica Moldova continu s fie o ar 4. The Republic of Moldova remains a


preponderent agrar, fapt pentru care i n exporturile sale predominantly agrarian country, thus, its exports
continu s predomine producia sectorului agrar sau a unor continue to be dominated by agrarian production or
sectoare tradiionale ale economiei: producie alimentar, traditional sectors of the economy: food, textiles,
mrfuri textile, materii prime vegetale. Bunurile indicate vegetable raw materials. The mentioned goods are
sunt produse n ramurile cu un consum intensiv de resurse produced in branches with intensive use of natural
naturale i umane i posed o valoare adugat sczut. De and human resources and have a low added value.
asemenea, exportul produciei agroalimentare este nsoit de Similarly, the export of agricultural and food
multe riscuri, fiind dependent de condiiile climaterice i de production is accompanied by a number of risks and
frecventele schimbri conjuncturale din cadrul pieei. is dependent on weather conditions and frequent
Bineneles c, pentru Republica Moldova, cu o cyclical changes in the market.
economie mic i deschis, pieele strine prezint o Foreign markets are of major importance for
importan major. De aceea, orientarea economiei spre the Republic of Moldova that has a small and open
pieele externe de desfacere trebuie s devin parte economy. This is why economic orientation towards
integrant i obligatorie a tuturor strategiilor de dezvoltare foreign markets must become an integral and
ale rii. E bine s nelegem c promovarea exporturilor nu binding part of the countrys development strategies.
constituie un scop n sine, ci un obiectiv prin care poate fi We must understand that promoting exports is not an
asigurat creterea economic durabil. Iar pentru objective, but a goal that can ensure a sustained
consolidarea competitivitii, exporturile trebuie s fie economic growth. And in order to strengthen
diversificate geografic, pentru a reduce dependena competitiveness, exports need to be diversified
exagerat de orice pia extern. Aceasta nu nseamn ns geographically, to reduce excessive dependence on
c trebuie s renunm la relaiile externe cu Rusia i alte any foreign market. This does not mean you have to
state din CSI, care sunt partenerii notri tradiionali. Pentru give up foreign relations with Russia and other CIS
Republica Moldova, ca ar mic, este necesar o politic member states, which are our traditional partners for
economic echilibrat n relaiile sale cu statele vecine mai a long time. Moldova is a small country and requires
mari. Orientarea simultan a exporturilor spre pieele a balanced economic policy in its relations with
occidentale dezvoltate, cu exigene nalte de calitate, i spre larger neighboring states. Simultaneous orientation
pieele uriae ale Rusiei, Ucrainei i ale altor state din CSI, of exports to developed Western markets with high
constituie o direcie important de reducere a deficitului quality requirements, and to huge markets of Russia,
balanei comerciale. Ukraine and other CIS countries, is an important
Trebuie s fie diversificat i sortimentul de way of reducing the trade deficit.
produse, cu nclinare spre produsele cu valoare adugat The range of products must also be
sporit, prin trecerea de la activiti cu productivitate diversified, with inclination towards products with a
sczut, cu niveluri de tehnologii sczute i cu folosirea higher added value, shifting from activities with low
intensiv a muncii, la activiti de nalt productivitate, la productivity, low levels of technology and intensive
tehnologii avansate, bazate pe inteligen. labor activities to activities with high productivity,
Performanele la export trebuie s se sprijine pe advanced technologies, based on intelligence.
avantaje competitive, pe dezvoltarea capacitilor i Export performances should be based on
competenelor sectoarelor de export i pe crearea unei competitive advantages, on development of export
economii, care s se poat perfeciona n condiii de liber skills and competences and creating an economy
schimb i ntr-o pia din ce n ce mai globalizat. able to develop under conditions of free trade and
Creterea protecionismului, ns, ar putea pune n pericol increasingly globalized market. Increased
perspectivele Republicii Moldova n ceea ce privete protectionism could endanger Moldovas prospects
exploatarea avantajelor competitive, cci avantajele regarding the exploitation of competitive
competitive nu vin din protecionism aceasta duce la advantages. This is because competitive advantages
stagnare, la un nivel inferior al abilitilor antreprenoriale i do not come from protectionism, this leads to
la o motivare sczut a sectorului privat ctre eficien, stagnation, to a lower level of entrepreneurial skills
calitate i dezvoltare de produse noi. and low motivation of the private sector towards
De aceea se cere s fim n continu cutare de noi efficiency, quality and development of new
nie de competitivitate, att prin modernizarea industriilor products.
tradiionale, ct i prin iniierea unor afaceri mai puin That is why a continuous search for new
cunoscute n Republica Moldova. Iar pentru aceasta, politica competitive niches is required, both by modernizing
de promovare a exporturilor trebuie mbinat cu politica de traditional industries and initiating less popular
atragere a investiiilor strine directe n sectoarele economiei businesses in Moldova. For this reasons, the export
naionale orientate la export. promotion policy must be a combined with the
Pentru a-i asigura dezvoltarea economic i policy of attracting FDI in export-oriented economic
creterea competitivitii, Republica Moldova are nevoie de sectors.
investiii i, n primul rnd, de investiii strine directe, In order to ensure economic growth and

22 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

pentru deschiderea de noi locuri de munc, reducerea competitiveness, the Republic of Moldova needs
omajului i sporirea veniturilor populaiei, promovarea investment, and primarily foreign direct investment
exporturilor i realizarea unui transfer de cunotine i for opening new jobs, reducing unemployment and
tehnologii performante, creterea gradului de integrare n increasing income, export promotion and transfer of
sistemul economic european i mondial. knowledge and technologies, increasing integration
Merit remarcat faptul c, n perioada 2004-2008, into the European and world economic system.
Republica Moldova a nregistrat succese apreciabile la It is worth mentioning that during 2004-
capitolul atragerii investiiilor strine directe, volumul 2008 the Republic of Moldova has registered
acestora constituind, n anul 2008, peste 700 de milioane de considerable successes in attracting FDI, their
dolari SUA (figura 20). Totodat, n anul de maxim criz volume being more than 700 million USD in 2008
economic i financiar (2009), acestea s-au redus aproape (figure 20). However, during the period of highest
de cinci ori, nregistrnd un volum de doar 145,3 milioane financial and economic crisis (2009), they fell
de dolari SUA. almost 5 times, registering 145.3 million USD.

Figura 20. Dinamica investiiilor strine directe n Republica Moldova (anii 1999-2011)/ Figure 20.
Foreign Direct Investment Dynamics in the Republic of Moldova
(during 1999-2011)

Chiar dac, n urmtorii doi ani, a fost nregistrat o Even if during the last 2 years has been
sporire a ISD, aceasta nu a fost considerabil, constituind, registered an increase in FDI, it was not significant; in
n anul 2011, 274 de milioane de dolari, ceea ce reprezint 2011 it was 274 million USD, which represents 38.5%
38,5% din volumul atins n 2008. Trebuie remarcat i of the level achieved in 2008. It is worth mentioning
capacitatea sczut de absorbie de ctre economia the low absorption capacity of the foreign direct
naional a investiiilor strine directe, or, judecnd dup investment by the domestic economy, or, taking into
stocul acestora raportat la PIB, Republica Moldova are o consideration their stock related to GDP, the Republic
situaie mult mai bun dect multe din statele cu o of Moldova has a much better situation than many of
economie de tranziie (figura 21). the countries with economies in transition (figure 21).

Figura 21. Stocul investiiilor strine directe, raportat la PIB, n statele cu economia de tranziie, n perioada 2000-2011/
Figure 21. FDI stock related to GDP in countries with economies in transition during 2000-2011

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ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

Este firesc c, pentru sporirea masiv a investiiilor It is natural that for massive increase of
strine directe, atrase n economia rii, este necesar foreign direct investment in the countrys economy is
reformarea mai activ a climatului investiional, pentru necessary a more active reforming of the investment
investitorii strini fiind importante cerinele la intrare, climate for foreign investors, being important
stimulentele, politica valutar, legile proprietii asupra entrance requirements, incentives, foreign exchange
pmntului, accesul la vize i permise de munc, accesul i policy, laws of land ownership, access to visas and
disponibilitatea infrastructurii fizice i economice, work permits, access and availability of physical
drepturile de repatriere a capitalului etc. n acest context, infrastructure and economic rights repatriation etc. In
Comisia Naiunilor Unite pentru Dezvoltare i Comer this context, the United Nations Commission on
consider c factorii principali, care determin amplasarea Trade and Development considers that the main
investiiilor strine directe ntr-o economie sunt: factors that determine the location of FDI in an
dimensiunea pieei interne, existena unor importante economy are the existence of important natural
resurse naturale, fora de munc ieftin, accesul spre resources, cheap labor force, access to foreign
pieele strine de desfacere, liberalizarea politicilor markets, liberalization of domestic economic policies,
economice interne, nivelul progresului tehnic i calitatea the level of technical progress and the quality of
resurselor umane, precum i strategiile corporative, care human resources, corporate strategies that are
sunt accesibile noilor venii pe pia etc. available to new market entrants etc.
n acest context, printre schimbrile pozitive n In this context, among the positive changes
climatul investiional al Republicii Moldova, putem in the investment climate of the Republic of Moldova
meniona: we can mention:
Existena unei politici de stat n domeniul - The existence of a state policy in the field
investiiilor, reflectat preponderent n Strategia of investment, reflected mainly in the
investiional a Republicii Moldova, aprobat Investment Strategy of the Republic of
prin Hotrrea Guvernului nr. 234 din 27 Moldova, approved by Government Decision
februarie 2002 i Legea Republicii Moldova cu no. 234 of 27 February 2002 and the Law of
privire la investiiile n activitatea de the Republic of Moldova on investments in
antreprenoriat din 18.03.2004; entrepreneurial activity from 18 March 2004;
mbuntirea sistemului legal, inclusiv extinderea - Improvement of the legal system, including
i eficientizarea legislaiei comerciale, acesta fiind expanding and improving trade legislation,
considerat ca fiind unul liberal,favorabil i which is regarded as a liberal, supportive and
ncurajator pentru investiiile strine; encouraging one for foreign investment;
Stabilitatea relativ a valutei naionale i un nivel - Relative stability of the national currency
relativ sczut al inflaiei. and relatively low level of inflation.
Oportuniti privind atragerea investiiilor strine As opportunities in attracting FDI can be
directe pot fi considerare i amplasarea strategic a rii, also considered the country's strategic location
determinat de poziia geografic avantajoas, solurile determined by a successful location, fertile soils and
fertile i clima favorabil pentru o gam larg de culturi favorable climate for a wide range of crops, traditions
agricole; tradiiile din agricultur i industria vinicol. in agriculture and in wine industry, investors can still
Investitorii nc mai pot beneficia i de un pre relativ benefit from a relatively low cost of labor force.
sczut al forei de munc. However, the main problems affecting the
Totodat, ca principale bariere n calea dezvoltrii development of business and investment climate can
afacerilor i care afecteaz climatul investiional, pot fi be considered:
considerate: - The practical implementation of legislation
Problema privind implementarea practic a is still a problem, as well as its adequate and
legislaiei i aplicarea adecvat i eficiente a effective implementation;
acesteia; - Active government intervention, great
Prezena unor intervenii guvernamentale influence of politics on the economic sphere,
inadecvate, influena mare a politicii asupra with repressive actions, including towards
sferei economice, prezena aciunilor cu caracter foreign investors;
represiv, inclusiv asupra unor investitori strini; - The Republic of Moldova still remains little
Republica Moldova rmne a fi cunoscut puin known in the world and has a bad image
n lume i are o imagine nefavorabil, fiind being perceived as a poor and unpredictable
perceput ca o ar srac i imprevizibil, cu un country, with an uncertain future. The
viitor incert. Regimul separatist din Transnistria separatist enclave Transdniestria remains the
continu s fie cel mai grav factor de instabilitate most serious factor of instability and
i insecuritate, iar mass-media din Federaia Rus insecurity, and the media in the Russian
(partener strategic al Republicii Moldova!), n Federation (Moldovas strategic partner!), in
contextul unor decizii economice cu coninut the context of some economic decisions with

24 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

vdit politic, a adus i continu s aduc a political content has caused and continues
prejudicii de imagine rii noastre, i nu numai n to prejudice the country's image, and not
hotrrile sale, dar i n toat lumea; only in Russia but also all over the world;
Emigrarea masiv a populaiei (forei de munc), Massive migration of population (labor
care, dei are i aspecte pozitive, n cazul force), which, also has positive aspects, from
Republicii Moldova, a atins proporii care Moldova has reached proportions affecting
afecteaz securitatea economic a statului; the states economic security;
Interveniile administrative frecvente n Frequent administrative interventions in
activitatea agenilor economici, inclusiv sub economic activity of businesses, including in
form de numeroase controale i inspecii; the form of controls and inspections;
Birocraia general, protecionismul i corupia. General bureaucracy, protectionism and
Republica Moldova rmne puin atractiv pentru corruption etc.
investiiile strine directe i din cauza economiei de The Republic of Moldova remains
dimensiuni mici, puterii sczute de cumprare a populaiei, unattractive for foreign direct investment also because
lipsei resurselor naturale tradiionale, a unei infrastructuri of small size economy, low purchasing power of the
dezvoltate pentru afaceri. population, lack of traditional natural resources,
Aadar, chiar dac Republica Moldova a nregistrat business infrastructure etc.
succese n reformarea climatului investiional, intrrile Therefore, even though the Republic of
anuale de capital sub form de investiii strine directe sunt Moldova has been successful in reforming the
destul de modeste, n comparaie cu alte state europene, iar investment climate, the annual capital inflows as
fr aceasta nu se poate atepta o cretere economic foreign direct investment are quite modest compared
durabil. to other European countries, and without it we can not
Dei Republica Moldova este perceput, de unele expect a sustainable growth.
structuri europene, ca oferind investitorilor un grad mai Thus, the Republic of Moldova is perceived
mare de libertate economic, comparativ cu alte state, by some European structures as giving investors a
imaginea investiional a rii este nc slab conturat. greater degree of economic freedom compared to
Potenialii investitori nu dein informaii suficiente despre other countries and the investment image of the
oportunitile de investiii sau nu interpreteaz corect country is still poorly shaped. Potential investors do
datele de care dispun. not have sufficient information on investment
Chiar dac sunt puine la numr, cazurile de succes opportunities or not correctly interpret available data.
ale investitorilor strini continu s fie slab promovate n Even if few in number, the successful
exterior. Statul investete puin n dezvoltarea examples of foreign investors are not promoted
infrastructurii fizice (cu excepia ultimului an), n educaie abroad. The state invests little in physical
i sntate condiii absolut necesare pentru iniierea unor infrastructure (excepting the last year), in education
afaceri pe termen lung. and health, which are indispensable conditions for the
Din analiza activitii investiionale, desfurat n development of long term businesses.
Republica Moldova, putem observa c cele mai mari stocuri The analysis of investment activity in the
de investiii strine directe s-au acumulat, din 1991 ncoace, Republic of Moldova shows that the largest FDI
n sferele care asigur o recuperare rapid a acestora (energia stocks, since 1991, have been accumulated in sectors
electric), n sectoarele cu folosirea intensiv a forei de that provide a quick return (electricity), in sectors
munc i a resurselor naturale de care dispunem i, uneori, using intensive labor forces and natural resources, and
cu un grad inferior de prelucrare i valoare adugat sczut sometimes a lower grade of processing and added
(industria prelucrtoare), sau n activiti care nu solicit value (manufacturing), or activities that do not require
investiii considerabile, dar garanteaz un nivel nalt al significant investment but ensure a high level of
rentabilitii (comerul cu ridicata i cu amnuntul), n profitability (wholesale and retail, financial
activiti financiare. De asemenea, domeniile sus-indicate au activities). Also, the above-mentioned areas have a
o pondere modest n formarea PIB-ului i exporturilor, cu modest share in national GDP and exports, except for
excepia sectorului agroalimentar. food industry.
Bineneles c investiiile strine directe nu vor veni Of course, foreign direct investment for the
n timpul apropiat n Republica Moldova, pentru development of economic infrastructure will not come
dezvoltarea infrastructurii sale economice, iar fr o in the nearest future in Moldova, but without a
infrastructur economic bine dezvoltat, va fi destul de developed economic infrastructure attracting FDI
dificil atragerea investiiilor strine directe. Concluzia nu would be extremely difficult. There can be only one
poate fi dect una: Guvernul trebuie s recurg la cheltuieli conclusion: the Government should use public
publice n proporii mai mari pentru dezvoltarea expenditure in higher proportions for economic
infrastructurii economice, inclusiv a infrastructurii pentru infrastructure development, including infrastructure
creterea nivelului calitii (activiti de metrologie, for quality development (metrology, standardization,
standardizare, testare, certificare). testing, quality certification).

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012 25


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

Politica Republicii Moldova n privina investiiilor Moldovas policy on foreign direct


strine directe trebuie s capete o orientare mult mai investment must acquire a more liberal (of course,
liberal (desigur, lund n consideraie securitatea taking into account the states economic security) and
economic a statului) i proactiv, fiind necesar pn i proactive direction, being necessary even a more
atragerea mai agresiv a investiiilor. Este puin ca aggressive attraction of investments. It is unlikely
potenialii investitori strini s fie tratai ca i n alte state. for potential foreign investors to be treated the same
Acetia trebuie tratai chiar mai bine dect sunt tratai de as in other states. They should be treated better than
guvernele statelor concurente. Nu trebuie s ateptm c by the governments of competing countries. We
investiiile strine directe vor veni singure. Investiiile should not wait for FDI to come. Foreign direct
strine directe trebuie aduse, obinute pentru Republica investment must be attracted to the Republic of
Moldova, iar n acest scop, sunt necesare aciuni energice Moldova. And for this reason are required direct
de marketing, ntreprinse direct ctre investitorii-int, marketing actions towards target investors, alongside
concomitent cu luarea unor msuri urgente n vederea with undertaking urgent measures to improve the
mbuntirii imaginii externe a rii n mediile politice i external image of the country in international business
de afacere internaionale. and political environments.

Bibliografie:/ Bibliography:
1. Porter M. Building the Microeconomie Foundations of Prosperity: Findings from the Microeconomie
Competitiveness Indices // Global Competitiveness Report 2002-2003, WEF, Geneva, 2003.
2. The Global Competitiveness Report 2011-2012. World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland,
2011. 527 p.
3. Datele Biroului Naional de Statistic al Republicii Moldova (www. statistica.md).
4. Datele Bncii Naionale a Republicii Moldova (www.bnm.md).
5. Datele Comisiei Europene pentru Statistic (www. epp.eurostat.ec.
europa.eu/portal/page/portal/eurostat/home).
6. Datele Fondului Monetar Internaional (www. imf.org/external/index.com).
7. Datele Comitetului pentru Statistic al CSI (www.cisstat.com).

26 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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REFLECTAREA CRIZEI THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL


FINANCIAR-ECONOMICE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC
GLOBALE N ACTIVITATEA DE CRISIS ON THE LENDING
CREDITARE A BNCILOR ACTIVITIES OF COMMERCIAL
COMERCIALE DIN BULGARIA BANKS IN BULGARIA
Conf. univ. dr. T. P. DIMITROV, Academia Assoc. Prof., PhD T. P. DIMITROVA
Economic D. A. enov, D. A. Tsenov Academy of Economics,
Republica Bulgaria, Svishtov Bulgaria, Svishta
Studiul trateaz starea i tendinele de pe piaa This study analyzes the status and trends of the
bancar bulgar dup criza financiar i economic Bulgarian banking market and, in particular, the
mondial i, n special, activitile de creditare ale lending activities of commercial banks since the
bncilor comerciale. Obiectul analizei este starea beginning of the global financial and economic crisis.
activitii de creditare a bncilor comerciale din The analysis covers the credit activities of Bulgarian
Bulgaria pentru perioada 2008-2011. commercial banks during the period 2008 - 2011.
Ca urmare, pe fondul instabilitii bancare la Contrary to the turmoil in global banking, the
nivel mondial, se evideniaz un punct de vedere, Bulgarian banking sector is considered to be coping
conform cruia sectorul bancar din Bulgaria a fost n relatively well with both the internal and external
msur s fac fa relativ cu provocrilor economice problems faced by Bulgarias economy. This is partly
interne i externe. Acest lucru este parial o consecin a due to the financial discipline imposed by the currency
disciplinei financiare asociate de coridorul valutar, board; the conservative management of Bulgarian
gestionarea conservatoare a bncilor din Bulgaria, banks; the strict regulatory framework, and last, but
cadrul strict de reglementare i, nu n ultimul rnd, not least, the insignificant losses (compared to those
pierderile minore (n comparaie cu cele mondiale), of the global economy) incurred by Bulgarian banks
legate de titlurile de valoare, suportate de bncile from trading in securities during the current global
bulgare n perioada crizei financiare i economice. financial and economic crisis.
Cuvinte-cheie: sectorul bancar, bncile Key-words: banking sector, commercial banks,
comerciale, activitatea de credit, portofoliul de credite, credit activities, credit portfolio, financial and
criza economic i financiar. economic crisis

Criza financiar global a expus economiile The global financial crisis has made the world
moderne i, ntr-o msur mai mare, sectorul bancar la economies, especially the banking sector, face a
multe ncercri, care au bulversat stabilitatea lumii i ne- number of challenges that shook the very foundations
a plasat n condiiile unei crize care continu i se of our established and settled world and initiated the
aprofundeaz. A demarat n Statele Unite ca o criz a ongoing and exasperating economic crisis. The crisis
creditelor ipotecare, cauzat de faptul c nu a rezistat i started as a subprime mortgage crisis due to the
s-a spart bula imobiliar. Criza s-a extins repede housing bubble bursting in the USA and quickly went
dincolo de graniele SUA i, prin intermediul pieelor de beyond national borders to spread over the capital
capital, a cuprins ntreaga lume. Unul dintre cele mai markets world-wide. The crisis affected the banks
afectate de criz a fost sectorul bancar, care, prin worst, which incurred unexpected and significant
intermediul portofoliilor de valorii mobiliare, n special losses mainly through the securitized U.S. mortgages
n structura creditelor ipotecare securitizate din SUA, au in their security portfolios. Unfortunately, the crisis
suferit pierderi imediate i semnificative. Din pcate, did not affect only the U.S. banking market, but
acest lucru nu a afectat doar piaa bancar din SUA, ci s- spread to the European banking markets. The
a extins i asupra Uniunii Europene. Problemele din problems in Ireland, the Dexia case, the debt crisis in
Irlanda (cazul Dexia), criza datoriilor din Grecia i Greece and the risk to the integrity of the Eurozone
riscul integritii zonei euro au provocat mari probleme gave rise to serious banking problems in Europe as
bancare i pe btrnul continent. n ciuda interveniei well. Despite massive and coordinated intervention
masive i coordonate, precum i msurile luate de and measures taken by authorities in support of the
autoriti n sprijinul sectorului bancar european, din ce European banking sector, an increasing number of
n ce mai multe ri au nceput s caute sprijin financiar countries are now seeking external financial support to
extern, necesar pentru a stabiliza situaia bncilor stabilize their national banks.
naionale proprii. This paper aims to analyze the status and trends
Scopul acestui articol este analiza situaiei i a of the Bulgarian banking market and, in particular, the

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ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

tendinelor de pe piaa bancar bulgar, dup demararea lending activities of commercial banks since the
crizei financiare i economice mondiale, n special, a beginning of the global financial and economic crisis.
activitilor de creditare ale bncilor comerciale. The analysis covers the credit activities of Bulgarian
Obiectul de analiz este starea activitilor de creditare a commercial banks during the period 2008-2011.
bncilor comerciale din Bulgaria n perioada 2008-2011. After the greatest global financial and economic
Dup cea mai profund criz financiar i crisis of our century, which inevitably affected
economic mondial din secolul prezent, care a avut un Bulgarias economy, in 2012 the expectations are that
impact inevitabil i asupra economiei bulgare, ateptrile the rate of economic growth will gradually increase.
pentru anul 2012 presupun o cretere economic Contrary to the instability in global banking, the
treptat. n contextul instabilitii bancare, la nivel Bulgarian banking sector is coping relatively well with
mondial, sectorul bancar din Bulgaria este relativ n both the internal and the external problems faced by
msur s fac fa provocrilor interne i externe. Acest our national economy. This is partly due to the
lucru este parial o consecin a disciplinei financiare financial discipline imposed by the currency board the
severe, asociat coridorului valutar, gestionarea conservative management of Bulgarian banks the
conservatoare a bncilor din Bulgaria, un cadru strict de strict regulatory framework, and last, but not least, the
reglementare i, nu n ultimul rnd, pierderile minore insignificant losses (compared to those of the global
(comparativ cu cele mondiale) legate de titlurile de economy) incurred by Bulgarian banks from trading in
valoare suportate de ctre bncile bulgare n perioada securities during the current global financial and
crizei financiare i economice mondiale. economic crisis.
Structural, sectorul bancar din Bulgaria este The structure of Bulgarias banking sector is
dominat de filiale ale sucursalelor bncilor localizate n dominated by EU bank subsidiaries 69.7% in 2012
state ale Uniunii Europene, care, n 2012, au reprezentat compared to 76.5% in 2008 (see figure 1). This
69,7%, fa de 76,5%, n 2008 (figura 1). Aceast withdrawal of European bank capitals from our
scdere a capitalului bncilor europene din Bulgaria, a country was compensated by an increase in the
fost compensat prin creterea ponderii bncilor cu proportion of Bulgarian banks that operate with
capital intern din Bulgaria, ponderea crora a crescut de national capitals, which increased from 4.9% in 2008
la 4,9%, n 2008, la 23,5%, n 2012. to 23.5% in 2012.

Ramuri
bancare Bnci
n afara n afara Ramuri
bancare Bnci Bnci
Uniunii Uniunii
din Uniunea locale/ subsidiare/
Europene/ Europene/
European/ Local banks Eu bank
Non-Eu bank Non-Eu
branches Eu bank subsidiaries
banks
brankes

Figura 1. Structura sectorului bancar din Bulgaria (2008/2011)/


Figure 1. Structure of the banking sector in Bulgaria (2008/2011)
Sursa: Datele din buletinele oficiale ale BNB/
Sourse: Data from the official bulletins of the BNB

Prezint interes i situaia structurii balanei sectorului The analysis of the balance structure of the
bancar din ultimii ani. Creditele i creanele, care fac obiectul banking sector during recent years is also quite
studiului de fa, se menin la un nivel relativ stabil, n interesting. Loans and advances (which are the main
proporie de cca 80% (78% n 2008, 82% n 2009, 79% object of this study) maintained relatively stable levels
n 2010, 79% 2011). Tendina ascendent a ponderii of about 80% (78% in 2008, 82% in 2009, 79% in

28 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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portofoliului de credite, observat n primii ani de criz, se 2010, 79% in 2011). The trend for increasing the
datoreaz faptului c efectele negative ale crizei, manifestate credit portfolio ratio during the first few years was due
n economia bulgar, s-au produs cu decalajul de timp deja to the fact that there was a time lag before the crisis
cunoscut. affected the Bulgarian economy.
O alt posibil explicaie ar putea fi legat de faptul c Another possible explanation could be related to
bncile din Bulgaria dispun de un grad extrem de sczut sau the fact that Bulgarian banks either hold very little or
nu dispun deloc de active toxice n portofoliile lor de no toxic assets at all in their investment and trading
investiii i comerciale, care, la rndul lor, le-au protejat de portfolios, which in turn protected them from potential
poteniale pierderi. Este interesant faptul c de la restrngerea losses. Interestingly, after the trade portfolio of
iniial a portofoliului comercial de la 8%, n 2008, la 4%, n securities fell initially from 8% in 2007 to 4% in 2009,
2009, pn la sfritul anului 2011, se observ o cretere de it rose again to 6% at the end of 2011. This shows a
pn la 6%. n acest caz, e vorba de un anumit grad de certain degree of stabilization in the financial markets
stabilizare a pieelor financiare, precum i de previziuni and optimistic forecasts for investment and trade in
optimiste pentru investiii i comerul cu titluri de valoare. n securities. As to the investment portfolios of Bulgarian
ceea ce privete portofoliul de investiii al bncilor din banks, they maintained their level of 2% during the
Bulgaria, acesta, pentru ntreaga perioad, i-a meninut whole period (figure 2).
nivelul de 2% (figura 2)

Portofoliu de investiii/ Credite i avansuri/ Portofoliu comercial/


Investment portfolio Loana and advances Trade portfolio
Numerar/ Cash Alte mijloace/ Other assets
Figura 2. Structura activelor bilaniere ale bncilor din Bulgaria (2008-2011)/
Figure 2. Structure of the balance sheet for Bulgarias banking system (2008-2011)

n ciuda impactului negativ al crizei, n perioada Despite the negative impact of the crisis, the
analizat, creditele acordate au crescut n mod proportion of loans increased considerably during the
semnificativ. n 2010, comparativ cu anul 2008, analysed period. Compared to 2008, in 2010 the
numrul de credite a crescut cu 800 mii., iar suma lor number of loans increased by over 800,000 and their
s-a majorat cu mai mult de 8 milioane de leve bulgare volume by more than BGN 8,000,000 reaching BGN
(BGN), ajungnd la 57,524 milioane BGN. 57,524,000.
n general, n perioada analizat, n structura Overall, the structure of the loan portfolio of
portofoliului de credite al bncilor comerciale din commercial banks in Bulgaria during the period
Bulgaria, s-a simit o relativ stabilitate (figura 3). analyzed was relatively stable (figure 3). The
Cota-parte a creditelor acordate de administraiile proportion of loans to central governments in the total
centrale din portofoliul total de credite variaz de la loan portfolio varied between 0.3% and 0.9%, the
0,3% la 0,9%, cea a instituiilor de creditare de la proportion of loans to credit institutions went from
11,8% la 14,5%, i cea a celorlalte instituii 11.8% to 14.5%, and the proportion of loans to non-
(necreditare) de la 1,1% la 1,6%. credit institutions rose from 1.1% to 1.6%.

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Figura 3. Structura portofoliului de credite al bncilor din Bulgaria (2008-2011)/


Figure 3. Structure of loan portfolios of Bulgarian banks (2008 2011)

Dup cum se vede n figura 3, cea mai mare parte a Figure 3 shows that the main percentage of the
portofoliului de credite al bncilor din Bulgaria au fost loan portfolios of banks in Bulgaria was held by loans
mprumuturile destinate ntreprinderilor i realizarea to corporations and retail exposures. Similarly to the
creditelor de retail. n mod similar, celorlalte poziii, other positions mentioned, they remained relatively
acestea se manifest, n perioada analizat, relativ stabil, stable over the period and varied between 54.1% and
n condiii n care proporia acestora variaz ntre 54,1% i 56.2% for loans to corporations and between 28.9%
56,2%, pentru creditele destinate clienilor corporativi, i and 31.1% for retail exposures (residential mortgage
pentru creditele de retail (pentru locuine i credite loans).
ipotecare) de la 28,9% la 31,1%. Presently the commercial banks maintain an
Pn n momentul de fa, bncile comerciale adequate level of liquidity, which allows them to
menin o lichiditate adecvat, ceea ce la permite s increase gradually the volume of new loans.
sporeasc treptat volumul de noi credite acordate. n Compared to 2011 the reasonable bank policy led to a
comparaie cu anul 2011, politica bancar rezonabil a decrease of the interest rates of both the consumer
solicitat o reducere sensibil a ratelor medii ale dobnzilor loans and the loans to corporations. This trend is
att pentru consum, ct i pentru creditele acordate expected to remain proportionate to the forecast
companiilor. Pn la sfritul anului 2012 este de ateptat dynamics of the attracted funds (mainly deposits of
ca aceast tendin s continue n conformitate cu households and corporations) at least until the end of
dinamica preurilor la resurse bancare (n special 2012.
depozitele gospodriilor populaiei i corporaiilor). Regarding the dynamics of the volume of new
Avnd n vedere dinamica sumei noilor loans extended to corporations in 2012, in the medium
mprumuturi corporative, n 2012, acordate pentru o run the analysts expect a recovery of the levels which
perioad medie, este de ateptat o tendin de restabilire a existed prior to the global crisis despite the stricter
nivelului dinaintea crizei mondiale, n ciuda cerinelor din requirements the borrowers have to comply with. As
ce n ce mai mari fa de beneficiarii mprumutului. n for the volumes of loans extended to households, there
creditarea gospodriilor populaiei, se observ o stagnare, is a slight downward trend despite the increase of
aceasta condiionnd o recesiune, n ciuda unei creteri a consumption since the beginning of 2012. This is due
consumului de la nceputul anului 2012, mai cu seam din mainly to the general uncertainty of the households
cauza nesiguranei generale a gospodriilor populaiei, related to the comparatively high level of
condiionat de omajul relativ mare (peste 12%) i de unemployment (over 12%) and their pessimism
pesimismul privind situaia lor financiar din viitor. regarding their future financial status. Households
Acestea nu risc s-i asume noi obligaii de credit, remain cautious in terms of borrowing new loans and
prefernd achitarea mprumuturilor deja luate. prefer to repay their outstanding credits and to save.
n segmentul de mprumuturi ale cetenilor, exist The retail exposure segment shows a steady
o tendin constant de cretere a cotei de mprumuturi upward trend in the share of residential mortgage
ipotecare n detrimentul celor de consum (figura 4). Acest loans at the expense of the proportion of consumer

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ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

lucru poate fi explicat, n mare msur, prin creterea loans (figure 4). This can be explained mainly by the
concurenei dintre instituiile financiare, propunerea unei increased competition among financial institutions,
game mai diverse de mprumuturi cu dobnzi atractive i which led to the provision of a wide variety of loans
a altor condiii promoionale specifice asociate deservirii with attractive interest rates and other special
i rscumprrii. promotional servicing and repayment terms.

Figura 4. Structura creditelor de consum n Bulgaria (2008-2011)/


Figure 4. Structure of retail exposure in Bulgaria (2008 - 2011)

n afar de flexibilitatea creditului oferit, creterea Besides the flexible terms of the extended loans,
ponderii creditelor ipotecare este determinat i de tendina the growth of the share of residential mortgage loans
constant de declin a preurilor la bunurile imobiliare. n was due to the stable downward trend of real estate
pofida faptului c, n ultimii ani, sectorul de construcii a prices. Although in the last few years construction has
stagnat, iar darea n exploatare a locuinelor, n 2011, abia stalled and there were only 3,796 residential properties
se apropie de cifra de 3796, boom-ul n construcii din commissioned in 2011, the construction boom in
ultimii ani i existena unei oferte excesive pe piaa previous years and the current oversupply of
imobiliar, asociat unei cereri mai mici, au condus la properties combined with weak demand are pushing
reducerea preurilor. real estate prices down.
n acest stadiu, statisticile[2] creditelor noi continua Presently the statistics [2] of the newly
s surprind volume contractate ale creditelor de consum extended loans shows a continuous increase of the
din ce n ce mai mari (baza mai 2011), comparativ cu negotiated volume (as of May 2011 of consumer loans
sumele pentru achiziionarea de locuine. mprumuturile de compared to the volume of residential mortgage loans.
consum din 2012 au fost cu 16,6% mai mari dect n The volume of new consumer loans exceeds with
perioada corespunztoare din 2011, n timp ce creditele noi 16.6% that of the same period in 2011 while the
acordate pentru locuine au nregistrat un declin de 4,1%. volume of new residential mortgage loans decreased
Reducerea ratelor dobnzii, n funcie de tipul creditului de with 4.1% on an annual basis. The reduction of the
consum, duce la scderea ratelor medii ale dobnzilor la interest rates on the different types of consumer loans
creditele acordate gospodriilor populaiei, comparativ cu resulted in a decrease of the average interest rate on
sfritul anului 2011. Costurile medii anuale ale dobnzilor household credits compared to that in 2011. The
pentru creditele noi de consum, n luna mai 2012, au fost de average annual percentage rate (APR) on the new
12,5%, iar rata medie a dobnzii aferente acestora de consumer loans in May 2012 was 12.5% and the
10,97%. average interest rate on these loans was 10.97%.
Tendine interesante pot fi observate n analiza The analysis of the currency structure of loans
structurii valutare a creditelor acordate de bncile extended by commercial banks revealed some
comerciale. Dup cum se observ n figura 5, ponderea interesting trends. Figure 5 shows that the largest
dominant revine mprumuturilor n euro, urmate de proportion of the loans were in EUR, followed by
creditele n leve, n timp ce creditele n alt moned devin those in BGN, while loans in other currencies were
exotice, comparativ cu creditele obinuite ale debitorilor rather exotic for the preference of the typical borrower
bulgari. in our country.

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Figura 5. Structura creditelor n valut din Bulgaria (2008-2011)/


Figure 5. Currency structure of loans advanced in Bulgaria (2008 2011)

Explicaia acestei tendine poate fi gsit n This trend can be explained by both the more
condiiile mai favorabile pentru creditele n euro i n favourable interest rates for loans in EUR and the
preferina bncilor, pentru a le contracta n scopul de a banks preferences for such loans in order to minimize
minimiza riscul valutar potenial. De asemenea, nu se the potential currency risk. Moreover, we should also
exclude faptul c portofoliul de credite al bncilor este take into account the fact that the dominant share of
dominat de creditele corporative i ipotecare, iar the banks loan portfolios were held by residential
acestea, dup cum se vede n figurile 6 i 8, sunt mortgage loans and loans to corporations, and they, as
realizate preponderent n euro. shown in Figure 6 and Figure 8, were denominated
Tendina observat este puternic n cazul mostly in EUR.
creditelor ipotecare (figura 6), ceea ce condiioneaz o This trend is very evident for residential
cretere constant a ponderii creditelor n euro. n plus, mortgage loans (figure 6), most of which were
fa de condiiile ratelor de dobnd, un impact n acest denominated in EUR. Apart from interest rates, this
sector l are i faptul c o parte din afacerile imobiliare segment was also affected by the fact that some real
se realizeaz n euro. estate deals were made in EUR.

Figura 6. Structura valutar a creditelor ipotecare n Bulgaria (2008-2011)/


Figure 6. Currency structure of residential mortgage loans advanced in Bulgaria (2008-2011)

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O alt caracteristic a pieei creditelor ipotecare este Another specific feature of the mortgage loans
ponderea n cretere a creditelor ipotecare cu scadena mai market is the increase in the proportion of mortgage
mare fa de restul de credite ipotecare. Aceasta este dictat loans with longer maturities to those with shorter
de faptul c majoritatea doritorilor de a obine o finanare pe maturities. This is due to the fact that a longer
termen mai mare de mprumut nseamn contribuii (pli) maturity means lower repayment instalments and,
mai mici i respectiv, risc mai mic de incapacitate de a therefore, a lower risk of default - although the longer
deservi mprumutul, n ciuda faptului c o cretere de term additionally increases the cost of the loan.
mprumut pe termen mai mare sporete costurile de creditare. The average APR for new residential mortgage
Costurile medii anuale ale dobnzii pentru creditele loans extended in 2012 [3] was 8.32% and the
noi de consum n 2012 [3] au fost de 8,32%, iar rata medie a average interest rate on these loans for the same period
dobnzii la creditele imobiliare pentru aceeai perioad de was 7.62%. The majority of banks offer residential
7.62%. Astfel, predomin bncile care ofer credite n euro mortgage loans in Euro and interest rates from 7% and
pentru locuine, cu ratele dobnzilor cuprinse ntre 7% i over 10% compared to those offering interest rates
10%, fa de cele care ofer o rat a dobnzii de la 7% la 9%. between 7% and 9%.
n ceea ce privete creditele de consum i structura However, the situation with consumer loans and
valutar a acestora (figura 7), situaia este destul de variat. their currency structure (figure 7) is quite different.
Statisticile oficiale arat c debitorii prefer s-i finaneze Official statistics show that borrowers prefer to
consumul n moneda naional. Pe parcursul perioadei finance their consumption using the national currency.
analizate, mai mult de 80% din creditele de consum au fost During this period, 80% of all consumer loans were
furnizate i asimilate de ctre debitori n moneda naional a denominated in Bulgarias national currency
Bulgariei (leva bulgara/BGN). Rezultatele obinute sunt (Bulgarian lev/BGN). These findings are quite logical
complet logice, n condiiile c operaiunile de baz ale given that most retail payments in the country are
calculelor i plile sunt efectuate n ar n moneda local. made using the national currency.

Figura 7. Structura valutar a creditelor de consum din Bulgaria (2008-2011)/


Figure 7 . Currency structure of consumer loans advanced in Bulgaria (2008 - 2011)

n ciuda tuturor situaiilor, i aici se ntrevede o Nevertheless, the trend for an increase in the
tendin clar de cretere a ponderii structurale a creditelor structural share of loans granted in EUR in this
acordate n moned european. n perioada analizat, s-a sector is also clearly identifiable. During the period
remarcat o cretere a indicilor acestora de la 5,9%, la analyzed, the volume of these loans increased from
nceputul anului 2008, la 21%, finele anului 2011. Acest 5.9% in early 2008 to 21% at the end of 2011. This
rezultat poate fi explicat prin perioada pentru care au fost could be explained by the difference between the
realizate creditele de consum, comparativ cu ipoteca repayment periods of consumer loans and mortgage
perioada de rambursare a creditelor de consum este, de loans - usually the period for the repayment of
obicei, aproape de dou-trei ori mai mic dect scadena consumer loans is two to three times less than the

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maxim a creditelor ipotecare. n plus, pot fi specificate maximum repayment term of mortgage loans.
diferenele din misiunea creditelor creditele de consum Moreover, these two types of loans serve different
sunt absorbite, n special, pentru satisfacerea consumului purposes - consumer loans are used mostly to cover
curent al unui individ i pentru asigurarea de mijloace current individual consumption and as operating
circulante (capital de lucru), i nu pentru efectuarea de capitals, while most mortgage loans are used for
investiii pe termen lung obiectivul principal al long-term investment.
mprumuturilor ipotecare. The structure of loans borrowed by
Statutul debitorilor corporativi (figura 8) este similar corporations (figure 8) is similar to that of
cu statutul debitorilor, n cazul creditelor ipotecare. Cu toate residential mortgage loans. It is worth noting
acestea, se creeaz impresia unor preferine pentru however, that in this sector the preference for loans
mprumuturi n valute europene. Probabil, aceasta e o denominated in EUR is even stronger. This is most
consecin a faptului c se au n vedere creditele pentru probably due to the fact that loans in EUR are used
investiii, n timp ce creditele n BGN sunt susceptibile de for investment purposes, while those in BGN are
satisfacerea nevoilor curente, de capital circulant. borrowed to meet current operating-capital needs.

Figura 8. Compoziia valutar a creditelor corporative n Bulgaria (2008-2011)/


Figure 8 . Currency structure of loans advanced to corporations in Bulgaria (2008 - 2011)

O alt posibil explicaie ar putea fi i structura Another possible explanation is the structure
importurilor i, n special, proporiile tot mai mari de of imports and, in particular, the growing amount of
materii prime importate, bunuri i servicii n cadrul imports in raw materials, goods and services within
Uniunii Europene. n plus fa de aceste motive, nu ar the European Union. In addition to these reasons,
trebui s se subestimeze faptul c mprumuturile n euro we should not underestimate the fact that Euro-
se caracterizeaz prin condiii mai favorabile, dect denominated loans had lower interest rates
dobnzile creditelor n leve, ceea ce promoveaz, de compared to those in BGN, which also makes them
asemenea, interesul managerilor financiari pentru more attractive for financial managers.The average
acestea. n cazul creditelor bancare corporative din 2012 interest rate on the new loans extended to
(n BGN, EUR, USD), rata medie a dobnzii a suferit o corporations in 2012 (in BGN, EUR, USD)
reducere de pn la 8,3% [4], cu efectul ateptat n decreased 8.3% [41 and downward trend is
continuare. expected to continue.
O atenie special n aceast analiz merit The analysis of loan portfolio dynamics
dinamica din modificrile generale ale portofoliului de (figure 9) is also quite interesting. Since the
credite (figura 9). Dup declanarea crizei economice i beginning of the global financial and economic
financiare mondiale, exist o tendin clar de reducere a crisis there has been a clear trend for a decline in
ratei de cretere a creditelor acordate persoanelor fizice the rate of the growth of loans to individuals and

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i juridice. Tendina de mai sus a fost deosebit de corporations. This trend was most obvious in 2008,
puternic n 2008, iar segmentul cel mai afectat un and the most affected sector was that of retail
segment de creditare retail, a crui rata de cretere, n lending with an average growth rate fluctuating
2010, s-a situat n jurul i sub valoarea zero. Numai around the 0% level in 2010. Only loans to credit
mprumuturile contractate de instituiile de credit nu s-au institutions did not follow the general trend, and
supus tendinei generale, i au nregistrat creteri vizibile peaked in both positive and negative directions in
n ambele direcii pozitive i negative. this period

Figura 9. Rata de cretere a creditelor n Bulgaria, dup categorii (2008-2011)/


Figure 9. Growth rates of loans in Bulgaria (by types of loan) (2008-2011)

Avnd n vedere continua recesiune de pe piaa In line with the continuing negativism regarding
forei de munc din Bulgaria i scderea gradului de the labour market in Bulgaria and the households
ncredere a populaiei n economia naional, tendina n mistrust in the national economy, the trends of the
cererea de credite de ctre gospodriile populaiei a fost demand for loans from households will remain under
determinat n continuare de nesigurana privind veniturile the influence of their uncertainty regarding their future
viitoare. n contrastul gospodriilor din ultimul an i din incomes. Unlike households, for the last year and
prezent, n cazul corporaiilor, se nregistreaz o cretere presently the demand of corporations for financial
moderat a cererii de resurse financiare n vederea sporirii resources is increasing due to the increase of their
activitii lor investiionale. investment activities.
n perioada analizat, tendina de scdere a ratei de According to figure 10, during this period
cretere este valabil i n cazul creditrii populaiei prin there was an additional downward trend in the rate
creditele ipotecare, pentru achiziia bunurilor imobiliare, i of growth of retail loans (residential mortgage loans
prin creditele de consum necesare satisfacerii nevoilor de and consumer loans to cover current consumption).
consum curent (figura 10). O afeciune mai important a The global financial and economic crisis affected
avut-o impactul crizei financiare i economice mondiale mostly consumer loans and residential mortgage
asupra creditelor de consum i, mai puin asupra loans slightly less. The reason for this finding may
creditelor pentru achiziia de locuine prin intermediul be due to the fact that the average size of consumer
creditelor ipotecare. n calitate de cauz rezonabil n loans (up to BGN 30,000) is smaller than the
favoarea afirmaiei fcute anterior, se poate meniona c average size of mortgage loans, and that they have
creditele de consum difer de creditele ipotecare oferite prin shorter maturity periods due to their purpose to
dimensiunea mai mic (aproximativ de pn la 30 mii meet the current consumption and working capital
BGN), prin scadenele mai mici i ratele dobnzii mai mari needs of households.
i prin scopul lor satisfacerea nevoilor curente ale
gospodriilor populaiei.

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Creditele de consum relativ mai scumpe sunt As consumer loans are a relatively expensive
mai puin atractive, n condiii economice deteriorate, resource, this makes them more unattractive when the
aa cum se vede n figura 10, iar dup 2010, se observ economy is not doing well, as shown in Figure 10, and
chiar o rat de cretere negativ. O scdere relativ mai after 2010 there was a negative growth in the demand
lent a activitilor de creditare ipotecar poate fi for consumer loans. The relatively smooth decline in
explicat prin resursele mai ieftine ale acestora, i mortgage lending can be explained both by the
preurile mult mai atractive ale locuinelor, care le fac cheaper resources obtained through them and the more
mai preferate n vederea procurrii pentru locuire, attractive prices of real estates which made them
precum i al procurrii acestora pentru scopuri appealing acquisitions both for residential and for
investiionale. investment purposes.

Figura 10. Rata de cretere a creditelor de consum i ipotecare, n Bulgaria (2008-2011)/


Figure 10. Growth rates of consumer and mortgage loans in Bulgaria (2008-2011)

Criza financiar global va afecta n mod The global financial and economic crisis had an
inevitabil valoarea creditelor nedeservite. Analiza inevitable impact on the volume of past-due loans.
creditelor rele, pentru perioada studiat este foarte The analysis of bad loans in this period is greatly
dificil, din cauza informaiilor insuficiente, furnizate hampered by the limited information provided by the
de ctre bncile comerciale i BNB (figura 11). De BNB and the commercial banks (figure 11). For
exemplu, indicatorul rata de cretere a activelor example, the indicator measuring the share of non-
clasificate, urmrit de BNB de la nceputul perioadei performing risk exposures which was traced by the
de referin, nu mai este reflectat n publicaiile sale din BNB at the beginning of the period was no longer
2010. O posibil explicaie a acestei lipse poate fi reflected in its publications in 2010, and one of the
dimensiunea de proporii ngrijortoare ale acestui possible explanations for its omission may be its
indicator 192% (n decembrie 2009), care ar provoca disturbing level of growth at a rate of 192% as of
ntrebri incomode, legate de starea sectorului bancar December 2009, which would give rise to some
din Bulgaria. Acest lucru este cel mai probabil care a inconvenient questions about the banking sector in
cauzat nlocuirea acestui parametru prin indicatorul Bulgaria. This is probably the reason why this
rata expunerilor clasificate, cu mai mult de 90 de zile indicator was replaced by the share of gross
restante la creditele brute (exceptnd mprumuturilor classified exposures past-due over 90 days in gross
pentru instituii de credit). loans (excluding those to credit institutions).

36 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

Figura 11. Rata de expuneri clasificate cu o restan de peste 90 de zile la credite brute n Bulgaria (2008-2011)/
Figure 11. Share of classified exposures past-due over 90 days of gross loans in Bulgaria (2008-2011)

Dei, la nceputul crizei, proporia relativ a Although at the beginning of the crisis the
expunerilor clasificate cu o restan de peste 90 de zile la share of classified exposures over 90 days to gross
creditele brute a fost relativ sczut ceva mai mare de loans was relatively low just over 2%, the whole
2%, n perioada analizat, exist o cretere constant i period was marked by a steady trend for an increase
de durat, nct aceasta, nainte de sfritul anului 2011, and, at the end of 2011, it reached 15% of all loans.
a ajuns la o pondere de 15% n totalul creditelor. Lipsa The lack of a breakdown by types of loans does not
diferenierii pe tipuri de credite nu permite o analiz mai allow for a more detailed analysis, but, based on
detaliat, dar pe, baza trecutului, se poate face o previous analyses, we can make the justified
presupunere fundamentat c deteriorarea portofoliului assumption that the deterioration of the loan
de credite este caracteristic tuturor tipurilor de credite, portfolio covered all types of loans, with the
n special acesta este n mod clar valabil n cazul greatest decline in retail loans and, in particular, in
creditelor de consum ale gospodriilor populaiei. consumer loans. The situation with mortgage loans
Situaia creditelor ipotecare este un pic mai favorabil, was slightly better, but this was due to the re-
acesta fiind rezultatul unei renegocieri a mprumuturilor negotiation of some of the existing loans and to
fcute i refinanrii lor prin noi abordri, care their re-mortgaging a practice that distorts the real
denatureaz situaia real cu valoarea creditelor picture of bad loans in Bulgarias banking system.
neperformante din sistemul bancar bulgar. Despite the results of the above analysis,
Spre deosebire de rezultatele analizei de mai sus, Bulgarias banks exposure to risk may be
riscul bancar, n Bulgaria, este estimat ca unul echilibrat. considered balanced. According to the Bulgarian
Potrivit opiniei experilor de la Banca Naional, este de National Banks expertise it will be reduced further
ateptat ca impactul de reducere a acesteia ar avea-o due to the sound liquidity of the Eurozone banks
lichiditile semnificative puse la dispoziie de ctre required by the Central European Bank as well as
bncile din zona euro i cea a Bncii Centrale Europene, the reduction of the interests rate of the Central
i reducerea ratei dobnzii Bncii Centrale Europene. European Bank. The Bulgarian National Bank does
Banca Naional a Bulgariei nu exclude scenariul i not rule out the possibility for an increase of the
creterea posibil n dimensiunea cantitativ a riscurilor level of banks risk exposure due to rising volatility
bancare, ca urmare a aprofundrii instabilitii i and instability of the international financial markets
nesiguranei pe pieele financiare internaionale i and their effects on our national economy.
impactul lor asupra economiei naionale. ***
*** The global financial and economic crisis had
Criza financiar i economic global are un a negative effect on the banking sector in Bulgaria.
impact negativ asupra sectorului bancar bulgar. n ciuda Although today most of the indicators are rising and
faptului c, actualmente, majoritatea indicatorilor arat their growth rates have stabilized (albeit at lower
creteri, iar ratele de cretere, dup recesiunea din 2008, levels) after the initial crash in 2008, bank
se stabilizeaz, dei la niveluri mai mici, atenia managers should be particularly cautious because
managerilor bncilor ar trebui s fie deosebit de mare,

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012 37


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

deoarece, din pcate, problemele existente n economia the problems of Bulgarias economy as a whole
Bulgariei, n general, determin deteriorarea unfortunately affect banks loan portfolios
portofoliului de credite ale bncilor. Din acest punct de negatively. In this respect, the management of
vedere, managementul bancar al bncilor comerciale ar commercial banks should review their pertinent
trebui revizuite, iar politicile pentru acordarea i policies and optimize the lending and collection of
colectarea de credite optimizate, lund n consideraie loans in order to reduce the potential risks to their
reducerea riscurilor poteniale pentru instituiile bancare. banking institutions.

Referinte:
1. , (2008, 2009, 2010, 2011)
2. , ( 1-4/2008, 1-4/2009, 1-4/2010, 1-4/2011, 1-2/2012)
3. , (-, 2008; -, 2008; -, 2008;
-, 2008; -, 2009; -, 2009; -, 2009; -
, 2009; -, 2010; -, 2010; -, 2010; -,
2010; -, 2011; -, 2011; -, 2011; -, 2011;
-, 2012)
4. , (2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012)
5. www.bnb.bg

[1]
,
[2] www . bnb . bg ; , (2/ 2 011, 2/ 2012)
[3] www . bnb . bg ; , (1, 2/ 2012)
[4] www . bnb . bg ; , (1, 2/ 2012)

Bibliography:
1. BNB, BNB Annual Report (2008, 2009, 2010, 2011)
2. BNB, Economic Review (1-4/2008, 1-4/2009, 1-4/2010, 1-4/2011, 1-2/2012)
3. BNB, Banks in Bulgaria (January - March 2008; April - June 2008; July - September 2008; October -
December 2008; January - March 2009; April - June 2009; July - September 2009; October - December
2009; January - March 2010; April - June 2010; July - September 2010; October - December 2010;
January - March 2011; April - June 2011; July - September 2011; October - December 2011; January -
March 2012)
4. BNB, Economic Review (2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012)
5. www.bnb.bg

38 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


RELAII INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

EVOLUIA SCHIMBRILOR THE EVOLUTION OF THE


STRUCTURALE DIN EXTERNAL TRADE
COMERUL EXTERIOR AL STRUCTURAL CHANGES OF
REPUBLICII MOLDOVA THE REPUBLIC MOLDOVA
Prof. univ., dr. PRACHI Ion, ASEM Professor, PhD Ion PRACHI;
Lector superior univ. ICAN Natalia, Senior Lecturer Natalia SISCAN, AESM
ASEM
The purpose of the article consists in
Scopul acestei lucrri este analiza statistic a statistical analysis of foreign trade structure on the
structurii comerului exterior n baza indicatorilor base of structural indicators. The analysis is carried
structurali ai seriilor cronologice anuale din perioada out for the annual time series during the period 1998-
1998-2011. Micarea constituie o proprietate important 2011. Motion is an important property of the
a transformrii structurilor economice, care, ulterio,r va transformable economic structures, that subsequently
avea un impact asupra volumului i coninutului influences the scope and content of the gross domestic
produsului intern brut. Metodele de msurare a product. The measurement methods of structural
schimbrilor structurale includ aprecierea unor changes are based on estimates of the hollowing
proprieti, cum ar fi intensitatea, viteza, direcia, properties: intensity, speed, direction, progressiveness,
progresivitatea, calitatea i eficiena schimbrilor quality and efficiency of structural changes. These
structurale. Aceste metode permit s se msoare methods allow us to measure the intensity of the
cantitativ intensitatea schimbrilor produse ce vor fi quantitative changes that help to identify the favorable
analizate n continuare, pentru a identifica factorii care factors for the foreign trade.
contribuie la dezvoltarea comerul exterior.
Cuvinte-cheie: modificri structurale, comer Key-words: structural shifts and changes,
exterior, indicatori structurali. external trade, structural indicators

Schimbrile structurale n balana comercial pot Structural changes in the trade balance can be
fi cauzate de modificrile prilor componente i caused by the change of ratios between the component
totalului acestei balane n timp i spaiu. Din punct de parts and the total of the balance in time and space.
vedere al analizei comerului exterior, una din From the point of view of the foreign trade analysis,
principalele caracteristici ale structurii comerului motion is one of the most important properties of the
exterior este micarea lui. Micarea poate purta un foreign trade structure. Motion has dual character: first,
caracter dublu: n primul rnd, pstrarea stabilitii preservation of the structure stability; second, transfer
structurii, iar n al doilea rnd, trecerea structurii n alt of the structure in a new qualitative state. Moreover,
stare calitativ. n plus,micarea poate fi consecina motion can be a consequence of managerial influence,
influenei gestionrii APARATULUI ADMINISTRATIV of the Administrative Body or the result of the
sau rezultatul cursului obiectiv (firesc) al evenimentelor. objective flow of events. Thus, we get the
Astfel, vom obine o structur transformabil, care, transformable structure which influences subsequently
ulterior, va avea un impact asupra volumului i the volume and content of the gross domestic national
coninutului produsului intern brut. product.
Pentru msurarea puterii i profunzimii Special techniques are used in statistics and
transformaionale, a schimbrilor structurale, statistica specific indicators are calculated to measure the
aplic metode speciale i calculeaz indicatori strength and depth of the transformation which appears
specifici. n acelai timp, cercetarea, diferenelor i in structural shifts. At the same time, there are
modificrilor structurale nu este lipsita de probleme. unresolved issues in the investigation of structural
Analiza structural-dinamic const n changes and shifts.
definitivarea indicatorilor individuali i agregai ai Structural and dynamic analysis identifies the
schimbrilor structurale. individual and aggregate indicators of the structural
Metodele cantitative existente de apreciere a changes.
modificrilor structurale estimeaz caracteristici The Available quantitative methods of
aparte ale acestor modificri, ale proprietilor lor estimating the structural changes evaluate their
individuale, precum intensitatea, viteza, direcia, individual properties, such as: intensity, speed,
progresivitatea, calitatea i eficiena. direction, progressiveness, quality and efficiency.
Analiza structural a dinamicii const n Dynamics structural analysis determine:
determinarea: a) individual indicators (reflecting the intensity
a) indicatorilor individuali (care reflect of the changes in each analyzed group) and

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012 39


RELAII INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

intensitatea schimbrilor n fiecare grup analizat) i b) aggregate indicators (allow to make


b) indicatorilor agregai (pe baza crora se pot conclusions about the intensity of structural changes in
face concluzii cu privire la intensitatea unor schimbri certain intervals of time).
structurale n anumite intervale de timp). The study of economic phenomena structure is
Studierea structurii fenomenelor economice necessary not for determining the specific share of
este necesar nu numai pentru determinarea ponderii individual sectors and identifing changes occurred over
unor activiti i evidenierea modificrilor produse n a period of time, but also giving consolidated
perioad dat de timp, dar i pentru oferirea unor quantitative characteristic of the structural changes
caracteristici ale modificrilor structurale calitative de over time or differences of structures in the economic
ansamblu n timp, sau deosebirilor produse n space.
structur din spaiul economic. There are two groups of the structural
Se disting, de asemenea, dou grupe de calcul characteristics calculation: absolute and relative
al caracteristicilor structurale: modificri structurale structural changes.
absolute i modificri structurale relative. The absolute changes of structural shifts show
Modificrile absolute arat viteza de schimbare the variation speed of the individual indicators share
a ponderii indicatorilor individuali ntr-o anumit during a certain period of time. Relative indicators of
perioad de timp. Indicatorii relativi ai schimbrilor structural changes reflect the intensity of changes, the
structurale reflect intensitatea schimbrilor weights of separate parts of the whole. Consolidated
ponderilor unor pri dintr-un tot ntreg. Pentru a evaluation of absolute and relative structural changes is
determina gradul de schimbare a diferitor structuri, se used to determine the degree of change of the various
folosete o evaluare sumar a modificrilor structurale structures. Strength of structural changes depends on
absolute i relative. Puterea schimbrilor structurale the variation of the absolute increments and rates of
depinde de variaia incrementului absolut i ritmurilor shares growth.
de cretere a ponderilor. The greater is the variability of absolute
Cu ct variaz mai mult creterea absolut, cu increase, the greater are the absolute structural shifts.
att mai mari vor fi schimbrile structurale absolute. The higher is the volatility of growth, the higher are the
Cu ct variaz mai mult ritmurile de cretere, cu att relative structural changes. Absolute and relative
mai mari vor fi schimbrile structurale relative. indicators of variation are used to measure the
Variaia absolut i relativ pot fi folosite pentru structural differences in the system for a period of time
msurarea puterii diferenelor structurale n sistem, or by comparing the homogeneous structures.
ntr-o perioad de timp, sau atunci cnd se compar We shall define the indicators that characterize
structuri omogene. the changes of the structure or the structural shifts.
Vom defini indicatorii ce caracterizeaz First, we note that the term structural shifts applies
schimbrile n structuri sau modificrile structurale. n only in the study of the structural differences in time.
primul rnd, menionam c termenul modificri Comparing the territorial structure and the actual
structurale nu se aplic dect n studiul diferenelor structure with the standardized one, the use of
structurale n timp. structural differences is preferred.
Cnd se compar structurile teritoriale, precum There are two forms of expressing structural
i structura actual cu cea standardizat, mai corect indicators: the simple share and the proportion,
este utilizarea termenului diferene structurale. expressed in percentage. For subsequent calculations,
Se disting dou forme de exprimare a indicilor we will use the shares expressed by the symbol dij,
structurali: ponderea simpl, ca atare i ponderea care where i is part of the studied population (i = 1, k) in the
reprezint cota-parte exprimat n procente. Pentru j-k time period or time, all calculations will be
calculele ulterioare, vom folosi ponderea simpl, care expressed in percentage.
se noteaz prin simbolul dij, unde i indic partea din For statistical evaluation of structural shifts, in
populaia cercetat (i = 1, k), iar j perioada sau two or more periods, are used two groups of indicators:
moment al j, toate calculele se vor efectua asupra 1) indicators based on the difference between the
valorilor exprimate n procente. shares of similar parts of the total, and 2) indicators
Pentru evaluarea statistic a schimbrilor based on the ratios the shares of similar parts of the
structurale n dou sau mai multe perioade se total.
utilizeaz dou seturi de indicatori: 1) indicatorii The starting point in the first group is the
bazai pe diferenele dintre ponderea prilor similare indicator of the absolute increase the share of part i-k
din total, i 2) indicatorii bazai pe raportul dintre of population (di), that shows what value is expressed
ponderile prilor similare din total. as decimal number or percentage that increased or
Punctul de plecare, n primul grup, este indicatorul decreased during the j period compared to the (j - 1)
creterii absolute a ponderii prii i n total(di), artnd period. This indicator is calculated by the following
valoarea, exprimat ca numr zecimal sau n procente, cu formula:
care a crescut sau a sczut aceast parte structural n

40 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


RELAII INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

perioada de timp j, fa de momentul (j-1). Aceasta se d i = d ij d ij 1 (1)


calculeaz prin urmtoarea formul:
The sign of indicator shows the direction of
d i = d ij d ij 1 (1) changing in the share of the structural part ("+"
Semnul indicatorului definete (arat) direcia increase, "-" decrease), and its value a particular value
de schimbare a ponderii n pri structurale (+ of the change in percentage. The term "absolute" in the
cretere, - scdere), iar valoarea sa valoarea study of the increase of shares taken between be quotes
specific a schimbrii n puncte procentuale. as these absolute indicators are absolute according to
Termenul absolut, n studiul creterii ponderilor, one methodology, but not by units of measurement.
trebuie s fie luat ntre ghilimele, deoarece aceti For the second group of indicators of structural
indicatori sunt absolui conform metodologiei de shifts an specific the growth rates of the share ( T d i ),
calcul, dar nu dup unitile de msur.
which is the ratio of the part i share to time period j and
Pentru a doua grup de indicatori ai
the share of the same part of the previous period:
schimbrilor structurale, este specific ritmul de
cretere a ponderilor ( Td i ), care exprim raportul
d ij
Tdi = (2)
dintre ponderea prii i la perioada de timp j i d ij 1
ponderea acestei pri din perioada precedent: The growth rate of the share always has positive
d ij values. However, if there are any structural changes, a
Tdi = (2) part of the growth rate is greater than the, IUTEGER
d ij 1 and the other is smaller. At the same time, their
Ritmul de cretere a ponderii ntotdeauna average, related to the specific share, always equals to
capt valori pozitive. Cu toate acestea, n cazul n one.
care au loc unele modificri structurale, o parte din The discussed above individual indicators allow
ritmurile de cretere vor fi mai mari dect us to measure the quantitative changes that apply to
UNITATEA, iar alta mai mici. n acelai timp, each separately taken part of the studied totality. At the
media lor, ponderat n funcie de ponderile de baz same time if it is necessary to measure the overall
specifice, ntotdeauna este strict egal cu unu. structural changes in the economic phenomenon and
Indicatorii individuali prezentai anterior permit evaluate the dinamics or, on the contrary, the stability
msurarea schimbrilor cantitative, care s-au produs of the structure, will be used.
separat n prile totalitii analizate. Dac e necesar s se The most important generalizing indicators are
msoare schimbrile structurale totale n fenomenul absolute linear and relative indicators of L.Kazinets,
economic i s se evalueze dinamica, sau, dimpotriv, integral indices of A. Szalai and K. Gatev, Loosemore-
stabilitatea structurii, se vor utiliza indicatorii Hanby index.
generalizatori. Among the available general indicators, the
Cei mai importani indicatori generalizatori easiest is the interpretation of the "absolute" coefficient
sunt indicatorii liniari absolui i relativi ai lui of structural change, which is the sum of the increases
L. Kazinets, indicii integrali ai lui A. Szalai i K. of shares, taken without sign, divided by the number of
Gatev, indicele Loosemore-Hanby. structural components:
Printre indicatorii generalizatori disponibili, cea k

mai uoar este interpretarea coeficientului liniar absolut d ij d ij 1


al schimbrilor structurale, care reprezint suma creterilor j 1 = i =1
(3)
ponderilor (fr a lua n consideraie semnul lor), mprit k
la numrul de componente structurale: where d is the share of the characteristics; j is
k current period, k is the number of grades in the
d ij d ij 1 structures.
j 1 = i =1
(3) This indicator reflects the average change in the
k share (in percentage), which took place during the
unde: d ponderea caracteristicilor, j perioada considered time period.
curent, k numrul de grade n structur. The maximum value of the "absolute" linear
Acest indicator reflect acea parte a modificrii coefficient of the structural shifts is 2/k.
ponderii care a avut loc n cursul perioadei de Also, for measuring the structural changes is
raportare. used the "absolute" quadratic coefficient of structural
Valoarea maxim a coeficientului liniar changes, whose reaction is more intensive to the
absolut al modificrilor structurale este de 2 / k. structural changes:
De asemenea, pentru msurarea schimbrilor
structurale, se folosete coeficientul ptratic absolut
al modificrilor structurale, reacia cruia este mai

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012 41


RELAII INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

intensa la modificrile structurale ale totalitii: k


k (d d ij 1 ) 2
(d
ij
ij d ij 1 ) 2
d 1 d 0 = i =1
(4)
d 1 d 0 = i =1
(4) k
k "Absolute" linear and quadratic coefficients of
Coeficienii liniari i ptratici absolui ai structural shifts allow us to estimate the rate of
modificrilor structurale permit s se estimeze viteza changing the shares from the total:
de schimbare a ponderilor prilor n total. Valoarea The maximum value of this coefficient is equal
maxim a acestui coeficient este egal cu 2 / k . to 2/k .
Pentru caracterizarea intensitii modificrii Summary characteristics for the intensity of
ponderii, se aplic coeficientul ptratic al change the specific weights using the quadratic
modificrilor structurale relative: coefficient of relative of structural shifts:
k (dij dij 1 ) 2 k (d ij d ij 1 ) 2
d1 / d 0 = dij 1
100 (5) d1 / d 0 = 100 (5)
i =1
i =1 d ij 1
Acest indicator reflect creterea relativ medie This indicator reflects the relative average
a proporiei (procentual), care a fost observat pe increase in the share (percentage), which was observed
parcursul perioadei analizate. during the analyzed period.
Cu ajutorul indicatorului gradului de intensitate The index of absolute intensity shift or
a modificrii absolute sau al indicelui Loosemore- Loosemore-Hanby index can determine the degree of
Hanby, poate fi determinat nivelul modificrilor change in the structure in comparison with the
structurale n comparaie cu valoarea absolut maximum possible sum of absolute value equal to two.
maximal egal cu 2 (dup modul).
k
K d = 0.5 d1 j d 0 j
k
(6) K d = 0.5 d1 j d 0 j (6)
j =1 j =1
n practica internaional, pentru a evalua In order to estimate the structural differences in
diferenele structurale n termeni relativi, analitii relative terms, in international practice are widely used
utilizeaz pe scar larg indicii integrali ai lui A. Szalai the integrated indices of A. Szalai and K. Gatev who
i K. Gatev, care iau n consideraie mrimea totalului i take into account the size of the total and the number of
numrul de grupuri desemnate in conformitate cu the selected groups according to the volume of the
caracteristica studiat. Prin utilizarea acestor indicatori studied feature. The use of these indicators provides an
se evalueaz dinamica de restructurare. assessment of the dynamics of restructuring.
Aceti indicatori sunt adesea folosii n These indicators are often used in social
statistica social. Ei variaz ntre 0 i 1. Cu ct statistics. They vary between 0 and 1. The closer to 0,
valoarea lor este mai aproape de 0, cu att diferenele the smaller is the differences between the features, the
dintre caracteristicile lor sunt mai slabe, cu ct e mai closer to 1, the greater the differences between the
aproape de 1, cu att diferenele dintre caracteristicile features of the structure.
structurii sunt mai pronunate. The integral coefficient of structural shifts of K.
Coeficientul integral al modificrilor structurale Gatev considers the intensity of changes for separate
al lui K. Gatev ia n consideraie intensitatea groups and share of groups in compared structures:
modificrilor pentru grupuri individuale i ponderea
grupurilor n structurile comparate: I gatev =
(d 1j d0 j )2
(7)

I gatev = (d1 j d 0 j ) 2 (7)


(d 1j ) 2 + (d 0 j ) 2
(d1 j ) 2 + (d 0 j ) 2 The integral coefficient of A. Szalai takes into
account the structural differences, the intensity changes
Coeficientul integral al modificrilor structurale
for separate groups, the share of groups in comparable
al lui A. Szalai ia n considerare intensitatea
structures and the number of groups:
schimbrilor pe grupe individuale, ponderea
grupurilor n structurile comparate, precum i numrul
de grupe:
I szalay
((d 1 d 2 ) /( d1 + d 2 )) 2
. (8)
De asemenea, se aplic indicatorul integral al
k
diferenelor structurale, numit indicele lui Szalai:

I szalai
((d 1 d 2 ) /(d1 + d 2 )) 2
. (8)
The index ranges from 0 to 1.
k For the integral evaluation of the structural
changes in researched globality during the considered

42 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


RELAII INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

Indicele variaz de la 0 la 1. time period, covering several months, quarters, or


Pentru evaluarea integral consolidat a years, the most convenient is the "absolute" linear
schimbrilor structurale i globalitatea studiat n coefficient of the of structural shifts for n periods:
perioada dat de timp, care cuprinde mai multe luni,
trimestre, ani, cel mai convenabil este coeficientul liniar k
absolut al modificrilor structurale pentru perioadele n. d in d i1
k

( n)
= i =1
(9)
d in d i1 d 1 d 0
k (n 1)
(dn1) d 0 = i =1
(9)
k (n 1) We shall study these indicators in order to make
Vom utiliza aceti indicatori, pentru a efectua the structural dynamic analysis of foreign trade.
analiza dinamico-structural a comerului exterior.
Tabelul 1 /Table 1
Evoluia structurii comerului exterior/
Evolution of the structure of foreign trade

1998 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011


Export total / Export total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
din care:/ of which:
n rile CSI/
in CIS countries 67.9 58.6 50.5 40.3 41.0 39.2 38.1 40.5 41.5
n rile Uniunii Europene/
in European Union countries 25.8 35.1 40.6 51.1 50.6 51.5 51.9 47.3 48.9
n alte ri/
in other countries 6.3 6.4 8.8 8.5 8.4 9.3 10.0 12.2 9,7
Import total / Import total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
din care: /
of which:
n rile CSI/
from CIS countries 43.0 33.5 39.5 37.9 36.1 35.5 34.8 32.6 33.0
n rile Uniunii Europene/
from European Union countries 47.7 53.2 45.3 45.2 45.6 43.0 43.4 44.2 43.5
n alte ri/ from other countries 9.3 13.3 15.2 16.9 18.3 21.6 21.8 23.2 23.5
Balana comercial total /
Trade balance total -391.8 -305.0 -1201.0 -1641.6 -2347.8 -3307.6 -1990.7 -2313.8 -2974.4
din care:/ of which:
cu rile CSI/
with CIS countries -11.2 16.3 -353.8 -596.6 -783.5 -1114.2 -650.0 -632.8 -794.2
cu rile Uniunii Europene/
with European Union countries -324.8 -248.0 -595.4 -680.8 -1001.7 -1285.2 -754.1 -975.3 -1173.3
cu alte ri/
with other countries -55.8 -73.3 -251.8 -364.1 -562.6 -908.2 -586.7 -705.7 -1007.0
Export/PIB, %/ Export/GDP, % 37,2 36,6 37.0 31.1 31.2 27.2 24.6 30.2 31.7
Import/PIB, %/ Import/GDP, % 60,3 60,3 76.8 77.6 83.4 80.4 60.6 75.8 74.1
Gradul de acoperire a importului prin
exporturi/ Level of coverage of imports by
exports total, % 61.7 60.7 47.6 39.0 36.4 32.5 39.3 40.0 47.0
din care: /of which:
cu rile CSI /
CIS countries 97.5 106.3 60.9 41.6 41.3 35.9 43.0 49.6 53.7
cu rile Uniunii Europene/ European
Union countries 33.5 40.0 42.7 44.1 40.4 39.0 47.0 42.8 48.0
cu alte ri/
other countries 41.6 29.1 27.7 19.8 16.6 14.0 18.0 21.1 17.6

Sursa: calculile autorilor; datele www.statistica.md/


Source: author's calculations; www.statistica.md

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012 43


RELAII INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

Analiza cotelor, conform tabelului dat, poate fi The analysis of the shares, according to table
fcut prin comparaie vizual sau prin analiz grafic. O 1 can make the visual comparison or the graphical
parte mai mare a exporturilor si importurilor se analysis. The largest volume of exports and imports is
concentreaz pe dou grupuri de ri: Uniunea European concentrated in the two groups of countries: the
i CSI. Ponderile acestor grupuri n comerul cu countries of the European Union and CIS. The share of
Republica Moldova, de ceva vreme, sunt destul de these two groups in the foreign trade of the Republic of
stabile: aproximativ 48,9% din exporturi merg ctre UE, Moldova remains stable: the EU is 48.9% of exports
iar 41,5% din exporturi revin CSI; aproximativ 43,5% and 41.5% is to the CIS countries, 43.5% originate in
din import ctre UE, iar 33,5% din importuri revin CSI. European exports and 33.0% of exports from the CIS
Dar aceast abordare nu permite s se determine countries. But this approach does not allow us
intensitatea schimbrilor. Putem doar s tragem determining the intensity of change. We can make the
urmtoarele concluzii: ponderea exporturilor ctre rile following conclusions: the share of exports to the CIS
CSI treptat se reduce, dar odat cu aceast crete exportul countries gradually decreases along with it increased
ctre UE, ceea cere sugereaz o extindere a structurii exports to the EU, which allows making a conclusion
geografice, o diversificare a grupului rilor an the increase in the geographical structure of
exportatoare. ns pentru o analiz calitativ, e necesar s exporting countries. But for a qualitative analysis is
fie calculai indicatorii structurali. necessary to calculate the structural indicators.

Tabelul 2/ Table 2

Evoluia modificrilor n structura geografic a comerului exterior stabilit n baza indicatorilor structurali/
Evolution of changes in geographical structure of foreign trade on the basis of structural indicators

Indicele ptratic al schimbrilor structurale


Indicele Loosemore-Henby/
(Kazinets)/ Quadratic index of structural shifts
Loosemore-Hanby index
(Kazinets)
Perioada/ period 2005/1998 2011/2005 2011/1998 2005/1998 2011/2005 2011/1998
Exportul/ Export 0.1737 0.1007 0.2742 0.2720 0.0633 0.3353
Tarile CSI/
in CIS countries 0.0869 0.0501 0.1371 0.1229 0.3870 0.4129
Tarile UE/
in European Union
countries 0.0741 0.0334 0.1074 0.1049 0.2703 0.2468
Alte tari/
in other countries 0.0127 0.0172 0.0297 0.0180 0.0498 0.0450
Importul/ Import 0.0587 0.0800 0.1387 0.2985 0.0850 0.2136
Tarile CSI/
from CIS countries 0.0175 0.0344 0.0520 0.0248 0.0238 0.0190
Tarile UE/
from European Union
countries 0.0118 0.0056 0.0174 0.0167 0.0221 0.0542
Alte tari/ from other
countries 0.0294 0.0400 0.0694 0.0415 0.0459 0.0352
Sursa: calculele autorilor, www.statistica.md
Source: author's calculations; www.statistica.md

Conform datelor din tabelul 2, constatm c According to table 2, we state the intensity of
intensitatea modificrilor ponderilor rilor n distribuirea the changes in the distribution of shares of exports by
exporturilor, n anul 2005, fa de 1998, a constituit country in 2005 compared to 1998, reaching 17.37% of
17.37% din maximumul posibil. Cea mai mare intensitate the maximum possible. The highest intensity of the
a modificrilor s-a constatat la nceputul perioadei changes were made in 2011 to the beginning of the
analizate pentru anul 2011. De asemenea, cifrele din period. Also, indicators in table 2 show that the
tabelul 2 denot faptul c cele mai puternice modificrile strongest changes were exports to the CIS countries.
au suferit exporturile n rile CSI. Indicele Kazinets a Kazinets index showed that the average change for the
artat c modificarea medie a ponderilor n distribuirea distribution of shares in CIS exports during 1998-2011
exportului ctre rile CSI, n perioada 1998-2011, a fost was 41%. This value of the index indicates very strong
de 41%. Aceast valoare a indicelui indic o schimbare change to shares.
foarte puternic a cotelor-pri.

44 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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Compararea modificrilor va permite determinarea Comparison of changes will determine the time
intervalului de timp n care s-au produs cele mai intense period where there were the most intensive changes.
modificri. Perioada n care comerul exterior a suferit mai The least volatile period for the trade was during 2005-
puine modificri este cuprins ntre anii 2005 i 2011, 2011, the geographical structure of foreign trade has
structura geografic a comerului exterior devenind stabil, become stable, the number of partner countries varies
iar numrul de ri-partenere variaz nesemnificativ. significantly. Analysis of the structural indicators of
Analiza indicatorilor structurali ai exportului i importului exports and imports shows that the most intense
arat c cele mai majore schimbri au avut loc n structura changes occurred in the structure of exports, the
exportului, iar componenta rilor exportatoare s-a composition of the exporting countries has changed.
schimbat mult. Moldova posed un grad ridicat de Moldova has a high degree of openness in the economy
deschidere a economiei, datorit unei piee interne nguste due to the narrowness of the domestic market and the
i necesitii de a importa, n primul rnd, combustibil, need to import the first of all fuel, gas, investment
gaze, bunuri capitale (echipamente industriale), unele goods (industrial equipment) and some intermediate
bunuri intermediare (re-export). Astfel, n 2011, ponderea goods (re-export). Thus, in 2011, the ratio of exports
exportului i importului n PIB a fost de 31,7% i de plus imports to GDP was 31.7% and 74.1%,
74,1%, respectiv. respectively.
Indicatorii structurali studiai dovedesc necesitatea The studied structural indicators have shown the
aplicrii lor n analiza statistic. Aceti indicatori sunt necessity of their use in statistical analysis. These
necesari i pentru dezvoltarea unei abordri integrate a indicators are needed to develop an integrated concept
cercetrii modificrilor structurale, iar studiul lor se study of structural shifts and their study due to the
datoreaz cerinelor cercetrii empirice a indicatorilor requirements of empirical research macroeconomic
macroeconomici. Orice ar, alegndu-i modelul de indicators. Any country, choosing the model of
transformare structural, se confrunt cu diverse variante i structural transformation, faces their different variants
suport costuri semnificative de alegere. Existena unei and has significant cost choice. The presence of a
teorii complete ar elimina riscul utilizrii unui model complete theory would eliminate the risk of an
inadecvat de reform. Mai mult dect att, teoria inadequate model of reform. Moreover, the theory of
schimbrilor structurale se concentreaz pe nelegerea structural shifts focuses on understanding the process
procesului modificrilor structurale n general i, de of structural shifts in general, and also projects the
asemenea, permite prognozarea consecinelor politicii impact of structural policies. The disclosure of laws of
structurale. Prezentarea legitilor modificrilor structurale structural shifts will develop an effective system for
va permite dezvoltarea unui sistem eficient de gestiune a controlling the structure of social and economic
structurilor social-economice ale Republicii Moldova, care processes of the Republic of Moldova in the process of
se afl n procesul de transformare. transformation.

Bibliografie:/Bibliography:
1. Kazinets L.S. Ritmurile de cretere i modificrile structurale n economie. M.1980.
2. Ryabtsev V.M., Chudilin G.I., Analiza structural i dinamic a indicatorilor investiionali din regiunea
Samara / / Probleme statistice. 2002, 3, c.30-38
3. 3. Shmoilova RA, Minashkin VG etc. Lucrri practice privind teoria statisticii. M., 2006, 417 .
4. www.statistica.md
5. www.bnm.md
6. http://www.bseu.by/russian/faculty5/stat/DOCS/2/Tumasyan_Vasilevskaya.pdf
7. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0001/000131/013186eo.pdf (International Journal Social Science.
Socio-economic indicators: theories and applications)
8. http://ec.europa.eu/commission_2010-2014/geoghegan-quinn/hlp/documents/20120309-hlp-structural-
change_en.pdf (Final Report. Indicators for Structural Change. Bruxelles, October 2011)

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012 45


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GENEZA ABORDRILOR GENESIS OF SCIENTIFIC


TIINIFICE ALE MIGRAIEI APPROACHES OF LABOR
FOREI DE MUNC MIGRATION
Drd. Natalia BRANACO, ASEM PhD candidate Natalia BRANASCO, AESM
Cercetrii migraiei internaionale a forei de The research of international labor migration has
munc i este rezervat un loc deosebit n literatura a special place in the scientific literature. Given the
tiinific. innd seama de importana i actualitatea importance and topicality of this global phenomenon, we
acestui fenomen global, considerm oportun elaborarea consider necessary to develop an overview of migration
unei sinteze a cercetrilor migraiei, efectuate n diferite research, carried out in various fields of science. In this
domenii ale tiinei. n acest articol, ne propunem s article we intend to present an overview of various
prezentm o analiz succint a diverselor abordri i approaches and theories of labor migration.
teorii ale migraiei forei de munc.
At the beginning of the third millennium labor
La nceputul mileniului III, migraia forei de munc migration becomes an important factor of economic
devine un factor important al dezvoltrii economice, din development, reasons that make this phenomenon in
care considerente acest fenomen se afl n centrul ateniei the scientists attention. The research of migration has
oamenilor de tiin. Cercetarea proceselor migraioniste a multidisciplinary character, labor migration problems
are un caracter multidisciplinar, problemele migraiei forei being studied by Demography, Statistics, Economics,
de munc fiind analizate n cadrul demografiei, statisticii, Sociology, Geography, Political science and other
economiei, sociologiei, geografiei, politologiei i al altor sciences.
tiine. Economic approach is most common in
Abordarea economic este cea mai frecvent n migration research, which is explained by the fact that
cercetrile privind migraia, ceea ce se explic prin faptul migration processes are studied in close relation to
c procesele migraioniste se studiaz n interdependen economic processes. Analyzing the economic theories
cu procesele economice. Analiznd teoriile economice on international labor migration, we can systematize
privind migraia internaional a forei de munc, le them as follows:
sistematizm astfel: 1. Classical theories of labor migration;
1. Teorii clasice ale migraiei forei de munc; 2. Keynesian theory of labor migration;
2. Teoria keynesist a migraiei forei de 3. Neoclassical theories of labor migration;
munc; 4. Contemporary theories of labor
3. Teorii neoclasice ale migraiei forei de migration.
munc; Among the classical theories of labor migration
4. Teorii contemporane ale migraiei forei de we highlight: Mercantilism, Classical school and
munc. Marxism.
Din cadrul teoriilor clasice ale migraiei forei de Mercantilism, appeared on the background of
munc, evideniem: mercantilismul, coala clasic i world expansion of capitalist system, has grounded
marxismul. politically and socially the job search process.
Mercantilismul, aprut pe fundalul expansiunii According to mercantilists, in order to have an
sistemului mondial capitalist, a fundamentat din punct de effective economic activity that leads to nation
vedere politic i social procesul de cutare a locurilor de enrichment was necessary to attract a large number of
munc. Conform mercantilitilor, pentru ca activitatea cheap labor forces.
economic s fie eficient i s duc la mbogirea The founder of the Classical school, A. Smith,
naiunii, era necesar atragerea unui numr mare de brae in his work An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of
de munc ieftine. the Wealth of Nations, studied the internal and
Adam Smith, fondatorul colii clasice, n lucrarea sa international migration in terms of interdependence
Studiu asupra naturii i cauzelor bogiei naiunilor a between capital exports and employment, and
examinat migraia intern i internaional prin prisma determined the role of labor market in the economy
interdependenei exportului de capital i forei de munc, functioning. He recommended the removal of barriers
determinnd rolul pieei muncii n funcionarea economiei. between states in the flow of goods, capital and people.
El recomand lichidarea barierelor dintre state n micarea Marxism emphasizes migration as a feature of
bunurilor, capitalului i a populaiei. population movement and development. The capitalist
Marxismul evideniaz migraia ca o caracteristic a law of population, developed by K. Marx, is at the
micrii i dezvoltrii populaiei. Legea capitalist a basis of his theory of migration. Out of Marxist theory
populaiei, elaborat de K. Marx, se afl la baza teoriei sale is concluded that emigration towards colonies may
despre migraie. Din teoria marxist, se conchide c reduce the risk of overproduction crises.

46 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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emigrarea spre colonii poate reduce riscul crizelor de Keynesian theory gives a high importance to
supraproducie. labor migration, arguing that the global labor market,
Teoria keynesist, acorda o importan mare which is formed as a result of international labor
migraiei forei de munc, susinnd faptul c piaa migration, could cause confrontations between national
mondial a forei de munc, ce se formeaz ca rezultat al interests. The main aspects of Keynesian migration
migraiei internaionale a forei de munc, ar putea provoca theory were denying the self-regulation of market
confruntri ntre interesele naionale. Aspectele principale economy and highlighting unemployment in the
ale teoriei keynesiste privind migraia constau n negarea context of migration due to imperfect labor mobility.
autoreglrii economiei de pia i evidenierea omajului, Among the neoclassical theories of labor
n contextul migraiei, ca urmare a mobilitii imperfecte migration, we highlight the most important ones:
a forei de munc. neoclassical economic theory, human capital theory,
Din cadrul teoriilor neoclasice privind migraia the new economics of migration and the theory of dual
forei de munc, le evideniem pe cele mai importante: labor market.
teoria economic neoclasic, teoria capitalului uman, noua Neoclassical economic theory, one of the main
teorie economic a migraiei i teoria pieei duale a forei theories on migration, places in the foreground the role
de munc. of economic factors in explaining the occurrence of
Teoria economic neoclasic, una dintre teoriile migration flows and migration decision. According to
principale din domeniul migraiei, situeaz pe prim-plan this theory, the main cause leading to the emergence
rolul factorilor economici n explicarea apariiei fluxurilor and development of migratory flows is the difference
de migraie i a deciziei de migraie. Conform acestei between the wage in the donor country or region and
teorii, principala cauz a apariiei i dezvoltrii fluxurilor the recipient of labor force. Proponents of this theory
migratoare este decalajul dintre nivelul salarizrii din ara (O. Stark, M.P. Todaro, J.R. Harris, R. Cohen) state
sau regiunea donatoare i cea receptoare de for de that international migration flows become balancing
munc. Susintorii acestei teorii (O. Stark, M.P. Todaro, mechanisms of the problems on the global labor
J.R. Harris, R. Cohen) afirm c fluxurile de migraie market.
internaional se transform n mecanisme de echilibrare Human capital theory (J.S. Becker, L.A.
ale problemelor de pe piaa forei de munc la nivel global. Sjaastad, B. Chiswick) examines on the
Teoria capitalului uman (J. S. Becker, L. A. microeconomic level all forms of internal and
Sjaastad, B. Chiswick) cerceteaz la nivel microeconomic international migration. According to this theory,
toate formele de migraie intern i internaional. migration is explained by the tendency of each
Conform acestei teorii, migraia este explicat prin tendina individual to enrich his human capital, i.e. to increase
fiecrui individ de a-i mbogi capitalul uman, adic de his revenue generation capabilities throughout life as a
a-i amplifica capacitile de generare a veniturilor pe result of migration.
parcursul vieii n urma migraiei. The new economics of migration (K. Taylor, O.
Noua teorie economic a migraiei (K. Taylor, O. Stark, P. Arnold, D. Massey) is based on the argument
Stark, P. Arnold, D. Massey) se bazeaz pe teza conform that migration decision is adopted in the community,
creia decizia privind migraia se adopt n colectivitate, i.e. in the household or family. Compared to the
adic n cadrul menajului sau familiei. Comparativ cu neoclassical economic theory, which presents the wage
teoria economic neoclasic, care prezenta decalajul difference between countries, as the main incentive for
nivelului de salarizare dintre ri, ca stimulent principal n starting migration, the founders of this theory argue
demararea migraiei, fondatorii acestei teorii susin c that there are much stronger incentives.
exist stimulente mult mai puternice. Segmented or dual labor market theory (L.
Teoria pieei forei de munc segmentate sau duale Basch, M.J. Piore) studies international labor migration
(L. Basch, M. J. Piore) cerceteaz migraia internaional a at macroeconomic level. Migration is explained by
forei de munc la nivel macroeconomic. Migraia se structural demand of developed countries towards
explic prin cererea structural a rilor dezvoltate fa de foreign labor force for certain economic sectors.
fora de munc strin pentru anumite sectoare economice. According to this theory, the labor market in developed
Conform acestei teorii, piaa forei de munc din rile countries is divided into two sectors: the primary
dezvoltate este divizat n dou sectoare: sectorul primar, sector, which guarantees stability and high
n care este asigurat stabilitatea i remunerarea compensation for its citizens or for highly skilled
substanial a cetenilor proprii sau a imigranilor de nalt immigrants, and the secondary sector, which lacks
calificare, i sectorul secundar, n care lipsete stabilitatea, stability, professional growth, and low remuneration
creterea profesional, iar remunerarea slab se explic explains why the use of foreign labor prevails.
prin utilizarea preponderent a forei de munc strine. Among the contemporary theories of labor
n cadrul teoriilor contemporane ale migraiei migration we highlight the global labor market theory,
forei de munc, evideniem teoria pieei mondiale a world system theory, the new economic theory, the
muncii, teoria sistemului mondial, teoria privind noua theory of prosperity, the theory of social capital and the
ordine economic, teoria prosperitii, teoria capitalului theory of cumulative causation.

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012 47


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social i teoria cauzalitii cumulative. The global labor market theory (J.H. Johnston)
Teoria pieei mondiale a muncii (J. H. Johnston) represents migration as an expression of the rapidly
prezint migraia ca pe o exprimare a creterii rapide a growing global labor market. Since this market has no
pieei mondiale a muncii. Deoarece aceast pia nu are strictly defined territorial boundaries, it is formed and
hotare teritoriale strict delimitate, ea se formeaz i se developed as a result of labor export and import.
dezvolt ca rezultat al exportului i importului forei de World system theory (S. Sassen, E.M. Petras, I.
munc. Wallerstein), appeared in the late 70s, early 80s of XX
Teoria sistemului mondial (S. Sassen, E. M. Petras, century, states that migration can not be explained
I. Wallerstein), aprut spre sfritul anilor 70, nceputul outside the context of globalization. The founders of
anilor 80 ai sec. XX, afirm c migraia nu poate fi this theory consider that the present world system has
explicat n afara contextului globalizrii. Fondatorii deep historical roots and, therefore, migration usually
acestei teorii consider c sistemul mondial actual are takes place between former colonies and cities.
rdcini istorice adnci i, ca urmare, migraia, de obicei, The new economic order (W.R. Bohning, G.
se produce ntre fostele colonii i metropole. Bhagwati) pays special attention to the development of
Noua ordine economic (W. R. Bohning, G. foreign labor supply, compared to other opinions,
Bhagwati) acord o atenie deosebit dezvoltrii ofertei which prioritize labor demand in the global market. In
forei de munc strine, n comparaie cu celelalte opinii, this theory is highlighted the development of a fair
ce consider prioritar cererea de munc pe piaa compensation mechanism of developing countries for
mondial. n cadrul acestei teorii, se evideniaz faptul using their labor resources, especially of high-skilled
elaborrii unui mecanism de compensare corect a rilor labor.
n curs de dezvoltare pentru utilizarea resurselor lor de The theory of prosperity or of technological
munc, mai ales a forei de munc de nalt calificare. development appeared during 1980-1990 examines
Teoria prosperitii sau a dezvoltrii tehnologice, immigration as a positive factor of economic, social
elaborat n perioada 1980-1990, examineaz imigraia ca and demographic development. J.L. Simon argues that
un factor pozitiv al dezvoltrii economice, sociale i the immigrants flow of does not lead to increased
demografice. J.L. Simon argumenteaz c fluxul de competition in the labor market, reduced average wage
imigrani nu conduce la intensificarea concurenei pe piaa and increased unemployment among the local
muncii, la reducerea salariului mediu i creterea nivelului population.
omajului n rndurile populaiei autohtone. Cumulative causation theory was founded in
Teoria cauzalitii cumulative a fost fundamentat, 1957 by G. Myrdal in his work Economic Theory and
n 1957, de G. Myrdal, n lucrarea Economic Theory and Under-Developed Regions. According to this theory,
Under-Developed Regions. Aceast teorie susine c, de migrants usually are skilled, educated, motivated,
regul, migranii sunt persoane calificate, educate, contributing to productivity growth in destination
motivate, contribuind la creterea productivitii n rile de countries. This leads to economic growth of these
destinaie. Acest fapt conduce la creterea economic a countries and the economic stagnation of the country of
acestor ri i la stagnarea economic a rilor de origine, origin, which will further enhance the international
ceea ce va amplifica n continuare procesul de migraie migration process. Another proponent of this theory, D.
internaional. Un alt adept al acestei teorii, D. Massey, Massey, highlights six factors that determine the
evideniaz ase factori ce determin caracterul cumulativ cumulative nature of international migration [1, p.
al migraiei internaionale [1, p. 108]: 108]:

1. Distribuia veniturilor gospodriei, la nivel 1. Household income distribution at the


de comunitate; community level;
2. Distribuia pmntului i modul de 2. Distribution of land and agricultural
organizare a agriculturii (ara de origine); organization (country of origin);
3. Cultura migraiei (ara de origine); 3. Culture of migration (country of origin);
4. Distribuia regional a capitalului uman 4. Regional distribution of human capital
(ara de origine); (country of origin);
5. Echitatea social (ara de destinaie); 5. Social equity (country of destination);
6. Reelele de migrani i instituiile. 6. Migrant networks and institutions.

Teoria capitalului social, elaborat de D. Massey, The social capital theory developed by D. Massey
examineaz reelele de migrani, ca form de capital social, examines migrant networks as a form of social capital for
pentru prima dat, n lucrarea Return to Atzlan: The the first time in his work Return to Atzlan: The Social
Social Process of International Migration from Western Process of International Migration from Western Mexico
Mexico (1987). Abordarea prezint formarea capitalului (1987). This approach shows the formation of social capital
social, prin expansiunea reelelor, conform urmtoarei through network expansion, in the following logic:
logici:

48 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


RELAII INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

Reducerea costurilor i Ridicarea probabilitii


riscurilor asociate apariiei viitoare a
migraiei/ Reduction of fenomenului de migraie/
migration costs and risks Raising the probability of
future migration
phenomenon

Creterea beneficiilor Dezvoltarea reelelor de


migraiei internaionale/ migrani/ Development
Increasing international of migrant networks
migration benefits

Figura 1. Expansiunea reelelor de migrani/


Figure 1. Migrant networks expansion

n cadrul abordrii sociologice, n explicarea Within the sociological approach in


migraiei forei de munc, un interes deosebit l prezint explaining labor migration, special interest is given
teoria push and pull i teoria reelelor de migraie. n to the push and pull theory and the theory of
anii 60 ai sec. XX, cercettorul E. Lee elaboreaz teoria migration networks. In the 60s of the XX century,
push and pull, ce studiaz la nivel microeconomic the researcher E. Lee developed the push and pull
migraia intern i internaional. Conform acestei theory, studying internal and international
teorii, factorii determinani ai migraiei in att de ara migration at the microeconomic level. According to
de destinaie, ct i de ara de origine a migranilor, att this theory, the determinants of migration relate to
sub aspect de atracie, ct i de respingere, pe lng both, the countries of destination, as well as the
acetia, lundu-se n consideraie factorii personali i de country of origin of migrants, both in terms of
conjunctur. attraction and repulsion as, being taken into
Reelele de migrani reprezint una dintre temele account their personal factors and circumstances.
principale ale cercetrilor n domeniul migraiei Migrant networks are one of the main
internaionale. Teoria a fost fondat n anii 90 de ctre research topics in the field of international
D. Massey i se refer la migraia intern i migration. The theory was founded in 1990 by D.
internaional att la nivel microeconomic, ct i Massey and studies internal and international
macroeconomic. Migraia este explicat prin prisma migration both at micro and macro levels.
relaiilor de rudenie, prietenie cu migranii conceteni Migration is explained in terms of family relations,
din rile de destinaie. Majoritatea migranilor i alege friendship with fellow migrants in destination
ara de destinaie, innd cont de prezena rudelor sau a countries. Most migrants choose the destination
diasporelor [2]. country, taking into account the presence of
Abordarea demografic are un rol esenial n relatives or Diasporas [2].
analiza proceselor migraioniste. n cadrul acestei Demographic approach is essential in the
abordri, au efectuat cercetri A. Sovy, F. Noutstein, A. analysis of migration processes. This approach has
Landri, D. Valentei etc., stabilind faptul c migraia been investigated by A. Sovy, F. Noutstein, A.
exercit influen asupra ratei natalitii, nupialitii, Landri, D. Valentei etc., stating that migration
sntii i mortalitii populaiei i, de aceea, trebuie influences the birth, marriage, health and mortality
studiat n demografie ca factor al reproducerii rate of the population, and therefore must be

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RELAII INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

populaiei. n condiiile actuale, a crescut n proporii studied by demography as a factor of population


masive numrul populaiei, 80% din care provine din reproduction. Under the current conditions took
rile n curs de dezvoltare. Acest fapt constituie unul place a massive increase in population, of which
din factorii semnificativi ai migraiei forei de munc, 80% live in developing countries. This is one of the
mai cu seam din rile n curs de dezvoltare, nspre factors of labor migration, especially from
rile dezvoltate, actualmente aflate n criz developing countries to developed countries, facing
demografic. demographic crisis.
Abordarea politologic a migraiei este Political approach to migration was based
fundamentat n lucrrile lui G. Friman, A. Zolberg, on the works of G. Friman, A. Zolberg, starting
care a pornit de la nevoia reglrii de ctre stat a from the need for state regulation of migration
migraiei prin sistemul de politici migraioniste. through migration policy system. Political
Politologii examineaz migraia ca o form de scientists consider migration as a form of
cooperare ntre state, ce const n circulaia populaiei i cooperation between states, which is the movement
elaborarea unei legislaii respective. Prin aceast of population and development of respective
prism, scopul statului const n efectuarea controlului legislation. From this perspective the state is to
intrrilor i ieirilor persoanelor, determinarea criteriilor perform entries and exists control of persons;
de apartenen la societate prin obinerea ceteniei, determine the criteria of belonging to society by
influena sistemelor politice i institutelor asupra receiving citizenship; influence of political systems
susinerii imigraiei. and institutions in supporting immigration.
Abordarea sistemic a fost examinat pentru The systemic approach was examined for
prima dat la finele anilor 80 de ctre M. Critz, X. the first time in late 1980 by M. Critz, X. Zlotnic,
Zlotnic etc. prin prisma concepiei sistemelor etc. through the concept of migration systems.
migraioniste. Sistemul migraionist este format dintr- Migration system consists of a group of countries
un grup de ri, ntre care exist relaii migraionale which have stable and strong migration relations.
stabile i puternice. Conform acestei abordri, fluxurile According to this approach, the stable migration
migraionale stabile formeaz un sistem migraional flows form a migration system, i.e. a single area,
sau, altfel spus, un spaiu unic, ce nglobeaz rile which includes donor and recipient labor force.
donatoare i receptoare de for de munc. Psychological approach is presented in the
Abordarea psihologic este prezentat n works of V. Perevedentseva T. Zaslavscaia, V.
lucrrile cercettorilor V. Perevedeneva, Moiseenco, etc. This approach studies the internal
T. Zaslavscaia, V. Moiseenco etc. n cadrul acestei and international migration, examining the
abordri, se desfoar cercetarea migraiei interne i individual and group reasons that determine the
internaionale, examinndu-se motivele individuale i migration behavior of individual [6].
de grup, ce determin comportamentul migraional al The methodological approach to migration
individului [6]. includes two directions: mathematical modeling
Abordarea metodologic a migraiei include and analysis methods. Mathematical modeling has
dou direcii: modelarea matematic i metodologia its beginning in the late XIX century; its base being
analizei. Modelarea matematic i are nceputul la developed by E. Ravenstein immigration laws
finele secolului XIX, la baza ei stnd legile migraiei during 1885-1889, and currently being one of the
elaborate de E. Ravenstein n anii 1885-1889, iar n basic methods of migration study. The most
prezent, fiind una dintre metodele de baz de studiere a important methods for studying migration flows are
migraiei. Cele mai importante metode de analiz a analyzing the size, intensity, main directions of
fluxurilor migraionale sunt analiza mrimii, intensitii, migration flows and migration behavior and
direciilor principale ale fluxurilor migraionale, precum preferences [5].
i a comportamentului i preferinelor migraioniste [5]. If we systematize the approaches and theories
Sistematiznd abordrile i teoriile privind of labor migration, we can conclude that they
migraia forei de munc, conchidem c acestea represent a totality of theories and trends that
reprezint o totalitate de teorii i curente, care explic explain various aspects of migration. Therefore
diverse aspecte ale migraiei. Din aceste considerente, IUSSP (International Union for the Scientific Study
IUSSP (International Union for the Scientific Study of of Population) has formed an international team of
Population) a format o echip internaional interdisciplinary scientists who aimed to analyze
interdisciplinar de savani, care avea ca obiectiv and evaluate theories of migration, in order to
analiza i evaluarea teoriilor migraiei, cu scopul de a determine the aspects that coincide, which
determina aspectele ce coincid, se completeaz reciproc complement and contradict each other. Scientists
sau se contrazic. Savanii D. Massey, J. Arango, A. D. Massey, J. Arango, A. Koucouci, A. Pelligrino,
Koucouci, A. Pelligrino, E. Taylor i-au epxus opiniile E. Taylor gave their opinions in the work Worlds
n lucrarea Worlds in Motion: Understanding in Motion: Understanding International Migration
International Migration at the End of the Millenium, n at the End of the Millennium, following the study

50 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


RELAII INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

urma studiului, elabornd o nou teorie a migraiei they developed a new theory of labor migration
forei de munc teoria sintetic, conform creia synthetic theory, according to which international
migraia internaional este un determinant important migration is an important determinant of
ale fenomenului de globalizare, ce unete rile de globalization, linking the destination and origin
destinaie i de origine ale migranilor, influeneaz countries of migrants, influencing their own
dezvoltarea economiei lor i a economiei mondiale [3]. economic development and global economy [3].
Teoria sintetic se bazeaz pe principiul pluralismului, The synthetic theory is based on the principle of
care permite coexistena diverselor opinii, ce se pluralism, which allows the coexistence of different
completeaz reciproc. views that complement each other.

Bibliografie/Bibliography:

1. Constantinescu M. Teorii ale migraiei internaionale. n: Sociologie Romneasc, 3-4, 2002, p. 93-114.
2. Massey D. The Social and Economic Origins of Immigration. 1990. Disponibil la
http://www.jstor.org/pss/1046794.
3. Massey D., Arango J., Hugo G., Kouaouci A., Pellegrino A., Taylor E. Worlds in motion. Understanding
international migration at the end of the millennium, Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1998.
4. . . : , , : .
. . , - , : 08.00.05 / : . . .: , 1999. 470 .
5. , . . / . . . , 2002.

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DETERMINANII CULTURII DETERMINANTS OF


ORGANIZAIONALE UNIVERSITY
UNIVERSITARE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
Dr. hab., Prof. univ. Ala COTELNIC; Dr. Hab. Professor Ala COTELNIC;
Iulia ALBOT, ef birou DSDCNC, ASEM Iulia ALBOT, AESM
Astzi, pentru a face fa cerinelor actuale ale Today, in order to meet the current needs of
socialului i ale concurenei, schimbrile prin care trec the society and competition, the changes that
Universitile nu se pot desfura n afara culturii universities face can not be carried out outside the
organizaionale, dei cultura organizaional a mediului organizational culture, though the organizational
universitar din ara noastr pare fi una nedefinit, cu slabe culture of academia in our country seems to be
elemente de identificare cultural. n prezentul articol, sunt undefined, with little cultural identifiers. The present
trecute n revist unele rezultate ale studiului efectuat n article reviews some results of a study within the
cadrul Academiei de Studii Economice a Moldovei, care a Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova, which
avut ca obiectiv evidenierea particularitilor specifice aimed to highlight specific features of university
culturii organizaionale universitare. organizational culture.
Literature presents a system of endogenous
Literatura de specialitate prezint un sistem de factori and exogenous factors that determine the cultural
ce determin arhitectura cultural a unei organizaii, factori architecture of an organization. In order to understand
de natur endogen i exogen. Pentru a nelege corect correctly the influence of these factors it is necessary to
influena acestor factori, e necesar de luat n considerare att take into account both their individual interaction, as
interaciunea lor individual, ct i conjugarea acesteia cu well as combined with the cultural system of the
sistemul cultural al organizaiei. Din aceast sum de factori, organization. Of this number of factors we will present
vom prezenta i caracteriza succint doar pe cei pe care i and briefly describe only those that we consider
considerm c exercit influen asupra culturii influence the organizational culture of the university,
organizaionale a universitii, fcnd referire la arealul making reference to the academic environment of
academic din ASEM, i anume: istoria, influena liderului, AESM and namely: history, leaders influence,
ateptrile i caracteristicile personalului, sistemul de expectations and personnel characteristics, motivation
motivare, resursele tehnice i materiale ale instituiei, system, technical and material resources of the
aspectele legislative, caracteristicile beneficiarilor i institution, legal aspects, beneficiaries characteristics
arhitectura mediului social. and social environmental architecture.
Istoria organizaiei. Istoria reprezint un factor The history of the organization. History is an
important n determinarea i modelarea culturii important factor in determining and shaping
organizaionale. Acest element al trecutului i al prezentului organizational culture. This element of the past and
organizaiei confer angajailor un domeniu bine organizat i present of the organization gives employees a well
cunoscut, un cadru ce permite evitarea incertitudinii. Dac organized and known field, a framework that allows
angajatul cunoate istoria i comportamentele specifice avoiding uncertainty. If the employee knows the
organizaiei, riscul ca ceva s-l surprind este minor, fapt ce organizations history and its specific behaviors, the
i asigur confortul su psihic i fizic. O asemenea situaie risk that something surprises him is minor, fact that
poate fi att spre folosul organizaiei, ct i al angajatului, iar ensures his physical and psychological comfort. Such a
evitarea incertitudinii i desfurarea activitilor ntr-un situation can be benefic both for the organization as
cadru cunoscut cresc randamentul lucrativ al angajatului. well as for the employees; avoiding uncertainty and
Referindu-ne la mediul organizaional al universitii, carrying out activities in a known environment can
avem posibilitatea s constatm c istoria organizaiei increase efficiency of the employee.
universitare nu face excepie de la aspectele prezentate mai Referring to the organizational environment of
sus. Mai mult dect att, nu de puine ori, angajatul the university, we can state that the history of the
universitii (cadru didactic sau personal auxiliar) cunoate university is no exception to the above issues. Moreover,
mediul nc din vremea studeniei, trind i manifestndu-se very frequently, university employee (lecturer or staff)
sub influena acestuia o perioad ndelungat, ceea ce knows the environment since college days, living and
sporete relevana acestui factor pentru mediul universitar. acting under its influence for a long time, which
Istoria Academiei de Studii Economice i are increases the relevance of this factor in academia.
nceputul ntr-o perioad nu chiar ndeprtat, instituia The history of the Academy of Economic
avnd doar 21 de ani de la fondare. Cu toate acestea, suflul Studies has its beginning not very long ago, the
istoriei este prezent. Pentru c aici, cnd este vorba despre institution has 20 years of existence. However, the
istorie, nu ne referim doar la cei 21 de ani de activitate ai breath of history is here. As when it comes to history,

52 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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ASEM, ci i la ntreaga evoluie a nvmntului economic we refer not only to those 20 years of AESM, but also
din Moldova. Dar, n special, cnd se vorbete despre istoria the entire evolution of the economic education in
ASEM, neaprat, aceasta ncepe de la predecesoarele ei Moldova. When we talk about history of AESM, we
Facultatea de Economie i cea de Comer i Merceologie ale necessarily start from its predecessor the Faculty of
Universitii de Stat din Moldova. n aceast ordine de idei, Economics and Commerce of the State University of
vom meniona de asemenea, existena i funcionarea, n Moldova. In this context, we mention the existence and
cadrul instituiei, a Muzeului ASEM, unde sunt expuse file functioning within the institution, of the AESM
din istorie, fotografii ale fotilor rectori, imagini cu Museum, on the walls of which we can find the
evenimente remarcabile din viaa Academiei, ncepnd de la reflection of historical documents, photos of former
nfiinarea Facultii de Economie i continund pn n rectors, images with remarkable events in the life of the
prezent. Academy, beginning with the establishment of the
Istoria nvmntului economic din Moldova i a Faculty of Economics until now.
Academiei de Studii Economice a Moldovei n-au constituit The history of the economic education in
obiectul de cercetare al savanilor. Menionm ns c unele Moldova and of the Academy of Economic Studies of
aspecte din activitatea ASEM au fost elucidate de ctre Moldova has not been yet a subject of scholarly
primii rectori, decani, efi de catedre, acestea reprezentnd research. It should be noted that some aspects of
un nou mod de concepere i nelegere a locului i rolului AESMs activity were elucidated by the first rectors,
Academiei de Studii Economice a Moldovei n sistemul deans, heads of chairs, this being a new way of
nvmntului superior contemporan. Managementul conceiving and understanding the role of the Academy
ASEM a fost preocupat n permanen de aspectele istorice, of Economic Studies of Moldova in the contemporary
fr de care nu poate exista prezentul i fr de care o higher education system. The AESM management has
instituie nu poate dinui n timp. Astfel, primele publicaii been always preoccupied with historical aspects,
despre istoria ASEM au aprut la 5, 10 si 15 ani de la indispensable for present and future of the institution.
fondarea ei. n acest context, este demn de remarcat Thus, the first historical sketches about ASEM were
apariia, cu prilejul aniversrii de 20 de ani ai ASEM, a crii written after the 5th, 10th and 15th anniversary of AESM
Istoria ASEM: 20 de ani de ascensiune (1), lucrare, n founding. In this context it is worth mentioning the
care sunt abordate aspecte din istoria Academiei, de la editing of the book on the occasion of the 20th
constituirea Facultii de Economie (1953) i activitatea anniversary of ASEM, History of ASEM: 20 Years of
ASEM de pn n 2011, precum i retrospectiva Ascension (1), describing the founding of the Faculty
nvmntului economic din Moldova pn n 1953. of Economics (1953) and AESM activities until 2011,
Aceast realitate ne face s afirmm c avem o cultur as well as the retrospective of economic education in
universitar care nu este centrat doar pe prezent i viitor, ci Moldova till 1953. This fact makes us say that we have
i pe trecut, ceea ce, n anumite condiii, poate constitui un a university culture centered not only on the present
plus pentru instituie, deoarece valorificarea trecutului and future but also on the past, which, under certain
organizaional contribuie, n mare msur, la crearea unui conditions, can be an advantage for the institution, as
brand universitar puternic, att la nivel naional, ct i valuing the organizational history contributes greatly to
internaional, dat fiind faptul c un brand puternic nu poate fi the creation of a strong academic brand, both nationally
construit altfel, dect n timp. and internationally, given that a strong brand can not
Influena liderului / liderilor be built otherwise than in time.
Managerii top au posibilitatea, datorit poziiei lor n The influence of leader / leaders.
organizaie, s emit cereri ce pot influena att cultura Given their position within the organization,
organizaional, n ansamblu, ct i pe oricare dintre top managers can issue orders that can influence both
angajaii universitii, n special. Leadershipul i cultura organizational culture, as well as any employee of the
interacioneaz puternic, liderii reprezint adevrate modele university. Leadership and culture interact powerfully;
pentru cei din organizaie. Sursa forei de persuasiune a leaders are true models for everyone within the
liderului este dat de nsi baza lui cultural: sistemul su organization. The leaders power of persuasion is
de valori, norme, atitudini i comportamente. determined by his own culture: his system of values,
Un lider aparte, pentru orice organizaie, este norms, attitudes and behaviors.
fondatorul ei sau, dintr-o alt perspectiv, patronul acesteia. A leader for any organization is its founder,
Vorbind despre mediul universitar din Moldova, putem from another perspective, its owner. Talking about the
spune ca acest gen de lider este slab prezentat, din dou academia in Moldova, we can say that this kind of
puncte de vedere: pe de o parte, majoritatea universitilor leadership is currently weak from two points of view: on
sunt patronate de stat, iar pe de alta, fondatorul este the one hand, most universities are public, and on the
identificat, mai degrab cu regimul politic aflat la putere n other, the founder is identified rather with the political
momentul nfiinrii universitii. Academia de Studii regime that was governing by the time of university
Economice a Moldovei nu este o excepie n acest sens, fiind foundation. The Academy of Economic Studies of
fondat prin Hotrrea Guvernului Republicii Moldova nr. Moldova is no exception in this respect; it was
537 din 25 septembrie 1991. Or acea perioada din istoria established pursuant the Government Decision no. 537

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rii noastre se caracterizeaz prin schimbarea regimului of September 25th, 1991. This period of our history is
politic i, respectiv, formarea primului guvern democratic, characterized by the change of the political regime,
care i a materializat ideea concentrrii procesului de respectively, by the formation of the first democratic
pregtire a economitilor ntr-o singur instituie government, which materialized the idea of
universitar. Cu toate acestea, n cazul ASEM, putem vorbi concentrating the training process of economists within a
i despre o influen a liderului, care nu trebuie neglijat, single academic institution. However, in the case of
aceasta punndu-i amprentele n evoluia de mai departe a AESM we can talk about the influence of a leader that
instituiei. Astfel, ctitorul Academiei de Studii Economice, should not be neglected, this influencing a lot the further
totodat i primul ei rector, profesorul Paul Bran, i-a development of the institution. Thus, the founder of the
ctigat un binemeritat loc de prim mrime n istoria Academy of Economic Studies and also its first rector,
ASEM. Cci, cu certitudine, aflarea n funcia de rector a lui Professor Paul Bran, has won a well deserved first place
Paul Bran, personalitate marcant n tiina economic, se in AESMs history. This is because being a Rector, Paul
identific cu anii de formare, consolidare i devenire a Bran, a leading figure in Economics, identifies with the
ASEM. De fapt i numele de Academie vine tot de la primul years of establishment, strengthening and development
rector. Paul Bran argumenteaz ca a fost numit Academie of AESM. In fact the name of Academy also comes from
i nu Institut sau Universitate, fiindc un atare statut the first Rector. Paul Bran argued that it was called
corespunde mai mult aspiraiilor noastre: de a mbina i Academy and not Institute or University because such
studiile, i munca de cercetare, i pregtirea a statute meets more our aspirations: to combine
postuniversitar a cadrelor, i dezvoltarea relaiilor cu studies, research, postgraduate education of staff and
instituiile de peste hotare (Paul Bran). ntr-o perioada developing relationships with institutions abroad (Paul
confuz, n care, pentru a merge nainte, era nevoie de Bran). In a confusing period, when in order to go
schimbri radicale n societate, n ansamblu, ns care nu se forward were necessary radical changes in the society as
puteau produce fr schimbri n cultura i subculturile a whole, but which could not take place without changes
acesteia, intervenia lui Paul Bran a fost decisiv. El a reuit in its culture and subcultures, the merit of Paul Bran was
s infiltreze stilul democraiei n interiorul ASEM, s a decisive one. He managed to infiltrate in AESM the
stabileasc relaii de parteneriat ntre profesori i studeni, democratic style, establish partnership relationships
fapte cu adevrat inedite n acea perioad. Cu numele lui between lecturers and students, things that were truly
Paul Bran se identific i Biblioteca tiinific a ASEM, original at that period. With the name of Paul Bran is
care, dup cum a spus nsui fondatorul, constituie baza identified the Scientific Library of AESM, which, as the
unei instituii de nvmnt. founder said, is the base of an educational institution.
n aceast ordine de idei, este demn de remarcat In this context, it is noteworthy mentioning
faptul c, n cinstea primului rector al ASEM, Profesor Paul that in the honor of the first rector of AESM, Professor
Bran, a fost numit o sal de lectur din cadrul Bibliotecii Paul Bran, was named a reading hall of the Scientific
tiinifice. De asemenea, cu prilejul a 20 de ani de la Library of AESM. Also, on the occasion of the 20th
fondarea ASEM, a fost dezvelit un basorelief al su pe anniversary from the foundation of AESM was
blocul de studii C, au fost instituite medalia i diploma unveiled a bas-relief of him on the study block C;
Paul Bran, precum i Bursa Paul Bran, pentru care pot was created a medal and diploma Paul Bran; as well
concura cei mai buni studeni ai ASEM. as the Scholarship Paul Bran, for which the best
De asemenea, una dintre cele mai frumoase i mai students of AESM can compete.
dotate Sli de lectur a Bibliotecii tiinifice a ASEM, prin One of the most beautiful and best equipped
Decizia Senatului, poart numele celui de-al doilea rector reading halls of AESM Scientific Library, pursuant the
Eugeniu Hricev. Senate decision is named after the second rector
Este demn de remarcat i faptul c, n Muzeul Eugeniu Hriscev.
ASEM, pot fi vzute, expuse n vzul tuturor celor care l Noteworthy is also the fact that AESM
viziteaz, dar i al celor care se ntrunesc n Aula ASEM cu Museum, exhibits to all visitors of AESM, but also to
prilejul diferitor manifestaii, fotografiile fotilor rectori, cu those who meet within AESM hall for various events,
specificarea anilor lor de activitate n calitate de rectori, photographs of former rectors, specifying the activity
precum i ale altor personaliti marcante din istoria ASEM. years as rectors, and other notable figures in the history
Potrivit celor sus-menionate, putem constata c, n of AESM.
ASEM, cultura managerial este nalt. Este cunoscut, Based on the above mentioned, we can state
apreciat i valorificat trecutul istoric al instituiei, pentru a that managerial culture in ASEM is high. Here is
merge cu fermitate mai departe i a face fa cerinelor known, appreciated and valued the historical past in
actuale din societate i, n special, din sfera nvmntului order to go ahead and meet the current requirements of
superior. Studiind istoria ASEM, nu vom observa society and, in particular, in the field of higher
transformri radicale, ci doar o munc asidu, permanent education. Studying the history of AESM, we will not
de continuare a tradiiilor, a valorilor i realizrilor, pe care see radical changes, just hard work, permanent
le-a acumulat ASEM n cei 21 de ani de existen, dar i continuation of traditions, valuesand accomplishments
eforturile deosebit de mari pentru meninerea poziiei pe care accumulated by ASEM in 21 years of existence, and

54 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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a avut-o i o are i n prezent ASEM, cci uneori, este mult the huge efforts to maintain the position that has had
mai dificil s te menii pe poziie, dect s-o cucereti (1). and currently has AESM because sometimes it is
n alt ordine de idei, se poate observa atractivitatea more difficult to maintain a position than to conquer
mediului universitar, datorit perspectivelor de promovare. it (1).
ns, motivarea prin promovare, aa cum este ea realizat n In another train of thoughts, the attractiveness
momentul de fa, nu stimuleaz i performana real a of the university environment, due to promotion
angajatului universitar, pentru c include i criteriul vechimii prospects, can be observed. However, motivation
n munc. Cadrele didactice beneficiaz mai mult de un through promotion, as it is currently done, does not
mediu, de anumite resurse interne ale universitilor, inclusiv motivate the real performance of the university
de simbolistica apartenenei la sistem. employee, as it includes the criterion of seniority.
Politica de motivare a personalului are un impact Lecturers benefit more from an environment, from
major asupra modului de desfurare a activitilor din certain internal resources of universities, including the
organizaie i asupra implicrii personalului. Cultura symbols belonging to the system.
organizaional influeneaz i este influenat, la rndul ei, Personnel motivation policy is a major impact
de modul n care este proiectat i funcioneaz sistemul on the carrying out of activities within the organization
motivaional. and the involvement of personnel. Organizational
Ideea central const n determinarea unor culture influences and is influenced, in turn, by the way
particulariti ale culturii organizaionale universitare, pe the motivational system is designed and functioning.
baza activitii Academiei de Studii Economice din This present study is to determine the specific
Moldova. Or, n cazul n care, pentru a aspira la o features of university organizational culture based on
performan de nivel european, o Universitate, neaprat, va the Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova, or, if
avea nevoie de programe de schimbare, care nu pot fi the university aspires for Europe performance, it will
implementate fr cunoaterea si abordarea adecvat a necessarily require programs of change, which can not
culturii organizaionale. Pentru realizarea studiului de fa, be implemented without adequate knowledge and
am elaborat i am aplicat chestionarele de investigare a approach to organizational culture. For the present
culturii organizaionale universitare. Conceptul study we developed and applied questionnaires to
chestionarelor a fost preluat i din lucrrile unor autori, care investigate the university organizational culture. The
au abordat tematica culturii organizaionale, precum Edgar questionnaire concept was also taken from the works of
Schein, Geert Hofstede, Marian Nstase (2, 5, 6). authors who have addressed the topic of organizational
Procedura de eantionare aplicat s-a axat pe dou culture, such as: Edgar Schein, Geert Hofstede, Marian
aspecte. n ceea ce privete primul, am luat n considerare Nastase (2, 5, 6) etc.
faptul c cultura organizaional universitar este format Applied sampling procedure was focused on
din alte culturi, dintre care menionm: cultura cadrelor two aspects. First, we considered the fact that the
didactice, cultura personalului auxiliar si cultura studenilor. university organizational culture consists of
i, cu toate c cultura personalului auxiliar nu trebuie subcultures, like: lecturers culture, staff culture and
neglijat, totui ea, fiind slab resimit la nivelul organizaiei student culture. And, although staff culture should not
universitare, am considerat important s ne axm n temei pe be overlooked, however it was weakly felt at the
cultura cadrelor didactice, precum i pe cea a studenilor, university organization, we considered important to
acordnd, totui, o pondere mai mare personalului didactic focus on lecturers and students culture, giving, a
universitar, fiindc este evident c personalul didactic greater share to the teaching staff of the university, it is
universitar constituie categoria de subieci reprezentativ clear that the teaching staff are the representative
pentru subiectul abordat. Al doilea aspect reprezint subjects of the studied topic. The second aspect was the
eantionarea bazat pe cote procentuale. Au fost supui selection based on percentages. In the survey were
chestionrii 20% din totalul angajailor de baz (cadre involved 20% of employees (lecturers) of the total
didactice) i 5% din totalul studenilor din nvmntul cu number of all the employees and 5% of full time
frecven la zi, ciclul I, licen, respectndu-se proporia students at the I Cycle, Bachelor, respecting the
pentru toi anii de studii, i faculti, precum i 5% din totalul proportion for all years of study and faculties, as well
studenilor de la ciclul II, masterat. 5% of all students at II Cycle, Master.
Am distribuit 570 de chestionare pentru cadrele We have distributed 570 questionnaires for
didactice, studenii de la ciclul I, licen, nvmnt cu teachers, full time students in I Cycle, Bachelor and
frecven la zi i ciclul II, masterat, repartizate proporional cycle II, Masters, proportionately distributed to all
tuturor facultilor i anilor de studii, din care am recuperat faculties and years of study, of which 547 were
547 i le-am considerat valide pe 532. Precizm c rata recovered and recognized valid 532. It should be noted
rspunsurilor valide este de 93,33%. that valid response rate is 93.33%.
Caracteristicile utilizate pentru evaluarea strii i The features used for assessing the state and
funcionalitii sistemului motivaional sunt prezentate n functionality of the motivational system are shown in
figura 1. figure 1.

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012 55


MANAGEMENT / MANAGEMENT

Atmosfera de lucru este


placuta si aceasta
motiveaza oamenii

Stimulentele materiale sunt


acord total
cele mai importante pentru acord partial
personalul din organizatie
neutru
Oamenii au nevoie de
stimulente
dezacord partial
dezacord total
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Figura 1. Rspunsurile respondenilor referitoare la stimulentele materiale/


Figure 1. Respondents' answers on material incentives

Aadar, dup cum putem observa i din rezultatele According to the obtained results, is
obinute, este contientizat importana motivrii pentru acknowledged the importance of motivation for the
viabilitatea i performanele instituiei. Astfel, cu institutions viability and performance. Thus, with
afirmaia Oamenii au nevoie de stimulente au fost de reference to the statement: People need incentives
acord cca 98,0 la sut din respondeni, respectiv, acord agreed 97.8 percent of respondents, including total
total 85,86% i acord parial 11,95%. n concluzie, agreement -85.86% and partial agreement -11.95%. In
putem afirma c, fr un sistem motivaional bine conclusion, we can state that without a well-defined
conturat, fr a se ine seama de nevoile reale ale motivational system, without taking into account the
salariailor i de armonizarea acestora cu obiectivele real needs of employees and their harmonization with
organizaiei, este dificil s se obin performanele the objectives of the organization, it is difficult to
scontate. n ceea ce privete tipul de motivaii, se observ achieve expected performance. Regarding the types of
c stimulentele materiale sunt considerate foarte motivation, it appears that material incentives are
importante. Acest indice poate fi explicat, credem, n considered to be very important. We believe that this
mare parte, din situaia economic i social prin care index can be greatly explained by the social and
trece ara noastr n perioada actual. Totodat, 90,22% economic situation our country is facing at the
din respondeni afirm c atmosfera de lucru din ASEM moment. However, 90.22% of respondents stated that
este plcut, ceea ce i motiveaz pe oameni, fiind un AESM working atmosphere is pleasant and it motivates
factor pozitiv, care nu poate fi neglijat la identificarea people, which is a positive factor that can not be
culturii organizaionale. Aceasta demonstreaz c nici neglected in identifying organizational culture. This
motivaiile de ordin moral-spiritual nu sunt de ignorat n proves that neither moral nor spiritual reasons should
rndul angajailor. not be ignored among employees.
n aceeai ordine de idei, vom remarca In the same context, it should be noted the
organizarea n ASEM a concursului ProfTop, unde organization of the ProfTop contest within AESM
profesorii au fost apreciai i votai de ctre studeni la where teachers were appreciated and voted by the
categoriile gen: Cel mai popular profesor, Cel mai students by type-categories: Most popular professor,
exigent profesor, Cel mai obiectiv profesor, Cel mai Professor with most attractive classes, Most
simpatic profesor, Cel mai disciplinat profesor. demanding professor, Most objective professor, Most
ncepnd cu anul universitar 2011-2012, n sympathetic professor, Most disciplined professor.
ASEM, s-a dat startul concursului Profesorul anului, Beginning with the 2011-2012 academic year
care este reglementat printr-un Regulament intern i care, in ASEM emerged a new contest Professor of the
de asemenea, reprezint un factor de motivare pentru Year", which is regulated by an internal Regulation
profesori. Deja n acest an de studii, au fost nominalizai which, is in turn an incentive for lecturers. This year
primii ctigtori. were already nominated the first winners.
Resursele tehnice si materiale ale organizaiei. Technical and material resources of the
Dezvoltarea tehnologiei informaiei, precum si organization.
resursele materiale i financiare ale organizaiei, dar i Information technology development, as well
accesul efectiv la acestea coreleaz puternic cu as the material and financial resources of the

56 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


MANAGEMENT / MANAGEMENT

elementele de cultur organizaional. Universitatea i organization, but also their effective access, strongly
studiul academic au devenit tot mai dependente de noua correlate with the elements of organizational culture.
tehnologie a informaiei, ceea ce schimb puternic University and academic study have become
raporturile informale i chiar ierarhice dintre oameni n increasingly dependent on information technology,
cadrul organizaiei universitare. n prezent, se comunic which strongly changes the human relations and even
mult mai mult online, iar cei care nu sunt capabili s informal hierarchy within the university organization.
foloseasc, cel puin la nivel minimal, calculatorul devin Currently, more and more people communicate online,
din ce n ce mai izolai. Spre exemplu: chiar dac nu-i and those, who are not able to use at least minimally
cunoti toi colegii din universitate, ai posibilitatea s computers, are becoming isolated. For example: even if
comunici cu ei prin Intranet, s te informezi despre you do not know all the university colleges, you have
mersul lucrurilor din site-ul personal al universitii sau the opportunity to communicate with them via Intranet
s consuli reviste de specialitate online de la cellalt to find out how things work from the website of the
capt al lumii, precum i s construieti sau s ntreii, university or consult the online journals on world wide
mult mai uor relaii cu colegi din alte universiti din countries, as well as make and maintain relationships
ar sau strintate. n prezent, aproape c nu mai exist more easily with many colleagues from other
conferin sau simpl comunicare care s nu aib o universities in the country or abroad etc. Currently
pagin web dedicat. there is not a conference or simple presentation that
n acest domeniu, Academia de Studii Economice would not have a website.
a realizat performane considerabile. Vom meniona In this field the Academy of Economic Studies
faptul c de serviciile Bibliotecii ASEM beneficiaz toi has achieved considerable performance. We mention
cei dornici de a consulta literatur din diverse domenii: that the ASEM Library offers services to all those
studeni, masteranzi, doctoranzi, profesori. De asemenea, eager to consult literature in various fields: students,
o noutate a fost i deschiderea Centrului Multimedia Master students, PhD students and lecturers. An
un complex informaional, care include documente innovation was also the inauguration of a new
electronice, multimedia, care sunt utilizate n scopuri Multimedia Center, an information complex, including
tiinifice, didactice i socio-culturale. electronic documents, multimedia, used for scientific,
Existena, pe lng ASEM a Complexului Sportiv educational and socio-cultural purposes.
este, de asemenea, un fapt benefic pentru cultura The AESM Sports Complex is also benefic for
organizaional din ASEM. Aici studenii, cadrele the organizational culture of AESM. Here students,
didactice i personalul auxiliar au posibilitatea s lecturers and staff have the opportunity to practice
frecventeze diferite secii sportive, s organizeze various sports, organize sports competitions. The chair
competiii sportive. Catedra Educaie fizic i Sport of Physical Training and Sports organizes every year
iniiaz n fiecare an Spartachiada ASEM competiie the AESM Sports Contest between lecturers from
ntre cadrele didactice de la diferite faculti, personalul different faculties, staff from various departments and
care activeaz n alte departamente i subdiviziuni. offices. It is worth mentioning that the students and
Merit s fie menionat i accesul gratuit al studenilor i staff have free access to the services of AESM
colaboratorilor ASEM la serviciile Centrului Curativ- Rehabilitation Centers. Also AESM students, personnel
Consultativ. Studenii, colaboratorii ASEM i copiii and their children have the possibility rest at a
acestora au posibilitatea de a se odihni cu pre redus la discounted price at the recreation facility Trandafir,
baza de odihn Trandafir, care aparine instituiei. which belongs to the institution.
Generaliznd cele expuse, constatm c la ASEM se Generalizing the above mentioned, we can
investete n tehnologie i, totodat, accesul la resursele state that the AESM invests in technology and at the
tehnice i materiale nu sunt un privilegiu doar al unora. same time, technical and material resources are not just
Dimpotriv, vom identifica aici o politic de acces la a privilege. Instead, we can find a policy of access to
resurse, bazat pe echitate i nu pe considerente elitiste. resources based on equity rather than elitist
n sprijinul celor sus-menionate, vorbesc i considerations.
rezultatele sondajului, unde studenii, n proporie de 81 As proof of the above mentioned serve the
la sut, afirm c bunele condiii materiale de care survey results where students, at a rate of 81 percent
dispune instituia sunt adecvate pentru procesul de studii, say that the institutions material conditions are
iar cu afirmaia despre accesibilitatea resurselor adequate for the educational process, and the statement
informaionale sunt de acord 91,4% din respondeni. about the accessibility of information resources agree
inndu-se cont de valorile promovate de ASEM, 91.4% of respondents.
a cror realizare efectiv se ncearc s se asigure, Taking into account the values promoted by
precum i de experiena internaional, Centrul Moldo- the AESM, which are really tried to be ensured, as well
American pentru Iniiativa Privat (MACIP), n as the international experience, Moldovan-American
colaborare cu studenii, profesorii i reprezentanii Center for Private Initiative (MACPI) in collaboration
administraiei ASEM, au elaborat Codul de Etic with students, lecturers and administration
Universitar al ASEM, care a fost aprobat la edina representatives developed a University Code of Ethics

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012 57


MANAGEMENT / MANAGEMENT

Senatului din 21 februarie 2007. La aceeai edin, a fost of ASEM, which was approved by the Senate on
constituit Comisia de Etic Universitar. Astfel,de la February 21st, 2007. At the same meeting was created
data adoptrii Codului de Etic Universitar, respectarea the University Ethics Committee. Thus, since the
principiilor acestuia devine obligatorie i, n contractul adoption of the University Code of Ethics the
individual de munc, respectiv, n contractul individual compliance with its principles become mandatory, also,
de studii, este inclus o clauz prin care angajatul sau the individual employment contract, respectively, the
studentul menioneaz c a luat cunotin de prevederile individual studies contract contains a clause that states
Codului de Etic Universitar i se angajeaz, sub that the employee or the student is aware of the
semntur proprie, s respecte prevederile acestuia. University Code of Ethics and confirm by their own
n ncercarea de a stabili att opinia cadrelor signature, to respect its provisions.
didactice, ct i pe cea a studenilor cu privire la Codul de In the attempt to determine the attitudes of
Etic al ASEM, n chestionarele propuse spre lecturers and students regarding the AESM Code of
completare, a fost inclus afirmaia: ASEM propune un Ethics, we included in the proposed questionnaire the
Cod de Etic puternic. statement: AESM offers a strong Code of Ethics.

45 ASEM propune
45 un cod de etica
40
40 36 puternic
35 29
30
25 20
Cadre didactice
15
20
Studenti
15
8
10
3 1 3
5
0
acord total acord neutru dezacord dezacord
partial partial total

Figura 2. Aprecierea de ctre respondeni a Codului de Etic al ASEM/


Figure 2. Assessment by respondents of the AESM Code of Ethics

Rezultatele analizei relev faptul c peste 80 la The analysis results show that 81% of the
sut din cadrele didactice care au fost chestionate i-au surveyed lecturers expressed agreement with this
exprimat acordul total sau parial cu aceast afirmaie, statement totally or partially. While the percentage
n timp ce procentul studenilor care i-au exprimat of students who expressed consent is only 60
acordul este de 60 la sut. Dei nu este un rezultat percent. Although it is not negative, it should be
negativ, totui acest fapt ar trebui s fie luat n taken into account by the institution management,
consideraie de ctre conducerea instituiei, n special especially by the faculties, since 29% have a neutral
a facultilor, din moment ce 29 la sut au o atitudine attitude towards the Code of Ethics. One of the
neutr fa de Codul de Etic. Una dintre cauze ar reasons could be that students are not familiar with
putea fi faptul c studenii nu sunt familiarizai cu it, as signing the Studies Contract is just a formality.
acesta, semnarea Contractului de Studii fiind o Any employee of the university, in order to
procedur formal. be accepted must comply with the legal framework
Orice angajat al universitii, pentru a fi imposed by it. From another perspective, an
acceptat, trebuie s se conformeze cadrului legislativ individual one, this adaptation has a personal touch,
impus de aceasta. Dintr-o alt perspectiv, related to a specific interpretation and adaptation of
individual, aceast adaptare nu este lipsit de o the individual, which over the time and constantly
nuan personal, de o interpretare i acomodare can be imprinted in organizational culture.
specific individului respectiv, care, n timp i prin Numerous studies have shown that the
constan se poate imprima n cultura organizaional. elements of national culture and, more recently, the
Numeroase studii au artat c elementele de globalization trend influence the organizational
cultur naional i, n special, actuala tendin de culture formation. University is an organization with
globalizare influeneaz formarea culturii a special social role: preparing the young generation
organizaionale. Universitatea este o organizaie cu un for active and creative insertion into society.
rol social deosebit de important: pregtirea tinerei National economic demand is echoed in university
generaii pentru o inserie activ i creatoare n organization, since the vast majority of university
societate. Cererea economic naional i gsete graduates tend to find employment in the country.

58 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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ecou n organizaia universitar, din moment ce marea AESM has imposed itself on the educational
majoritate a absolvenilor unei universiti tind s se services market. However, the local community and,
ncadreze n cmpul muncii din ar. ASEM s-a impus above all, employers recognize the AESM education
pe piaa serviciilor educaionale, cci comunitatea i, and training as one of quality. The national culture is
n primul rnd, angajatorii recunosc studiile i a powerful determinant of organizational culture,
pregtirea profesional a absolvenilor ASEM, ca fiind giving it a specific cultural heritage, unmistakable.
de calitate nalt. Cultura naional reprezint un At the same time, universities face a very important
determinant puternic al culturii organizaionale, social phenomenon - the globalization. However,
oferind acesteia o zestre cultural specific, globalization does not mean eliminating the national
inconfundabil. n acelai timp, universitile se or local specific, but considering multicultural
confrunt n prezent cu un fenomen social extrem de factors in building the culture of the organization.
important cel de globalizare. Totui, globalizarea nu Expectations and staff characteristics.
presupune eliminarea specificului naional sau local, A so-called psychological contract arises
ci considerarea unor factori multiculturali n between the organization and staff, which specifies
construirea sistemului cultural al organizaiei. formal and informal expectations and commitments
Ateptrile i caracteristicile personalului of the organization towards the employee and the
angajat. latter towards the organization. Since recruitment,
ntre organizaie i personalul angajat, se the employee knows the organizations requirements
ncheie un aa numit contract psihologic, care and offers and, according to them and his personal
specific ateptrile i angajamentele, formale i profile, accepts or not the integration into the
informale, ale organizaiei cu privire la angajat i cele organization. The eventually felt employee
ale acestuia din urm fa de organizaie. nc n satisfaction will later depend on the compatibility
timpul procedurilor de recrutare, angajatul ia between their personal expectations and
cunotin de cerinele i ofertele organizaiei i, n organizational demand, especially by respecting the
funcie de ele i de profilul su personal, accept sau original offer of the organization. Once contacting
nu integrarea n respectiva organizaie. Gradul de with the organization, the individual goes through a
satisfacie pe care l va resimi ulterior angajatul gradual process of socialization, consisting of three
depinde de compatibilitatea dintre propriile ateptri i stages: pre-arrival, meeting and metamorphosis (3,
oferta organizaional, mai cu seam de respectarea p 51). The pre-arrival stage reflects the actions
ofertei iniiale de ctre organizaie. Odat intrat n carried out by the individual before entering in
contact cu organizaia, individul trece printr-un proces connection with the organization, basically:
progresiv de socializare, format din trei etape: selection of job offers according to their own system
presosirea, ntlnirea i metamorfoza (3, p. 51). Etapa of values and preparation of contact with the
de presosire concretizeaz aciunile pe care individul organization. The meeting stage involves the
le realizeaz nainte de a intra n contact cu entering of the organizations new member and his
organizaia, practic: selecia ofertelor de munc n contact with its reality. At this time, takes place the
funcie de propriul sistem de valori i pregtirea confrontation of the two basic assumption systems,
contactului cu organizaia. Etapa de ntlnire values, norms and rules, of the individual and of the
presupune intrarea noului membru n organizaie i organization. Now, the newcomer faces a number of
contactul su cu atmosfera real din aceasta. n accommodation dilemmas that he will overcome at
momentul dat, are loc confruntarea celor dou sisteme the metamorphosis stage, when adapting to the
de presupoziii valori, norme i reguli de baz cel al formal and informal rules and requirements of
individului i cel al organizaiei. Noul venit se groups he contacts with, and is also accepted by
confrunt cu o serie de dileme de acomodare pe care them as one capable to carry out activities for which
le poate depi n etapa de metamorfoz, cnd se va he was hired.
adapta la regulile i cerinele grupurilor formale i Organizational culture is an important
informale cu care intr n contact i este, sau nu, framework showing the employee what is accepted
totodat, acceptat de acestea ca persoan capabil s-i and what is not in the given organization. The
ndeplineasc activitile pentru care a fot angajat. behavior of managers, colleagues, represents
Cultura organizaional reprezint un cadru significant milestones towards expectations a new
important care-i prefigureaz salariatului ce se admite employee has, as well as ideas, attitudes, which were
i ce nu se admite n organizaia respectiv. Modul de formally declared that should be followed (5 p
comportament al efilor, colegilor, reprezint repere 120). As I anticipated in other chapters,
substaniale, fa de care noul salariat i raporteaz organizational culture has both a formal, as well as
att propriile ateptri, ct i ideile, atitudinile ce i s- informal aspect; their convergence being important.
au declarat, n mod formal, c ar trebui urmate (5 p. If there appear major divergent elements between
120). Dar cum am menionat anterior, cultura the two cultural aspects, the employee will perceive
organizaional are att un aspect formal, ct i un the organizational environment as confused and

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aspect informal, important fiind ca acestea s fie conflicted and will easily adhere to the informal
convergente. Dac apar elemente de divergen majore aspect of culture. The employees of the organization,
ntre cele dou aspecte culturale, angajatul va percepe even if an academic one, can differentiate into
mediul organizaional ca pe unul confuz i conflictual various categories, depending on a number of
i va adera mai uor la aspectul informal al culturii. criteria as: age, sex, race, nationality, culture,
Personalul angajat ntr-o organizaie, fie ea i physical abilities, psychosocial features etc. Taking
universitar, se poate diferenia n diverse categorii, n into consideration the staff characteristics, we have
funcie de o serie de criterii ca: vrst, sex, ras, noticed the following aspects within the academia of
naionalitate, cultur, capaciti fizice, particulariti AESM:
psihosociale etc. Evalund aceste caracteristici ale - lecturing staff is relatively young,
personalului angajat, am observat n mediul exceeding 2/3 of the total number of
universitar din ASEM aspectele ce urmeaz: employees;
personalul didactic este relativ tnr, acesta
- generally, women are more numerous,
depind 2/3 din totalul angajailor;
representing about 2/3 of the total number
la nivel general, contingentul feminin este mai
of employees. Although, in terms of
numeros, femeile constituind cam 2/3 din
management positions, it is not strictly
numrul total de angajai. Dei, n ceea ce
observed, however, the number of women
privete posturile de conducere, aceast
who are in leadership positions is
proporie nu se respect ntocmai, totui
significant: two vice-rectors out of 4; 3
numrul femeilor care se afl la posturi de
deans out of 6; 9 out of 27 heads of chairs,
conducere este semnificativ: 2 prorectori din 4;
and the heads of other subdivisions are
3 decani din 6; 9 efi de catedr din 27, iar n
overwhelmingly women. We also notice
fruntea altor subdiviziuni, femeile predomin.
that the higher educational degrees
Putem observa, de asemenea, c n ce privete
(associate professor and professor) men are
deinerea gradelor didactice superioare
slightly more numerous;
(confereniar i profesor) brbaii sunt n numr
mai mare; - most lecturers are Romanian natives, not to
majoritatea cadrelor didactice sunt de neglect the number of other nationalities
naionalitate romn, dei nu este de neglijat (11%), which also prove some multicultural
nici numrul celor de alte etnii (11%), ceea ce aspects within the institution;
denot i unele aspecte multiculturale, prezente - lecturers who speak a foreign language,
n instituie; especially English (the younger ones, under
existena cadrelor didactice, care posed o 50 years) and French (especially the older
limb strin, n special engleza (profesorii: ones), since AESM offers studies in foreign
mai tineri de 50 de ani) i franceza (n special, languages at several specialties:
cei mai vrstnici), dat fiind faptul c ASEM International Economic Relations (English,
ofer studii la cteva specialiti n limbi de French); Tourism (English, French);
circulaie internaional: Relaii Economice Finance and Banking (English).
Internaionale (engleza, franceza); Turism - staff is attracted by a relative job security
(engleza, franceza); Finane i Bnci (engleza). and social status of university lecturer.
personalul este atras de o relativ siguran a The staff peculiarities influence the
locului de munc i de statutul social al posturii organization and its cultural formation. The
de cadru didactic universitar. existence of a multicultural environment within the
Particularitile personalului angajat are un organization becomes a more frequent reality and
impact pozitiv asupra organizaiei i asupra formrii only if it is properly exploited can be an
sale culturale. Existena unui mediu multicultural n organizational benefit; otherwise it can lead to
interiorul organizaiei devine o realitate tot mai internal tensions and a divergent organizational
frecvent i, numai dac este valorificat adecvat, culture. Building a strong organizational culture
aceast realitate poate deveni un plus organizaional. does not mean giving up to multicultural issues or
n caz contrar, poate duce la disensiuni interne i la o individual cultural elements, but recognizing core
cultur organizaional divergent. Construirea unei values of the organization (as shown in its vision
culturi organizaionale solide nu presupune renunarea and mission), along with harmonizing individual
la aspectele multiculturale sau la elementele culturale beliefs and values with those promoted by the
individuale, ci recunoaterea valorilor eseniale ale organization.
organizaiei (aa cum rezult din viziunea i misiunea The study allowed us to state that fact that
ei), odat cu armonizarea crezurilor i valorilor AESM is within the category of positive culture,
individuale cu cele promovate de organizaie. characterized by homogeneity of values, but also by
Studiul ne-a permis s afirmm c ASEM se

60 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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ncadreaz n categoria culturii pozitive, caracterizate awareness of the positive impact the values and
att prin omogenitatea valorilor, ct i prin norms have within an organization. Organizational
contientizarea impactului pozitiv pe care l au culture promoted within the institution is known and
valorile i normele ntr-o organizaie. Cultura understood by the employees, adhering to the
organizaional promovat n cadrul instituiei este institutions objectives and policies, showing
cunoscut, neleas i apreciat de ctre angajai, care loyalty.
ader la obiectivele i politicile ASEM, manifestnd
loialitate fa de aceasta.

Bibliografi:/Bibliography:

1. Belostecinic Gr. (coordonator). Istoria ASEM: 20 de ani de ascensiune, Editura ASEM, Chiinu,
2011.
2. Hofstede Geert. Managementul structurilor multiculturale, Editura Economic, Bucureti, 1996.
3. Ion Georgeta, Cultura organizaional universitar. O abordare etnografic, Editura Universitii
din Bucureti, Bucureti, 2008.
4. Ionescu Gheorghe, Dimensiunile culturale ale managementului, Editura Economic, Bucureti, 1996.
5. Nstase M. Cultura organizaional i managerial, Editura ASE, Bucureti, 2004.
6. Schein Edgar. Organisational culture and leadership, 1992.

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NVMNTUL VOCAIONAL: VOCATIONAL EDUCATION:


PROVOCRI I POSIBILITI DE CHALLENGES AND
REDRESARE OPPORTUNITIES FOR
RECOVERY
Conf. univ. dr. Aurelia TOMA;
Drd. Veronica MIDARI, ASEM Assoc. Prof., PhD Aurelia TOMSA;
PhD candidate Veronica MIDARI, AESM
Conform Raportului de Analiz a constrngerilor
n creterea economic din 2010,capitalul uman este i According to the Constraints to Economic Growth
rmne a fi principala resurs care ofer un avantaj Analysis Report from 2010, "human capital is and remains
comparativ Republicii Moldova. n afar de aceasta se to be the main resource that provides a comparative
consider c n Republica Moldova este for de munc advantage for Moldova". Besides, it is considered that in
mult, calificat i ieftin. Ct de fondat este aceast Moldova has skilled, cheap and a lot of labor force. How
prere, care este situaia n realitate? n proporie de 67% founded is this viewpoint, which is the case in reality? 67%
angajatorii consider c tinerii muncitori i specialitii of employer believes that young workers and specialists
angajai dup absolvire nu corespund cerinelor employed after graduation do not meet professional
profesionale. Necorelarea cantitativ se refer la faptul c requirements. The quantitative mismatch of labour force
numrul de absolveni calificai, pe domenii i specializri, formed in the vocation education system refers to the fact
nu reflect nevoile reale ale economiei, iar aspectul that the number of skilled graduates, by field and
calitativ se refer la gradul redus de satisfacie manifestat specialization do not reflect the real needs of the economy
de angajatori cu privire la competenele absolvenilor and qualitative mismatch aspect refers to the low degree of
nvmntului secundar profesional. Cauzele satisfaction expressed by employers about the skills of
necorespunderii forei de munc formate n nvmntul graduates of secondary vocational education. The causes of
secundar profesional cerinelor i rigorilor pieii comport mismatching the trained workforce in secondary vocational
un caracter dublu: de ordin economic i de ordin to the market demands and requirements bear a double
educaional. Reieind din situaia curent, se impune nature: economic and educational. Given the current
necesitatea realizrii anumitor msuri. Aceste msuri se situation, it is necessary to implement certain measures.
centreaz pe consolidarea dialogului social ntre sistemul These measures focus on strengthening social dialogue
educaional i lumea afacerilor, redresarea situaiei n between education and business, improving the situation in
cadrul nvmntului vocaional tehnic n baza unei technical vocational education on the basis of close
strnse interaciuni cu agenii economici, implementarea interaction with businesses, implementing reform measures
msurilor de reformare a nvmntului profesional related to vocational education standards, curriculum,
legate de standardele educaionale, curricul, practica de internship practice and implementation of changes
producere, precum i de modul de administrare a regarding administration of human, material and financial
resurselor umane, materiale, financiare. resources.
Conform Raportului de Analiz a constrngerilor n According to the Analysis Report on Economic
creterea economic1, capitalul uman este i rmne a fi Growth Constraints,1 human capital has been the main
principala resurs care ofer un avantaj comparativ resource that provides a comparative advantage to the
Republicii Moldova. Dar cum este valorificat capitalul Republic of Moldova. But how is the human capital
uman, cum se formeaz fora de munc? Exist o prere c valued, or how is the labor force formed? There is an
n Republica Moldova exist mult for de munc, ieftin opinion that the Republic of Moldova has plenty of
i calificat. Ct de fondat este aceast prere, care este skilled and cheap labor force. Is this opinion grounded,
situaia n realitate? n proporie de 67%, angajatorii which is the real situation? 67% of employers believe
consider c tinerii muncitori i specialitii angajai dup that young workers and the specialists employed after
absolvire nu corespund cerinelor profesionale. graduation do not meet the professional requirements.
Sistemul educaional din RM consum o bun parte On the other hand, the educational system in
din PIB. Ponderea cheltuielilor din PIB, aprobate pentru Moldova is one consuming a great part of GDP. The
educaie pe anul 2011, este de 8,37%1. n acest context, share of education expenditures approved for the 2011
Moldova se plaseaz naintea mai multor ri europene de of GDP is 8.37%1. In this context, Moldova ranks
dimensiuni similare. Relevant, n acest sens, este cazul before the European countries of similar size. Relevant
Estoniei, Irlandei, Lituaniei, Letoniei i Slovaciei, unde in this regard is the case of Estonia, Ireland, Lithuania,
cheltuielile pentru domeniul educaiei nu ating dect 5% Latvia and Slovakia, where the educational spending

1
http://www.minfin.md/ro/middlecost/CCTM2014/

62 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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din PIB. Cu alte cuvinte, n RM, ateptrile privind oferta are up to 5% of GDP. In other words, expectations
educaional trebuie s fie mari. Deci, racordarea regarding the educational offer are high. Therefore,
sistemului educaional la cerinele pieei de munc este adjustment of the national education system with the
crucial. Dac nu reuim s facem acest lucru, vom labor market requirements is crucial. If we fail to do
continua s sporim numrul omerilor i emigranilor, fr this, we will continue increasing the number of
a valorifica capacitile i posibilitile capitalului uman, unemployed and migrants without making use of the
precum i potenialul de creare a locurilor de munc pe human capital opportunities and capabilities, and the
piaa intern. potential of creating jobs on the local market.
Scopul articolului de fa este de a caracteriza In this context, the aim of this paper is to
relaia dintre nvmntul vocaional/tehnic, n special characterize the relationship between vocational/technical
nvmntul secundar profesional (ISP), i piaa muncii. education, especially of the secondary vocational
Obiectivele urmrite de autori sunt urmtoarele: education and the labor market. The objectives here are as
- de a oferi o scurt prezentare a sistemului de follows:
nvmnt secundar profesional; - to provide a brief overview of vocational
- de a elucida cauzele care au determinat secondary education system;
efectuarea schimbrilor din sistemul de - to elucidate the causes of changes in the
nvmnt secundar profesional; system of secondary vocational education;
- de a evidenia felul cum percepe piaa muncii - to highlight how labor market perceives the
oferta educaional a nvmntului secundar educational offer in secondary vocational
profesional; education;
- de a prezenta concluzii i propuneri pentru - to submit conclusions and proposals in order
sporirea sinergiei dintre nvmntul secundar to increase the synergy between secondary
profesional i piaa muncii. vocational education and labor market.
Formarea forei de munc, n cadrul sistemului The development of labor force within the
educaional, nu poate fi privit separat de situaia social- educational system can not be seen separately from the
economic a rii i de dinamica prin care a trecut socio-economic situation of the country and the
economia naional. Tranziia Republicii Moldova spre o dynamics our national economy went through.
economie de pia a fost marcat de o recesiune prelungit Moldovas transition to a market economy has been
i profund. Dei creterea a renceput n 2000, restabilirea marked by a prolonged and deep recession. Although
era mai slab dect n alte ri vecine, ceea ce a dus n growth resumed in 2000, the restoration was weaker
2005, la un PIB, de mai puin de jumtate din nivelul atins than in other neighboring countries, leading to a GDP
n 1980, aceasta fiind una dintre cele mai slabe in 2005 to less than half compared to the level reached
performane printre rile n tranziie enumerate de BERD. in 1980, as one of the worst performance among
Dac n perioada colapsului economic acut din perioada transition countries listed by EBRD. If during the acute
1992-1999, PIB-ul s-a redus cu aproape 60%, apoi, n economic collapse between the years 1992-1999, the
perioada 2000-2008, PIB-ul a nregistrat o cretere real de GDP fell by almost 60%, than during the period 2000-
circa 52%. ns economia Republicii Moldova s-a dovedit 2008, the GDP growth gained about 52%. But
a fi vulnerabil n faa crizei din anii 2008-2009. n termeni Moldovas economy proved to be vulnerable to the
reali, la sfritul anului 2009, PIB-ul s-a redus cu circa crisis of 2008-2009. In real terms, at the end of 2009,
6,5%, ns n 2010 acesta a fost n cretere cu 6,9% fa the GDP reduced by 6.5%, but in 2010 rose, in real
de anul 2009 i cu 64,8% fa de anul 2000, i n 2011 a terms, by 6.9% compared to 2009 and by 64.8%
nregistrat o cretere de 7,7%.1 compared to 2000, and in 2011 increased by 7.7%1.
Ca urmare a crizelor economice, srcia a crescut Following the economic crisis, poverty rose
dramatic n anii 1998-1999. Dei extinderea srciei a fost dramatically during 1998-1999. Although the
stopat, ntre localitile rurale i cele urbane exist expansion of poverty was stopped, there are substantial
diferene substaniale, lucru care determin accesul dificil differences between rural and urban areas, which cause
la studii. Astfel, n 2008, cele mai nalte rate ale srciei reduced access to education. Thus, in 2008 the highest
absolute (34,6%) au fost nregistrate n localitile rurale, rates of absolute poverty (34.6%) were recorded in
acestea fiind urmate de oraele mici (21,2%). n oraele rural areas, which were followed by small towns
mici, rata srciei absolute (10,9%) este aproape de dou (21.2%). In small towns the absolute poverty rate
ori mai mare dect cea din oraele mari. (10.9%) is almost twice higher than in cities.
nvmntul, n general, iar cel profesional, n General and particularly vocational education is an
special, reprezint un element indispensabil ce ar putea fi indispensable element that could be used to fight poverty
folosit pentru combaterea srciei i creterea economiei and support the national economy. It is worth mentioning
naionale. De menionat c, potrivit datelor furnizate de that, according to data from the Household Budget Survey
Cercetarea Bugetelor Gospodriilor Casnice n anul 2009, of 2009, the highest rate of absolute poverty (56%) was

1
Strategia consolidat de dezvoltare a nvmntului pentru anii 2011-2015, Chiinu 2010.

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cea mai nalt rat a srciei absolute (56%) se found in households headed by not literate persons or
nregistreaz n gospodriile conduse de persoane fr without primary education. For households headed by
tiin de carte sau fr studii primare. n cazul persons with primary or incomplete secondary education,
gospodriilor, conduse de persoane cu studii primare sau the absolute poverty rate is 24% and for households
medii incomplete, rata srciei absolute este de 24%, n cel headed by persons with secondary education or
al gospodriilor conduse de persoane cu studii medii specialized secondary education - by 43%, for households
generale sau medii de specialitate de 43%, iar n cazul headed by persons with higher education studies, the
gospodriilor capul familiei crora are studii superioare, absolute poverty rate is lower, decreasing up to the level
rata srciei absolute este cea mai mic, cobornd sub of 8%. The conclusion is obvious, if the head of a
nivelul de 8%. Concluzia este evident: cnd capul household has no education, the risk for the household to
familiei nu are studii, riscul gospodriei de a se confrunta face poverty is much higher.
cu srcia este mult mai mare. The Ministry of Education is fully involved in
Ministerul Educaiei este implicat plenar n the development of the Education Code, which
elaborarea Codului Educaiei, care prevede schimbri requires major changes in the current education
majore n sistemul educaional curent, ndreptate n special system, especially aimed at increasing access to
spre sporirea accesului la studii i racordarea la standardele education and adapting to European standards, as
europene, precum i ajustarea la necesitile well as, adjusting to socio-economic needs of the
socioeconomice ale rii. Reforma nvmntului country. Vocational education reform is on the
secundar profesional este prezent n agenda Guvernului, Government agenda but ways of reorganization
ns modalitile de reorganizare trebuie elaborate i testate should be developed and tested so that the change
n aa fel, ca schimbrile s produc efectul scontat. takes the desired effect.
Descrierea problemei existente n sistemul de Description of the problem existing in
nvmnt secundar profesional. secondary vocational education system
n contextul formrii profesionale iniiale, un In the context of initial training, an important
loc important l ocup nvmntul secundar place is occupied by secondary vocational education.
profesional. Conform noului Cod al Educaiei, acest According to the new Education Code this type of
tip de nvmnt va face parte din nvmntul education will be part of the vocational/technical
vocaional/tehnic. n momentul de fa, n RM education. Currently, in the RM work 75 state
funcioneaz 75 de instituii de stat de nvmnt institutions of secondary vocational education: 21
secundar profesional: 21 de coli de meserii, 52 de vocational schools, 52 professional schools and two
coli profesionale i 2 licee profesionale.1 Numrul de vocational high-schools. 1 The number of secondary
instituii de nvmnt secundar profesional a sczut vocational education institutions has decreased in
n ultimii ani, de la 114, n 1991, la 78, n 1996. recent years from 114 in 1991, falling dramatically to
Scderea drastic a numrului de instituii este nsoit 78 in 1996. The decrease in the number of institutions
i de scderea numrului de elevi, care s-a micorat de is accompanied by the decrease of the number of
trei ori n ultimii 10 ani. De remarcat c reducerea students, which reduced 3 times in the last 10 years. It
numrului de studeni din nvmntul secundar is worth mentioning that the reduction of the students
profesional s-a nregistrat pe fundalul unor alocri number of secondary professional schools has
financiare n permanent cretere, nregistrnd cele registered on a background of increasing financial
mai nalte cote per elev, comparativ cu alte niveluri de allocations, registering the highest rate per student,
nvmnt. Alocrile financiare per elev n ISP sunt compared to other levels of education. Financial
cu circa 15% mai mari dect n nvmntul mediu de allocations per student in secondary vocational
specialitate i cu 33,5% mai mari dect n education are about 15% higher than in professional
nvmntul superior. education and 33.5% greater than in higher education.
Cu toate c sistemul de nvmnt secundar Although the secondary vocational education
profesional ofer protecie social, indiferent de system provides welfare services such as scholarship
performanele academice, 18,9% din bugetul alocat regardless of academic performance, 18.9% of the
instituiilor este ndreptat spre oferirea de burse. Studenii institutions budget is directed to offering scholarships.
mai beneficiaz de subsidii substaniale (de 85 la sut), Students receive substantial subsidies, of 85 percent for
pentru cazarea n cmin, precum i pentru un prnz gratuit accommodation in dormitories, as well as one free
n fiecare zi. Astfel, costurile de susinere a unui student n meal a day. All these cause the highest subsistence
cadrul nvmntului secundar profesional sunt cele mai costs per student within the secondary vocational
ridicate. Practic, costul unui student din nvmntul education. Basically the cost of a student from
secundar profesional este cu 15% mai mare dect n vocational secondary education is 15% higher than in

1
http://statbank.statistica.md

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nvmntul mediu de specialitate i cu 33% mai mare professional secondary education and 33% higher than
dect n nvmntul superior. in higher education.
Cu toate acestea, stimulentele oferite de stat nu sunt However, the state incentives are not attractive
suficient de atractive pentru a menine studenii n acest enough to keep the students in educational system.
sistem educaional. Abandonul studiilor, n nvmntul Secondary vocational school dropout is a phenomenon
secundar profesional, este un fenomen care nu poate fi that can not be neglected. During the 2007-2008
neglijat. n anul de studii 2007-2008, rata abandonului n academic year, the dropout rate in vocational schools
colile de meserii a constituit 8,6%, iar n colile was 8.6%, and professional schools - 24.7%. The thing
profesionale 24,7%. Faptul c elevii abandoneaz hat students give up on their studies is determined by
studiile este determinat i de imaginea proast a the bad image of vocational secondary education, and
nvmntului secundar profesional, dar i de perspectiva the perspective of a modest salary at employment.
unui salariu modest la intrarea n cmpul muncii. The ratio of staff to students is 1 to 10. It is an
Raportul numeric dintre personal i elevi este de 1 advantageous ratio for the students who can benefit
la 10. Pare a fi un raport avantajos pentru elevi, care pot from individualized approach. In other words,
beneficia de o abordare individualizat. n alt ordine de specialized teachers, those who teach
idei, ns, corpul profesoral de profil, adic al celor care trades/professions have not received psycho-
predau meseriile/profesiile, nu a beneficiat de o instruire pedagogical training, which is reflected on the quality
psihopedagogic special, fapt care se rsfrnge negativ of teaching. They represent 45% from the total number
asupra calitii procesului de predare. Din numrul total de of teachers. The average age of teaching staff is 52
profesori, acetia formeaz 45%. Vrsta medie a years. And a great number of the teaching staff has
membrilor corpului didactic de profil este de 52 de ani. Iar never worked in real economy.
o bun parte dintre ei nu au lucrat niciodat n condiiile From the national economy perspective, the
economiei reale. studies and analyses on the labor market, performed at
Din perspectiva economiei naionale, studiile i the national level reveal a scarcity of skilled labor
analizele referitoare la piaa forei de munc, realizate la force. According to the national survey of Expert
nivel naional, relev problema deficitului de for de Group, about 67% of economic agents indicated that
munc. Conform datelor sondajului, realizat de Expert- the main problem they face is the lack of well-qualified
Grup, aproximativ 67% din agenii economici au indicat workforce. The same study also highlights an
c principala problem cu care se confrunt este lipsa interesting aspect, namely, the fact that the salary was
forei de nalt calificate. Acelai studiu scoate n eviden mentioned by only 25% of respondents as the main
nc un aspect interesant, i anume: faptul c nivelul de cause of personnel deficit within the company.1 The
salarizare a fost apreciat doar de 25% din respondeni ca main problem is that the RM has maintained a system
fiind principala cauz a deficitului de personal calificat n similar to that of 20 years ago in terms of skills and
cadrul ntreprinderii.1 Principala problem e c, n RM, se infrastructure, while the number of students has
menine un sistem nvechit, similar celui de acum 20 de decreased dramatically, and the labor market has
ani, n ce privete calificarea i infrastructura, n timp ce changed a lot. We are now in the situation when
numrul de elevi a sczut dramatic, iar piaa muncii s-a secondary vocational education produces labor force
schimbat foarte mult. Suntem astzi n situaia n care that does not meet the quality expectations of
nvmntul secundar profesional produce for de munc employees; we produce labor force in the fields that are
ce nu corespunde ateptrilor angajatorilor, i pentru not required in the labor market, contributing to
domenii care nu sunt cerute pe piaa muncii, contribuind unemployment rising, while required and future
astfel, la creterea omajului. qualifications have sufficient enrollment numbers.
Aadar, constatm problema necorespunderii forei Thus, we state a non-compliance problem of
de munc formate n cadrul nvmntului secundar labor force formed within secondary vocational
profesional cu rigorile pieei muncii, att din punct de education to the rigors of labor market, both,
vedere calitativ, ct i din punct de vedere cantitativ. qualitatively and quantitatively. Quantitative non-
Necorelarea cantitativ se refer la faptul c numrul de compliance refers to the fact that the number of skilled
absolveni calificai, pe domenii i specializri, nu reflect graduates, by field and specialization, does not reflect
nevoile reale ale economiei, iar aspectul calitativ se refer the real needs of the economy and the qualitative
la gradul redus de satisfacie, manifestat de ctre angajatori aspect refers to the low degree of satisfaction expressed
privind competenele absolvenilor nvmntului by employers regarding the skills of graduates of
secundar profesional. secondary vocational education.
Cauzele necorespunderii forei de munc, pregtit The causes of this non-compliance of labor force
de nvmntul secundar profesional, cerinelor i formed by secondary vocational education with the
rigorilor pieei comport un caracter dublu: un set de cauze market demands and requirements have a double

1
Analiza relaiei dintre dezvoltarea capitalului uman i echitate n Republica Moldova, raport pe ar, ETF,
Expert- grup, 2010

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are caracter economic, al doilea set de cauze are caracter nature: a set of causes is of economic nature, the
educaional. second set is of educational nature.
Setul de cauze ce ine de economia Republicii The set of causes related to Moldovas economy
Moldova const n: trecerea de la economia planificat la o consists of: transition from planned economy to market
economie de pia, deficienele de prognozare a forei de economy, labor forecasting deficiencies, absence of
munc, inexistena unor direcii prioritare clare de clear priority directions of economic development
dezvoltare economic, ce necesit o anumit calificare de which require specific skills, lack of communication
munc, deficitul de comunicare dintre solicitantul si between employee and employer, lack of interaction
ofertantul forei de munc, lipsa mecanismelor de mechanisms between educational system and economic
interaciune a sistemului educaional cu reprezentanii agents, lack of occupational standards and National
agenilor economici, lipsa standardelor ocupaionale i a Qualifications Nomenclature.
Nomenclatorului Naional al Calificrilor. The set of causes related to educational system
Setul de cauze ce ine de sistemul educaional consists of: insufficient professional training of
const n: insuficiena de pregtire profesional a teachers, especially those who teach
personalului didactic, n special a celui care pred trades/professions, lack of a testing system and
meseriile/specialitile, inexistena sistemului de verificare quality assurance process management based on
i asigurare a calitii, managementul bazat pe proces, nu performance rather than on management, outdated
pe performane, managementul depit al resurselor umane management of human resources regarding selection
privind selectarea i angajarea, cheltuielile nejustificate de and employment, unjustified expenditures of
ntreinere a infrastructurii masive, finanarea n baza infrastructure maintenance, funding with spending of
cheltuielilor fcute n anii precedeni, imposibilitatea previous years, inability to use special means at
folosirii mijloacelor speciale la discreia administraiei. administration discretion.
Sectorul economic este indicatorul de baz privind The economic sector is the basic indicator of
situaia din domeniu. 66,7% din companii menioneaz c the situation in the field. 66.7% of companies point
se confrunt cu problema lipsei forei de munc calificate1, out that they face the problem of lack of skilled
ntreprinderile solicit un nivel mai nalt de profesionalism labor1, companies require a higher level of
sau competene specifice din partea lucrtorilor. Cea mai professionalism and or specific skills from
mare ngrijorare a agenilor economici o provoac employees. The greatest concern of economic agents
decalajul semnificativ dintre necesitile lor i cunotinele is significant gap between the needs and the
profesionale slabe ale absolvenilor instituiilor de professional knowledge of graduates of secondary
nvmnt secundar profesional. Multe coli profesionale vocational education. Many vocational schools
pregtesc specialiti n meserii/profesii care nu sunt prepare trades/professions that are not in demand on
solicitate pe piaa muncii sau, dac i sunt solicitate, the labor market or if demanded they require a
acestea necesit un alt set de abiliti profesionale. different set of skills.
Programele educaionale nu sunt orientate spre Educational programs are aimed at developing
dezvoltarea adaptabiliti tinerilor specialiti muncitori la young workers adaptability to the conditions of the
condiiile companiei. Astfel, tinerii nutresc sperane, care company. Thus, young people have expectations that
ulterior nu sunt confirmate de realitatea din cmpul are not confirmed by the reality of the labor market,
muncii, fapt ce duce la fluctuaia sporit de personal, la leading to increased staff fluctuations in enterprises.
nivel de ntreprinderi. Pe de o parte, este nemulumit i On the one hand, we have the worker discontent that he
tnrul care nu poate face fa cerinelor, pe de alt parte can not meet the requirements, on the other hand, we
i patronul, care nu beneficiaz de randamentul scontat al have the owner who is not receiving the expected
resurselor umane angajate. E alarmant i faptul c tinerii performance from the employed of human resources. It
absolveni nu dau dovad de devotament fa de locul de is alarming that young employees do not show
munc, opinie confirmat de 52,2% de companii devotion to work, as confirmed by 52.2% of
respondente2. ntreprinderile se confrunt cu o indiferen respondent companies2. Companies face a growing
tot mai mare fa de munc i o lips total de dorina de indifference towards work and a lack of willingness to
asumare a responsabilitilor. take on responsibilities.
Pentru absolvenii nvmntului secundar For secondary vocational education graduates
profesional, problema omajului este mai acut dect unemployment problem is more acute than for those
pentru cei care au absolvit nvmntul mediu de who have completed specialized secondary education
specialitate sau cel superior. Cota primilor n structura or higher education. Their share in the unemployment

1
Relaiile de munc n Republica Moldova din perspectiva companiilor, realizat de PNUD i Guvernul
Belgiei
2
ibidem

66 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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omajului, n 20101, a ajuns la 28%. structure reached 28% in 20101.


Tinerii care achiziioneaz abiliti profesionale Young people acquiring a high level of
solide nu sunt satisfcui de nivelul de salarizare, de professional skills are not satisfied with the level of
condiiile de munc, i migreaz n statele cu un nivel mai payment, working conditions and migrate to countries
nalt de trai. Emigrarea forei de munc devine o problem with a higher level of living. Labor migration becomes
din ce n ce mai serioas pentru Republica Moldova. Acest a problem getting more serious for the Republic of
fenomen, conjugat cu prognoza demografic nefavorabil, Moldova. This phenomenon, together with unfavorable
vine s conteste mitul precum c n R.Moldova fora de demographic forecast comes contests the myth that
munc este mult, calificat i ieftin. n consecin, pe Moldova has plenty of skilled and cheap labor force.
piaa muncii, se observ un dezechilibru substanial ntre Consequently, the labor market shows a substantial
cerere i ofert, precum i un mare deficit de for de imbalance between supply and demand, as well as a
munc calificat. deficit of qualified labor force.
Avnd n vedere tot setul de cauze ale problemei, Taking into account the whole set of causes of
trebuie s decidem ce ne propunem pentru viitor? the given problem we must decide what we plan for the
Documentele politicii guvernamentale promoveaz ideea future? Government policies promote the idea of
schimbrii lucrurilor i readaptrii la noua realitate changing and conforming to the reality. Thus, the
existent. Aadar, Republica Moldova i dorete Republic of Moldova wants reorganization of
reorganizarea nvmntului secundar profesional i secondary vocational education and creation of a
crearea unui sistem de nvmnt vocaional/tehnic, care system of vocational/technical education that correlates
realizeaz corelarea calificrilor oferite de acest tip de the technical/ vocational qualifications of education to
nvmntul cu nevoile pieei muncii, prin adaptarea the labor market needs by adapting the educational
ofertei educaionale i creterea calitii procesului de offer and increasing the quality of training.
formare profesional. How can we produce change? What is necessary
Cum se poate produce schimbarea? Ce trebuie to do? Given the current situation, it is necessary to
ntreprins? Pornind de la situaia actual, se impune perform certain measures. These include:
necesitatea realizrii anumitor msuri. Printre acestea - Strengthening the social dialogue between
se numr: economic agents, employers associations,
- Consolidarea dialogului social dintre agenii trade unions, educational system by
economici, patronate, sindicate, sistemul developing some interaction mechanisms that
educaional, prin crearea unor mecanisme de would allow permanent communication;
interaciuni, ce ar permite o permanent - Developing occupational in partnership with
comunicare; economic agents, validated by specialized
- Elaborarea standardelor ocupaionale, n bodies responsible for ensuring a single
parteneriat cu agenii economici, validate de platform between economic agents and
organele specializate, competente, pentru educational system;
asigurarea unei puni-platforme unice ntre - Developing educational standards based on
agenii economici i sistemul educaional; occupational ones and adjusting on their basis
- Elaborarea, n baza standardelor the curriculum in secondary vocational
ocupaionale, a standardelor educaionale i education;
ajustarea, n baza lor, a curriculumului din - Developing the National Qualifications
nvmntul secundar profesional; Framework for trades/professions, whose
- Elaborarea Cadrului Naional al Calificrilor training takes place in secondary vocational
pentru meserii/profesii, care sunt formate n education;
cadrul nvmntului secundar profesional; - Analyzing and taking positive experiences of
- Analiza i preluarea experienelor pozitive countries with high performances in
ale rilor cu performane nalte n vocational/technical education;
nvmntul vocaional/tehnic; - Optimizing and rationalizing the network of
- Optimizarea i raionalizarea reelei secondary vocational education institutions
instituiilor de nvmnt secundar creating centers of excellence specialized in
profesional i crearea centrelor de excelen, sectors of national economy;
specializate n ramurile economiei naionale; - Implementing some effective educational
- Implementarea unor modele eficiente de management models, developed on the basis
management educaional n baza programelor of institutional development programs;
de dezvoltare instituional; - Promoting local partnerships between

1
IDIS Viitorul, Educaia vocaional la rscruce: o analiz a deciziilor de politici n sistemul nvmntului
mediu de specialitate n RM, Sergiu Lipceanu, 2011. Calculat dup ediiile periodice ale Anuarului Statistic al
Republicii Moldova 2002-2010, Educaia n Moldova, Chiinu 2010

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- Realizarea parteneriatelor, la nivel local, dintre vocational/technical institutions and local


instituiile de nvmnt vocaional/tehnic i leaders, economic agents, local public
comunicate, liderii locali, agenii economici, administration;
administraia public local; - Implementing interactive teaching models and
- Introducerea unor modele de predare interactiv elements of dual education for enhancing
i a elementelor de nvmnt dual pentru learning of curriculum and acquiring
sporirea gradului de nsuire a curriculei i professional skills;
achiziionarea abilitilor profesionale; - Establishing some functional vocational
- Instituirea pe lng instituiile de nvmnt guiding services within educational
(universiti, colegii, coli profesionale, coli de institutions (universities, colleges, vocational
cultur general) a unor servicii funcionale de schools, general education school);
orientare profesional; - Ensuring flexibility of labor force by
- Flexibilizarea forei de munc, prin sporirea increasing participation in continuous
participrii la formarea profesional continu. professional training.
Toate aceste msuri au ca scop realizarea sinergiei All these measures are aimed at achieving
dintre lumea afacerilor i sistemul educaional. Beneficiile synergy between business and educational system. The
acestor schimbri trebuie s produc efecte benefice att benefits of these changes should take effect for the
asupra economiei naionale, ct i asupra sistemului national economy and educational system. Nowadays
educaional. n prezent, calitatea capitalului uman este o human capital quality is a major constraint for the
constrngere major pentru creterea economic a RM. De economic growth of RM, so that the educational
aceea sistemul educaional trebuie s se reformeze ntr-o system must be reformed, in order to train skilled labor
aa msur, ca s poat forma o for de munc de nalt force, able to meet the needs of the economy and
calificare, capabil s corespund necesitilor economiei employers.
naionale.

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ABORDRI ALE GESTIUNII CORPORATE MANAGEMENT


CORPORATIVE N CONDIII DE APPROACHES IN CERTAINTY /
CERTITUDINE/ UNCERTAINTY CONDITIONS ON
INCERTITUDINE N MEDIUL THE PRODUCTIVE AND
PRODUCTIV-ECONOMIC ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
Prof. univ. dr. hab. Petru Ion ROCA, Dr.Hab., Professor Petru Ion ROCA,
ULIM Chiinu ULIM, Chisinau
Drd. Maria GF-DEAC, ULIM, PhD. candidate Maria GF-DEAC, ULIM,
Bucureti Bucuresti
Pentru a lua o decizie pe baz de matrice, este In order to take a decision based on matrix
dezvoltat contextul corporativ al rezultatelor variantelor elements is developed a corporate context of results
conexe, care ine seama de situaia economic a related by variants, which takes into account the
mediului productiv-economic i social. Articolul se economic state of the economic-productive and social
refer la Arborii de decizie, folosii n procesul environment. The article deals decision trees used in
decizional pentru managementul corporativ, prin the decision-making process for corporate
examinarea mediului corporativ compus. Exemplele management, on examining the composed corporate
utilizate evideniaz variantele decizionale puternic environment. The used examples give the alternatives
i/sau slab operaionale ori semioperaionale, n regim for strong decision making and weak semi-operational
corporativ, pe baza unui criteriu de optim. and/or operational/half-operational in corporate
Cuvinte-cheie: certitudine, incertitudine, management regime, based on optimality criterion.
gestiune corporativ, arbori decizionali, management. Key-words: certainty, uncertainty, corporate
management, decision trees, management
Arborii decizionali n procesul de gestiune
corporativ. n procesul de gestiune corporativ, n Decision trees in the corporate management.
intreprinderile moderne, dac se recurge la If decision trees are used to formalize the choice trees
formalizarea arborilor de alegere, se procedeaz la is necessary in the corporate management process of
descrierea i cercetarea variantelor de aciune posibile, modern enterprises, to describe and research the
fr a folosi criterii la luarea deciziilor [6, p. 287-296]. possible variants of action without the use of criteria in
n esen, un arbore decizional precizeaz natura i making decisions [6, p.287-296]. First of all, a decision
consecinele ce decurg din asumarea (alegerea) unei tree specifies the nature and the consequences of taking
variante posibile (figura 1). (choosing) a possible variant. (figure 1).

7 8 9 V(I)
4
2
5 6 10 11 V(II)

13 15 16 V(III)

3 12
17 18 V(IV)

0 1 2 3 4 5 (t) timp/
time
Figura 1. Grafic al arborelui decizional pentru un numr de 4 variante/
Figure 1. Graph of the decision tree for a total of four variants [V(I) V(IV)]
(Sursa/Source: autorii/authors)

De regul, la o firm se studiaz mai multe Typically, a company is studying several ways
variante de investiii, pli, producie .a., lund n of investments, payments, production, etc. taking into
consideraie o anumit stabilitate a mediului economic account a certain stability to external economic

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exterior, situaie n care decizia (alegerea unei environment, in which case the decision (choosing a
variante) este luat n condiii de cvasicertitudine. variant) taking on quasi-certainty conditions.
Frecvent, pentru calculele economice (ale celor Frequently, an economic calculation (of the four
patru variante, n exemplul din figura 1), se realizeaz variants, for example in figure 1) estimates updated
estimrile actualizate ale beneficiilor cu o cot de benefits, which are achieved with a predetermined
actualizare prestabilit sau corectat n timp. Varianta discount rate or corrected in time. Version that
care ofer efectul economic maxim este aleas pentru provides maximum economic effect is chosen for
aplicare. implementation.
Dup caz, pe parcursul derulrii procesului real, Where appropriate, during the course of actual
arborele decizional poate dobndi ramificaii extinse trial decision tree can acquire extensive ramifications
[1, p. 65-75]. [1, p. 65-75]
Pentru a lua o decizie, n context corporativ, se To take a decision, in corporate context, is
elaboreaz matricea rezultatelor aferente variantelor, developed a results, matrix of related variants, which
n care se ine seama i de strile mediului economic take into account economic and environmental
(corecii). conditions (corrections).
Luarea deciziilor prin examinarea Decisions by composed examination method
compus a mediului corporativ. Managerii of the corporate environment. Individual or
individuali sau colectivi trebuie s in seama de collective managers must take into account the wide
gama larg a factorilor caracteristici de mediu range of environmental factors for the characteristics
pentru fenomene i de parametrii proceselor asupra phenomena and parameters process on which decisions
crora se iau decizii ce se presupun a fi aplicate n are made, which are assumed to be applied in the
regim corporativ. corporate system.
De aceea, examinarea unilateral sau singular a Therefore, a single side examination maintain
unei situaii menine calitatea deciziei la un nivel the quality of decision situations at a incomplete level
insuficient de relevan [7, p. 102-107]. of relevance [7, p. 102-107].
Compunerea condiiilor i consecinelor Composing conditions and consequences are
reprezint calea mai obiectivat de luare a deciziilor n way under objective decision making on corporate
regim corporativ. Se disting urmtoarele aliniamente regime.
de compunere: Alignments are distinguished following
dup mediul ambiant (decizii n condiii de composition:
risc, de incertitudine sau certitudine); by the environment (decision under risk,
dup orizontul de timp (decizii curente, uncertainty or certainty);
tactice, strategice); by the time horizon (current, tactical,
dup natura decidentului (decizii strategic decisions);
unipersonale sau de grup);
by decision-maker nature (single-or group
dup periodicitate (decizii unice sau
decisions);
repetitive, care, la rndul lor, pot fi
periodice sau aleatorii); by periodicity (single or repetitive
dup numrul de criterii (unicriteriale sau decisions, which in turn can be periodic or
multicriteriale). random);
Examinarea compus conduce la posibila by the number of criteria (unicriteriale or
evaluare a triei deciziei n mediul corporativ. multicriteria).
Astfel, o decizie poate fi nestructurat (cnd Composed examination leads to possible
elementele iniiale de compunere decizional se compound of the strength decision in the corporate
supun modelrii) sau structurat (cnd deja este environment.
ntlnit formalizarea pentru operaionalizare) Thus, a decision may be unstructured (the
(figura 2) elements composing the initial decision is subject of
Operaionalizarea n regim corporativ modeling) or structured (it is already common for
conduce la decizii (figura 3) ce pot fi caracterizate operationalization/formalization) (figure 2).
astfel: Operational issues under corporate method lead
puternice (de exemplu: deciziile de to some decisions (figure 3) characterized as follows
efectuare a unor pli); strong (eg. decisions payments making)
semioperaionale (de exemplu: decizii semi-operational (eg. decisions on human
privind gestiunea personalului); resources management)
slabe (de exemplu: decizii privind weak (eg. decisions on human resources
recrutarea personalului). recruitment).

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By
By
By
By By

Figura 2. Tipologia deciziilor i luarea acestora prin examinare compus/


Figure 2. Making decisions and their typology by examining compound

Decizie
nestructurat/
Modelare/
Unstructured
Modeling
decision

Puternice/ Ex.: pli/


Strong Eg: payments

Decizie structurat/ Formalizare pentru Ex.: gestiunea


operaionalizare/ Semi-operaionale/ personalului/
structured decision Eg: personal
Formalization for the Semioperational
operationalization management

Slabe/ Ex.: recrutarea


personalului/
Weak Eg: recruitment

Figura 3. Exemplificarea deciziilor puternice, semioperaionale i slabe n regim corporativ/


Figure 3. Decisions exemplifying strong, weak and semi-operational issues in corporate regime
Sursa/Source: autorii/authors

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ntre deciziile structurate i cele nestructurate nu Between structured and unstructured decisions
se manifest separaii excesive sau delimitri perfecte. are not observed excessive boundaries or perfect
Decizii luate n condiii de incertitudine separation.
corporativ. Incertitudinea reprezint situaia n care Corporate decisions taken under uncertainty.
rezultatele unei decizii nu sunt sigure, iar rezultatele Uncertainty is a situation where a decision results are
acoper un numr de variante (alternative) posibile. not reliable and the results cover a number of variants
n cazul incertitudinii nu se cunoate probabilitatea (alternative) possible.
fiecrei alternative posibile. In uncertainty regime is not known the
Orice situaie de incertitudine poate fi transformat probability of each possible alternative.
ntr-una de risc, atunci cnd acesteia i se asociaz Any uncertainty can be transformed into a risk,
probabiliti subiective, aferente alternativelor posibile. when it is associated with subjective probabilities, for
Decizia n condiii de incertitudine corporativ alternatives.
este adoptat de manager atunci cnd acesta nu dispune Decision under uncertainty corporate is adopted
de informaiile corespunztoare pentru a stabili, cel puin by manager when it does not have adequate
pe baze statistice, probabilitile de realizare (apariie) a information to determine, at least on a statistical
strilor mediului ambiant firmei. Variabilele controlabile probability of occurrence (occurrence) in the state of
i mai ales cele necontrolabile sunt examinate ntr-o the environment business. Controllable variables and
msur mai redus [3, p. 129-138]. uncontrollable are especially considered a lesser extent
Ca atare, aciunile ajung la rezultate specifice [3, p. 129-138].
dintr-un ansamblu de rezultate posibile, ns ele au As such, the issues reach specific results of a set
probabiliti necuantificate, necunoscute. of possible outcomes, but they have unknown
Decizia n condiii de incertitudine se bazeaz quantifiable probabilities.
metodologic pe ntocmirea unei matrice a utilitilor Decision under uncertainty is based on
corespunztoare strilor posibile ale mediului ambiant methodology of drawing up a matrix of possible states
Anumite criterii i reguli formalizeaz decizia n corresponding utility environment.
condiii de incertitudine, atunci cnd acestea sunt Some criteria and rules formalize decision under
flexibile i reprezentative ca aplicare pentru situaii uncertainty, when they are flexible and representative
particulare, specifice. Dintre acestea, amintim criteriul of the application to particular/ specific situations.
decizional al raionalitii insuficiente; al regretelor; Among these are included insufficient rationality
criteriul decizional optimist i cel pesimist decision, the regrets, optimistic and pessimistic
Aplicnd criteriile de mai sus (care nu sunt decision criterion.
limitative), se obine o mulime finit de soluii din care Applying the above criteria (not exhaustive), we
trebuie aleas una, considerat convenabil. Metodele de obtain a finite set of solutions from which must be
alegere a soluiei convenional convenabile se bazeaz pe chosen only one considered convenient. Conventional
alocarea unui numr de puncte (ponderi de importan) solution methods suitable choice of the allocation is
fiecrei variante. based on a number of points (importance weights) for
nsumnd numerele locurilor ocupate n each variant.
ierarhizare, n cadrul fiecrui criteriu, este reinut Summing the numbers of levels occupied in the
alternativa cu numrul nsumat de puncte cel mai redus. hierarchy within each criterion is chosen alternative
Apoi decidentul stabilete unul sau mai multe elemente with the lowest number of points totaled. Then be
care influeneaz fundamental decizia respectiv determined by the decider one or more elements that
Aadar, incertitudinea exprim starea de influence fundamental decision.
nesiguran pentru viitor, din cauza caracterului Therefore, uncertainty expresses insecurity about
impredictibil a unui proces de management corporativ the future, due to unpredictable nature of a corporate
sau cunotinelor insuficiente de organizare i conducere management process or because of insufficient
ntr-o anumit perioad. knowledge of organization and management at a time.
n context, incertitudinea se refer la nesigurana In this context, uncertainty refers to insecurity of
obinerii rezultatelor n urma unor aciuni manageriale. obtaining results from management actions.
Riscul pur reprezint o situaie managerial Pure risk management is a purely accidental
accidental i se refer la probabilitatea ca subiectul statement and refers to the probability of losing
managerial s piard. Riscul speculativ se refer la faptul managerial issue. Speculative risk refers to the fact that
c managerii au posibilitatea att de a pierde, ct i de a managers are able to both lose and to win. Innovative
ctiga. Riscul inovativ se refer la profitul risk management refers to income that must recover
managementului care trebuie s recupereze unele aciuni some action and successful [2, p. 234-265].
i au succesul scontat [2, p. 234-265]. At the macroeconomic level it manifests other
La nivel macroeconomic, se manifest i alte risk categories such as:
categorii de risc, precum: social risk, is contingency caused major
riscul social, provocat de evenimente sociale social events that influence (induce

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majore, care influeneaz (induc perturbaii) disturbances) management;


managementul; political risk caused by prominent political
riscul politic, determinat de evenimente events that affect society and the
politice marcante, care afecteaz societatea i environment overall economic productivity;
mediul productiv-economic n ansamblu; economic risk as a result of economic
riscul economic, ca rezultat al dezechilibrelor imbalances that changes attitudes and
economice, care modific atitudinile i actions of management.
aciunile manageriale. Open macroeconomic and country risk occurs
La nivel macroeconomic, se manifest celor i political or economic relevance
riscul de ar (de natur politic sau economic) Corporate management by pessimistic
Gestiunea corporativ prin abordarea addressing. This is the largest choice of minimum
pesimist. Aceasta const n alegerea celei mai mari performance
dintre performanele minime. Criterion is considered to be pessimistic. It is
Criteriul este considerat pesimist, fiind utilizat n used when selecting an acceptable choice in terms of
alegerea unei variante acceptabile n perioada de aplicare the corporate management application through all
managerial corporativ, trecnd prin toate strile de states of the estimated average [4, p. 210-221].
mediu estimate [4, p. 210-221]. It is selecting the lowest performance of each
Cu ajutorul unui criteriu tehnic, se aleg cele mai variable by the technical criterion and choose from
mici performane ale fiecrei variante, selectndu-se din among by the largest mini-max criterion.
rndul acestora cea mai mare, pe baza criteriului mini- Corporate management by optimality
max. tracking. The multitude of choices made for different
Gestiunea corporativ prin urmrirea streams of activities in a firm offers quantified
optimalitii. Multitudinea de variante formulate pentru economic effects (minimum or maximum) under
diferite fluxuri de activiti n cadrul unei firme, n regim corporate state. The results are arranged in matrix
corporativ, ofer cuantificarea efectelor economice (minim External economic environment of the company
sau maxim). Rezultatele calculelor sunt aezate matricial. is related by projections or state programs. For S1 state
Pentru mediul economic exterior al firmei se emit is given p1 probability of occurrence/event, and p2
proiecii sau programe de stare. Pentru o stare S1 se probability are for S2 state
acord o probabilitate p1 de apariie/manifestare, iar Generalizing, for Si states is given pi occurrence
pentru o stare S2 o probabilitate p2. Generaliznd, pentru probability (figure 4).
strile Si se acord probabilitile de apariie pi (figura 4).

8 9 V(I) (p1)
2 3

1
6 V(II) (p2)

4 V(III) (p3)
7
V(IV) (p4)
5
V(V) (p5)

0 1 3 4 5 [t]

(t) timp/
time

Figura 4. Graficul arborelui de decizie n condiii de acordare a unor probabiliti


de manifestare a variantelor/
Figure 4. Decision tree graph in conditions for granting probability of event variants

Ssursa/ Source: autorii/authors

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Luarea n considerare a prognozei strilor Considering the future operating environment in


mediului n care se opereaz decizional, influeneaz which operate alternative decision, that give a
variantele considerate i, ca atare, probabilitile considered influence and offer the credibility of the
exprim nivelul credibilitii manifestrii unei variante
event probabilities for a variant or another alternative
sau a alteia (tabelul 1). (table 1).
Tabelul 1/Table 1
Matricea variantelor dup criteriul urmririi optimalitii/
Matrix tracking by optimality criterion variants

Variant/Stri
S1 (P1) S2 (P2) S3 (P3) (K).. Si (Pi)
Versions/States
V(I) r11 r12 r13 r1k r1i
V(II) r21 r22 r23 r2k r2i
V(III) r31 r32 r33 r3k r3i
V(IV) r41 r42 r43 r4k r4i
V(VI) r51 r52 r53 r5k r5i

Celor mai slabe performane se acord anumite The weakest performance is give some
posibiliti de ndeplinire subiectiv (realizare), astfel possibilities for subjective (achievement), so that:
nct:
p 1 + p2 = 1 (1) p 1 + p2 = 1 (1)

Realizarea unei variante (aplicaie) sau a alteia Achieving a variant or another (application) with
cu probabilitile p1 (favorabile) i p2 (nefavorabile) probability p1 (favorable) and p2 (bad), lead to certainty
conduce la certitudinea (de valoare 1) c, ntr-un fel (value 1) that manifest in one way or another
sau altul, se manifest minimizarea sau maximizarea minimization or maximization of results.
rezultatelor. Corporate management by group decisions.
Gestiunea corporativ prin decizii de grup. The corporate management of the most significant
n managementul corporativ al firmelor, ponderea cea share of firms (mostly, almost exclusively) is a group
mai semnificativ (majoritar, aproape exclusiv) o decision.
dein deciziile de grup. The motivation consideration in the extension
Motivaia extinderii deciziilor de grup rezid n group is on decision formulations by the participatory
extinderea formulelor participative de management extension management to ensure transposition of the
pentru asigurarea transpunerii n practica a principiilor principles and criteria of corporate behavior in
i criteriilor de comportament corporatist n organizare organization and management.
i conducere. Comparing noh single-member decisions, the
n raport cu deciziile unipersonale, complexity of group decisions is higher and corporate
complexitatea deciziilor de grup este mai ridicat i, streamlining decision is more difficult.
ca atare, raionalizarea decizional corporativ este In fact, a decision group should be reflected in
mai dificil application of all possible alternatives.If an alternative
n esen, o decizie de grup trebuie s se is preferred for a member of the group (log a scale
regseasc n aplicabilitate asupra tuturor climbing objective preferences) then it has to be
alternativelor posibile. Dac o alternativ este group decision, and must register a higher
preferat pentru un membru al grupului (nregistreaz placement on the scale corresponding to the hole
o urcare obiectiv pe scara preferinelor), atunci ea, group preference.
pentru a fi de grup, trebuie s nregistreze un For a finite number of possible alternatives that
plasament superior ca preferin pe scara aferent are placed in a classification matrix, decision group
ntregului grup. except the hierarchy by considering changes to a new
Pentru un numr finit de alternative posibile version.
care sunt aezate ntr-un clasament, decizia de grup Individual views and opinions are not excluded,
exclude modificarea ierarhiei prin luarea n since they are based on direct dependency of the
considerare a unei noi variante. Opiniile i prerile phenomenon, process, etc. of the decision-making
individuale nu sunt excluse, ntruct pe acestea se corporations. A group decision taking into account
bazeaz dependena direct a fenomenului, procesului (dependent) of individual opinions. Group decision
.a. de actul decizional corporativ. O decizie de grup rules as means to identify rational individual
ine seama (este dependent) de opiniile individuale. preferences leading to a process of" representative
Luarea unei decizii de grup semnific identificarea ordering" for the entire team, that induced corporate

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unor reguli ct mai raionale, care conduc preferinele behavior management.


individuale la un proces de ordonare reprezentativ It is real note that currently there is no rule of
pentru ntregul colectiv, fiind induse, ca atare, universal rationality, but rather uses the relative rules
comportamentul sau gestiunea corporativ. applied to certain specific conditions, need to take
Este veridic observaia c n prezent nu exist decisions aimed at the group. In fact, corporate
o regul de raionalitate universal, ci, mai degrab, se decision-taking behavior give a de-relative states of
apeleaz la reguli relative, aplicate n anumite condiii principles, rules, methods and techniques in business
concrete ce vizeaz necesitatea lurii deciziilor de management or general economic-productive
grup. n fapt, asumarea comportamentului decizional environment. Technical decisions by simple majority
corporatist de-relativeaz principiile, regulile, illustrate trends mentioned above.
metodele i tehnicile manageriale n ntreprinderi i n Considering that the smallest group consists of
mediul productiv-economic general. Tehnica lurii three individual decision makers (d1, d2, d3), meeting to
deciziilor cu ajutorul majoritii simple exemplific express each variant (single-member) (v1, v2 and v3,
tendinele observate i menionate mai sus. respectively), the final formula of choice aimed at
Considernd grupul cel mai mic format din 3 taking into account all correlated manner expressions
decideni (d1, d2, d3) individuali, reunii pentru a-i exprima made by them.
fiecare variant (unipersonal) (v1, v2 i respectiv v3), Expressed variants are ordered taking into
formula final de alegere vizeaz luarea n calcul, ntr-o account the relations arising in the preferences made by
manier corelat, a tuturor exprimrilor efectuate de acetia. comparison.
Variantele exprimate sunt ordonate innd Thus, a variant (v1) is preferred to (v2) twice, and
seama de raporturile aprute n baza preferinelor the version (v2) is preferred to (v1) once, which is
asumate prin comparaii. expressed by inequality (v1)> (v2).
Astfel, o variant (v1) este preferat lui (v2) de Next, (v2) is preferred to (v3) twice and (v3) is
dou ori, iar varianta (v2) este preferat lui (v1) o dat, preferred to (v2) once, is (v2)> (v3).
ceea ce se exprim prin inegalitatea (v1) > (v2). In the same context, (v3) is preferred to (v1)
n continuare, (v2) este preferat lui (v3) de dou ori, twice and (v1) is preferred to (v3) once, which means
iar (v3) este preferat lui (v2) o dat, adic (v2) > (v3). that (v3)> (v1).
n acelai context, (v3) este preferat lui (v1) de For system:
dou ori, iar (v1) este preferat lui (v3) o dat, ceea ce (v21>(v32
nseamn c (v3) > (v1). (v2)>(v3) (2)
Pentru sistemul: applying the transitivity rule, it follows that (v1)> (v3),
(v1) > (v2) which would be contrary to the conclusions of the third
(v2) > (v3) (2) (Condorcet paradox).
aplicnd regula tranzitivitii, rezult c (v1) > (v3), It concludes that the uncertainty and equally
ceea ce ar contraveni celei de-a treia concluzii certainty marked content, functions and responsibilities
(paradoxul Condorcet). of manager/management team in making corporate
Se deduce c incertitudinea i, n egal msur, decisions.
certitudinea marcheaz coninutul, funciile i
responsabilitile managerului/echipei manageriale n Conclusions
procesul de luare a deciziilor corporative. Within company are studied several types of
Concluzii investments, payments, production, etc.
ntr-o firm se studiaz mai multe variante taking into account a certain stability of
de investiii, pli, producie etc., lund n external economic environment, in which
considerare o anumit stabilitate a case the decision (choosing a variant) is in
mediului economic exterior, situaie n quasi-certainty conditions.
care decizia (alegerea unei variante) este Individual or collective managers must take
luat n condiii de cvasicertitudine. into account the wide range of
Managerii individuali sau colectivi trebuie s environmental factors for the
in seama de gama larg de factori de mediu characteristics phenomena and process
caracteristici pentru fenomene i de parametrii parameters on which decisions are made
proceselor asupra crora se iau decizii ce se which are assumed to be applied in the
presupun a fi aplicate n regim corporativ. corporate system.
Examinarea unilateral sau singular a Examination of a single sided maintain the
unei situaii menine calitatea deciziei la quality of decision situations at a level of
un nivel incomplet de relevan. incomplete relevance. Composing
Compunerea condiiilor i consecinelor conditions and consequences are way for
reprezint calea mai obiectivat. de luare decision making with a highest relevance

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a deciziilor n regim corporativ. corporate principle.


n raport cu deciziile unipersonale, Compared with single-member decisions,
complexitatea deciziilor de grup este mai the complexity of group decisions is higher
ridicat i, ca atare, raionalizarea and, as such, corporate streamlining
decizional corporativ este mai dificil. decision is more difficult. In fact, a decision
n esen, o decizie de grup trebuie s se group should be reflected in application of
regseasc n aplicabilitate asupra tuturor all possible alternatives.
alternativelor posibile.

Bibliografie/Bibliography:
1. Andrieu M. (colab.). Metode de decizii multicriteriale/ Multicriteria decision methods. Editura
Tehnic/ Technical Publishing House, Bucureti/Bucharest, 1996, (p.65-75)
2. Ceauu I. Dicionar Enciclopedic Managerial/Encyclopedic Dictionary of Management, vol. I-II.
Editura Academiei de Management/ Academy of Management, Bucureti/Bucharest, 2000, (p.234-
265)
3. Gf-Deac M. Management. Baze generale i legislative/ Management. General and legal bases.
Editura Fundaiei Romnia de Mine/ Publishing House Romania of Tomorrow Foundation,
Bucureti/Bucharest, 2003, (p.129-138)
4. Emory W., Niland P. Making Management Decisions, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1998, (p. 210-221)
5. Koen G., Morton S. Decision Support Systems, Addison Wesley, 1998, (p.112-115)
6. Roca P. .a. Argumentarea tiinific a deciziilor/ Scientific rationale decisions. Analele
Universitii Libere Internaionale din Moldova/ Annals of ULIM, Seria Economie/ Economics
Series, nr.7. Chiinu, 2008. 354p. (p.102-107)
7. Roca P. (cu coautori). Managementul decizional al firmei/ Company management's decision. Revista
tiinific Studii economice/ Scientific Journal Economic Studies, ULIM, 2008, nr.1-2. 452p.
(p.287-296)

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MODELE DE ASCENSIUNE N MODELS OF CAREER


CARIER CARACTERISTICE GROWTH SPECIFIC FOR THE
REPUBLICII MOLDOVA REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA
Drd. Dumitru SLONOVSCHI, Director PhD candidate Dumitru SLONOVSCHI,
general Magenta Consulting; general director;
Lucia CASAP, Cercettor principal Senior researcher Lucia CASAP, Magenta
Magenta Consulting; Consulting
Prof. univ. dr. hab. Anatol GREMALSCHI, Dr. Hab., Professor Anatol GREMALSCHI,
Director de programe la Institutul de Programme Director, Institute for Public
Politici Publice Policy
Acest articol reprezint o descriere a pieei forei The present article presents a description of the
de munc de conducere din R. Moldova i are drept leadership labor market in Republic of Moldova, and
scop relevarea caracteristicilor de evoluie pe scar aims at revealing the characteristics of the hierarchical
ierarhic a actualelor persoane din top managementul growth of the current top management from the largest
celor mai mari i mai cunoscute companii de pe and best-known companies across the country.
teritoriul rii. nelegerea i adaptarea Understanding and adjusting the behavior and the
comportamentului i structurii pieei forei de munc de structure of the leadership labor market would
conducere ar contribui la dezvoltarea companiilor i, contribute to the development of the companies, and
implicit, a economiei rii. n prezentul articol, sunt hence to the national economy itself. This article
analizate datele biografice ale angajailor de top din comprises the analysis of the biographical data of top
cele mai mari i notorii companii din Republica employees hired at the largest and best-known
Moldova, care au fost colectate pe o perioad de trei companies from Moldova. The data have been
ani, prin intermediul interviurilor fa n fa i din collected over a period of 3 years, by means of face-to-
resursele internet. n total, au fost colectate date despre face interviews, as well as internet resources. Per total,
angajaii a 249 de companii i, implicit, 340 de there have been gathered data on the employees of 249
persoane cu grad de conducere din cadrul acestora companies, namely 340 people from top-management
(Administratori, Manageri i Directori). Rezultatele positions (administrators, managers and executives).
studiului relev prezena, ntr-o proporie The results of the study show there is a significant
semnificativ, a persoanelor care au un model share of people which have a nontraditional model of
netradiional de ascensiune n carier, fiind direct career growth, achieving leading positions straight
ncadrai n funcii de conducere sau avnd o from the junior level. This fact influences the behavior
ascensiune direct de la angajai simpli la directori, of entrepreneurs on the market, as well as the overall
fapt care se reflect asupra comportamentului agenilor economic results of the country.
economici pe pia i, concomitent, asupra rezultatelor Key-words: leadership labor market, Republic of
economice ale rii, per ansamblu. Moldova, models of hierarchical growth.
Cuvinte-cheie: piaa forei de munc de
conducere, R. Moldova, modele de ascensiune Introduction
ierarhic. The labor force at managerial level represents an
important engine of the economy of each country, as
Introducere well as of the world economy overall. The human
Fora de munc de nivel managerial este un resource is currently being shaped as the most valuable
important motor al economiei fiecrei ri, dar i a asset of a territory, of a geographical space etc.,
economiei mondiale la nivel global. Resursa uman se particularly during the era of globalization, during the
instituie actualmente, n era globalizrii, dar i a celei 4th revolution in the history of the civilization - the
de-a patra revoluii din istoria civilizaiei, revoluia technological one. Being the only asset with depository
informatic, n cea mai valoroas avuie a unui capacity, it carries in itself the most important principle
teritoriu, a unui spaiu geografic dat. Ea poart cu sine, of development - innovation, without which
fiind singura depozitar, cel mai important principiu al competitiveness today is inconceivable. Furthermore,
dezvoltrii, i anume, inovarea fr de care this resource is being transformed into the main vector
competitivitatea actual este de neconceput. Mai mult, of innovations diffusion over a broad territory, which
ea se transform i n principalul vector al difuziei is most advanced structurally and functionally.1
inovrii ntr-un teritoriu ct mai larg i mai complex An evaluation of the characteristics and of the
structural i funcional.1 potential of this labor force segment allows identifying

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O evaluare a caracteristicilor i potenialului the driving forces of the economy and facilitates
acestui segment din piaa forei de munc permite employers' choice of suitable people in managing
identificarea forelor motrice ale economiei i positions.
faciliteaz alegerea angajatorilor a persoanelor In the case of Moldova, the major impediment
potrivite pentru un post de conducere. for the recruitment of qualified personnel is the lack of
Pentru Moldova, un impediment major n a recruiting management system, as well as the
angajarea unui personal calificat l constituie lipsa migration abroad of talented staff.
unor sisteme de management n recrutare, dar i Economically talking, the central role of
migrarea peste hotare a personalului talentat. migration is evidenced by the fact that almost 20% of
n domeniul economic, rolul central al the active population works abroad the country,
emigraiei este demonstrat de faptul c aproape 20% particularly as the revenues transferred by these
din populaia activ lucreaz n afara granielor rii, migrant workers during the 2005 year were equivalent
iar veniturile transferate de muncitorii emigrani n to 30% of the GDP. According to the share in the GDP
2005 au echivalat cu 30% din PIB. Dup ponderea n of the revenues transferred by the citizens working
PIB a veniturilor provenite din activitatea cetenilor abroad, Moldova is ranked second in the world.2
plecai peste hotare, Republica Moldova ocup locul In these circumstances, the external mobility
doi n lume.2 (employees' frequency of changing hiring companies)
n aceste condiii, mobilitatea extern (frecvena becomes an important mechanism for the reallocation
de schimbare a companiilor de ctre un angajat), of managerial resources suitable for the large and
devine un important mecanism de realocare a medium-sized companies in Republic of Moldova,
resurselor manageriale potrivite companiilor mari i companies which are significantly fewer in number if
medii din Republica Moldova, care sunt ntr-un numr compared to the small and micro-sized ones.
semnificativ mai mic, comparativ cu companiile mici Analysis of the external mobility of managerial
i micro. employees allows creating the profiles of top
Analiza mobilitii externe a personalului employees by types of companies, thus contributing to
managerial permite realizarea unor profiluri a the possibility of selecting the best candidates for the
angajailor de top, pe tipuri de companii, astfel, leading positions.
contribuind la posibilitatea de selectare a celor mai At the same time, lack of researches in the field
potrivite persoane n funciile de conducere. of human resource' management in Republic of
Totodat, lipsa unor cercetri n domeniul Moldova, studies which would reveal the models of
managementului resurselor umane n Republica hierarchical growth, the characteristics of the emergent
Moldova, care ar releva modelele de ascensiune pe top-management, as well as their comparison with the
scar ierarhic, trsturile caracteristice top developed markets, represents a barrier to the
managementului existent i compararea acestora cu development of the inland economy (through the
pieele dezvoltate, instituie o barier de evoluie a reorganization of existing companies).
economiei din interior (prin intermediul reorganizrii Considering these global phenomena, University
companiilor existente). of St. Gallen in Switzerland has initiated an
Considernd aceste fenomene la nivel mondial, international project in Switzerland, Albania, Romania
University of St. Gallen din Elveia a iniiat un proiect and Moldova. Within the project "Empirical study of
internaional n Elveia, Albania, Romnia i the leadership labor force in the Republic of Moldova",
Moldova. n cadrul proiectului Studiu empiric al initiated by the University of St. Gallen and
pieei forei de munc de conducere n Republica accomplished by the Institute for Public Policy and
Moldova, iniiat de University of St. Gallen din Magenta Consulting, an assessment of the top-
Elveia i realizat de Institutul de Politici Publice i management employed at the largest and best-known
Magenta Consulting, a fost efectuat o evaluare a companies in Moldova was made.
angajailor din Top Managementul celor mai mari i The study reveals the behavioral characteristics
notorii companii din Republica Moldova. with regards to the hierarchical growth of managerial
Studiul relev caracteristicile comportamentale employees currently hired at the largest and best-
n ceea ce privete ascensiunea pe scar ierarhic a known companies in the country.
personalului managerial ncadrat la moment n cele An overview on these inter-dependencies, as
mai mari i mai cunoscute companii din Republica well as a deeper understanding of the behavior of
Moldova. management staff, would allow HR managers and
O privire asupra acestor interdependene, ct i business owners to establish strategies for attracting
o nelegere mai profund a modului comportamental and keeping staff at this hierarchical level, and also
a personalului managerial, permite managerilor HR i would allow them to forecast the behavior of their
proprietarilor de companii s stabileasc strategii de employees.
atragere i meninere a personalului de la aceast scar Besides presenting general behavioral models,
ierarhic, dar i s prognozeze n timp the study also analyzes the inter-dependency of these

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comportamentul angajailor si. models with demographic factors or structures of


Pe lng prezentarea unor modele generale de companies, providing a broader view over the
comportament, studiul analizeaz i interdependena researched topics.
acestora cu factorii demografici sau structurile The article is structured as follows: first of all are
companiilor, oferind un tablou complex asupra analyzed data regarding the carrier growth, number of
subiectelor cercetate. companies for which the employee has worked and the
Articolul este structurat dup cum urmeaz: demographic data or structure of the company.
pentru nceput sunt analizate datele cu referire la Following, are formulated hypotheses based on the
modul de ascensiune n carier, numrul de companii correlations of the mentioned indicators (age or sex of
n care angajatul a activat i datele demografice sau de respondent and number of companies in which s/he
structur a companiilor, se formuleaz ipotezele was hired, model of career growth). Below are
pornind de la corelarea indicatorilor menionai cu presented the data and the methods used within the
referire la existena legturilor dintre vrsta sau sexul study, followed by a presentation of the data. Finally,
angajatului de top i numrul de companii n care a the conclusions and the applications of the research are
activat sau modul cum a trecut de la o treapt put forward.
ierarhic, la alta. n continuare, sunt descrise datele i Theories and Hypotheses
metodele utilizate n studiu, urmate de o prezentare a The labor market is characterized by two forms
datelor. n cele din urm, sunt descrise concluziile i of employees' mobility: internal (within the same
aplicaiile studiului. company) and external (between different companies).
Teorii i Ipoteze According to Andreea Rus, in her paper "French
Pentru piaa muncii sunt caracteristice dou labor market" within the project "New methods of
forme de mobilitate a angajailor: intern (n cadrul analysis and diagnosis of the labor market" was
aceleiai ntreprinderi) i extern (ntre companii). mentioned that in terms of mobility there are
Potrivit Andreei Rus, n cadrul proiectului Noi differences based on the size of the enterprise, area of
metode de analiz i diagnostic a pieei muncii, n activity or features of the labor provider. Mobility of
lucrarea sa Piaa Muncii n Frana: n ceea ce employees records higher values in small and medium-
privete mobilitatea, se remarc diferene n funcie de sized companies. At the same time, internal mobility
mrimea ntreprinderii, de sectorul de activitate sau de reaches lower levels in small companies, while in
caracteristicile ofertantului de munc. Mobilitatea larger ones it is significantly higher. In conclusion
angajailor este mai ridicat n cadrul ntreprinderilor could be stated, similarly to what T. Amosse
mici i mijlocii. Pe de alt parte, mobilitatea intern mentioned (2003), that large businesses have
este slab n cadrul ntreprinderilor mici i sensibil established dynamic internal markets (existence of
mai ridicat n cadrul ntreprinderilor mari. n protected mobility, attracts employees by offering them
concluzie, putem afirma, aa cum o face T. Amosse job security and career growth perspectives).
(2003), faptul c marile ntreprinderi au constituite Additionally could be concluded that employees of
piee interne dinamice (existena acestei mobiliti small-sized businesses are trying to fight against a
protejate atrage salariaii, oferindu-le sigurana locului precarious workplace, searching for a job in large
de munc i perspective de carier). Putem companies. Once they achieve their objective, they try
concluziona faptul c salariaii micilor ntreprinderilor to stabilize their position and even improve it. These
ncearc s lupte mpotriva unui loc de munc precar, statements are backed by the high rates of external
cutnd s munceasc n cadrul marilor ntreprinderi. mobility: in small enterprises the employment-
Odat ce obiectivul lor este atins, ei tind s pstreze unemployment rate is increased, while in large
aceast situaie i chiar s o amelioreze. Aceste fapte companies the values of this indicator is much lower.3
sunt susinute de ctre ratele de mobilitate extern: loc Worth noting is the fact that these findings are
de munc-omaj crescute n cadrul micilor applicable for the employees of all levels, particularly
ntreprinderi i mult mai slabe n cadrul in France. Therefore, the objective to confirm or
ntreprinderilor mari.3 De remarcat este faptul c invalidate these phenomena for the top employees of
aceste constatri sunt pentru angajaii de toate Republic of Moldova was established.
nivelurile i, n special, sunt aplicabile pentru angajaii Hypothesis 1: The first hypothesis assumes the
din Frana. Prin urmare, n continuare se urmrete existence of an inter-dependence between the sex of the
confirmarea sau infirmarea acestor fenomene i pentru top manager and the length of employment in a
angajaii de top din Moldova. company.
Ipoteza1: Prima ipotez formulat const n Thus, it is assumed that women tend to stay in a
existena unor interdependene ntre sexul top company longer than men do. This assumption is based
managerului i durata de activitate ntr-o companie. on particular social, as well as psychological aspects.
Astfel, se presupune c femeile au tendina de a Among the social aspects was referred to the period of
sta ntr-o companie mai mult timp dect brbaii. La maternity, which leads to the detention of women in
baza acestei ipoteze sunt aspectele sociale considerate, particular positions longer periods of time. Although it

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dar i cele psihologice. Aspectele sociale considerate might be considered that because women don't
includ perioada de maternitate, care determin represent the main source of income for the family,
reinerea femeii ntr-o anumit poziie o perioad mai they have the option to change their job without
lung de timp. Dei ar putea fi considerat faptul c worrying about the impact on the family income;
femeile, nefiind sursa principal a veniturilor, au however, due to the economy in transition, women'
posibilitatea s-i schimba locul de munc, fr a fi income tends to constitute a rather significant share in
ngrijorate de influena acestui fapt asupra veniturilor the total revenues. Viewing the issue under a different
familiei, totui, economia n tranziie face ca venitul aspect, it may be stated that because women are
femeii n familie s constituie o cot important a permanently in search of stability, they are less likely
surselor de existen. Sub un alt aspect cercetat, to risk by changing jobs.
femeile sunt n permanent cutare de stabilitate, prin Hypothesis 2: The second hypothesis is related
urmare, mai rar risc s-i schimbe locul de munc. to the fact that in large companies the career growth is
Ipoteza2: A doua ipotez este legat de faptul more difficult and follows a traditional pattern
c, n companiile mari, ascensiunea n carier este (employee - top-manager - board).
mai dificil i are o form tradiional (Angajat Top Considering the great number of employees in
management Conductor). large companies it takes considerable competitive
Considernd numrul mai mare de angajai, n effort to grow hierarchically. At the same time, large-
companiile mari este nevoie de eforturi considerabile sized companies comprise several levels, which
de concuren pentru ascensiunea pe scar ierarhic. suppose that the employee has to get through many
Totodat, structurile mari conin mai multe trepte, fapt more professional stages. It is to note the fact that in
care implic trecerea prin mai multe niveluri. De small companies, employees with managerial abilities
menionat este i faptul c, n companiile mici, are noticed much easier, which makes their ascent
persoanele cu abiliti manageriale sunt mai uor de faster, without having to pass through all the formative
remarcat, fapt care permite ascensiunea ntr-un mod levels.
rapid i fr a trece prin toate verigile formatoare. Data and Methods
Date i metode For the purposes of the research "Empirical
n scopul realizrii cercetrii Studiu empiric al study of the leadership labor force in the Republic of
pieei forei de munc de conducere n Republica Moldova", the biographical data of top employees from
Moldova, pe durata a trei ani, au fost colectate, prin largest and best-known Moldavian companies have
intermediul interviurilor fa n fa sau din resursele been collected, over a period of 3 years, either via face-
internet, datele biografice ale angajailor de top din cele to-face interviews or from internet. During the first
mai mari i notorii companii din Republica Moldova. La stage of the research, a sample of 400 enterprises was
prima etap a studiului, au fost selectate 400 de selected, distributed representatively via all fields of
companii, distribuite reprezentativ pe domenii de activity, according to the National Classification of
activitate, n conformitate cu clasificatorul Biroului Business Activities in Republic of Moldova. The top of
Naional de Statistic din Republica Moldova. Numele most known companies was determined based on the
acestor companii au fost determinate n baza cercetrilor previous researches of Magenta Consulting, during
anterioare realizate de compania Magenta Consulting, n which people indicated 3 most known companies per
care persoanele au indicat cte trei cele mai cunoscute field of activity. At this stage, a total of 190 CVs were
companii pe domenii de activitate. La aceast etap au collected. Given the absence of a national database
fost colectate 190 de CV-uri. Din lips de date statistice with data about the board members of each company,
privind angajaii din top managementul companiilor, n the CVs have mainly been collected via face-to-face
cele mai multe cazuri, datele au fost colectate prin interviews. In most cases, only one CV was possible to
intermediul interviurilor fa n fa. La fel, de cele mai be filled in per company, in majority of cases this
multe ori, a fost completat cte un singur CV per belonging either to the general director or to the
companie, respondentul fiind n majoritatea cazurilor executive director of the enterprise. A considerable
directorul sau directorul executiv al companiei. O barier obstacle in the collection of CVs constituted the lack of
semnificativ n colectarea datelor a constituit-o att lipsa statistical data, as well as respondents' lack of
datelor statistice, ct i lipsa receptivitii respondenilor, receptivity, the main argument being their fear of
acetia invocnd frica de a pierde angajaii valoroi. losing valuable employees.
La cea de-a doua etap a proiectului, n scopul During the second stage of the project, in order to
asigurrii comparabilitii datelor la nivel internaional, de la ensure comparability of data collected at international level,
Biroul Naional de Statistic au fost solicitate datele privind Magenta Consulting resorted to the data bank of the National
150 cele mai mari companii din Republica Moldova. Din Bureau of Statistics, which offered information on the top
aceast list au fost excluse 27 de companii care aparineau 150 companies from Republic of Moldova. Of these 150
nemijlocit statului (acestea fiind influenate n decizii i companies, 27 were excluded from the list, given the fact that
activitatea sa, de politicile guvernrii). La aceast etap au these are state enterprises (the decisions and actions of which
fost colectate 45 de CV-uri. n scopul sporiri irului de date, are influenced by the state policies). At this stage a total of 45

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lista celor mai mari companii a fost extins pn la 400, iar CVs were gathered. In order to increase the volume of
la numrul de companii din baza de date s-au mai adugat collected data, it was decided in favor of extending the list of
31 de entiti economice. companies up to 400. Thus, to the database of companies,
ntr-un final, au fost obinute datele de la 249 de other 31 legal entities have been added.
companii i au fost colectate informaii despre 340 de Finally, data on 249 companies were obtained,
angajai Administratori, Manageri i Directori. the information being collected on 340 employees:
Distribuia persoanelor conform funciilor executiv administrators, managers and executives. The
i non-executiv, este de 95% la 5%, n cel de-al distribution of people according to executive and non-
doilea grup fiind incluse att persoanele fr putere de executive positions is of 95% to 5%, the second group
decizie, dar cu funcii de conducere, ct i persoanele includes and people without power of decision, but on
care nu au funcii executive, dar au putere de decizie leading positions, and employees which don't hold
(proprietarii companiilor). executive positions, but have power of decision
Variabile (business owners).
Variabile dependente Variables
Variabilele dependente utilizate n acest studiu Dependent variables
sunt: tipul carierei, numrul de companii n care a The dependent variables used within the study
lucrat angajatul, durata medie de lucru ntr-o are: type of career, number of companies for which the
companie, numrul de ani lucrai n total, numrul de employee worked, average length of years worked at a
companii strine n care a activat. company, number of years worked in total, number of
Variabile independente foreign companies for which the respondent worked.
Variabilele independente, considerate la analiza Independent variables
datelor, sunt: vrsta angajatului i sexul. The independent variables used within the
Variabile de control analysis are: employees age and sex.
Drept variabil de control n cadrul studiului a fost Control variables
inclus dimensiunea companiei: companii mari 250 de The control variable used within the study was
angajai i mai mult, mijlocii 50-249 de angajai, mici the size of the company: large-sized companies 250+
10-49 de angajai, micro pn la 10 angajai. employees, medium-sized companies 50-249
Analiza datelor employees, small-sized ones 10-49 employees and
Iniial, datele au fost codificate corespunztor, iar micro enterprises up to 10 employees.
ulterior au fost analizate cu ajutorul pachetului statistic Data analysis
SPSS 18. De menionat este c, pentru analiza modelului Data were initially codified, then analyzed with
de ascensiune n carier, a fost creat modelul de evoluie the help of the statistical soft SPSS 18. It is to note the
pe scar ierarhic, codificat pentru fiecare individ i fact that for the analysis of the career growth model,
ulterior analizat. patterns of hierarchical growth were created, being
Astfel, au fost cercetate datele sub form de scal codified for each individual interviewed, and then
(durata de ani petrecut ntr-o companie), n funcie de analyzed.
variabilele dependente vrst, sex. n continuare, a fost Thus, the scale data (length in years spent at a
cercetat variabila ordinal modelul de evoluie, n company) were analyzed in correlation to the
funcie de variabilele dependente. Pe parcursul analizei dependent variables: age, sex. Following, the ordinal
datelor, au fost testate ipotezele stabilite, iar rezultatele variable - model of growth was analyzed in correlation
sunt descrise n continuare. to the dependent variables. In process of data analysis,
Rezultate the above mentioned hypotheses were tested, and the
n urma analizei datelor din punct de vedere results are described below.
demografic, s-a remarcat faptul c n rndul Results
angajailor de top sunt mai des brbai, fiind prezeni The analysis of the data revealed that from the
ntr-o pondere de 73%. Faptul dat poate fi influenat demographic perspective, among top employees are
de un ir de factori, precum statutul istoric al femeii encountered more men (73%). This distribution can be
n societate i n viaa economic, perioada de influenced by a range of factors, among which - historical
maternitate, dar i ali factori. status of women in society and in the economic life, the
Cei mai muli reprezentani din segmentul maternity period, as well as other factors.
analizat au vrsta cuprins ntre 30-40 de ani, aceasta Most representatives from the analyzed segment
fiind vrsta de autorealizare a persoanelor, vrst de are aged between 30 to 40 years, this being the age of
fructificare maxim a abilitilor, n care au fost self-accomplishments, the period for maximal
finalizate mai multe trepte ale educaiei, uneori fiind fructification of abilities, during which are ended
constituit o familie, fapt ce confer o stabilitate i several levels of education, and sometimes the period
posibilitatea de ascensiune n carier. during which a family is being constituted, fact which
Pentru a identifica modelul de ascensiune n ensures stability and possibility for career growth.
carier, au fost colectate date despre perioada de In order to identify the model for career growth,

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activitate n funcia de angajat simplu, urmat de data were collected regarding the length of periods
perioada n care respondenii au petrecut-o n funcii people spend in position of regular employees, then in
din top management i funcii de conducere. Cea mai top management, followed by board positions. On
lung durat medie de activitate a angajailor cu average, the longest length of activity of employees with
funcie de decizie din companii este anume n funcii power of decision within companies, is particularly
de conducere (7.3 ani). De cele mai multe ori, when they hold positions in the board (7.3 years). Most
personalul de conducere are o ascensiune rapid n often, employees have a quick ascent towards leading
funciile de conducere, cel mai puin rmnnd n positions, the lowest period of time people tend to hold
funciile de top management. Acest fapt poate fi top-management jobs. This can be explained by the fact
explicat prin aceea c n top management persoanele that while in top-management, people are fully able to
reuesc s i demonstreze cu adevrat capacitile demonstrate their abilities of administrators and are able
sale de administrator i s se evidenieze printre to get distinguished among their colleagues, thus
ceilali angajai, avansnd spre funcia de conducere. advancing towards board positions.

Conducere / Board
7.3
TMT / TopManagement
AngajaipreTMT / EmployeesbeforeTopManagement
4.3

5.6

Duratamedie,ani /
Averagelength,years
Figura 1. Numrul mediu de ani petrecui de actualii top manageri n diferite niveluri ierarhice
n companie, N=339, ani/
Figure 1: Average number of years spent by the actual top managers at different hierarchical levels
in company, N=339, years

Analiznd durata de activitate a respondenilor Analyzing respondents' length of activity at a


la un anumit nivel, a fost posibil crearea unei hri, certain level, it was possible to create a map describing
care descrie modul de ascensiune n carier. Sub the model of career growth, which graphically
form grafic, aceasta corespunde urmtoarei scheme: corresponds to the following scheme:
3 - Conducere/
Managerial level

3 Board
3 - Board
3
Nivel Managerial/
Managerial level

2 - TMT/
2 Top
Management
2

11
- Angajat pre-TMT/
Employees
1- beforeTop
Employees before Top
Management
Management
1

0
20.0 22.0 24.0 26.0 28.0 30.0 32.0 34.0
Vrsta/
Age
Age
Figura 2. Tipul modurilor de ascensiune n carier, N=339/
Figure 2. Type of career growth models, N=339

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n urma analizei datelor, a fost posibil gruparea The analysis of the data made it possible to
respondenilor n apte grupuri distincte, n funcie de group the respondents in 7 distinct groups, according to
modul de ascensiune n carier. Astfel, n tabelul de mai their model of career growth. Thus, the distribution per
jos, poate fi urmrit distribuia pe modele de ascensiune. models of growth can be visualized in the table below:

Tabelul 1/ Table 1
Distribuia top managerilor pe tipuri de ascensiune n carier, N=339, %/
Distribution of top managers according to the types of career growth models, N=339, %

Tipul ascensiunii n carier/ Modul de ascensiune/


%
Type of career growth Growth model
1 1 4
2 12 20
3 123 27
4 13 22
5 2 5
6 23 10
Total/ 100

* Nota: Nivel 1 administratori/* Note: Level 1 - administrators

Dup cum poate fi remarcat, modelul tradiional As one can notice, the traditional model of career
de ascensiune, de la simplu angajat la top management ascent - from employee to top management, then to
i, ulterior, la conducere, este cel mai frecvent ntlnit. board positions, is the most frequently encountered
Cu toate acestea, este important s remarcm ponderea one. However, it should be pointed on the share of
angajailor, care din nivelul inferior au urcat direct n employees which have ascended from the junior level
funcii de conducere (22%) i a celor care au fost straight to the board (22%), as well as the share of
angajai direct n funcii de conducere (12%). Ultima those hired directly on board positions (12%). The last
cifr se poate explica prin aceea c unele persoane, percentage can be explained by the fact that in some
dup finalizarea studiilor, decid s creeze o companie cases, people decide to start up a business immediately
i devin imediat persoane de conducere sau n cazul after graduating the university, or in case of family
afacerilor de familie, copiii preiau de pe bncile businesses, children take over board positions in
instituiilor de nvmnt funciile de conducere n parents' companies straight from university years.
companiile prinilor. Analyzing the number of companies in which
Analiznd numrul de companii n care au activated top managers, it was determined that this
activat top managerii, a fost identificat faptul c acest number ranges from 1 to 11, most being hired in 2-4
indicator variaz de la 1 la 11, cei mai muli fiind companies. The average length of employment within a
concentrai n intervalul 2-4 companii. Durata medie company is of 4.89 years. After testing the first
de angajare n cadrul unei companii a este de 4.89 ani. hypothesis the inter-dependence between the number
Testnd prima ipotez Dependena numrului de ani of years spent in a company and employees' gender, it
ntr-o companie i sexul angajatului, a fost identificat was determined there is no such a dependency
faptul c nu exist o dependen ntre aceste dou (R=0.11, sig.=0.839). Therefore the first hypothesis is
variabile (R=0.11, sig.=0.839). Prin urmare, ipoteza not supported by the data.
este fals. As well, there is no inter-dependence between
La fel, nu este o dependen ntre durata medie the average length of years of employment of top
de angajare ntr-o companie a top managementului i management and the size of the companies at which
dimensiunea companiilor n care acetia sunt they are hired (R=-0.57, sig.=0.295). However, it was
actualmente angajai (R=-0.57, sig.=0.295). Cu toate determined there is a significant correlation between
acestea, a fost identificat o corelaie semnificativ, the average length of employment at a company and
direct proporional ntre durata medie de activitate ntr- the model of hierarchical growth, which is directly
o companie i modelul de ascensiune n carier, adic, proportional, meaning that people who go through
pentru persoanele care trec prin mai multe trepte ale several steps of the hierarchical ladder, for them it's
scrii ierarhice este caracteristic o durat medie mai characteristic to have on average a reduced period of
redus de activitate ntr-o companie (R=0.319, activity within a company (R=0.319, sig.=0.000).
sig.=0.000). La fel, corelaie pozitiv a fost constatat i Similarly, positive correlation was determined also for
pentru ntreaga activitate n carier. n consecin, the entire career activity. It was proved that people
persoanele cu o experien mai mare s-au dovedit a fi with greater work experience are more stable at their

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mai stabile la locul de munc (R=0.518, sig.=0.000), workplace (R=0.518, sig.=0.000), this might be
acest fapt ar putea fi condiionat de evoluia lucrurilor conditioned by the evolution of things during Soviet
n perioada sovietic. O alt concluzie pentru datele Union times. Another conclusion for the found data
constatate, se rezum la faptul c, generaia nou este indicates on the fact that the new generation is more
mai agitat n activitatea sa profesional. O relaie hectic along their professional life. An inversely
invers proporional, semnificativ, a fost constatat proportional relationship, rather significant, was
pentru durata medie de ani lucrai ntr-o companie i determined for the average length of years worked in a
numrul total de companii n care persoana a activat company and the total number of companies at which
(R=-0.395, sig.=0.000). the person was hired (R=-0.395, sig.=0.000).
Considernd numrul de companii n care au Considering the number of companies at which
activat respondenii, a fost posibil de determinat faptul were employed the respondents, it was possible to
c ascensiunile cele mai fructuoase sunt n cazul determine that the most fruitful career ascent is taking
evoluiei carierei n 2-3 companii. Schimbarea locului place if switching 2-3 companies. Switching the
de munc n patru i mai multe companii aduc creteri workplace in 4 and more companies brings less
mai puin importante n carier. significant growth in career.

Tabelul 2/ Table 2
Distribuia top managerilor pe tipuri de ascensiune n carier i numrul de companii n care au
activat, N=339, %/
Distribution of top managers based on the types of career growth models and number of companies
for which they were, N=339, %

10 companies

11 companies
10 companii/

11 companii/
2 companies

3 companies

4 companies

5 companies

6 companies

7 companies

8 companies

9 companies
1 companie/

2 companii/

3 companii/

4 companii/

5 companii/

6 companii/

7 companii/

8 companii/

9 companii/
Timpul ascens
1 company

Modul de
n carier/
ascensiune/
Type of career
Growth model
growth
N=30 N=68 N=68 N=58 N=41 N=33 N=15 N=12 N=5 N=7 N=2
1 1 7 6 4 3 5 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 12 0 15 38 21 27 18 20 0 0 0 0

4 123 3 28 26 28 15 27 27 8 0 0 0

5 13 27 12 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3 2 0 0 15 28 37 52 53 92 80 100 100

6 23 3 18 10 12 15 3 0 0 0 0 0

7 3 60 22 6 5 2 0 0 0 20 0 0

Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Testarea statistic a datelor a indicat faptul c The statistical testing of the data indicates that
modelul de ascensiune n carier este dependent de the model of career ascent is dependent upon the size
dimensiunea companiei n care este angajat persoana, of the company in which the person is employed, the
legtura dintre acestea fiind invers proporional. Astfel, link between them being inversely proportional. Thus,
pentru angajaii de top din companiile de dimensiuni for the top managers from medium and large-sized
medii i mari este caracteristic o ascensiune mai dificil companies the ascent is more difficult than for the
dect pentru managerii din cadrul companiilor mici i managers from micro and small-sized enterprises (R=-
micro (R=-0.215, sig.=0.000). Acest fapt este condiionat 0.215, sig.=0.000). This is also conditioned by the
i de numrul de angajai care candideaz la postul de number of candidates applying for the leading position,
conducere, dar i de irul de criterii impuse pentru as well as by the range of criteria required for getting
ocuparea postului de conducere. Prin urmare, ipoteza a the job. Therefore, the second hypothesis was
doua a fost confirmat. confirmed.

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Tabelul 3/ Table 3
Distribuia top managerilor pe modele de ascensiune n carier i dimensiunea companiei
n care activeaz, N=339, %/
Distribution of top managers based on the model of career growth and size of company
at which is hired, N=339, %

Tipul
Modul
ascensiunii n Mijlocie/ Mare/
de ascensiune/ Micro/ Micro Mic/ Small
carier/Type of Mediun Large
Growth model
career growth
1 1 2 1 7 4
2 12 7 10 25 29
3 123 22 24 24 32
4 13 35 34 16 12
5 2 2 5 8 5
6 23 15 14 3 10
7 3 17 13 16 8
Total 100 100 100 100

n urma efecturii studiului, a fost identificat As result of the study it was concluded that
faptul c femeile au o ascensiune mai furtunoas pe women have a stormier ascent on the hierarchical
scara ierarhic a companiilor, ns, n mai multe career growth, however in many more cases they are
cazuri, rmn a fi blocate la nivelul de mijloc, fapt the ones who remain blocked at the middle level of the
confirmat i din punct de vedere statistic (R=0.195, career. The last affirmation was also confirmed
sig.=0.000). Astfel, distribuia modelelor de statistically (R=-0.263, sig.=0.000). Thus, the
ascensiune pe sexe este prezentat n urmtoarea distribution of models for career growth according to
imagine: the sex of respondent is presented in the figure below:

M1
Brbai,N=247 3 15 29 21 6 11 15 M12

Men,N=247 M123
M13

Femei,N=92 5 34 20 25 4 8 4 M2
Women,N=92 M23
M3
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Figura 3. Distribuia top managerilor pe modele de ascensiune n carier i sexe, %/


Figure 3. Distribution of top managers based on models of career growth and on sex, %

Un alt moment confirmat prin intermediul Another fact statistically confirmed is that for
testului statistic const n faptul c pentru companiile large-sized companies is more characteristic to hire
mari le este caracteristic, ntr-o pondere mai mare, people with experience in foreign companies (R=0.160,
prezena persoanelor cu experien n companiile sig.=0.003).
strine (R=0.160, sig.=0.003). A positive correlation was found between the
O corelaie pozitiv a fost identificat ntre size of the company and the number of companies at
dimensiunea companiei i numrul de companii n which the employee was hired (R=0.134, sig.=0.14).
care angajatul a lucrat (R=0.134, sig.=0.14). Astfel, n Thus, in large companies, in top management are hired
companiile mari, n top management, sunt ncadrate people which switched a greater number of companies,
persoane care au schimbat un numr mai mare de fact confirmed by the hypothesis. The stability
companii, fapt confirmat i de ipotez, prin characterizing small companies is explained
dificultatea de ascensiune n carier. Stabilitatea n particularly by company's internal environment, and
companiile mici este explicat, n special, prin mediul namely that employees of small enterprises are related

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intern al companiei, n care legturile stabilite nu sunt not only by professional ties, but also by personal ones.
doar de afaceri, dar i interpersonale. Faptul dat vine This fact comes in contradiction with the theory of T.
n contradicie cu teoria lui T. Amosse (2003), Amosse (2003), described at the beginning of this
descris la nceputul acestui capitol, i anume, faptul chapter, the fact that large enterprises have instituted
c marile ntreprinderi au constituite piee interne dynamic internal markets (existence of this protected
dinamice (existena acestei mobiliti protejate atrage mobility, attracts employees by offering them job
salariaii, oferindu-le sigurana locului de munc i security and career growth perspectives). However, this
perspective de carier). ns, aceasta se explic, de can find explanation in the characteristics of the
fapt, prin segmentul de angajai analizat, n cazul de segment analyzed - top management, segment which
fa fiind studiat top managementul, care are un has rather particular behavior.
comportament specific. Conclusions and applications of the research
Concluzii i aplicaii ale studiului In result of the data analysis, it was possible to
Astfel, analiznd datele, a fost posibil ascertain that among the top employees in Republic of
constatarea faptului c, n rndul angajailor de top din Moldova, there are more men than women. However,
Moldova, se regsesc mai muli brbai dect femei. Cu when correlating the average length of activity within a
toate acestea, atunci cnd se analizeaz durata medie de company and employees' sex, it was statistically
activitate ntr-o companie i sexul angajatului de top, proved that these two variables are not inter-dependent.
aceste dou variabile nu au demonstrat existena unei Considering the age of top managers, it was possible to
legturi. Considernd vrsta top managerilor, a fost affirm that young people have on average a shorter
posibil de constatat faptul c persoanele tinere au o length of employment within an enterprise. With the
durat medie mai mic de stagnare n cadrul unei above displayed data, it was possible to determine the
companii. Analiznd datele expuse, pot fi profilate dou profiles of 2 categories of employees: first are those
categorii de persoane: cele care au o ascensiune mai who have a more toilsome career ascent, however
anevoioas, dar ferm, trecnd prin toate nivelurilor rather firm, passing through all hierarchical levels of
ierarhice i avnd o durat medie mai mare de angajare professional growth and having on average a longer
ntr-o companie i angajai care au o ascensiune period of employment within a company, and the
furtunoas, trecnd peste anumite niveluri i avnd o second group is represented by those with a more
durat medie de angajare mai redus (n aceast stormy growth, passing over certain levels and having
categorie ncadrndu-se persoanele mai tinere). Cele on average a shorter employment period (particularly
mai fructuoase ascensiuni n carier sunt n cazul the younger people). The most fruitful career ascents
migrrii ntre 2-3 companii. Angajarea ntr-un numr take place while switching from 2 to 3 employers.
mai mare de 3 companii aduce cretere profesional, Employment in 3 and more companies does bring
ns mai puin considerabil. professional ascent, however not that considerable.
Totodat, pentru angajaii de top ncadrai At the same time, the top managers currently
actualmente n companiile mari i medii este employed at large and medium-sized companies follow
caracteristic o ascensiune tradiional i mai dificil a traditional pattern of ascent, which is more difficult,
pe scar ierarhic, comparativ cu managerii din if compared to the top managers of the micro and
companiile mici i micro. Pentru angajaii de top din small-sized entities. Top employees of large companies
companiile mari este caracteristic ntr-o pondere mai are characterized by a greater experience in foreign
mare experiena n companiile strine, dar i un numr enterprises, as well as by a greater number of
mai mari de companii n care au activat. companies-employers.
Formularea acestor concluzii, caracteristice Generating these conclusions characteristic for
pentru personalul managerial din Republica Moldova, the managerial employees of Republic of Moldova
contribuie la crearea profilelor angajailor de top i, contributes to the creation of top employees' profiles,
prin urmare, faciliteaz stabilirea unui tablou pentru thus it facilitates the establishment of a general image
persoanele corespunztoare la angajare. Acest articol for the desired staff. This article aims at creating the
vine ntru crearea suportului teoretic pentru angajaii theoretical support for the HR employees, for the
din HR, directori, dar i angajai, care i doresc o executives, and for the employees themselves who
ascensiune n carier i atingerea anumitor obiective want to achieve career growth and who want to attain
profesionale. particular professional objectives.
Fiind unul dintre puinele studii existente Being one of the few existing studies at national
actualmente la nivel naional cu referire la level regarding the behavior and characteristics of
comportamentul i caracteristica angajailor i chiar employees, and being the sole research focusing on the
unicul care conine informaie cu referire la personalul managerial employees evaluation, it constitutes a basis
managerial, acesta constituie o baz de formulare a for the formulation of individual strategies for natural
strategiilor individuale pentru persoane fizice n persons - as employees, for legal entities as
postur de angajai, persoane juridice n postur de employers or recruiting companies, as well as various
angajator sau companiile de recruting, dar i diverse state institutions in formulating strategies for the

86 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


MANAGEMENT / MANAGEMENT

instituii de stat n formularea strategiilor de development of economy, by shaping it at the level of


dezvoltare a economiei, prin modelarea economiei la the existing companies.
nivel de companii existente pe pia. The development of similar extensive studies,
Elaborarea unor studii similare extinse, crearea the establishment of public databases with reference to
unor baze de date publice cu referire la biografia the biography of employees from top management,
angajailor din top management ar contribui would all significantly contribute to the extension of
semnificativ la extinderea profilurilor create i, the created profiles, and implicitly would contribute to
implicit, formularea unor strategii bine definite la the creation of well-defined strategies at company
nivel de companie, dar i politic naional de level, as well as at level of national policy of
meninere a personalului calificat n ar. maintaining qualified staff within the country.

Bibliografie:/Bibliography:

1. http://www.ubbcluj.ro/ro/regulamente/strategia-de-dezvoltare-resurse-umane-1.pdf
2. Evoluii, tendine i pronosticuri referitoare la piaa muncii din Republica Moldova n apropierea
acesteia de standardele UE http://www.e-democracy.md/files/lm-policy-paper.pdf;
3. http://steconomice.uoradea.ro/leonardo4/pdf/Piata%20muncii%20in%20Franta.pdf

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012 87


FINANE / FINANCE

IMPACTUL FISCALITII TAXATION IMPACT ON


ASUPRA ACTIVITII INVESTMENT ACTIVITY
INVESTIIONALE
Dr. Hab., Professor Rodica HINCU;
Prof. univ. dr. hab. Rodica HNCU, ASEM PhD candidate Sen. Lect.
Drd. lect. univ. sup. Olga CONENCOV, ASEM Olga CONENCOV, AESM;
Master IPC Leonid BOGHEANU, inspector MA Leonid BOGHEANU, Chief tax
fiscal superior la inspector,
Inspectoratul Fiscal de Stat pe raionul Hnceti State Tax Inspectorate of Hincesti district
n articolul de fa se fac referine la impactul In the given article, a reference to the impact
fiscalitii asupra activitii investiionale. n of taxation on investment activity is made.
ncercarea crerii unui climat investiional pronunat, Attempting to create a pronounced investment
nu o dat se face apel la politica fiscal, care poate fi environment, is usually applied to the fiscal policy,
uneori generoas, alteori dur, n acest sens. Astfel, which sometimes can be generous, and sometimes
se pot isca o serie de convergene sau divergene, care tight in this sense. Thus, arises a series of
atrag dup sine o coexisten i o interdependen a convergences and discrepancies, that lead to
acestor dou politici definitorii ale statului: politica coexistence and interdependence of the two state
fiscal i politica investiional. Pentru a argumenta defining policies: fiscal policy and investment
implicaiile fiscalitii asupra activitii investiionale, policy. In order to argue the implications of taxation
au fost analizate practicile naionale i internaionale, on investment activity, national and international
a fost efectuat un studiu n baza practicilor fiscale din practices were analyzed; a research was performed
raionul Hnceti. n urma cercetrii efectuate, au fost on the basis of fiscal practices of the Hincesti
formulate unele concluzii i recomandri privind district. After the research performance, some
aplicarea ct mai eficient a impozitelor n vederea conclusions and recommendations were drawn
stimulrii activitii investiionale. regarding the most efficient application of taxes in
order to stimulate the investment activity.
n etapa actual, o preocupare aparte se acord
sporirii volumului investiiilor i meninerii acestuia la At present, a particular concern is given to the
un nivel nalt, n mare parte prin realizarea unei growth of investments volume and its maintenance at
politici fiscale adecvate. Anume prin stabilirea unui a high level, mostly by means of the attainment of an
mediu de impozitare atractiv, se poate acumula capital appropriate fiscal policy. Mainly through establishing
suficient pentru creterea economic, combaterea an attractive taxation environment, there can be
srciei i mbuntirea nivelului de trai al populaiei. accumulated sufficient capital for economic growth,
Un mediu de impozitare atractiv prevede improvement of the standard of living and poverty
existena unui set important de stimulente fiscale, cum combating.
ar fi: An attractive taxation environment implies the
scutirea total sau parial de la existence of an important suite of fiscal incentives,
impozitarea profiturilor; such as:
ratele reduse de impozitare a veniturilor complete or partial exemption from taxation
corporaiilor asupra anumitor profituri of income;
(stabilite ca obiective/inte); reduced taxation rates on corporations
micorarea taxelor n scopuri investiionale revenues on certain profits (set as targets /
(reduceri pentru profiturile reinvestite); objectives);
amortizarea accelerat a costurilor de capital; reduction of taxes within investment goals
creditele pentru taxe/impozite investiionale; (reductions for reinvested profits);
scutirile/reducerile de TVA (sau alte forme accelerated amortization of the capital cost;
de taxe de vnzare); credits for investment taxes/duties;
ratele reduse ale impozitelor/taxelor cu exemptions/reductions from VAT (or other
reinere la surs asupra transferurilor de forms of sales taxes);
sume n ara de origine (de reziden); reduced rate of taxes/duties withheld at
reducerea taxelor pe import i a taxelor source on transfers of funds to the country
vamale; of origin (residence);
scutirea de impozitele funciare; reduction of import duties and customs
taxele speciale din zone prefereniale, duties;
precum zonele vamale, zonele duty-free, exemption from land tax;
special taxes on preferential zones, such as

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zonele de comer exterior, zonele customs areas, duty-free areas, foreign trade
economice libere, sau din anumite zone zones, free economic zones or certain areas
geografice prioritare; of geographical priority;
stimulentele speciale cu combinarea uneia special incentives implying the combination
sau a ctorva msuri de mai sus. of one or more of the measures mentioned
Literatura n materie de stimulare a investiiilor above.
relev preferine pentru stimulentele directe sau Literature sources regarding investment
financiare (granturi, subvenii, alocaii bugetare) n stimulation comprise preferences for direct or financial
opoziie cu stimulentele indirecte scutiri sau reduceri de incentives (grants, subsidies, budgetary allocations) in
impozite (taxe), pe fondul unei transparene mai mari. opposition to indirect incentives exemptions or
ns, unii specialiti din domeniu consider c adevratul reductions of taxes (duties), based on greater
cost al stimulentelor fiscale poate fi mai mic dect transparency. However, some experts in the field
echivalentul stimulentelor financiare, n timp ce, de consider that the real cost of fiscal incentives could be
majoritatea stimulentelor fiscale beneficiaz acei lower than its equivalent of financial incentives, while
investitori care, eventual, nregistreaz profit, acestea the ones to benefit from the most fiscal incentives are
nefiind irosite pe investiii fr succes. those investors who, eventually, gain profits, without
rile dezvoltate tind s se bazeze pe o combinaie being scattered on unsuccessful investments.
dintre stimulentele financiare i cele fiscale. Facilitile Developed countries tend to base on a
oferite de statele membre ale Uniunii Europene i SUA, combination between financial and fiscal incentives.
n general, mbrac forma financiar, cele mai rspndite The facilities offered by European Union member
fiind subveniile directe. states and the USA, generally, take a financial form,
Prin opoziie, rile n curs de dezvoltare sunt the most spread being the direct subsidies.
mai dispuse n a oferi stimulente fiscale, n mare parte, As opposed, developing countries are more open
datorit lipsei posibilitii financiare de a oferi to offer fiscal incentives, mostly due to the lack of
granturi sau mprumuturi. n prezent, stimulentele financial possibility to render grants or loans.
fiscale, n categoria crora se includ reduceri/scutiri de Nowadays, fiscal incentives, in the category of which
taxe, sunt preferate de rile n curs de dezvoltare din are included tax reductions/exemptions, are preferred
Asia, Africa i de unele ri din Europa de Sud-Est1. by the developing countries from Asia, Africa and
n Republica Moldova, atragerea investiiilor some countries from South-Eastern Europe1.
este un obiectiv-cheie al politicii investiionale a In the Republic of Moldova, investments
statului prin aplicarea unei politici fiscale coerente. attracting is a key-objective of the states investment
Politicile fiscale variate produc diferite efecte. policy, applying a coherent fiscal policy.
La nivel microeconomic, fiscalitatea produce Different effects derive from various fiscal
efecte asupra: policies.
gestiunii rezultatelor; At the microeconomic level, taxation brings:
trezoreriei societilor economice; effects on results management;
bugetelor de familie; effects on economic entities treasury;
efecte asupra inflaiei; effects on family budgets;
finanrii investiiilor etc. effects on inflation;
La macronivel, politica fiscal genereaz efecte effects on investments financing etc.
pe termen scurt i efecte pe termen lung, fapt At the macroeconomic level, the fiscal policy
confirmat de Keynes, sau, efecte exclusiv, pe termen generates both short-term and long-term effects, the
scurt idee propagat de neokeynesiti. fact confirmed by Keynes, or exclusively on the short-
Efectul multiplicator al politicii fiscale este cu term, the idea promoted by neo-keynesians.
att mai mare cu ct numrul indivizilor incapabili s The multiplier effect of fiscal policy is greater as
economiseasc sau s se mprumute este mai mare. n the number of individuals unable to save or to borrow
tabelul 1, este prezentat multiplicatorul investiiilor is higher. Table 1 presents the multiplier of public
publice pentru unele ri dezvoltate. investments for some developed countries.
Multiplicatorul investiiilor publice presupune Public investments multiplier supposes that by
c, prin sporirea investiiilor publice, s se realizeze means of increasing public investments can be
stimularea activitii economice, creterea cererii achieved the economic activity stimulation, growth of
globale, respectiv, a produciei i veniturilor, fr ca the aggregate demand, and, respectively, of production
volumul impozitelor s se modifice. Pentru rile and revenues, without modifying the amount of taxes.

1
Bunu M. Stimulente pentru investiii instrument de diminuare a riscului investiional. n: culegerea de
articole, elaborate n cadrul proiectului Cercetarea riscurilor investiionale n sectorul real al economiei.
Editura ASEM - Chiinu, 2008, p.38.

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menionate n tabelul 1, acest indicator atinge valori For the countries mentioned in table 1, this indicator
semnificative, ns, pentru economiile modeste ale reaches significant values, but, for small economies,
rilor mici, ca, de exemplu, Republica Moldova, like the Republic of Moldova, as a matter of fact, the
valorile multiplicatorului investiiilor publice este, de values of the public investments multipliers do not
cel mult, 0,51. exceed 0,51.

Tabelul 1/Table 1
Multiplicatorii fiscali de unele ri dezvoltate (a. 2009) /
Fiscal multipliers in some developed countries, 2009

Multiplicatorul
Multiplicatorul Multiplicatorul Multiplica-torul
consumului Multiplica-torul
investiiilor transferurilor/ taxelor
guvernamental/ taxelor pe venit/
ara/ Country publice/ Public Transfer indirecte/
Government Income tax
investments payments Indirect tax
spending multiplier
multiplier multiplier multiplier
multiplier
SUA/USA 1,3 1,1 0,9 0,5 0,9
Germania/Germany 1,2 0,8 0,7 0,4 0,7
Frana, Italia/
France, Italy 1,2 1,0 0,8 0,4 0,8
Marea Britanie/
Great Britain 1,2 0,9 0,8 0,4 0,8

Sursa: http://store.ectap.ro/articole/527_ro.pdf/
Source: http://store.ectap.ro/articole/527_ro.pdf

n situaiile de criz, cetenii sunt ndemnai la In crisis situations, individuals advised to save,
economisire, ceea ce va determina reducerea fact that will determine the decrease of fiscal
multiplicatorilor fiscali. multipliers.
Economia Republicii Moldova, denot c pe During 2010, the economy of the Republic of
parcursul anului 2010, s-a reuit depirea crizei Moldova denotes that the overcome of the financial and
economico-financiare. Creterea PIB-ului, n 2010, de economic crisis has succeeded. The increase of the GDP
6,9% a avut la baz, n fond, majorarea investiiilor n in 2010 with 6,9% was mainly based on the increase of
capital fix cu circa 16,7%. Factorul major de investments in fixed capital with approximately 16,7%.
cretere a economiei naionale, n viitorul apropiat The major factor of the national economys growth for the
(anii 2012-2014), este considerat majorarea nearest future (2012-2014) is expected to be the increase
investiiilor n capital fix cu o rat medie anual de of investments in fixed capital at an average annual rate
circa 8,7%. of approximately 8,7%.
Investiiile capitale, ca surs principal de Capital investments, as the main source of
cretere economic, au mai multe efecte, unul dintre economic growth, has several effects, one of which
care extinderea bazei de impozitare i crearea being the extension of the tax base and creation of
surselor suplimentare de venituri pentru bugetul supplementary sources of revenues for the national
public naional2. public budget2.
Dup ascensiunea, nregistrat n 2010, de After the ascension achieved in 2010 of 4,0%,
4,0%, Rusia, unul dintre principalii parteneri Russia, as one of the main commercial partners of the
comerciali ai Republicii Moldova, planific o cretere Republic of Moldova, plans an increase of 4,5% in
de 4,5%, n 2012, avnd la baz, n principal, 2012, mainly on the basis of expansionary fiscal
aplicarea unor politici fiscale expansioniste. rile policy. Countries of the Euro zone aim an economic
zonei Euro mizeaz pe o cretere economic de circa growth of approximately 1,7% in 2012, determined by
1,7%, n 2012, determinat de nsprirea politicilor tightening of fiscal policy and dependence of the
fiscale i dependena regiunii de creditarea bancar region on bank loans for financing investments of the
pentru finanarea investiiilor din sectorul privat. private sector.

1
Marina M.-C. Eficiena politicii fiscale n combaterea efectelor crizei economice. O analiz bazat pe
literatura econopmic. http://store.ectap.ro/articole/527_ro.pdf
2
Cadrul bugetar pe termen mediu, 2012-2014. http://www.mf.gov.md/common/middlecost/CCTM2014/
anexe29 iunie/CBTM_2012- 2014.pdf

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Stimularea procesului de investire este des The stimulation of the investment process is
analizat n corelare cu diminuarea nivelului de often analyzed in conjunction with taxation level
impozitare sau nsprirea politicilor fiscale. n cazul diminishing or fiscal policy tightening. In case of the
economiei autohtone, pn n anul 2011 inclusiv, cota domestic economy, the income tax rate for legal
impozitului pe venit era de 0% pentru persoanele entities was equal to 0% until 2011 inclusively.
juridice. Table 2 presents the evolution of investments in
n tabelul 2, este prezentat evoluia investiiilor fixed capital in conjunction with the tax rate for the
n capital fix, n corelaie cu cota impozitului pe income obtained from entrepreneurial activity on the
venitul obinut din activitatea de ntreprinztor. territory of the Republic of Moldova.

Tabelul 2/Table 2
Investiiile n capital fix i cota impozitului pe venit corespunztoare n R. Moldova/
Investments in fixed capital and the corresponding income tax rate in the Republic of Moldova

2007 2008 2009 2010


Cota impozitului pe venitul pers. juridice/ Income tax rate for legal entities 15% 0% 0% 0%
Investiii n capital fix, mil. lei, inclusiv/
Investments in fixed capital, millions MDL,Including: 15335,8 18224,8 11123,6 13098,7
Investiii strine/ Foreign investments 1957,3 2406,8 1080,4 1368,1

Sursa: adaptare de autori n baza datelor oferite de Biroul Naional de Statistic a R. Moldova/
Source: adjusted by authors on the basis of data supplied by the National Bureau of Statistics of the
Republic of Moldova

Conform datelor din tabelul 2, n anul 2008,se According to the data from table 2, an increase
observ o majorare a investiiilor n capital fix an n care a of the investments can be observed in 2008, the year
fost implementat cota zero. ns, pentru anul 2009, n when the zero rate was implemented. Anyway in 2009,
pofida atractivitii respective faciliti fiscale acordate regardless the attractiveness of the respective fiscal
investitorilor, ponderea capitalului alocat, inclusiv a celui facility conferred to investors, the weight of the
strin, a sczut, cauza fiind criza financiar mondial. allocated capital, including foreign capital, decreased,
Totui, n 2010, investiiile au avut o tendin de majorare as a consequence of the world financial crisis.
sub tutela aceleiai cote, dar, valoarea modest a acestora However, in 2010, investments tended to grow under
este o dovad c aplicarea cotei 0% a impozitului pe the fosterage of the same rate, but their poor value
venitul persoanelor juridice, n vederea atragerii represents a proof that the exercise of the 0% rate for
investiiilor, nu a asigurat atingerea obiectivelor propuse investment attraction did not ensure the objectives set
prin politica fiscal. by the fiscal policy.
Cercetnd impactul impozitrii cu cota zero, While analyzing the impact of the zero income
este necesar de menionat c aplicarea acesteia asupra tax rate, it is important to mention that its exercise on
impozitului pe venitul persoanelor juridice nu numai the legal entities income has not only been inefficient,
c a fost ineficient, dar i a generat anumite but has also generated certain negative consequences,
consecine negative, una dintre cele mai importante one of the most important being the decrease of the
fiind diminuarea veniturilor fiscale n bugetul fiscal revenues into the consolidated budget of the
consolidat al rii. country.
Dei introducerea impozitrii cu cota zero a Although the implementation of zero percent tax
determinat diminuarea nesemnificativ a presiunii rate determined an insignificant reduction of the fiscal
fiscale, aceasta nu a condus la majorarea pressure, it did not lead to an increment of the fiscal
competitivitii fiscale a Republicii Moldova pe plan competitiveness of the Republic of Moldova on the
internaional, ntruct investitorii au rmas interesai, international plan, as investors are interested, mostly,
mai mult de stabilitatea economic i politic din ar, in economic and political stability within the country
dect de cota zero la impozitare. n plus, introducerea rather than in the zero percent tax rate. Moreover, the
cotei zero a generat inacceptarea acesteia de ctre zero tax rate generated its non-acceptance by the
Uniunea European, n care tinde s se integreze European Union, to which the Republic of Moldova
Republica Moldova. tends to integrate.
Orientndu-se la practicile internaionale, n 2012, According to international practices, in 2012 the
impozitul pe venitul din activitatea de ntreprinztor n income tax from entrepreneurial activity in the
Republica Moldova s-a majorat pn la 12%. Comparativ Republic of Moldova was risen to 12%. In comparison
cu statele menionate n tabelul 1, aceast cot (12%) este to the states mentioned in table 1, this rate (12%) is

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mult mai atractiv pentru potenialii investitori, dat fiind much more attractive to potential investors, given the
faptul c n SUA, ea reprezint, n 2012, 15-35%, n fact that this rate for 2012 in the USA is equal to 15-
Germania 30-33%, n Frana, Italia i Marea Britanie 35%, in Germany to 30-33%, in France, Italy, and
33,33%, 27,5% i 24%, respectiv. Great Britain to 33,33%, 27,5%, and 24%
Stimularea procesului de investire, se respectively.
realizeaz, n practica fiscal mondial, cel mai des, The stimulation of the investment process,
prin utilizarea creditului investiional fiscal. De within the world taxation practices, is mostly achieved
exemplu, n Federaia Rus, creditul investiional by the usage of the investment tax credit. For example,
fiscal acord dreptul la amnarea perioadei de achitare in the Russian Federation the investment tax credit
a impozitului datorat statului, n procesul cruia, gives the right to postpone the period of payment of the
organizaiilor, li se ofer posibilitatea diminurii, n tax amount owed to the state, thus, the organizations
anumite proporii, a plilor fiscale cu achitarea gain the possibility to diminish, in certain proportions,
ulterioar n rate a sumei creditului i a ratelor fiscal payments, with subsequent reimbursement in
aferente acestuia. n rile economic dezvoltate, installments of the credit and related rates. In the
creditul investiional fiscal presupune deducerea din economically developed countries the investment tax
suma impozitului pe venit a cheltuielilor ndreptate credit implies the reduction from the income tax sum of
spre efectuarea investiiilor. the expenses related to investments performance.
Utilizarea creditului investiional fiscal n Republica The usage of the investment tax credit in the
Moldova ar permite agenilor economici deducerea din Republic of Moldova would allow the economic agents
impozitul pe venitul din activitatea de ntreprinztor a unor to deduct from the income tax from entrepreneurial
sume corespunztoare cotei procentuale din investiiile activity the sums that correspond to a percentage of the
efectuate, acestea putnd fi utilizate n calitate de investments made, and can be used as an instrument of
instrument de realizare a politicii regionale. regional policy achievement as well.
O serie de alte faciliti fiscale, sunt prevzute A series of other fiscal facilities in the Republic
pentru investitorii strini i cei autohtoni conform of Moldova are envisaged for both foreign and
Legii cu privire la zonele economice libere. Spre domestic investors according to the Law on free
exemplu, impozitarea rezidenilor zonelor economice economic zones. For example, the taxation of the free
libere prevede ca impozitul pe venitul rezidenilor, economic zones residents implies that the tax on the
obinut din exportul mrfurilor (serviciilor) originare, income obtained from the export of originating goods
s se perceap n proporie de 50% din cota stabilit n (services), to be levied in the proportion of 50% from
Republica Moldova. the rate set in the Republic of Moldova.
Pentru atragerea investiiilor n zonele rurale i In order to attract investment in both rural and
urbane, cu excepia municipiilor Chiinu i Bli, urban areas, except Chisinau and Balti municipalities,
ncepnd cu anul 2008, a fost implementat restituirea starting with 2008, the redemption of the VAT to the
TVA agenilor economici care efectueaz investiii economic agents who make capital investments into
capitale n mijloace fixe, n afar de cele cu destinaie fixed assets, except those designated for housing and
locativ i mijloace de transport. n tabelul 3 sunt transportation units, was implemented. Table 3
prezentate datele unui studiu privind restituirea TVA comprises data of a research regarding the redemption
la efectuarea investiiilor capitale, n cadrul raionului of the VAT upon capital investments performance,
Hnceti1. within the Hincesti district1.

Tabelul 3/Table 3
Suma TVA restituit agenilor economici din raionul Hnceti care au efectuat investiii capitale/
The amount of the VAT redeemed to the economic agents from the Hnceti district who
performed capital investments

Anul/ Year Suma TVA restituit, lei/ Redeemed VAT amount,


MDL
2009 0
2010 25656
2011 3483055
2012, trimestrul I/1st quarter 36007
Sursa: elaborat de autori n baza datelor dispuse de Inspectoratul Fiscal din raionul Hnceti/
Source: elaborated by the authors based on data available to the State Tax Inspectorate of the Hnceti district

1
Din motivul unor condiii restrictive, impuse agenilor economici pentru a obine restituirea sumelor TVA
achitate la efectuarea investiiilor, nu toi contribuabilii pot beneficia de aceste avantaje fiscale.

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Conform datelor din tabel, se observ c n anul According to the data in the table above, there
2010 au fost prezentate primele solicitri pentru de a can be observed that in 2010 the first applications to
beneficia de restituirea TVA. n 2011, prin exercitarea benefit from VAT redemption were filed. In 2011, by
controalelor fiscale, la cererea agenilor economici, a performing fiscal control, upon the request of the
fost acceptat spre restituire suma TVA ce a fost economic agents, was accepted to be redeemed the
achitat la efectuarea investiiilor pentru perioada de amount of VAT, that was paid on investments
activitate 2008-2011. performance during 2008-2011.
ncepnd cu anul 2012, prin aprobarea politicii Starting with 2012, by the approval of the fiscal
bugetar-fiscale, s-a stabilit aplicarea restituirii TVA i and budgetary policy, the VAT redemption was
pentru agenii economici din municipiul Chiinu i established as well for the economic agents from
Bli, aferent investiiilor capitale, cu excepia celor Chisinau and Balti municipalities, related to capital
n cldiri i mijloace de transport, de la 1 leu TVA investments, except those on buildings and
achitat. transportation means, from 1 MDL VAT paid.
n tabelul 4, este se prezentat un studiu asupra Table 4 presents a research regarding the
rezultatelor financiare ale ntreprinderilor din raionul financial results of the enterprises from the Hincesti
Hnceti pe perioada 2007-2010. district during 2007-2010.

Tabelul 4/Table 4
Rezultatele financiare ale ntreprinderilor din raionul Hnceti pn la impozitare/
The before-tax financial results of the enterprises from the Hnceti district

2007 2008 2009 2010


ntreprinderi, total/
Enterprises, total 482 489 536 573
ntreprinderi, care au obinut
profit/
Enterprises that registered profit 238 244 234 276
Numrul de salariai/
Number of employees 9792 8944 7641 7566
Venitul din vnzri, mln. lei/
Sales revenues, millions lei 1263,5 1370,8 1256,8 1651,6
Rezultatele financiare pn la
impozitare, mln. lei/ Before-tax
financial results, millions lei 47,7 65,5 18,3 76

Sursa: adaptare de autori n baza datelor furnizate de Biroul Naional de Statistic al R. Moldova/
Source: adjusted by the authors according to the data supplied by the National Bureau of Statistics of the
Republic of Moldova

Conform datelor din tabel, se observ c, practic, o According to the data from the table above, there
jumtate din ntreprinderi au obinut profit. Numrul de can be observed that almost half of the enterprises did not
salariai angajai este n scdere, ca rezultat al politicii de register any profit. The number of employees tends to
optimizare a cheltuielilor, impuse de criza financiar decrease, as a result of the expenses optimization policy,
mondial. Consecinele crizei au fost simite n 2009, imposed by the world financial crisis. The consequences
astfel rezultatele financiare nainte de impozitare au of the crisis could be perceived in 2009, respectively the
sczut de aproximativ 4 ori. n 2010, situaia financiar before-tax financial results decreased by approximately 4
nu numai c a revenit la valoarea precedent, dar i a times. In 2010 the financial situation did not only recover
depit-o considerabil. to its previous value, but considerably exceeded it as well.
Din cele expuse, pot fi formulate unele concluzii i Upon the statements above there can be drawn
recomandri privind aplicarea ct mai eficient a certain conclusions and recommendations regarding the
impozitelor n vederea stimulrii activitii most efficient application of taxes for the stimulation of
investiionale: the investments activity:
utilizarea creditului investiional fiscal, usage of the investment tax credit, that would
care ar permite agenilor economici allow the economic agents to deduct from the
deducerea din impozitul pe venitul din income tax from entrepreneurial activity the
activitatea de ntreprinztor a sumelor ce sums the correspond to the amounts of the
corespund volumului de investiii efectuate; investments made;

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012 93


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simplificarea procedurii de restituire a TVA simplification of the procedure of the


aferente investiiilor capitale; redemption of VAT associated to capital
acordarea unor faciliti fiscale investments;
suplimentare investitorilor locali i strini, conferring certain supplementary fiscal
care i orienteaz capitalul n domeniile facilities to both local and foreign investors
economice i sociale prioritare. Spre who direct their capital to the foreground
exemplu, scutirea de impozitare a profitului economic and social domains. For example,
reinvestit, importul de mijloace tehnice i exemption from taxes on reinvested capital,
tehnologii moderne fr plata taxelor, import of technical means and modern
reducerea cerinelor cu privire la rezervele technologies without tax payment, reduction of
obligatorii i impozitele pentru bncile the requirements regarding the mandatory
autorizate, care particip la finanarea reserves and taxes for authorized banks, that
proiectelor; take part in projects financing;
elaborarea metodelor de control al activitii foreign companies activity controlling
firmelor strine i crearea unui departament methods elaboration, and creation of a
responsabil, cu scopul evitrii posibilitii de department in charge, in order to avoid the
influen nefast asupra sistemului economic possibility of poisonous influence on the
naional, dat fiind faptul c exist pericolul ca national economic system, given the fact that
investitorii strini s sfideze activitatea there is a danger for foreign investors to defy
investitorilor locali; the activity of local investors;
meninerea cotei impozitului pe venitul maintenance of the income tax rate for legal
persoanelor juridice la nivelul de 12%, nivel entities at the level of 12%, a quite competitive
competitiv n comparaie cu alte state. level in comparison to other countries.

Bibliografie/ Bibliography:
1. The Strategy of the Republic of Moldova on investment attraction and export promotion for 2006-2015,
approved by the Government Decision nr. 234 from 13.10.2006. In: Official Monitor of the Republic of
Moldova nr. 43-45 from 30.10.2006
2. The Law of the Republic of Moldova on investments in entrepreneurial activity nr. 81-XV from
18.03.2004. In: Official Monitor of the Republic of Moldova nr.64-66 from 23.04.2004
3. Law of the Republic of Moldova on free economic zones nr.440-XV from 27.07.2001. In: Official
Monitor of the Republic of Moldova nr.108-X109 din 06.09.2001
4. Medium term expenditure framework, 2012-2014. http://www.mf.gov.md/ common/ middlecost/
CCTM2014/ anexe29iunie/CBTM_2012- 2014.pdf
5. Brezeanu P. Fiscalitate: concepte, modele, teorii, mecanisme i practici fiscale. Editura Economic. -
Bucureti, 1999.
6. Bunu M. Stimulente pentru investiii instrument de diminuare a riscului investiional. In:
collection of articles, elaborated within the frame of the project The analysis of investment risks in the
real sector of the economy. Editura ASEM - Chiinu, 2008, p.37-42.
7. Marina M.-C. Eficiena politicii fiscale n combaterea efectelor crizei economice. O analiz bazat
pe literatura economic. http://store.ectap.ro/articole/527_ro.pdf
8. Economic and fiscal programmes of potential candidate countries: EU Commission's assessments.
- Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2011, 53 p.
9. Taxation trends in the European Union: focus on the crisis: The main impacts on EU tax systems.
- Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2011, 38 p.
10. . . . . - , . 275.
11. www. statistica.md
12. http://www.worldwide-tax.com/

94 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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ROLUL IMPOZITELOR THE ROLE OF INDIRECT TAXES


INDIRECTE LA FORMAREA TO THE REVENUES
VENITURILOR BUGETULUI DE FORMATION OF STATE
STAT BUDGET
Conf. univ. dr. Eugenia Bumachiu Assoc. Prof., PhD Eugenia BUSMACHIU;
Lect. sup. Marcelina Ignat Senior Lect. Marcelina IGNAT, AESM
Rolul cel mai important al impozitelor indirecte The main role of indirect taxes is manifested
se manifest pe plan financiar i const n acumularea financially and consists in gathering of the necessary
resurselor necesare exercitrii funciilor i sarcinilor resources to exercise the functions and obligations of
statului. Aceast funcie este realizat prin the state. This function is carried out through the
intermediul sistemului bugetar al rii i presupune budgetary system of the country and involves the
acumularea de venituri sub form de TVA, accize i accumulation of revenues in the form of VAT, excise
taxe vamale. Dei criza mondial a afectat ncasrile and customs duties. Although the world crisis has
din impozite indirecte, acestea rmn a fi principalele affected revenues from the indirect taxes, they remain
surse de venit pentru bugetul de stat i sistemul to be the main sources of revenues to the state budget
bugetar al Republicii Moldova. and the budgetary system of the Republic of Moldova.

Rolul impozitelor indirecte se concretizeaz n The role of indirect taxes is reflected in activities
activiti ce vizeaz procurarea necesarului de venituri aimed at procuring the necessary budgetary revenues
bugetare i realizarea de intervenii pe plan economic and achieving economic and social interventions in
i social cu scopul de a asigura limitarea importului i order to ensure imports limitation and consumption of
a consumului unor bunuri i servicii, al cror consum, goods and services whose consumption, especially
n special cel excesiv, este duntor sntii fizice i excessive is harmful to physical and moral health of the
morale a populaiei. population.
Desigur, rolul cel mai important al impozitelor Of course the most important role of indirect
indirecte const n acumularea resurselor necesare taxes is to accumulate resources necessary for the state
ndeplinirii funciilor i sarcinilor statului. Acest rol to perform its functions and duties. This function is
este exercitat prin intermediul sistemului bugetar al undertaken by the budgetary system of the government
rii, care include: bugetul de stat, bugetele unitilor which includes: the State Budget, the local
administrativ-teritoriale, bugetul asigurrilor sociale governments budgets (LGB), the State Social
de stat (BASS) i fondurile asigurrilor obligatorii de Insurance Budget (SSIB) and the Mandatory Medical
asisten medical (FAOM). Insurance Fund (MMIF).
Pornind de la structura sistemului bugetar, Taking into account the structure of the
analiza veniturilor publice i a contribuiei impozitelor budgetary system, the analysis of the public revenues
indirecte se va efectua iniial pe componente ale and the contribution of indirect taxes will be
bugetului public naional. undertaken by components of the budgetary system.

Tabelul 1/ Table 1
Veniturile publice pe componente ale bugetului public naional n perioada 2007-2014/
Public revenues by components of the budgetary system for the period of 2007-2014
(mil. lei)/ (in million MDL)

Indicatorii/ Indicators Executat/ Executed Aprobat/ Approved Estimat/ Estimated


2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Total venituri / 22290 25516,9 23517,7 27540,2 31016,1 34997,6 38487,0 42218,2
Total Revenues
Bugetul de stat/ 14047 15977,5 13812,2 17109,1 19086,6 20973,2 23013,7 25255
State Budget
Bugetele UAT/ 3037 2874,5 2670,3 2943,5 3403,5 4448,9 4859,0 5300,9
Local Governments budgets
BASS/ SSIB 4366 5460,6 5613,2 5989,7 6837,3 7692,9 8524,6 9363,8
FAOM/ MMIF 841 1211,1 1422,1 1497,9 1688,7 1882,6 2089,7 2298,7

Sursa: elaborat de autori in baza Cadrului bugetar pe termen mediu 2012-2014 www.mf.gov.md/
Source: performed by the authors based on: Medium term budgetary policy for 2012-2014 www.mf.gov.md

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012 95


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Analiznd datele statistice, constatm c n perioada The analysis of statistical has indicated that
2007-2010 volumul nominal al veniturilor publice a during 2007-2009 the nominal amount of public
nregistrat o evoluie ascendent, majorndu-se de la 22 revenues grew from 22 290 million MDL in 2007 to
290 milioane de lei, n 2007, la 27 540,2 milioane de lei, n 27540.2 million MDL in 2010. There is projected a
2010. n perioada 2011-2014 se prognozeaz o cretere a growth in revenues during 2011-2014 from 31016.1
veniturilor publice de la 31 016,1 milioane de lei pn la million MDL in 2011 to 42218.2 million MDL in 2014.
42 218,2 milioane de lei, n 2014. Evoluia veniturilor The revenues evolution by components is shown in the
publice pe componente ale sistemului bugetar este figure 1.
prezentat n figura 1.

45000 Total venituri /Total


40000 revenues
35000 Bugetul de stat/
30000 State Budget
Bugetele UAT/ LGB
25000
20000 BASS/ SSIB
15000
10000
FAOM/ MMIF
5000
0
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

Figura 1. Evoluia veniturilor publice pe componente ale sistemului bugetar (mil. lei)/
Figure 1. The evolution of public revenues by components of the budgetary system (million MDL)
Sursa: elaborat de autori n baza tabelului 1/
Source: prepared by the authors based on the data from table 1.

Studiul datelor statistice denot faptul c n The performed analysis has shown that during
perioada 2007-2011 veniturile bugetului de stat sau 2007-2011 the revenues of the state budget have risen
majorat de la 14 047 la 19 087 milioane lei. Aceast from 14 047 million MDL in 2007 to 19 087 million
cretere a constituit 5 040 milioane lei, n mrimi MDL in 2011. The growth in revenues was 5 040
absolute, sau 36%, n mrimi relative. O cretere mai million MDL or 36 %. Less impressive growth has
mic au nregistrat veniturile bugetelor unitilor been realized by revenues of the budgets of the
administrativ-teritoriale, care s-au majorat de la 3 037 territorial administrative units, which increased from
la 3 403,5 milioane de lei, respectiv, cu 366,5 3 037 to 3 403,5 million MDL, that is by 366,5 million
milioane de lei sau cu 12,6%. n perioada analizat, MDL or 12,6 %. During the analyzed period, the
veniturile bugetului asigurrilor sociale de stat au revenues in State Social Insurance Budget have
nregistrat o cretere de 2 474,3 milioane de lei, n registered an increase by 2 474,3 million MDL or by
mrimi absolute, sau de 57%, n mrimi relative, iar 57%, while the revenues of the Mandatory Medical
veniturile fondurilor asigurrilor obligatorii de Insurance Fund increased from 841,0 to 1688,7 million
asisten medical s-au majorat de la 841,0 la 1688,7 MDL.
milioane de lei. During 2007-2010 has decreased the share of
n perioada 2007-2010, s-a redus ponderea public revenues in GDP from 41.8% in 2007 to 38.2%
veniturilor publice n PIB de la 41,8%, n 2007, la in 2010. The share of public revenues in GDP is
38,3%, n 2010. Ponderea veniturilor publice n PIB se estimated to 38.2% in 2012, 38.1% in 2013 and 38.4%
estimeaz la 38,2%, n 2012, 38,1%, n 2013, i in 2014. We also state that state budget revenues varied
38,4%, n 2014. Constatm, de asemenea, c n from 22.9% in 2009 and 26.3% of GDP in 2007; in the
bugetul de stat se acumuleaz ntre 22,9% (n 2009) i local budgets varied from 4.1% and 5.7%; in the State
26,3% din PIB (n 2007), n bugetele locale ntre Social Insurance Budget till 9,3% of GDP and in
4,1% i 5,7%, n bugetul asigurrilor sociale de stat
pn la 9,3% din PIB, iar prin intermediul fondurilor
Mandatory Medical Insurance Fund up to
de asigurri obligatorii de asisten medical pn la 2,3% of GDP.
2,3% din PIB.

96 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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30 Bugetul de stat/
25 State budget
20 Bugetele UAT/ LGB
15
10 BASS/ SSIB
5
FAOM/ MMIB
0
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

Figura 2. Ponderea veniturilor publice pe componente ale sistemului bugetar in PIB (%)/
Figure 2. Public revenue by components and % of GDP
Sursa: elaborat de autori n baza datelor din tabelul 2/
Source: prepared by the authors based on data from the Table 2

n urma analizelor efectuate, constatm faptul c The results of the performed analysis indicated
bugetul de stat este cel mai important fond public, cci that the state budget is the most important component
prin intermediul lui se acumuleaz i se distribuie pn la of the public fund, as it collects and distributes up to
26,3% din PIB i pn la 67% din veniturile publice. 26.3% of GDP and 67% from total public revenues.
Un interes deosebit pentru tema studiat o prezint One particular feature of the performed
structura veniturilor publice. Analiznd structura analysis revealed the structure of the public
veniturilor publice din perioada 2008-2011, constatm c revenues. Thus, the public revenues for the period
acestea se mpart n 2 categorii: venituri curente i 2007-2011 have shown that the public revenues are
granturi, care dein respectiv, 95% i 5% din totalul divided into two categories: current revenues and
acestora. Veniturile curente includ: venituri fiscale, grants, which have respectively 95% and 5% from
venituri nefiscale i fonduri i mijloace speciale. Cea mai the total revenues. The current revenues include: tax
mare contribuie n formarea resurselor financiare publice revenues, non-tax revenues and special revenues and
o au veniturile fiscale. n perioada analizat, veniturile funds. The greatest contributions in tax revenues
fiscale s-au majorat de la 20 867,4 milioane de lei la 25 formation have the tax revenues. During the
127,6 milioane de lei, n anul 2011. Aceast majorare a analyzed period, tax revenues have increased from
constituit 4 260,2 milioane lei, n mrimi absolute, sau 20 867.4 million MDL in 2008 to 25 127.6 million
20,4% n mrimi relative. Veniturile fiscale sunt formate MDL in 2011. The growth of the tax revenues was 4
din impozite directe i impozite indirecte, prin 260.2 million MDL or 20.4%. The tax revenues
intermediul crora se procur 35% i, respectiv, 46% din include direct and indirect taxes, which in turn
totalul veniturilor publice. Veniturile fiscale contribuie la comprise 35% and respectively 46% from the total
formarea a pn la 81% din veniturile publice. public revenues. Tax revenues have a contribution of
O contribuie mai puin semnificativ la formarea up to 81% of the total public revenues.
resurselor financiare publice o au veniturile nefiscale. n The non-tax revenues have a less significant
perioada 2008-2010, veniturile nefiscale au crescut de la contribution to the formation of public financial
1 737 la 1 876,6 milioane de lei, respectiv, cu 139,6 resources. Therefore, the non-tax revenues rose from
milioane de lei, n mrimi absolute, sau cu 8%, n mrimi 1 737 to 1876.6 million MDL over the 2008-2010
relative, iar pe parcursul anului 2011 acestea s-au redus period, that is by 139.6 million MDL, in absolute
pn la nivelul de 1 628,8 milioane de lei. Veniturile values, or by 8%, in relative values and during 2011
nefiscale contribuie la formarea veniturilor publice cu these reduced up to 1 628.8 million MDL. Non-tax
pn la 6,8%. revenues contribute by up to 6.8% to the formation of
Fondurile i mijloacele speciale s-au diminuat de public revenues.
la 1 844,2, n 2008, la 1580,7, n 2010, respectiv cu The special funds and means have declined
264,2 milioane de lei sau cu 14,3%. Aceast diminuare a from 1 844.2 million MDL in 2008 to 1 580.7 million
fost determinat de criza economica din anul 2008. n MDL in 2010, that is by 264.2 million MDL or
perioada 2010-2011, fondurile i mijloacele speciale au 14.3%, due to world financial crisis in 2008. In the
crescut cu 94,9 milioane lei sau cu 6%. Analiza datelor subsequent periods 2010-2011, the special funds have
denot faptul c, prin intermediul fondurilor i risen by 94.9 million MDL or by 6%. The data
mijloacelor speciale, se acumuleaz cca la 8% din totalul analysis shows that the special funds and special
veniturilor publice. means constitute 8% of total public revenues.
Granturile reprezint o surs de venituri mai puin The grants are a less important source of
important. Mrimea acestora a crescut, n perioada revenues. During 2008-2010 they raised by 933

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2008-2010, cu 933 milioane de lei, reducndu-se million, however, falling significantly in 2011 to 1
considerabil pn la 1705,1 milioane de lei, n anul 705.1 million MDL. Grants contribute to the
2011. Granturile contribuie la acumularea cca 7% din accumulation of total public revenues by 7%.
totalul veniturilor publice.

30000 venituri fiscale/ tax


25000 revenues
20000 venituri nefiscale/ non-
15000 tax revenues
10000 fonduri i mijloace
5000 speciale/ funds and
0
special means
granturi/ grants
2008 2009 2010 2011

Figura 3. Structura veniturilor publice n perioada 2008-2011 (%)/


Figure 3. The revenues structure by components over 2008-2011 period (%)

Sursa: elaborat de autori n baza datelor Ministerului Finantelor/


Source: performed by authors based on the data provided by the Ministry of Finance

Analiza figurii 3 evideniaz faptul c veniturile Figure 3 indicates that the main sources of public
fiscale constituie sursa principal de formare a veniturile revenues are the tax revenues. All the other revenues
publice. Celelalte surse de venit au un aport mai puin sources are less significant, contributing by 20% of the
considerabil, contribuind la acumularea a cca 20% din state revenues.
veniturile statului. The most important component of the budgetary
Principala component a sistemului bugetar o system is the state budget, as it is a centralized fund of
constituie bugetul de stat, fiindc acesta reprezint un monetary means at the state disposal, which receives
fond centralizat de mijloace bneti la dispoziia considerable revenues and of which are made the state
statului, n care se ncaseaz venituri considerabile i expenditures.
din care se efectueaz cheltuieli importante.
Tabelul 2/ Table 2
Structura resurselor bugetului de stat in perioada 2008-2011 /
The State budget structure for the period of 2008-2011
(mil. lei)/ (in MM MDL)
Executat/ Executed
2008 2009 2010 2011
Veniturile globale/ Total Revenues 15977,5 13567,5 17167,7 18638,2
1. Venituri curente/ Current revenues 14909,3 12520,4 15152 16988,2
1.1 Venituri fiscale/ Tax revenue 12078,9 10160 12745,9 14530,2
1.1.1 Impozite directe/ Direct taxes 303,2 183,2 215,6 258,4
1.1.1.1 Impozitul pe venit din activitatea de intrepr/ Corporate income taxes 303,2 183,2 215,6 258,4
1.1.1.2 Impozitul pe venit de la persoanele fizice/ Individual income taxes - - - -
1.1.2 Impozite indirecte/ Indirect taxes 11775,7 9976,8 12251 14271,8
1.1.2.1 TVA/ VAT 9 058,0 7536,8 9104 10433,5
1.1.2.2 Accize/ Excise 7271,6 5118,4 2067,2 8547,7
1.1.2.3 Impozitele asupra comerului exterior / Foreign trading taxes 1 150,0 905 1080,3 1178,6
1.2 Venituri nefiscale/ Non-tax revenues 1 248,5 717,4 1031,1 1001,7
1.2.1 Soldul profitului net al Bncii Naionale/ Net profit of NBM - - 336,6 -
1.2.2 Alte venituri bugetul de stat/ Other revenue 1248,5 717,4 694,5 972,8
1.3 Fondurile si mijloacele speciale/ Funds and special means 1581,9 1643 1377,3 1456,3
1.3.1. Fondurile speciale/ Special Funds 251,6 294,8 316,6 354,1
1.3.2. Mijloacele speciale/ Special means 1325,8 1348,2 1060,7 1102,2
2.Granturi/ Grants 1068,2 1026,2 1954,9 1620
3.Transferuri/ Transfers 0 20,9 58,6 -
Sursa: elaborat de autori in baza Cadrului bugetar pe termen mediu 2012-2014 www.mf.gov.md/
Source: performed by the authors based on: Medium Term Budgetary Policy 2012-2014 www.mf.gov.md

98 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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Analiznd datele, constatm c, n perioada 2008- According to the analyzed data, the state
2011, veniturile bugetului de stat s-au majorat de la 15 977,7 budget revenues increased, during 2008-2011, from
la 18 638,2 milioane de lei. Aceast cretere a constituit 2 15 977.7 to 18 638.2 million MDL, growing with 2
660,5 milioane de lei, n mrimi absolute, sau 17%, n 660.5 million MDL or by 17%. The structure of the
mrimi relative. Studiind structura veniturilor bugetului de state budget revenue consists of three sources:
stat, constatm faptul c acestea sunt formate din trei surse: current revenues, grants and transfers. The analysis
venituri curente, granturi i transferuri. Analiza contribuiei of the contribution of these revenues shows that the
acestor surse de venit denot faptul c veniturile curente main sources of the state budget are the current
constituie pentru bugetul de stat sursa principal de venituri. revenues. Thus, the current revenues bring up to the
Astfel, prin intermediul acestora, se procur pn la 92% din 92% of the total state budget revenues. In
totalul veniturilor bugetului de stat. n conformitate cu accordance with the budget classification, current
clasificaia bugetar, veniturile curente includ: venituri revenues include: tax revenues, non-tax revenues
fiscale, venituri nefiscale i fonduri i mijloace speciale. and special funds and means. Tax revenues
Veniturile fiscale au cea mai mare contribuie la formarea constitute the greatest share of the state budget
veniturilor bugetului de stat. n perioada analizat, veniturile revenues. Thus, the tax revenues rose from 12 078.9
fiscale s-au majorat de la 12 078,9 milioane de lei, n anul million MDL in 2008 to 14 530.2 million MDL in
2008, la 14 530,2 milioane de lei, n anul 2011, respectiv 2011, that is by 2451.3 million MDL.
cu 2451,3 milioane de lei. Non-tax revenues include the net profit of the
Veniturile nefiscale includ soldul profitului net al Bncii NBM and other revenues of the state budget. During
Naionale i alte venituri ale bugetului de stat. n perioada 2008-2009, non-tax revenues declined by 521 million
2008-2009, veniturile nefiscale s-au redus cu 521 milioane de MDL or by 43%. During 2010 the non-tax revenues
lei, n mrimi absolute, sau cu 43%, n mrimi relative. Pe grew by 313.7 million MDL, while in 2011 fell again
parcursul anului 2010, veniturile nefiscale au nregistrat o by 29.4 million MDL.
tendin de cretere, majorndu-se cu 313,7 milioane de lei, iar Special funds and means constitute less
n anul 2011 s-au redus cu 29,4 milioane de lei. significant sources for the state budget. During the
Fondurile i mijloacele speciale reprezint o surs de analyzed period the special funds and means increased
venit mai puin important. n perioada analizat, fondurile i from 1 581.9, million MDL in 2008 to 1 643.0 million
mijloacele speciale au crescut de la 1581,9 milioane de lei, n MDL in 2009. During 2010 this income decreased by
2008, la 1643 milioane de lei, n 2009. Pe parcursul anului 265.7 million MDL, and in 2011 it grew by 79 million
2010, aceast surs de venit s-a micorat cu 265,7 milioane de MDL. From the analyzed data is we can conclude that
lei, iar n 2011 a crescut cu 79 milioane de lei. Din analiza income and special funds have not been developed in a
acestor date, putem deduce c veniturile fondurilor i stable way.
mijloacelor speciale nu cunosc o evoluie stabil. The structure of budget revenues is reflected in
Structura veniturilor bugetului de stat sunt reflectate figure 4:
n diagrama din figura 4.

venituri fiscale/ tax


15000 revenues

10000 venituri nefiscale/ non-


tax revenues
5000
fonduri i m ijloace
speciale/ funds and
0
special m eans
2008 2009 2010 2011
granturi/ grants

Figura 4. Evoluia veniturilor bugetului de stat (mil. lei)/


Figure 4. The evolution of revenues to the state budget (million MDL)
Sursa: elaborat de autori n baza datelor din tabelul 2/
Source: prepared by authors based on data from the Table 2

Analiznd figura 4, ne conchidem faptul ca The analysis of figure 4 shows that tax revenues
veniturile fiscale constituie pentru bugetul de stat the main sources of the state budget. Thus, the tax
principala surs de venit. Astfel, prin intermediul revenues constitute 78% of the total state budget
veniturilor fiscale, sunt procurate pn la 78% din revenues, while the 22% consist of non-tax revenues,
veniturile bugetului de stat. Veniturile nefiscale, fondurile grants and special means.

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012 99


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i mijloacele speciale, precum i granturile acumuleaz Since tax revenues are the major source for state
22% din totalul veniturilor bugetului de stat. budget revenues, it is worth analyzing its structure by
Deoarece veniturile fiscale constituie principala components.
surs de venituri pentru bugetul de stat, este important
s analizm structura acestora.

12000
10000
8000 Im pozitul pe venitul PF/ IIT
6000 TVA/ VTA
4000 Accize/ Excises
2000 Taxe vam ale/ Custom s duties
0
2008 2009 2010 2011

Figura 5. Evoluia veniturilor fiscale prelevate n bugetul de stat (mil. lei)/


Figure 5. The evolution of tax revenues to the state budget over 2008-2011 period (MM MDL)

Sursa: elaborat de autori n baza datelor din tabelul 2/


Source: prepared by the authors based on the date from the Table 2

Conform clasificaiei bugetare, veniturile fiscale According to the budgetary classification the tax
prelevate la bugetul de stat, includ dou mari categorii: revenues include two components: direct taxes and
impozite directe i impozite indirecte. Impozitele indirecte indirect taxes. Indirect taxes have the greatest
au cea mai mare contribuie la formarea veniturilor contribution to the state budget revenues.The indirect
bugetului de stat. Ele includ: TVA, accize i taxe vamale. taxes include: VAT, excise and customs duties. The
Evoluia contribuiei TVA la formarea veniturilor VAT contribution to the state Budget is shown in
bugetului de stat poate fi observat n figura 6. figure 6.

12000
10000 10433,5
9058 9104
8000 7536,8
6000 TVA/ VTA
4000
2000
0
2008 2009 2010 2011

Figura 6. Evoluia ncasrilor din TVA n perioada 2008-2011 (mil. lei)/


Figure 6. The evolution of VAT receipts over 2008-2011 period (MM MDL)
Sursa: elaborat de autori n baza datelor din tabelul 2/
Source: prepared by the authors based on the data from the Table 2

Studiind figura 6, constatm c, n perioada analizat, From figure 6 we can see that the VAT receipts
ncasrile din TVA au cunoscut o evoluie controversat. had a controversial evolution. Thus, during 2008-2009
Astfel, n perioada 2008-2009, ncasrile din TVA au sczut the VAT receipts declined 9 058 million MDL to 7
de la 9 058 milioane lei la 7 536,8 milioane de lei. Aceast 356.8 million MDL. This reduction amounted 1 521.2
reducere a constituit 1 521,2 milioane de lei sau 17%, fiind million MDL or 17% was due to the global economic
determinat de criza economic mondial, care a avut ca crisis, which resulted in a direct reduction in
efect reducerea consumului i, nemijlocit, a ncasrilor din consumption and revenues from VAT. During 2009-
TVA. n perioada 2009-2011 incasrile din TVA au 2011 the VAT receipts showed a positive development.
nregistrat o evoluie pozitiv. Creterea nregistrat n The VAT receipts significantly increased by 2896.7
perioada analizat a constituit 2 896,7 milioane de lei, n million MDL or by 40%.
mrimi absolute, sau aproximativ 40%, n mrimi relative. The excise taxes constitute the second major

100 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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Accizele constituie o a doua surs de venituri pentru source of revenues of the state budget. Their evolution
bugetul de stat. Evoluia acestora este prezentat n figura 7. is presented in figure 7.

12000
10000 10433,5

8000
7172,6
6000 Accize/ Excises
5118,4
4000
2000 2067,2
0
2008 2009 2010 2011

Figura 7. Evoluia ncasrilor din accize n perioada 2008-2011 (mil. lei)/


Figure 7. The evolution of excises receipts over 2008-2011 period (in MM MDL)
Sursa: elaborat de autori n baza datelor din tabelul 2 /
Source: prepared by the authors based on the data from the Table 2

Analiza datelor din perioada 2008-2009 The analysis of the excise taxes for 2008-2009
evideniaz faptul c accizele nu constituie o surs indicated that they are not a stable source of receipts
constant de venit pentru bugetul de stat. Astfel, n for the state budget. Therefore, the excise taxes
perioada 2008-2010, ncasrile din accize au sczut de decreased from 7 172.6 million MDL to 2 067.2
la 7 172,6 milioane de lei la 2 067,2 milioane de lei. million MDL during 2008-2010. This decline in
Reducerea ncasrilor din accize, de asemenea, a fost excises receipts had been influenced word economic
determinat de criza economia, care a provocat crisis, which in turn led to the reduction of remittances
reducerea remitenelor, a consumului i, ca rezultat, a from abroad and household consumption, and as a
veniturilor din accize. n perioada 2010-2011, result of excise taxes. During 2010-2011 the excise
ncasrile din accize au crescut considerabil de la 2 taxes have increased considerably from 2 067.2 million
067,2 la 10 433,5 milioane de lei. Aceast cretere a MDL to 10 433.5 million MDL. This growth
constituit 83,66,3 milioane de lei, n mrimi absolute, constituted 8 366.3 million MDL OR 49,5% and was
sau 495%, n mrimi relative, i a fost determinat de determined by the modification of government policy
modificarea politicii statului n domeniul accizelor. on excise taxes. The evolution of the VAT receipts is
Evoluia ncasrilor din TVA se observ n figura 8. presented in figure 8.

1400
1200 1150 1178,6
1080,3
1000
905 Taxe vam ale/ Custom s
800
600 duties
400
200
0
2008 2009 2010 2011

Figura 8. Evoluia ncasrilor din taxe vamale n perioada 2008-2011 (mil. lei)/
Figure 8. The evolution of customs duties receipts over 2008-2011 period (in MM MDL)
Sursa: elaborat de autori n baza datelor din tabelul 2/
Source: prepared by the authors based on Table 2

n perioada 2008-2011, volumul taxelor vamale The customs duties receipts declined from 1
ncasate la buget s-a redus de la 1 150 milioane de lei la 150 million MDL to 905 million MDL during 2008-
905 milioane lei. Scderea ncasrilor din taxele vamale 2011. The decline in customs duties receipts was
a fost cauzat de diminuarea volumului schimburilor caused by the decrease of international exchanges
internaionale, ca rezultat al crizei economice, care a followed by economic crisis that affected the
afectat Republica Moldova. n perioada 2009-2010, Republic of Moldova. During 2009-2011 the
ncasrile din taxele vamale au nregistrat un trend customs duties receipts increased by 273.8 MM

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012 101


FINANE / FINANCE

ascendent, majorndu-se cu 273,8 milioane de lei, n million MDL or by 30%.


mrimi absolute sau cu 30%, n mrimi relative. Finally, we can conclude that, as the world
n urma studiului efectuat, concluzionm faptul economic crisis has affected the amount of VAT
c, dei criza mondial a afectat incasrile din TVA, receipts, excises and customs duties receipts to the
accize i taxe vamale, aceste componente ale state budget, these being the major sources of
impozitelor indirecte continu s fie surse de venit revenues for the state budget of the Republic of
principale pentru bugetul de stat al Republicii Moldova. Moldova.

Bliografie/Bibliography
1. Vcrel Iulian, Finane publice, Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti 2001, 422 p.
2. www.mf.gov.md Raport anual al Ministerul Finanelor
3. www.mf.gov.md Evoluia bugetului public naional pe anii 2000-2011
4. www.mf.gov.md Cadrul bugetar pe termen mediu 2012-2014
5. www.minfin.md Cadrul bugetar pe termen mediu 2009-2011
6. http://www.scribd.com Proiect bancar pe tema Rolul impozitelor indirecte n sistemul fiscal din
Romnia, 57 p.

102 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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DEZVOLTAREA CADRULUI DEVELOPMENT OF


METODOLOGIC PRIVIND METHODOLOGICAL
POLITICA FINANCIAR A FRAMEWORK ON FINANCIAL
UNITILOR ECONOMICE DIN POLICY OF ECONOMIC UNITS
AGRICULTUR N CONTEXTUL ENGAGED IN AGRICULTURE
STRATEGIILOR LOR DE WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF
DEZVOLTARE THEIR DEVELOPMENT
STRATEGIES
Conf. univ. dr. Nadejda BOTNARI;
Drd. Vitalii BULGAC, ASEM
Assoc. Prof., PhD Nadejda BOTNARI;
Politica financiar a unitilor economice din PhD candidate Vitalii BULGAC, AESM
agricultura Republicii Moldova trebuie s fie realizat n
cadrul urmtoarelor direcii fundamentale, care i reflect Financial policy of the Moldovan agricultural
esena: reformarea relaiilor financiare, stabilizarea economic units must be achieved in the following basic
relaiilor financiare, asanarea / redresarea financiar. directions, reflecting its essence: reforming financial
Dup obiectul de desfurare, politica de gestiune a relations, financial relations stabilization, remediation
activitii financiare a ntreprinderii se mparte n politica / financial recovery. According to the ongoing object,
de gestiune a activelor i pasivelor, politica investiional the management policy of financial activity of the
i politica de dividend. Dup etapele procesului de enterprise is divided into management policy of assets
reproducie, politica de gestiune a activitii financiare se and liabilities, investment policy and dividend policy.
mparte n politica n domeniile: produciei, repartizrii, According to the stages of reproduction process,
schimbului i consumului. financial management policy is divided into:
Politica financiar a unei uniti agricole are de production, distribution, exchange and consumption
atins urmtoarele obiective: securitate, profitabilitate, policies.
cretere economic, flexibilitate. Considerm c Financial policy of agricultural unit has
formularea obiectivelor politicii financiare trebuie achieved the following objectives: safety, profitability,
realizat n funcie de forma organizatorico-juridic a growth, flexibility. We consider that the formulation of
unitii agricole (individual sau societar). financial policy objectives must be determined by legal
forms of agricultural unit (individual or corporate).
Pornind de la situaia financiar a unitilor
economice din agricultura Republicii Moldova, n Based on the financial situation of Moldova's
opinia noastr, politica lor financiar trebuie s fie agricultural economic units, in our opinion, their
realizat n cadrul urmtoarelor direcii fundamentale, financial policy must be done in the following basic
care i reflect esena: directions, reflecting its essence:
reformarea relaiilor financiare; reformation of financial relations;
stabilizarea relaiilor financiare; stabilization of financial relations;
asanarea/redresarea financiar. financial remediation recovery.
Prima direcie de politic financiar The first direction of financial policy
reformarea relaiilor financiare presupune un reformation of financial relations involves an
diapazon extins de schimbri n organizarea financiar extended range of changes in financial organization in
n cadrul ntreprinderii agricole, precum i adoptarea the agricultural enterprise and the adoption of
msurilor de schimbare a relaiilor externe n measures in order to change the external relations in
domeniul finanelor, circulaiei monetare i creditului. finance, monetary flow and credit. Financial policy the
Politica financiar n domeniul reformrii relaiilor field of the financial relations reform is determined by
financiare este determinat de contientizarea awareness of cardinal changes in organizing not just
necesitii schimbrilor cardinale nu numai n finance but also in their effective functioning
organizarea finanelor, dar i n funcionarea lor materialized in economic and financial results of
eficient materializat n rezultatele economic- agricultural enterprises activity.
financiare a activitii ntreprinderilor agricole. Stabilization of the financial relations
Stabilizarea relaiilor financiare presupune involves unessential changes in the running structure
schimbri neeseniale n structura i caracterul and character other financial relationships and
derulrii relaiilor i proceselor financiare, dar processes, but also their correction, in order to avoid
corectarea acestora n scopul evitrii nrutirii the worsening of quantitative parameters of the
parametrilor cantitativi ai activitii de producie i production and financial activity. This financial policy

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financiare. Acest tip de politic financiar este una is weighted, realistic, conservative, without sudden
ponderat, realist, conservativ, fr schimbri brute changes in organizing the finances of the entities and
n organizarea finanelor unitilor economice i the financial relations with external environment.
relaiilor lor financiare cu mediul extern. Financial recovery policy is recommended to
Politica de asanare financiar se recomand be promoted in terms of a critical financial condition,
pentru a fi promovat n condiiile unei stri financiare including in special, exceptional situations, such as
critice, inclusiv n situaii speciale, excepionale, de evident worsening of financial stability and the
genul unei nrutiri evidente a stabilitii financiare a prospective bankruptcy. Financial recovery policy
unitilor economice i perspectivei falimentului. appears as a necessary measure and can be achieved
Politica asanrii financiare apare ca o msur necesar under the existing financial relationship for the
i poate fi realizat n baza sistemului existent de enterprise, companies, and certain companies. In other
relaii financiare pentru cazul unei ntreprinderi, firme, words, without cardinal changes of economy and
companii concrete. Cu alte cuvinte, fr transformri finance. Another variant of this policy merging the
cardinale ale economiei i finanelor. O alt variant a financial revitalization measures, proceeding from an
acestei politici mbinarea msurilor de revitalizare organizational, financial and economic support, that is
financiar plecnd de la din suport organizaional i improvement based on breaking the old economic and
financiar-economic nou, adic e vorba de asanare n financial relations of the firm, company, enterprise.
baza ruperii relaiilor financiar-economice vechi ale Such a policy does not involve stabilization of
ntreprinderii, firmei, companiei. financial relations, but the stabilization and
O asemenea politic nu presupune stabilizarea improvement of the companys financial situation. For
relaiilor financiare, ci stabilizarea i mbuntirea situaiei these reasons, frequently is amended the composition
financiare critice n care se afl ntreprinderea. Din aceste and character of many financial processes and conduct
considerente, frecvent, se modific componena i of relationships.
caracterul desfurrii multor procese i relaii financiare. In order to argument this point of view, we
Pentru a argumenta acest punct de vedere, am analyzed the financial and economic activities of
analizat activitatea economico-financiar a unitilor agricultural entities in the Republic of Moldova and
economice agricole din Republica Moldova, clasificndu- classified them in the following categories:
le n trei categorii: agricultural economic units that have
uniti economice agricole care au nregistrat registered profits;
profit; agricultural economic units that incurred
uniti economice agricole care au suferit losses;
pierderi; agricultural economic units that have not
uniti economice agricole care nu au registered any losses or profits.
nregistrat nici pierderi nici profit. The results of this analysis are represented in
Rezultatele acestei analize sunt prezentate n tabelul 1. table 1:
Astfel, observm n perioada 2007-2010 o tendin Thus, during 2007-2010 we observe a tendency
de reducere continu a ponderii unitilor economice of continuous reduction of the share of agricultural
agricole n numrul total de ntreprinderi din economia economic units in the total number of enterprises in
naional (care au prezentat rapoarte financiare la Biroul national economy (which presented financial reports to
Naional de Statistic) cu 0,43 p.p.: de la 5.53%, n 2007, the National Bureau of Statistics) by 0.43 percentage
pn la 5,1 n 2010 (tabelul 2). points: from 5.53% in 2007 to 5.1 in 2010 (table 2).
Totodat, ponderea unitilor economice The share of agricultural economic units,
agricole, care nu au activitate n numrul total de without activity, in the total number of enterprises in
ntreprinderi din economia naional este n medie de the national economy is on average 3 to 4% depending
3-4%, n funcie de an. on the year.
Ponderea unitilor economice agricole, care au The share of agricultural economic units, who
obinut profit, n numrul total de ntreprinderi din obtained profit in the total number of enterprises in the
economia naional, dei, n 2009, a cunoscut o reducere national economy already experienced a reduction in
(5,17%), n anul 2010, aceasta a crescut pn la 6,92% 2009 (5,17%), in 2010 increased to 6,92% the highest
cel mai nalt nivel din perioada analizat (2007-2010). level within the analyzed period (2007-2010).
Aceiai tendin pozitiv poate fi evideniat i n The same positive trend can be seen in the
cazul evoluiei ponderii unitilor economice agricole care evolution of the share of non-agricultural units who
au suportat pierderi n numrul total de ntreprinderi din suffered losses in the total number of enterprises in the
economia naional: cel mai nalt nivel fiind nregistrat n national economy: the highest level being registered in
2009 (5,76% sub impactul crizei financiare 2009 (5.76%-under the impact of the international
internaionale), cel mai sczut nivel n 2010 (3,98%). financial crisis), the lowest level in 2010 (2.5%).

104 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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Tabelul 1/ Table 1

Repartizarea unitilor economice din economia naional, inclusiv cele din agricultur n funcie de
rezultatul financiar, mii lei/
Distribution of economic units in the national economy, including those from agriculture based on the
financial result, thousand MDL

ntreprinderi care au Intreprinderi care au ntreprinderi care nu au


obinut profit/ suferit pierderi/ rezultat financair/

Numrul de ntreprinderi care nu au activitate/ The


Companies that have Companies that have Companies that have

Profit (+), pierdere (-) pn la impozitare/


obtained profit suffered losses not a financial result

number of enterprises that do not have activity

numrul de ntreprinderi/number
Profit (+), loss, (-) Before taxation
Numrul total de ntreprinderi/
Total number of enterprises

numrul de ntreprinderi/

numrul de ntreprinderi/
number of enterprises
number of enterprises
rezultatul financiar/

rezultatul financiar/
in% from the total

in% from the total

in% from the total


financial result

financial result
n % din total/

n % din total/

n % din total/
of enterprises

Total economie
naional / Total 46704 13169761 1287 20229 43 17575370 22011 47 -4405608 3177 7
national economy
2010

Agricultura,
economia vnatului
2384 1088201 49 1400 59 1328360 876 37 -240159 59 2
i silvicultura /
Agriculture, forestry

Total economie
naional / Total 44633 3666852 1358 17838 40 12442586 22462 50 -8775734 2975 7
national economy
2009

Agricultura,
economia vnatului
2325 -191128 46 922 40 531906 1294 56 -723034 63 3
i silvicultura /
Agriculture, forestry

Total economie
naional / Total 42121 15549360 1350 19102 45 18864288 18858 45 -3314929 2811 7
national economy
2008

Agricultura,
economia vnatului
2222 801994 59 1187 53 1034886 919 51 -232891 57 3
i silvicultura /
Agriculture, forestry

Total economie
naional / Total 39987 10836259 2123 16740 42 13209861 18543 46 -2373602 2581 6
national economy
2007

Agricultura,
economia vnatului
2211 497191 67 1096 50 790124 1001 45 -292932 47 2
i silvicultura /
Agriculture, forestry

Sursa: elaborat de autor dup informaia Biroului Naional de Statistic./


Source: elaborated by the author based on information from the National Bureau of Statistics.

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012 105


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Tabelul 2/ Table 2

Locul unitilor economice agricole n totalul unitilor economice din economia naional
a Republicii Moldova, dup rezultatele financiare ale acestora, %/
Place of the agricultural units in total economic entities of national economy
of Moldova, by their financial results,%

obinut profit, n numrul total de ntreprinderi


Ponderea unitilor economice agricole, care nu

Ponderea unitilor economice agricole, care nu


Ponderea unitilor economice agricole, care au

Ponderea unitilor economice agricole, care au

The share of agricultural economic entities that


which have obtained profit in the total number

have not financial result in the total number of


au activitate, n numrul total de ntreprinderi

which have not engaged in the total number of


numrul total de ntreprinderi din economia

share of agricultural economic entities who


ntreprinderi din economia naional / The
The share of agricultural economic entities

The share of agricultural economic entities


Ponderea unitilor economice agricole n

au rezultat financiar, n numrul total de


The share of total agricultural economic

ntreprinderi din economia naional /


of enterprises in the national economy

suportat pierderi, n numrul total de

suffered losses in the total number of


enterprises in the national economy

enterprises in the national economy


enterprises in national economy

enterprises in national economy


din economia naional /

din economia naional /


naional /

2010 5,10 3,81 6,92 3,98 1,86


2009 5,21 3,39 5,17 5,76 2,12
2008 5,28 4,37 6,21 4,87 2,03
2007 5,53 3,16 6,55 5,40 1,82

Sursa: elaborat de autor dup informaia Biroului Naional de Statistic./


Source: elaborated by the author based on information from the National Bureau of Statistics.

Analiza ntreprinderilor agricole dup The analysis of agricultural enterprises, by their


rezultatele lor financiare ne permite s identificm financial results, allows us to identify the following
urmtoarele evoluii i tendine (fig. 1): development trends (figure 1):
numrul de uniti agricole, care nu au activitate, n number of farm units, without activity, in the
numrul total de ntreprinderi agricole are o total number of agricultural enterprises, has
evoluie de reducere, cu excepia din anul 2009, an evolution of reduction, except in the year
scznd de la 3%, n 2007, la 2%, n 2010; 2009, reducing from 3% in 2007 to 2% in
ponderea unitilor economice agricole care au 2010;
obinut profit, n numrul total de ntreprinderi share of agricultural economic units, that
agricole cunoate o tendin relativ de cretere obtained profit, in the total number of
(dac nu lum n anul 2009): de la 49,6%, n agricultural enterprises, knows a trend of
2007, pn la 58,7%, n 2010; relative increase (if not considering the year
ponderea unitilor economice agricole, care au 2009) from 49,6% in 2007 to 58,7% in 2010;
suportat pierderi, n numrul total de share of agricultural economic units, that
ntreprinderi agricole urmeaz aceeai tendin suffered losses, in the total number of
relativ favorabil (nelund n calcul anul 2009). agricultural enterprises has the same
Observm o reducere de la 45,3%, n 2007, la favorable trend (not taking into account
36,7%, n 2010. 2009). We notice see a reduction from 45,3%
Prin urmare, n funcie de potenialul unitii in 2007 to 36,7% in 2010.
economice agricole de a genera profit, se impune Therefore, depending on the potential of the
necesitatea promovrii uneia din cele trei tipuri de agricultural unit to generate profit, it is necessary to
politic financiar: de reformare a relaiilor financiare; promote one of the three types of financial policy:
de stabilizare a relaiilor financiare i de asanare / reform of financial relations; stabilization of financial
redresare financiar. relations and financial recovery/remediation.
Dup structura politicii financiare, n cadrul Following the structure of financial policy in the
unitilor economice agricole vom distinge: economic agricultural units we distinguish:

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politica bugetar, inclusiv fiscal, vamal, politica budgetary policy, including taxation,
primirii garaniilor i alocaiilor bugetare de la customs, policy and budget allocations
diferite verigi ale sistemului bugetar; received guarantees from different levels of
politica n domeniul decontrilor i altor pli budget system;
contractuale, de acordare a creditelor payment policy and other contractual
comerciale, de contractare a creditelor bancare payments, trade financing, contracting bank
i altor mijloace de mprumut; credit and other lending facilities;
politica de finanare a cheltuielilor i consumurilor financing policy of consumption and
curente n scopul asigurrii continuitii activitii expenditure to ensure continuity of current
financiar-economice, dar i a cheltuielilor de o financial and economic activity, but also one
singur dat, inclusiv investiionale; time expenses, including investment;
politica financiar-contabil de reflectare a financial and accounting policies to reflect
activitii financiare n rapoarte. the financial activity in reports.
Pornind de la perioada de cuprindere n procesul de Starting from the period of enrollment within
planificare i termenul de realizare, politica financiar a the planning and implementation period, financial
unitilor economice din agricultur trebuie divizat i policy of agricultural economic units should be divided
considerat dup urmtoarele tipuri: and considered by the following types:
operativ; operative;
curent; current;
pe termen lung. long term.

Figura 1. Repartizarea unitilor economice din agricultur dup rezultatul lor financiar/
Figure 1. Distribution of economic entities from agriculture by their financial results

Sursa: elaborat de autor n baza informaiei BNS. /


Source: elaborated by the author based on information from NBS.

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Figura 2. Interdependena strategiilor de dezvoltare i politicii financiare /


Figure 2. Interdependence of development strategies

Sursa: elaborate de autor/


Source: elaborated by the author

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FINANE / FINANCE

Gestiunea operativ a activitii financiare a unitii Operative management of the financial activities
economice cuprinde asemenea perioade: zile, sptmni i also includes periods of economic agricultural unit:
lun. day, week and month.
Politica curent se impune ca fiind politica Current policy appears as short-term financial
financiar pe termen scurt, desfurat trimestrial n cadrul policy, conducted quarterly in a year. It involves the
unui an. Ea presupune realizarea practic a tacticii practical implementation of the financial tactics. The
financiare a ntreprinderii. Ultima nu trebuie neleas ca last should not be understood as short-term financial
de politic financiar pe termen scurt. policy.
n mod practic, tactica se realizeaz prin In practical terms, the tactics is achieved by
desfurarea politicii financiare curente i a celei operative. carrying out the current financial and operational
Tactica ntotodeauna se intercoreleaz cu strategia, policy. Tactics is always correlated with the strategy,
realizat prin promovarea politicii financiare pe termen by promoting long-term financial policy. Thus, strategy
lung. Prin urmare, strategia i tactica sunt primare, iar and tactics are primary and the conduct of the current
desfurarea politicii financiare curente i a celei pe termen and bong term are secondary. Long-term financial
lung sunt secundare. Politica financiar pe termen lung i policy finds its realization not only in the direct current
gsete materializarea direct nu numai n activitatea financial activity, but also in the operative one.
financiar curent, dar i n cea operativ. According to the object of the ongoing activities
Dup obiectul de desfurare, politica de gestiune a of financial management is divided into: asset
activitii financiare a ntreprinderii se mparte n politic management policy and liabilities policy management.
de gestiune a activelor i politic de gestiune a pasivelor. The most important constituent of economic entities
Cele mai importante constituente ale activelor unitilor assets are the fixed and the current ones, but the
economice agricole sunt cele fixe i curente, iar n structure of liabilities the own borrowed sources.
structura pasivelor sursele de finanare proprii i In interaction with legal entities
mprumutate. representatives and policy advocates should consider
n interaciunea cu persoanele juridice their financial guidelines adopted regarding
reprezentani i promotori ai politicii de stat, ntreprinderile collaboration with:
agricole trebuie s in cont n activitatea lor financiar de central economic entities and their
orientrile adoptate privind la colaborarea cu: subdivisions;
organele economice centrale i regional and district management
subdiviziunile lor; authorities of administrative-economic
organele regionale i raionale de gestiune a activity;
activitii administrativ-economice; LPA authorities;
organele APL; Ministries, funds, agencies, services, etc.
ministerele, fondurile, ageniile, serviciile performing functions in state economic
etc. care ndeplinesc funciile de gestiune management of the account or by
economic din stat n numele statului sau delegation from the state.
delegate de ctre stat. According to the reproduction stages of the
Dup etapele procesului de reproducie, politica de process, the financial management policy acrivity is
gestiune a activitii financiare se mparte n: politici n divided into: production, distribution, exchange and
domeniile: produciei, repartizrii, schimbului i consumption polices. Figure 2 shows the inter
consumului. dependencies between development strategies and
Figura 2 reprezint interdependenele strategiilor de financial policies promoted by economic agricultural
dezvoltare i politicii financiare promovate de unitile units from agriculture.
economice din agricultur. In our opinion, the financial policy of the unit
n opinia noastr, politica financiar a unei uniti has to achieve the following objectives:
agricole are de atins urmtoarele obiective: security, expressing the demands of
de securitate, care exprim exigenele financial equilibrium through the
echilibrului financiar, prin nivelul fondului Revolving Fund, coefficient of leverage
de rulment, al coeficientului de ndatorare i and revenues;
al ncasrilor; profitability, as an expression of
de profitabilitate, ca expresie a eficienei efficiency of capital use, illustrated
folosirii capitalurilor, ilustrat de ratele de economic and financial profitability rates;
rentabilitate economic i financiar; economic growth, as a requirement to
de cretere economic, ca cerin a luptei de fight competition, measured by indices of
concuren, evaluat prin indicii de cretere relative increasing of total assets or
a activului total sau a cifrei de afaceri; turnover;
de flexibilitate, care reflect capacitatea flexibility, reflecting the company's
ntreprinderii de a se adapta circumstanelor

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dificile (flexibilitatea defensiv) prin capacity to adapt to difficult


neutilizarea integral a capacitilor circumstances (flexibility defensive) by
financiare (de autofinanare, de ndatorare) not fully of financial capacity (cash flow,
sau de a valorifica oportunitile ce vizeaz debt) or to exploit opportunities that aim
obinerea sau sporirea profitului, a cifrei de to achieve or increase profitability,
afaceri etc. (flexibilitatea ofensiv). turnover, etc. (flexibility offensive).
Considerm c formularea obiectivelor politicii We consider that the formulation of financial
financiare trebuie realizat n funcie de forma policy objectives should be guided by organizational
organizatorico-juridic a unitii agricole (individual sau and legal form of agricultural unit (individual or
societar). corporate).
Pentru ntreprinderea agricol familial sau For a family or individual agricultural enterprise
individual (care poate fi creat i ca o societate de (that may be created as a corporation) functional
capitaluri), autonomia funcional joac un rol esenial. autonomy is essential. This autonomy is protected
Aceast autonomie este protejat prin gestionarea foarte through careful management of financial equilibrium.
atent a echilibrului financiar. n situaia unui In case of a financial disequilibrium, the manager has
dezechilibru financiar, managerul are de ales ntre faliment to choose between bankruptcy or transfer the control of
sau cedarea ctre creditori a controlului asupra firmei, la the enterprise to the creditors of these enterprises, the
aceste ntreprinderi, dezvoltarea este realizat exclusiv prin development is carried out exclusively by self-
autofinanare. n consecin, firma este condus astfel nct financing. Consequently, the company is managed in
rentabilitatea s degaje un flux de resurse proprii suficient such a way that the profitability givies off a flow of
asigurrii dezvoltrii, iar dac profiturile nu sunt la nivelul resources sufficient to ensure their development and if
ateptat, investiiile se limiteaz la posibilitile existente. the profits are not expected then investments are
Varietatea mare a ntreprinderilor societare, n care limited to possibilities.
se creeaz numeroase tipuri de relaii ntre manageri i The wide variety of corporate enterprises, where
acionari, determin diverse situaii de realizare a politicii many types of relationships between managers
financiare. n general, cea mai mare parte a acestor shareholders are created, determines various situations
ntreprinderi au ca obiectiv al politicii financiare profitul, of financial policy making. Generaly, for most of these
indiferent dac managerii sunt i acionari majoritari, dac companies, profit is the objective of financial policy,
sunt grupuri de acionari principali sau dac acionariatul iven if managers are the majority of shareholders, or
este dispersat i mai puin organizat. the major shareholders or groups of shareholders are
Implementarea politicii financiare a ntreprinderii dispersed rather than organized.
agricole, avnd ca obiectiv maximizarea valorii sale de The financial policy implementation aims the
pia, este motivat astfel: maximization of the market value and is motivated as
ntreprinderea aparine proprietarilor follows:
(acionarilor, deintorilor de pri sociale, enterprise belongs to owners
ntreprinztorilor individuali), or acetia au (shareholders, holders of social parties,
tot interesul s maximizeze valoarea entrepreneurs) or they have every
investiiei; incentive to maximize investment value;
se ine seama de incertitudini, de riscuri i, take into account the uncertainties, risks
mai ales, de influena factorului timp, and especially influence of time factors,
elemente caracteristice mediului economic elements of the agricultural economic
agricol; environment;
obiectivul este operaional, n sensul c orice the objective is operational, i.e. any
decizie financiar, care urmrete financial decision which seeks to
maximizarea valorii, este bun. maximize the value is good.
Acest obiectiv trebuie considerat esenial, iar This objective should be considered essential
eventualele obiective trebuie s fie subordonate lui. and any other objectives must be subordinated to it.

Bibliografie/Bibliography:
1. Filip Gh. Viabilitatea financiar a ntreprinderii. n: Dimensiunea financiar a ntreprinderii. Iai: Editura
Sedcom Libris, 1995.
2. Bistriceanu Gh. .a. Decizia financiar n unitatea economic. Bucureti: Editura tiinific i
Enciclopedic, 1980.

110 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


INFORMATIC / INFORMATICS

SPERANA MATEMATIC A MATHEMATICAL EXPECTANCY


ABATERII RELATIVE MEDII N OF MEAN RELATIVE
SISTEME RP DEVIATION IN PR SYSTEMS

Prof.univ. Ion BOLUN, ASEM Professor Ion BOLUN, AESM

n scopul determinrii speranei matematice In order to determine the mathematical


*
I a Abaterii relative medii pentru soluiile optime n expectancy I of Mean relative deviation for optimal
*
d d

sisteme de votare cu reprezentare proporional, sunt solutions in voting systems with proportional
descrise patru abordri: direct, simplist, puternic representation, four approaches are described: direct,
simplificat i simplificat. Pentru ultimele trei din simple, highly simplified and simplified. For the last
acestea, sunt obinute expresii analitice respective. three of these, the respective analytical expressions are
Este dat reprezentarea grafic a dependenei obtained. A graphical representation of the
*
speranei matematice I d* de numrul total de mathematical expectancy I d dependence on the total
mandate M i cel de partide n i este efectuat analiza number M of seats and the total number n of parties is
comparativ a rezultatelor analitice obinute. Sunt done and a comparative analysis of obtained analytical
*
*
estimate intervalele varierii I d . De exemplu, la n = 5 results is made. Intervals of I d varying are estimated.
*
i M = 100 are loc I d 1,2 1,4%, iar la n = 5 i M For example, at n = 5 and M = 100 takes place I d
*

1,2 1,4%, and at n = 5 and M = 500 takes place I d


*
= 500 are loc I d 0,24 0,29%.
*

0,24 0,29%.
1. Introducere. n [2] este argumentat
oportunitatea folosirii n calitate de indice de 1. Introduction. In [2], the opportunity of using
disproporionalitate, n sisteme de votare cu reprezentare the Mean relative deviation index Id, as index of
proporional (RP), a Abaterii relative medii Id. Problema disproportionality in voting systems with proportional
minimizrii disproporionalitii n asemenea sisteme este representation (PR), is argued. The problem of
formulat n [3]. n cercetri comparative, dar i pentru minimizing the disproportionality in such systems is
diverse prognoze, prezint interes domeniul de definiie al formulated in [3]. In comparative analyses, but also in
* various forecasts, the definition domain of quantities
valorilor I d ale indicelui Id pentru soluiile optime. Acest
domeniu este determinat n [4]. Ar extinde posibilitile
I d* of index Id for optimal solutions is of interest. This
cercetrilor nominalizate cunoaterea, de asemenea, a domain is determined in [4]. It would expand the
* * possibilities of mentioned research knowing also of
speranei matematice I d a valorilor I d, care i se * *
mathematical expectancy I d of quantities I d , which is
cerceteaz n aceast lucrare. Aceasta ar putea servi, de
asemenea, pentru prognoze privind disproporionalitatea investigated in this paper. This could also serve to
reprezentrii n scrutine RP viitoare concrete. forecast the representation disproportionality in future
Cele mai cunoscute practici privind folosirea particular PR elections.
sistemelor de votare RP sunt, probabil, cele ce in de The most known practices with reference to the
scrutinele electorale. De aceea, n continuare, use of PR voting systems are, probably, the one related
aspectele abordate privind indicii de to elections. Therefore, further, the addressed aspects
disproporionalitate se vor cerceta, fr a diminua din of indices of disproportionality will be investigated, not
universalitate, prin prisma scrutinelor electorale cu harming the universality, through the party-lists
reprezentare proporional de liste de partid (coaliii, (blocks, coalitions) PR elections. Also, it is considered
blocuri). De asemenea, se consider c toi alegtorii that all voters (deciders) have equal rights, i.e. all votes
(decidenii) sunt egali n drepturi, adic toate voturile have the same weight; results, obtained in such
au aceeai pondere; rezultatele obinute la o asemenea assumptions, can be, as a rule, relatively easy extended
supoziie pot fi, de regul, extinse relativ uor i for elections with weighted votes.
pentru scrutine cu voturi ponderate. First, in section 2, basic notions and issues used
Mai nti, n seciunea 2, sunt descrise noiunile is this work, including the problem of optimizing seats
i aspectele de baz folosite n lucrare, inclusiv distribution among parties, are described. Later, the
problema de optimizare a distribuirii mandatelor ntre investigated set of elections is characterized (section 3)
partide. Ulterior, este dat caracteristica setului de and expressions with reference to the mathematical
scrutine pentru cercetare (seciunea 3) i sunt expectancy of Mean relative deviation for optimal
determinate expresiile privind sperana matematic a solutions are determined (section 4). Finally, in section

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Abaterii relative medii pentru soluiile optime 5, a comparative analysis of obtained analytical results
(seciunea 4). n sfrit, n seciunea 5 este dat analiza is given.
comparativ a rezultatelor analitice obinute. 2. Preliminary considerations. Let be: M
2. Consideraii preliminare. Fie: M reprezint total number of seats in the elective body; n
numrul total de mandate n organul electiv; n number of parties that have reached or exceeded the
numrul de partide care au atins sau depit pragul representation threshold; V total valid votes cast
electoral; V numrul total de voturi exprimate for the n parties; Vi total valid votes cast for party
valabil pentru cele n partide; Vi numrul de voturi i, and xi number of seats to be allocated to party i
exprimate n favoarea partidului i, iar xi numrul de at i = 1, n . Then the Mean relative deviation index
mandate ce se aloc partidului i la i = 1, n . Atunci [3], noted here Id, specifies the average relative error
indicele Abaterii relative medii [3], aici notat Id, per election of the representation in the elective
specific eroarea relativ medie pe scrutin a body of an electors rights of value d = M/V and is
reprezentrii n organul electiv a drepturilor de valoare determined as
d = M/V ale unui alegtor i se determin ca:
d n
d n
Id = 100 = vi mi , % mandate, (1) Id = 100 = vi mi , % seats, (1)
d i =1 d i =1
unde d = M/V este valoarea unui vot, vi = 100Vi/V este where d = M/V is a vote value, vi = 100Vi/V is the
procentul voturilor acumulate de partidul i, mi = percentage of votes gained by party i, mi = 100xi/M
100xi/M procentul mandatelor distribuite partidului the percentage of seats distributed to party i, and d
i, iar d abaterea absolut medie pe scrutin mean absolute deviation per election (totality of V
(totalitatea de V alegtori) a drepturilor de valoare d electors) of rights of value d of an elector.
ale unui alegtor.
1 n 1 n d n
d =
V i =1
d iVi = Vi | d i d | =
V i =1
| vi mi | .
100 i =1
(2)

n (2), di = xi/Vi este valoarea reprezentrii, iar In (2), di = xi/Vi is the value of the
di = |di d| abaterea (eroarea) absolut a representation, and di = |di d| the absolute
reprezentrii n cele xi mandate a drepturilor de deviation (error) of the representation in the xi seats of
valoare d ale fiecrui alegtor care a votat pentru the value d of rights of each voter that has voted for
partidul i. Abaterea relativ medie 100d/d (vezi (1)), party i. The mean relative deviation 100d/d (see (1)),
msurat n procente a d fa de d, este egal, dup measured in percent of d by d, is equal, as it is proved
cum este demonstrat n [3], cu procentul mandatelor in [3], to the percentage of seats by which the
prin care distribuirea {x1, x2, , xn} difer de distribution {x1, x2, , xn}differs from the distribution,
distribuirea, care ar asigura reprezentarea egal a which can ensure the equal representation in the
drepturilor alegtorilor (de valoare d pentru fiecare) n elective body of electors rights (of value d for each of
organul electiv, ceea ce i este specificat n (1). them), that is what is specified in (1).
Att domeniul de definiie a Id pentru soluiile Both the Id definition domain for optimal
* *
optime, ct i sperana matematic I d a indicelui Id solutions and the mathematical expectancy I d of
* *
pentru soluiile optime I d , depind de problema de index Id for optimal solutions I d , depend on the
optimizare, n care Id se folosete n calitate de criteriu optimization problem, where Id is used as optimization
de optimizare. n aceast lucrare se va folosi criterion. In this paper, the optimization problem for
problema de optimizare a distribuirii mandatelor the distribution of seats between n parties, formulated
ntre cele n partide formulat n [3]. Sunt cunoscute in [3], will be used. Let are known quantities (integers):
mrimile (numere naturale): M; n; Vi, i = 1, n i: M; n; V; Vi, i = 1, n where
n n

Vi = V
i =1
(3) V
i =1
i =V (3)

Se cere s se determine mrimile xi ( i = 1, n ) It is required to determine the values of


numere ntregi, care ar asigura valoarea minimal a unknowns xi ( i = 1, n ) integers, which would ensure
indicelui Id i anume: the minimization of the index Id value
n n
I d = vi mi min (4) I d = vi mi min (4)
i =1 i =1

112 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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cu respectarea restriciilor: in compliance with restrictions:


n n

x
i =1
i = M; (5) xi =1
i = M; (5)

xi 1, i = 1, n. (6) xi 1, i = 1, n. (6)
Se poate observa uor c problema (4)-(6) este una de It is easily seen that problem (4) - (6) is one of
programare matematic n numere ntregi. mathematical programming in integers.
Conform [1, 3], se consider proporional According to [1, 3], proportional is considered
distribuirea xi ( i = 1, n ) care asigur egalitile: the distribution xi ( i = 1, n ), which ensure the equalities
mi = vi , i = 1, n . (7) mi = vi , i = 1, n . (7)
La satisfacerea egalitilor (7), criteriul (4) ia valoarea 0. When meet the equality (7), criterion (4) takes the
ns probabilitatea ca n scrutine concrete s se satisfac value 0. In real elections, the probability to satisfy the
egalitile (7), la mrimile xi ( i = 1, n ) numere ntregi, equalities (7), at quantities xi ( i = 1, n ) integers, is
este foarte mic. De aceea, n scrutine RP reale are loc o very small. Thus, in real PR elections there is a certain
anumit disproporionalitate n distribuirea mandatelor disproportion of seats distribution among parties, the
ntre partide, valoarea criteriului (4) fiind diferit de value of criterion (4) being different of 0. Knowing the
valoarea 0. Cunoaterea domeniului de definiie i, de definition domain and, also, the mathematical
* * *
asemenea, a speranei matematice I d a valorilor indicelui expectancy I d of index I d values for optimal
I d* pentru soluiile optime extinde informaiile despre solutions extends the information about possible values
*
* of I d in particular elections in tendency to minimize
posibilele valori ale I d n scrutine concrete n tendina de
the value of index Id.
minimizare a valorii indicelui Id. Using Id as index of disproportionality, in [3] the
Folosind Id, n calitate de indice de *
disproporionalitate, n [3] este obinut expresia analytical expression for the disproportionality I d of
*
analitic a disproporionalitii I d a soluiei optime the optimal solution for a particular election is obtained
pentru un scrutin concret:

200 M M 1 M
I d* =
V j =1
(Q R j ) = 200
M

V
R j
,
(8)
j =1
unde Q = V/M este cota ordinar (Hare), iar where Q = V/M is the ordinary (Hare) quota, and Rj,
Rj, j = 1, M sunt cele mai mari M resturi din cele j = 1, M are the largest M remainders, from the
Vi = Vi aiQ, i = 1, n , ai = Vi/Q i: Vi = Vi aiQ, i = 1, n , ai = Vi/Q ones, and
n
1 1 n
M = Vi . (9) M = Vi (9).
Q i =1 Q i =1
* *
Din (8) se poate observa c I d depinde de From (8), it can be seen that I d depends on the
diferena rapoartelor M/M i (R1 + R2 + + RM)/V. difference between ratios M/M and (R1 + R2 + +
Sperana matematic I
*
a I
*
depinde att de RM)/V.
d d
specificul problemei de optimizare, reflectat n soluia The mathematical expectancy I d* of I d*
(8), ct i de caracteristicile setului de scrutine pentru depends on both, the specificity of optimization
care aceasta se determin. Aceste caracteristici sunt problem, reflected in the solution (8), and features of
prezentate n seciunea 3. the elections set, for which it is determined. These
3. Caracteristica setului de scrutine. features are described in section 3.
Pentru ca, prin simulare, s determinm 3. Elections set characteristic.
* *
valoarea I d , este necesar folosirea unui numr K de To determine the quantity I d by simulation, it
scrutine suficient de mare. Pentru toate cele K is necessary to use a sufficiently large number K of
scrutine, o parte din datele iniiale M, n, V i Vik, elections. For all the K elections, a part of the initial

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i = 1, n , k = 1, K se pot considera fixe (constante), data M, n, V and Vik, i = 1, n , k = 1, K , can be


iar cealalt parte stocastice. Din esena scrutinelor, considered fixed (constant) and the other part
se poate observa c cel mai indicat, pentru a fi fix n stochastic. From the elections essence, it can be
cercetri, este numrul de partide n; urmeaz, n observed that the most appropriate, to be fixed in
descretere, numrul de mandate M, iar apoi numrul research, is the number n of parties; follows, in
total de voturi V. n cazul unui numr total de voturi decreasing order, the number M of seats, and after the
V(k) pentru scrutinul k stocastic, valoarea mrimii V(k) total number V of votes. In case of a stochastic number
poate fi generat aleatoriu cu repartiie uniform ntr- of votes V(k) for the election k, the size of V(k) can be
un interval [Vmin; Vmax], definit pentru toate cele K generated randomly with uniform distribution in the
scrutine. n acelai mod poate fi definit i valoarea interval [Vmin; Vmax], defined for all the K elections.
stocastic a mrimii M. Similarly can be defined the stochastic value of M, too.
n aceast lucrare se va cerceta doar cazul: V = We will investigate in this paper only the case: V =
constant, M = constant, n = constant (evident, pot fi constant, M = constant, n = constant (obviously, it can be
cercetate aparte diverse cazuri de valori ale mrimilor M, investigated apart various cases of quantities for values M,
V i n). Din contra, pentru fiecare i = 1, n , numrul de V and n). In contrast, for each i = 1, n , the number Vi of
voturi Vi, acumulate de ctre partidul i, se va considera votes, accumulated by party i, will be considered a random
mrime aleatoare. Fie, pentru fiecare i = 1, n , mrimile value. Let, for each i = 1, n , the values Vik, k = 1, K be
Vik, k = 1, K sunt realizrile concrete ale Vi, iar resturile concrete achievements of Vi, and remainders

Vik = Vik aikQ, i = 1, n , (10) Vik = Vik aikQ, i = 1, n , (10)

unde aik := dVik, d = M/V, sunt realizrile concrete where aik := dVik, d = M/V, are concrete achievements
ale mrimilor aleatoare Vi, i = 1, n . of the stochastic values Vi, i = 1, n .
Valorile mrimilor Vik, i = 1, n se vor The values of Vik, i = 1, n will be determined
determina n modul urmtor: Aleatoriu, se vor genera as follows: randomly, with uniform distribution in
n numere pik, i = 1, n cu distribuie uniform n interval [0, 1], n numbers pik, i = 1, n will be
intervalul [0; 1]. Apoi se vor calcula valorile Vik, generated. Then, according to formula
i = 1, n conform formulei:
pik
p Vik = V , i = 1, n . (11)
Vik = V n ik , i = 1, n . (11) n

pik p
i =1
ik

i =1
Astfel, se asigur att distribuirea aleatoare a the values of Vik, i = 1, n will be calculated.
voturilor cu repartiie uniform ntre partide, ct i Thus, the random distribution of votes with
respectarea egalitii V1k + V2k + V3k + + Vnk = V. n uniform repartition among parties and the compliance
with the equality V1k + V2k + V3k + + Vnk = V are
asemenea condiii, pentru fiecare i = 1, n , resturile
ensured. In such conditions, remainders Vik = Vik aikQ
Vik = Vik aikQ iau, de asemenea, valoare aleatoriu
uniform n intervalul [0; Q). Deci mrimile Vi, take, for each i = 1, n , uniform random values in the
i = 1, n au repartiie aleatoare uniform de intensitate interval [0; Q), too. So, values Vi, i = 1, n have uniform
1/Q n intervalul [0; Q). random distribution of intensity 1/Q in interval [0; Q).
* *
Conform (8), ca s determinm valoarea I dk
According to (8), to determine the value I dk of
*
a I d pentru scrutinul k, este necesar s cunoatem I d* for the election k, it is necessary to know the value
valoarea Mk a M i, de asemenea, cele mai mari Mk of M and, also, the largest Mk remainders
Mk resturi Rjk, j = 1, M k din cele Vik, i = 1, n . Rjk, j = 1, M k from the cele Vik, i = 1, n ones.
Fr a tirbi din universalitatea abordrii, se va Without altering the universality of the approach, it
considera c: will be considered that
Rjk Rj+1,k, j = 1, n 1 , k = 1, K . (12) Rjk Rj+1,k, j = 1, n 1 , k = 1, K . (12)
De menionat c ordonarea n descretere a To note, that ordering in decreasing order the

114 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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resturilor Vik, i = 1, n , pentru fiecare scrutin k, remainders Vik, i = 1, n , for each election k, and
obinnd irul (12), nu se rsfrnge asupra obtaining the sequence (12), does not reflect to the
uniformitii repartiiei mrimilor Vi, i = 1, n n uniformity of values Vi, i = 1, n distribution in
intervalul [0; Q). interval [0; Q).
De asemenea, prin definiie, apar relaiile: Also, by definition, there take place the relations
0 Rjk < Q, j = 1, n . (13) 0 Rjk < Q, j = 1, n . (13)

Cunoscnd Rjk, j = 1, n i, innd cont c Knowing Rjk, j = 1, n and taking into account
n n n n

R jk = Vik , k = 1, K ,
j =1 i =1
n mod similar cu that R jk = Vik , k = 1, K ,
j =1 i =1
similarly to (9),

(9), avem we have:


n
1 1 n
M k = R jk .
Q j =1
(14) M k = R jk .
Q j =1
(14)

De menionat c domeniile de definiie ale To note, that the definition domains of


resturilor Rjk, j = 1, n sunt diferite i, evident, mai remainders Rjk, j = 1, n are different and, obviously,
nguste comparativ cu intervalul [0; Q) din (13). narrower than the interval [0; Q) from (13). These
Aceste domenii de definiie, innd cont c definition areas, taking into account that
M k 1, n 1 , pot fi determinate relativ uor n M k 1, n 1 , can be relatively easily determined
baza relaiilor (12) i (13), de exemplu prin inducie basing the relations (12) and (13), for example by
(vezi tabelul 1), i obinem: induction (table 1), and are:

M k Q ;
R1k ;Q (15)
n
(M k j + 1)Q
; Q , j = 2, M k ;
n j +1
R jk . (16)

0; M Q
k
, j = M k + 1, n 1;
j

M k Q .
Rnk 0; (17)
n
Tabelul 1/Table 1
Domeniile de definiie ale resturilor Rjk, j = 1, n pentru n = 2,6
Definition domains of remainders Rjk, j = 1, n for n = 2,6 /

M
n Rjk
1 2 3 4 5
R1k [Q/2; Q)
2
R2k (0; Q/2]
R1k [Q/3; Q) [2Q/3; Q)
3 R2k (0; Q/2) (Q/2; Q)
R3k (0; Q/3] (0; 2Q/3]
R1k [Q/4; Q) [Q/2; Q) [3Q/4; Q)
R2k (0; Q/2) (Q/3; Q) (2Q/3; Q)
4
R3k (0; Q/3) (0; 2Q/3) (Q/2; Q)
R4k (0; Q/4] (0; Q/2] (0; 3Q/4]

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M
n Rjk
1 2 3 4 5
R1k [Q/5; Q) [2Q/5; Q) [3Q/5; Q) [4Q/5; Q)
R2k (0; Q/2) (Q/4; Q) (Q/2; Q) (3Q/4; Q)
5 R3k (0; Q/3) (0; 2Q/3) (Q/3; Q) (2Q/3; Q)
R4k (0; Q/4) (0; Q/2) (0; 3Q/4) (Q/2; Q)
R5k (0; Q/5] (0; 2Q/5] (0; 3Q/5] (0; 4Q/5]
R1k [Q/6; Q) [Q/3; Q) [Q/2; Q) [2Q/3; Q) [5Q/6; Q)
R2k (0; Q/2) (Q/5; Q) (2Q/5; Q) (3Q/5; Q) (4Q/5; Q)
R3k (0; Q/3) (0; 2Q/3) (Q/4; Q) (Q/2; Q) (3Q/4; Q)
6
R4k (0; Q/4) (0; Q/2) (0; 3Q/4) (Q/3; Q) (2Q/3; Q)
R5k (0; Q/5) (0; 2Q/5) (0; 3Q/5) (0; 4Q/5) (Q/2; Q)
R6k (0; Q/6] (0; Q/3] (0; Q/2] (0; 2Q/3] (0; 5Q/6]

Din (15)-(17), se poate observa c la primele From (15)-(17), can be seen that for first Mk
Mk domenii de definiie ( j = 1, M k ), hotarul de definition domains ( j = 1, M k ), the upper boundary
sus este aceeai, fiind egal cu Q , iar la celelalte n is the same, being equal to Q , and for the other n
Mk domenii ( j = M k + 1, n ) limita de jos este Mk domains ( j = M k + 1, n ) the lower boundary
aceeai, fiind egal cu 0 + , unde 0. De is the same, being equal to 0 + , where 0. Also,
asemenea, cellalt hotar (diferit de Q sau de 0 + ) the other boundary (different from Q or de 0 + )
depinde nu doar de j, dar i de valoarea mrimii Mk, depends not only on j, but on the value of Mk, too,
care ia valori n intervalul [0; n 1]; de obicei, which takes values in the interval [0; n 1]; usually,
probabilitatea c Mk = 0 este apropiat de 0 (Mk = 0 the probability that Mk = 0 is close to 0 (Mk = 0 at
la Vik = 0, i = 1, n ). Vik = 0, i = 1, n ).
Totodat, dei fiecare din aceste n domenii de However, although each of these n definition
definiie conine acelai numr de resturi Rjk, egal cu domains contains the same number of remainders Rjk,
numrul total de scrutine K, dimensiunile acestor equal to to the total number of elections K, the size of
domenii, n multe cazuri, difer, chiar i la aceleai valori these domains, in many cases, differs, even at the same
ale mrimilor n i Mk. De asemenea, hotarele de jos i quantities of n and Mk values. Also, the lower and
cele de sus ale domeniilor de definiie ale resturilor Rjk upper boundaries of the definition domains of
sunt necresctoare fa de j. Mai mult ca att, domeniile remainders Rjk are not increasing to j. Moreover, the
de definiie marginale (j = 1 i, respectiv, j = n) nu se marginal definition domains (j = 1 and, respectively, j
intersecteaz, cu excepia hotarului de jos al domeniului j = n) do not intersect, except the lower border of the
= 1 i celui de sus al domeniului j = n, egale cu MkQ/n. domain j = 1 and the upper one of the domain j = n,
La n > 2, celelalte domenii ( j = 2, n 1 ) se equal to MkQ/n. At n > 2, the other domains
intersecteaz parial ntre ele i, de asemenea, cu ( j = 2, n 1 ) partially overlap each other and, also,
domeniile j = 1 i j = n ntr-o msur mai mare sau mai with domains j = 1 and j = n in greater or less grade.
mic. Bineneles, aceast intersectare nu contravine Of course, this intersection is not contrary to respect
respectrii constrngerilor (12). the constraints (12).
Mrimea Ljk a domeniului de definiie j pentru The size Ljk of the definition domain j for
scrutinul k, determinat din (13)-(15) ca diferena election k, determined from (13)-(15) as the difference
dintre hotarele acestuia, este between its borders, is
n M k
n j + 1 , j = 1, M k
L jk Q , k = 1, K. (18)
M k , j = M k + 1, n
j
n unele cazuri, pot prezenta interes, de asemenea, In some cases may be of interest also the
intervalele delimitate de hatarele nvecinate ale intervals, delimited by neighboring boundaries of the
domeniilor de definiie conform (15)-(17). De exemplu: definition domains according to (15) - (17). For
1) la n = 2 i Mk = 1, primul asemenea interval coincide example: 1) at n = 2 and Mk = 1, the first such interval
cu domeniul de definiie pentru restul R2k i este (0; Q/2], coincides with the definition domain for the remainder
iar al doilea cu domeniul de definiie pentru restul R1k, R2k and is (0; Q/2], and the second with the definition
cu excepia valorii Q/2, i este (Q/2; Q); 2) la n = 3 i domain for the remainder R1k, excluding the value Q/2,

116 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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Mk =1, primul asemenea interval este (0; Q/3], al doilea and is (Q/2; Q); 2) at n = 3 and Mk =1, the first such
este (Q/3; Q/2], iar al treilea este (Q/2; Q); 3) la n = 3 i interval is (0; Q/3], the second is (Q/3; Q/2], and the
Mk = 2, primul asemenea interval este (0; Q/2], al doilea third is (Q/2; Q); 3) at n = 3 and Mk = 2, the first such
este (Q/2; 2Q/3], iar al treilea este (2Q/3; Q). interval is (0; Q/2], the second is (Q/2; 2Q/3], and the
Unele proprieti pentru regula general de third is (2Q/3; Q).
formare a intervalelor respective constau n cele ce Some properties for the general rule of forming
urmeaz. Din (15)-(17), se poate observa c limita de jos the interval in question are the following. From (15)-
a domeniului de definiie cu cea mai mare asemenea (17) it can be seen that the lower limit of the definition
limit (j = 1) este egal cu limita de sus a domeniului de domain with the highest such limit (j = 1) is equal to
definiie cu cea mai mic asemenea limit (j = n). Deci the upper limit of the definition domain with the lowest
irul valorilor hotarelor dintre intervalele n cauz se such limit (j = n ). So, the string of values of
formeaz de limitele de jos n cretere ale domeniilor de boundaries between intervals in question is formed by
definiie respective pn la ultima asemenea limit the rising up lower limits of the respective definition
(limita de jos a domeniului j = 1), iar apoi de limitele de domains up to the last such a limit (lower limit of the
sus n cretere ale domeniilor de definiie respective pn domain j = 1), and then by the rising up upper limits
la ultima asemenea limit (limita de sus a domeniului j = of the respective definition domains up to the last such
Mk, egal cu Q). Cu alte cuvinte, primul interval are a limit (upper limit of the domain j = Mk, equal to Q).
limita de jos 0, iar cea de sus este egal cu cea mai mic In other words, the first interval has the lower limit 0,
limit de jos a domeniilor de definiie cu limita de sus Q, and the top one is equal to the smallest lower limit of
adic limita de jos a domeniului j = Mk. Urmeaz the definition domain with the upper limit Q, i.e. to the
intervalele, formate de valorile consecutive n cretere ale lower limit of the domain j = Mk. Follow intervals,
limitelor de jos ale domeniilor de definiie cu limita de formed by rising consecutive values of the lower limits
sus Q, pn la limita de jos a primului (j = 1) domeniu de of definition domains with upper limit Q, up to the
definiie, egal cu limita de sus a ultimului (j = n) lower limit of the first (j = 1) definition domain, equal
domeniu de definiie. Apoi se succed intervalele formate to the upper limit of the last (j = n) definition domain.
de valorile consecutive n cretere ale limitelor de sus ale Then are succeeding intervals, formed by rising
domeniilor de definiie cu limita de jos 0 pn la limita consecutive values of upper limits of the definition
de sus a domeniului de definiie j = M + 1. Ultimul domains with lower limit 0 up to the upper limit of the
interval are limita de jos egal cu limita de sus a definition domain j = M + 1. The last interval has the
domeniului de definiie j = Mk + 1, iar cea de sus este Q. lower limit equal to the upper limit of the definition
Astfel, n cazuri generale, intervalul i pentru scrutinul k domain j = Mk + 1, and the top one is Q. Thus, in
este: general case, the interval i for election k is
Q
0; , la i = 1
n M k + 1

Q(i 1) ; iQ
, la i = 2, M k
n M k + i 1 n M k + i
(19)
M k Q M k Q
n + M i + 1 ; n + M i , la i = M k + 1, n 1
k k
M Q
k
; Q , la i = n.
M k + 1

Numrul total al unor asemenea intervale The total number of such intervals for each
pentru fiecare scrutin concret este egal cu n. De specific election is equal to n. Moreover, each interval
asemenea, fiecare interval este parte a unuia sau a mai is part of one or more definition domains of remainders
multor domenii de definiie ale resturilor Rjk i, dup Rjk and, as one can easily check:
cum se poate uor verifica: the set Bik of definition domains from the
mulimea Bik a domeniilor de definiie din j = 1, n ones, part of which is the interval i,
cele j = 1, n , parte a crora este intervalul i, is determined as
se determin ca:

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{n, n 1, ..., M k i + 2}, i = 1, M k


Bik = (20)
{n + M k i, n + M k i 1, ..., 1}, i = M k + 1, n;

la fel cum domeniile de definiie marginale (j = 1 just as the marginal definition domains (j = 1
i j = n) nu se intersecteaz (vezi mai sus), i and j = n) do not intersect (see above), the
intervalele marginale (i = 1 i i = n) sunt parte a marginal intervals (i = 1 and i = n) are also
cte un astfel de set de domenii de definiie, c part by one such set of definition domains,
domeniile de definiie din seturi diferite nu se that the definition domain of different sets do
intersecteaz ntre ele. ntr-adevr, din (17) avem: not intersect each other. Indeed, from (17) we
B1k = {n, n 1, , Mk + 1} i Bnk = {Mk, Mk have: B1k = {n, n 1, , Mk + 1} and Bnk =
1, , 1}. Totodat, mulimile B1k i Bnk conin {Mk, Mk 1, , 1}. However, sets B1k si
toate cele n domenii de definiie. Astfel: Bnk contain all n definition domains. Thus,

B1k Bnk = ; (21)


B1k U Bnk = {1, 2, 3, , n}; (22)

numrul bik = |Bik| de domenii de definiie, the numberl bik = |Bik| of definition domains,
parte a crora este intervalul i, dup cum se part of which is interval i, as it can be
poate determina din (20), este: determined from (20), is

i, i = 1, M k
bik = n M k 1 + (23)
2M k i + 1, i = M k + 1, n;

b1k = n Mk; bnk = Mk; b1k = n Mk; bnk = Mk;


funcia bik(i) este convex; function bik(i) is a convex one;
valoarea maxim a bik este egal cu n 1, the maximal value of bik is equal to n 1, i.e.
adic max{bik, i = 1, n } = n 1, i se atinge max{bik, i = 1, n } = n 1, and is achieved at
la dou asemenea intervale nvecinate, two such neighboring intervals, separated by
separate de hotarul MQ/n, i anume cele i = the border MQ/n, namely i = Mk and i =
Mk i i = Mk + 1; Mk + 1;
valoarea bik la intervalele nvecinate, cu the value of bik at neighboring intervals,
excepia perechii de intervale i = Mk i i = except the pair of intervals i = Mk and i =
Mk + 1 (la care valoarea bik este aceeai i Mk + 1 (at which the value of bik is the same
este egal cu n 1), difer cu 1. and is equal to n - 1), differs by 1.
4. Determinarea speranei matematice a 4. Determining the mathematical expectancy
Abaterii relative medii. S determinm valoarea of the Mean relative deviation. Let determine the
* * * *
medie I d a I d pentru o infinitate de scrutine average value I d of I d for an infinite number of
(sperana matematic) la supoziiile definite n p. 3. elections (mathematical expectancy) at assumptions
Vom cerceta aparte trei abordri: 1) direct; 2) defined in p 3. We will examine apart three
simplist, bazat pe domeniul de definiie al I d ; 3)
* approaches: 1) direct, 2) simplistic, based on the
*
puternic simplificat, bazat pe un scrutin definition domain of I d , 3) highly simplified, based on
convenional, caracteristicile cruia sunt egale cu a conventional election, which characteristics are equal
anumite caracteristici medii pe infinitatea de scrutine; to some average characteristics of an infinity of
4) simplificat, bazat pe n 1 scrutine convenionale, elections; 4) simplified, based on n 1 conventional
caracteristicile crora sunt egale cu anumite elections, which characteristics are equal to some
caracteristici medii pe infinitatea de scrutine. average characteristics on the infinity of elections.
Abordarea direct presupune calcularea Direct approach involves the calculation of I dk
*
* *
valorii I dk a indicelui I pentru fiecare scrutin k, iar
d *
value of the I dk index for each k election, and then the
*
apoi i a valorii medii I d pe totalitatea K de scrutine. *
average value I d on the totality of K elections. Let be
Fie c sunt cunoscute mrimile: M, n, V i Rjk,
j = 1, n , k = 1, K . Procedura 1 de calcul a I d* known quantities: M, n, V and Rjk, j = 1, n , k = 1, K .

118 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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include paii: *
The procedure 1 of I d calculation includes the steps:
1. Se determin Mk, k = 1, K conform
1. To determine Mk, k = 1, K according to
formulei (14).
formula (14).
Pentru k = 1, K , se determin I dk
*
2.
For k = 1, K , it is determining I dk according to
*
2.
conform formulei (8), dar nlocuind n
* *
* *
aceasta I d cu I dk , M cu Mk i Rj formula (8), but replacing in this I d with I dk , M

cu Rjk la j = 1, n . with Mk and Rj with Rjk at j = 1, n .


*
3.
*
Se determin I d conform formulei: 3. To determine I d according to formula

1 K *
I d* = Idk .
K k =1
(24)

* *
La K n (24), I d devine sperana At K in (24), I d became the mathematical
* *
matematic a I d . Principalul neajuns al acestei expectancy of I d . The main drawback of this approach
abordri const n dificultatea obinerii soluiei is the difficulty of obtaining the analytical solution.
analitice. Ultima poate fi obinut la o abordare The latter can be obtained at a simplistic approach, a
simplist, una puternic simplificat sau una highly simplified or a simplified one, described below
simplificat, descrise mai jos n aceast seciune. in this section.
Abordarea simplist. Considernd c repartiia Simplistic approach. Considering that the
* *
valorilor indicelui I d este una simetric fa de mijlocul distribution of index I d values is symmetrical to the
(* )* (* )* *
domeniului de definiie a acestuia [ I d , I d ], valoarea middle of its definition domain [ I d , I d ], the I d value
( ) ) ( ) )
I d* poate fi determinat ca I d* = ( I d* + I d* )/2 = I d* /2 can be determined as I d* = ( I d* + I d* )/2 = I d* /2
(* )* (* )*
(procedura 2). Aici I d = 0 este limita de jos, iar I d (procedure 2). Here I d = 0 is the lower limit, and I d
* *
limita de sus a domeniului de definiie a I d . innd cont - the upper limit of I d definition domain. Taking into
)* )*
de expresia pentru I d din [8], avem: account the expression for I d from [8], one has

) n, la n par
I d* 25
I = = 1
*
d , % mandate/ seats. (25)
2 M n , la n impar
n
* *
Din (25) rezult c funcia I d ( M , n) este From (25) results that function I d ( M , n) is
monoton descresctoare fa de M i monoton monotone decreasing to M and monotone increasing to
cresctoare fa de n, iar la valori ale n pare i M = n, n, and at even values of n and M = n, this do not
aceasta nu depinde de M i n. Limita de sus a depend on M and n. The upper limit of I d ( M , n) ,
*
*
I ( M , n) , innd cont c n M, se obine la M = n: la taking into account that n M, is obtaining at M = n: at
d
valori ale n pare, aceasta nu depinde de M = n i este even values of n pare, this do not depend on M = n and
egal cu 25%; la valori ale n impare, aceasta crete odat is equal to 25%; at odd values of n, this increases with
cu creterea M = n (deoarece sign( I d / n ) = sign(n) > the increasing of M = n (because sign( I d / n ) =
* *

0 la n 3), ncepnd cu 200/9% 22,22%, pentru M = n sign(n) > 0 at n 3), beginning with 200/9% 22,22%,
=3, i tinznd ctre 25% la M = n . for M = n =3, and tending to 25% at M = n .
Abordarea puternic simplificat. n calitate de Highly simplified approach. As average value
* *
valoare medie a I d pentru o infinitate de scrutine K se of I d for an infinite number of elections K is
~* ~*
consider valoarea I d pentru scrutinul convenional cu considered the value I d for the conventional election
~ ~
resturile medii R j , j = 1, n . Fie sunt cunoscute with average remainders R j , j = 1, n . Let be known

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mrimile: M, n, V i Vik, i = 1, n , k = 1, K . quantities: M, n, V and Vik, i = 1, n , k = 1, K .


n mod direct, resturile medii R j , j = 1, n se pot Directly, the average remainders R j , j = 1, n ,
determina n modul urmtor. Pentru fiecare scrutin k, can be determined as follows. For every election k,
resturile Vik, i = 1, n se ordoneaz n descretere, remainders Vik, i = 1, n are ordering in decreasing,
obinnd resturile Rjk, j = 1, n , care satisfac inegalitile obtaining remainders Rjk, j = 1, n , which satisfy
(12). inequalities (12).
Thereafter, the average remainders
Ulterior, resturile medii R j , j = 1, n se
determin n mod ordinar: R j , j = 1, n , are determined ordinarily

1 K
R j = lim
K K

k =1
R jr , j = 1, n . (26)

Totodat, obinerea unor expresii analitice However, obtaining of some analytical


pentru R j , j = 1, n , care ar putea fi folosite pentru expressions for R j , j = 1, n , which could be used to
*
determinarea speranei matematice a I d , este relativ determine the I d* mathematical expectancy, is
dificil. De aceea se va folosi o abordare puternic relatively difficult. Therefore, will be used a highly
~*
simplificat. Procedura 3 de calcul a I d include simplified approach.
~*
The procedure 3 for the
paii: calculation of I d includes the steps:
1. Din totalul de nK resturi Vik, i = 1, n , 1. From the total of nK remainders Vik,
i = 1, n , k = 1, K are formed n groups Gj, j = 1, n
k = 1, K se formeaz n grupuri Gj, j = 1, n a cte K ~
~ with K remainders R jr , r G j each (|Gj | = K,
resturi R jr , r G j fiecare (| Gj | = K, j = 1, n ) din
condiia c j = 1, n ) on the condition that
~ ~
R jr R j+1,s , j = 1, n 1 , r G j , s G j +1 . (27)

Conform (27), grupurile Gj, j = 1, n sunt According to (27), Gj, j = 1, n groups are
constituite din resturi Vik, i = 1, n , k = 1, K n composed of remainders Vik, i = 1, n , k = 1, K in
ordine descresctoare, n sensul c cele mai mari K descending order, in the sense that the largest K
resturi, din totalul de nK resturi, se conin n grupul remainders, from the total of nK remainders, are
G1, urmeaz resturile grupului G2, etc., iar cele mai contained in group G1, follows the remainders of group
mici K resturi se conin n grupul Gn. Aceast abordare G2, etc., and the lowest K remainders are contained in
se caracterizeaz printr-o concentrare a distribuirii group Gn. This approach is characterized by a
valorilor resturilor celor K scrutine mai mare concentration of the distribution of remainders values
(dispersie mai mic), dect n realitate. De menionat, of the K elections higher (lower dispersion), than in
totodat, c la n = 2 au loc egalitile: reality. Note, also, that at n = 2 take place the equalities
~
R jk = Rjk, j = 1,2 , k = 1, K , (28)

deoarece domeniile de definiie ale R1k i R2k, conform because the definition domains of R1k and R2k,
(15) i (17), nu se intersecteaz (cu excepia hotarului according to (15) and (17), do not intersect (except the
dintre acestea). Deci, pentru cazul n = 2, abordarea n border between them). So, for the case n = 2, the
cauz reflect adecvat realitatea. approach in question adequately reflects reality.
2. innd cont de (27), se determin resturile 2. Given (27), are determined the average
medii: remainders

~ 1 ~
R j = lim R jr , j = 1, n . (29)
K K
rG j

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n baza relaiilor (27) i (29), se poate uor Basing on relations (27) and (29), one can easily
observa c au loc i inegalitile see that also take place inequalities
~ ~
R j R j+1 , j = 1, n 1 (30)

similare celor (12). similar to the (12) ones.


3. Se determin M conform formulei (9), dar 3. To determine M according to formula (9),
n n n n
~ ~
nlocuind n aceasta V
i =1
i cu R j , adic:
j =1
but replacing in it V
i =1
i with R
j =1
j , i.e.

1 n ~
M = Rj
Q j =1
. (31)

~* ~*
4. Se determin I d conform formulei (8), dar 4. To determine I d according to formula (8),
* ~* ~ * ~* ~
nlocuind n aceasta I d cu I d i Rj cu R j la but replacing in it I d with I d and Rj with R j at

j = 1, n . j = 1, n .
~* ~*
Astfel, pentru a fi posibil calcularea I d fr Thus, to be possible to calculate I d without
simulare, este suficient de determinat valorile simulation, it is sufficient to determine the average
~ ~
resturilor medii R j , j = 1, n la K . S remainders R j , j = 1, n values at K . Let
determinm aceste valori. Pentru fiecare scrutin k, determine these values. For every election k, the size of
valoarea mrimii V se mparte, conform (11), aleatoriu
V is divided, according to (11), random uniformly
uniform ntre mrimile Vik, i = 1, n . De aceea, pentru
among Vik, i = 1, n . Therefore, for each i = 1, n ,
fiecare i = 1, n , resturile Vik = Vik aikQ iau, de remainders Vik = Vik aikQ take, also, uniform
asemenea, valoare aleatoriu uniform n intervalul [0; random value in the interval [0; Q). So, quantities Vi,
Q). Deci mrimile Vi, i = 1, n au repartiie aleatoare i = 1, n have uniform random distribution of intensity
uniform de intensitate 1/Q n intervalul [0; Q). 1/Q in the interval [0; Q).
S mprim intervalul [0; Q), n cadrul cruia Let divide the interval [0; Q), within which take
iau valoare resturile Vik, i = 1, n , k = 1, K , n n value the remainders Vik, i = 1, n , k = 1, K , into n
segmente egale de mrime Q/n. Fiecare asemenea equal segments of size Q/n. Each such segment
~ ~
segment conine cte K resturi R jr , r G j distribuite contains by K remainders R jr , r G j uniformly
~ ~
uniform n cadrul acestuia. De aceea, avem R1 = [Q + distributed in it. Therefore, we have R1 = [Q + (Q
~ ~
(Q Q/n)]/2 = Q(1 1/2n), R2 = [(Q Q/n) + (Q Q/n)]/2 = Q(1 1/2n), R2 = [(Q Q/n) + (Q 2Q/n)]/2
2Q/n)]/2 = Q(1 3/2n), etc.: = Q(1 3/2n), etc.:

~ 2 j 1 Q 1
RJ = Q(1 ) = (n j + ), j = 1, n . (32)
2n n 2
nlocuind expresia (32) n cea (31), obinem Substituting expression (32) in the (31) one, we obtain

1 Q n 1 n
M = (n j + ) = . (33)
Q n j =1 2 2
Totodat, M n (33) trebuie s fie numr ntreg. However, M in (33) must be an integer.
De aceea formula (33) i, de aici, cea (32) sunt valabile Therefore, formula (33) and, hence, the (32) are valid
doar pentru valori ale n pare. La valori ale n impare, only for even values of n. At odd values of n, the
condiia de numr ntreg pentru valoarea M impune condition of integer for the value of M requires the
reprezentarea M n (32) ca media aritmetic dintre M representation in (32) as arithmetic mean of integer

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mrimile-numere ntregi M i M, unde M = (n quantities M and M, where M = (n 1)/2 and


1)/2 i M = (n + 1)/2. M = (n + 1)/2.
De menionat c M n (32) poate fi reprezentat To note, that M in (32) can be represented as
ca media aritmetic dintre oriicare pereche de mrimi- the arithmetic mean of whosoever pair of integer
numere ntregi M i M = n M, dar se folosete quantities M ' and M = n M, but is using the
anume perechea M = (n 1)/2 i M = (n + 1)/2, certain pair M = (n 1)/2 and M = (n + 1)/2,
deoarece aceasta este constituit din factorii cei mai because it consists of factors closest to the M = n/2. A
apropiai de M = n/2. O reprezentare grafic a graphic representation of the distribution of remainders
~ ~
distribuirii resturilor R jr , r G j , j = 1, n , n R jr , r G j , j = 1, n , depending on the value of
funcie de valoarea M este dat n figurile 1 (cazul de M is given in Figures 1 (case of even values of n) and
valori ale n pare) i 2 (cazul de valori ale n impare). 2 (case of odd valuesof n).

~
Figura 1. Distribuirea resturilor R jr , r G j , j = 1, n n funcie de M, n par/
~
Figure 1. Distribution of remainders R jr , r G j , j = 1, n depending on M, n even.

n aceste figuri, punctele fiecrui segment, marcat In these figures, each segment, marked with the
cu valoarea respectiv a M, specific valorile resturilor respective value of M, specifies the values of
~ ~
R jr , r G j pentru fiecare grup j = 1, n . Cte un remainders R jr , r G j for each group j = 1, n . By
exemplu pentru o valoare dat a M este prezentat n one example for a given value of M is shown in
figurile 3 (cazul M n/2) i 4 (cazul M n/2) figures 3 (case M n/2) and 4 (case M n/2).

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Q Q

(n 1)Q/n
M = n 1
(n 2)Q/n
M = (n 1)/2
(n 3)Q/n M = n 2
... M = (n 3)/2 (n 4)Q/n

4Q/n M = (n + 3)/2

M = 2 3Q/n
M = (n + 1)/2
2Q/n
M = 1
Q/n

0 0
1 2 ... n1 n
~
Figura 2. Distribuirea resturilor R jr , r G j , j = 1, n n funcie de M, n impar/
~
Figure 2. Distribution of remainders R jr , r G j , j = 1, n depending on M, n odd.

Fiecreia dintre mrimile M = (n 1)/2 i To each of quantities M = (n 1)/2 and M =



M = (n + 1)/2 i revin, n mediu, cte nK/2 resturi (n + 1)/2 it incumbent, on average, by nK/2 remainders
~' from the total of nK remainders with averages
din totalul de nK resturi cu mediile R j , j = 1, n i, ~ ~
~" R j' , j = 1, n and, respectively, R "j , j = 1, n . Each of
respectiv, R j , j = 1, n . Fiecare din aceste dou seturi
these two sets of elections is characterized by relations
de scrutine se caracterizeaz prin relaii similare celor similar to the (27)-(31) ones with the respective
(27)-(31) cu concretizrile evidente respective. De obvious concretizations. Also, because M = n/2 is
asemenea, deoarece M = n/2 se nlocuiete cu M = replaced by cu M = (n 1)/2, then under (31) and
(n 1)/2, atunci n baza (31) i (32), avem: (32), we have:

~ ~ M ' Q 1 n 1 n Q(n 1) 1
R j' = RJ = n j + = n j + , j = 1, n . (34)
M n 2 2 2 n 2
2
n mod similar, nlocuirea M = n/2 cu M = Similarly, the replacement of M = n/2 with
~
(n + 1)/2, conduce la nlocuirea R j , j = 1, n cu M ~
= (n + 1)/2, leads to the replacement of
~
~" R j , j = 1, n with R "j , j = 1, n , which have higher
R j , j = 1, n , care au valori mai mari. Creterea tot
values. Growth is also proportional, as the decrease in
este proporional, ca i descreterea n cazul ~' ~
~' ~ case of R j , j = 1, n , just not to R j , j = 1, n but to
R j , j = 1, n , doar c nu fa de R j , j = 1, n , ci fa ~
~ differences (Q R j ), j = 1, n , the upper limit for
de diferenele (Q R j ), j = 1, n , limita de sus pentru ~
~ R "j , j = 1, n being Q (accordingly to (13)). Thus,
R "j , j = 1, n fiind Q (conform (13)). Astfel, n baza
under (30), (31) and the approach, applied when
(30), (31) i abordrii aplicate la obinerea (34), innd obtaining (34), taking into account that M = n/2 and

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cont c M = n/2 i M = (n + 1)/2, avem: M = (n + 1)/2, we have:

~ ~ ~ n M " Q 1 1 ~ Q
R "j = RJ + (Q RJ )(1 ) = 1 + (1 )(n j + ) = R 'j + , j = 1, n . (35)
M n n 2 n
O exemplificare grafic a acestei operaii poate A graphic exemplification of this operation can
fi urmrit n figura 4 (chiar dac aceasta este pentru be seen in Figure 4 (even if this is the case of even
cazul de valori ale n pare, abordarea este similar). values of n, the approach is similar). Substituting (32)
* ~* * ~*
nlocuind (32) n (8) la I d = I d i n par, obinem: in (8) at I d = I d and n even, we obtain:

~ M 1 M ~ n Q n/2
1 25n
I d* = 200 R j = 200 (n j + 2 ) = , la n par/ at n even. (36)
M V j =1 2M nV M
M =n / 2
j =1
n mod similar, nlocuind (34) n (8) la Rj = Similarly, substituting (34) in (8) at Rj =
~ ~ ~ ~
R j' , j = 1, n , I d* = I d* i n impar, obinem: R j' , j = 1, n , I d* = I d* and n odd, we obtain:

~ n 1 Q ( n1) / 2
1 1 25(n + 1) 1
I d* = 200 (1 )(n j + ) = (1 2 ) , la n impar/ at n odd. (37)
2M nV n 2 M n
M =( n1) / 2
j =1

i, de asemenea, nlocuind (35) n (8) la Rj = ~"


~ ~ and, also, substituting (35) in (8) at Rj = R j , j = 1, n ,
R "j , j = 1, n , I d* = I d* i n impar, obinem: ~
I d* = I d* and n odd, we obtain:

~ n + 1 Q ( n+1) / 2 1 1 25(n + 1) 1
I d* = 200 [1 + (1 )(n j + )] = (1 2 ) , la n impar/ at n odd. (38)
2M nV j=1 n 2 M n
M =( n+1) / 2

Expresiile (37) i (38) coincid i, comasndu- Expressions (37) and (38) coincide and,
le, obinem: merging them, we obtain:

n , la n par/even
~ * 25
Id = 1 (39)
M ( n + 1 )( 1 2 ), la n impar/odd.
n
Din (39) se poate uor constata c funcia From (39) one can easily see that function
~ ~
I d* ( M , n) este monoton descresctoare fa de M i I d* ( M , n) is monotonically decreasing to M and
monoton cresctoare fa de n, iar la valori ale n pare i M monotonically increasing to n, and at even values of n
= n, aceasta nu depinde de M i n. Limita de sus a and M = n, it does not depend on M and n. The upper
~ ~
I d* ( M , n) , innd cont c n M, se obine la M = n: la limit of I d* ( M , n) , given that n M, is obtained at M
valori ale n pare aceasta nu depinde de M = n i este egal = n: at even values of n it does not depend on M = n
cu 25%; la valori ale n impare, aceasta crete odat cu and is equal to 25%; at odd values of n, it increases
~* with the decreasing of M = n (because
descreterea M = n (deoarece sign( I d ( M , n) / n ) = ~*
sign(n2 + 2n +3) < 0 la n > 3), ncepnd cu 25%, pentru sign( I d ( M , n) / n ) = sign(n2 + 2n +3) < 0 at n >
M = n = , i atingnd 800/27% 29,63% la M = n = 3. 3) from 25% for M = n = to 800/27% 29.63% at M
De menionat, de asemenea, c, la n = 2, datorit = n = 3. To note, also, that at n = 2, due to equalities
egalitilor (28) i faptului c ntotdeauna M = 1, expresia (28) and the fact that always M = 1, the expression
*
(39) red exact valoarea medie a I d i anume: (39) gives exactly the mean value of I d* namely:

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~ 50
I d* = %. (40)
n =2 M
Abordarea simplificat. n calitate de valoare Simplified approach. As average value of I d
*
*
medie a I d pentru o infinitate de scrutine se va for an infinite number of ballots will be considered the
t* t*
considera valoarea I d , calculat ca media ponderat a value I d , calculated as the weighted average value of
~ ~
I d* (M ) , M = 1, n 1 pentru n 1 scrutine I d* (M ) , M = 1, n 1 for n 1 conventional
~ ~
convenionale cu resturile R j (M ) , j = 1, n , elections with remainders R j (M ) , j = 1, n ,
M = 1, n 1 , adic: M = 1, n 1 , i.e.:
n1
~
I d* = p
M =1
M dI (M ) ,
*
(41)

unde pM este ponderea cazurilor cu valoarea M dat where pM is the weight of cases with the given M
n totalul de n 1 cazuri de valori ale M = 1, n 1 . value in the total of n 1 cases of M = 1, n 1
t*
Pentru a determina I d , este necesar de values. t*
~* To determine I d , it is necessary to know pM
cunoscut pM i I d (M ) , M = 1, n 1 . La ~
~* and I d* (M ) , M = 1, n 1 . In their turn, values
rndul lor, valorile I d (M ) , M = 1, n 1 ~
~ I d* (M ) , M = 1, n 1 depend on remainders
depind de resturile R j (M ) , j = 1, n , ~
R j (M ) , j = 1, n , M = 1, n 1 .
M = 1, n 1 .
Directly, the average remainders
n mod direct, resturile medii
R j (M ) , j = 1, n , M = 1, n 1 can be
R j (M ) , j = 1, n , M = 1, n 1 se pot determina
determined as follows. For each election k, remainders
n modul urmtor. Pentru fiecare scrutin k, resturile
Vik, i = 1, n are ordered in decreasing, obtaining the
Vik, i = 1, n se ordoneaz n descretere, obinnd
remainders Rjk, j = 1, n , so that inequalities (12)
resturile Rjk, j = 1, n , astfel c au loc inegalitile
occur. From the total of K elections is formed n - 1
(12). Din totalul de K scrutine se formeaz n 1
groups FM, M = 1, n 1 according to the rule:
grupuri FM, M = 1, n 1 conform regulii:
election k is included in group FM, if and only if the
scrutinul k se include n grupul FM, dac i doar dac equality R1k + R2k + R3k + + Rnk = MQ holds.
are loc egalitatea R1k + R2k + R3k + + Rnk = MQ. Further, the average remainders
Ulterior, resturile medii
R j (M ) , j = 1, n , M = 1, n 1 are determined
R j (M ) , j = 1, n , M = 1, n 1 se determin n
ordinarly:
mod ordinar

1
R j (M ) = lim
K
R jk , j = 1, n , M = 1, n 1 .
| FM | kFM

Totodat, obinerea unor expresii analitice However, obtaining the analytical expressions
pentru R j ( M ) , j = 1, n , M = 1, n 1 , care ar R j (M ) , j = 1, n , M = 1, n 1 , to be used for
putea fi folosite pentru determinarea speranei determining the mathematical expectancy of I d , is
*
*
matematice a I d, este relativ dificil. De aceea se va relatively difficult. Therefore, it will be used a
folosi o abordare simplificat, care se bazeaz pe simplified approach, based on the average remainders
~ ~
resturile medii R j , j = 1, n , care se determin, n R j , j = 1, n , which is determining, depending on the

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funcie de paritatea sau imparitatea n i valoarea parity or imparity of n and the respective value of M,
respectiv a M, conform (32) sau (34) i (35). according to (32) or (34) and (35).

~
R1r ( M ), r G1
~
R1 (M )

~
R2 r ( M ), r G2
~
R2 (M )

~
Rn 1,r (M ), r Gn 1

~ ~
Rn 1 (M ) Rnr (M ), r Gn

~
Rn (M )

~
Figura 3. La determinarea R j (M ), j = 1, n, M n / 2
~
Figure 3. To determining R j (M ), j = 1, n, M n / 2

La n par i 1 M n/2, innd cont de (32) i At even n and 1 M n/2, taking into account
folosind abordarea aplicat la obinerea (34) (vezi i (32) and using the approach applied when obtaining
fig. 1, 3), avem: (34) (see, also, figure 1, 3), we have:

~ ~ M QM n
RJ ( M ) = RJ = 2 [ 2( n j ) + 1 )], j = 1, n,1 M , n par/even. /even. (42)
n/ 2 n 2
i, de asemenea, la n impar i 1 M n/2, innd and, also, at odd n and 1 M n/2, taking into
cont de (34) (vezi i fig. 2, 3), account (34) (see, also, figure 2, 3),

~ ~ M QM n
R 'j ( M ) = R 'j = 2 [ 2( n j ) + 1 ), j = 1, n, 1 M , n impar/odd. (43)
( n 1) / 2 n 2

Deoarece expresiile (42) i (43) coincid, Since expressions (42) and (43) coincide,
comasndu-le i folosind, pentru acest caz comun, tot merging them and using for this common case also
~ ~
notarea RJ (M ) , n cazul general 1 M n/2, notation RJ (M ) , in the general case 1 M n/2,
indiferent de paritatea sau imparitatea n, avem: regardless of parity or imparity of n, we have:

~ QM n
RJ (M ) = 2 [2(n j ) + 1)], j = 1, n, 1 M , n = 2, M . (44)
n 2
La n par i n/2 M n 1, innd cont de At even n and n/2 M n 1, taking into
(32) i folosind abordarea aplicat la obinerea (35) account (32) and using the approach applied when
(vezi i fig. 1, 4), avem obtaining (35) (see, also, figure 1, 4), we have

126 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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~ ~ ~
R j (M ) = RJ + (Q RJ )(1
n M
n/ 2
Q
[ ]
) = 2 n2 (n M )(2 j 1) , j = 1, n , n/2 M n 1, n par/even.
n
(45)

i, de asemenea, la n impar i n/2 M n 1, innd and, also, at odd n and n/2 M n 1, taking into
cont de (35) (vezi i fig. 2, 4), account (35) (see, also, figure 2, 4),

~ ~ ~
R"j (M) = R"j + (Q R"j )(1
n M
[
Q
]
) = n2 + (n M)(2 j 1) , j = 1, n , n/2 M n 1, n impar/odd.
n M" n2
(46)

Deoarece expresiile (45) i (46) coincid, Because expressions (45) and (46) coincide,
comasndu-le i folosind pentru acest caz comun tot merging them and using for this common case also
~ ~
notarea RJ ( M ) , n cazul general n/2 M n 1, notation RJ (M ) , in the general case n/2 M n
indiferent de paritatea sau imparitatea n, avem: 1, regardless of parity or imparity of n, one has:

~ Q
[ ]
R j (M ) = 2 n2 (n M )(2 j 1) , j = 1, n , n/2 M n 1, n = 2, M .
n
(47)

Comasnd (44) i (47), obinem: Merging (44) and (47), one obtains

n
M [2(n j) + 1], la 1 M
~ Q 2
RJ (M ) = 2 , j = 1, n , n = 2, M . (48)
n 2 n
n (n M )(2 j 1), la 2 M n 1

Distrbuia resturilor ~
R (M ), r G1
Distribution of remainders 1r
Q
~ Distrbuia resturilor ~
R1 (M ) R (M ), r G2
Distribution of remainders 2 r

~ Distrbuia resturilor
R2 (M ) Distribution of R ~
nr ( M ), r Gn
remainders
... M

~
Rn (M )
(2M n)Q/n (2M n)Q/n
... ...

2Q/n 2Q/n

0 0
1 2 ... n
~
Figura 4. La determinarea R j (M ), j = 1, n, M n / 2
~
Figure 4. To determining R j (M ), j = 1, n, M n / 2

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~ ~
S determinm mrimile I d* (M ) , Let determine I d* (M ) , M = 1, n 1 .
~
M = 1, n 1 . nlocuind (48) n (8) la Rj = Substituting (48) in (8) at Rj = RJ ( M ) , j = 1, n ,
~ one obtains:
RJ ( M ) , j = 1, n , obinem:

~ 200M n M , la 1 M n/2
I d* ( M ) = ( n M ) , n = 2, M . (49)
M , la n/2 M n 1
2
Mn
Din (49) se poate uor observa c rezult From (49) it can be easily seen that occur the
relaia: relation:
~ ~
I d* (M ) = I d* (n M ), M = 1, n 1 . (50)

S determinm valoarea M, la care ~


~ Let determine M, at which I d* (M ) has
I d* (M ) are valoare maxim. n baza (51), avem: maximal value. Basing on (51), one has
~
I d* ( M ) 200 ( n M )( n 3M ), la 1 M n/2
= , n = 2, M . (51)
M Mn 2 ( 2n 3M ), la n/2 M n 1
~ ~
Astfel, conform (50) funcia I d* (M ) este According to (50) the function I d* (M ) is
simetric fa de M = [M + (n M)]/2 = n/2, iar symmetric to M = [M + (n M)]/2 = n/2, and
conform (51), innd cont c M n, aceasta atinge under (51), taking into account that M n, it reaches
valoarea maxim la M = n/3 i M = 2n/3. De maximum to la M = n/3 and M = 2n/3. Also, from
asemenea, din (49) i (50) rezult c la M = n M, (49) and (50) results that at M = n M, i.e. at even n
adic la n par i M = n/2, are loc and M = n/2, takes place

~ n 200M 3 n
I d* (M = ) = = 25 , n par/even. (52)
2 Mn 2 M
n baza simetriei seturilor de mrimi Vik, Basing on the symmetry of sets of quantities
i = 1, n , k = 1, K i Q Vik, i = 1, n , k = 1, K Vik, i = 1, n , k = 1, K and Q Vik, i = 1, n ,
fa de mijlocul intervalului [1; n 1] pentru M, este k = 1, K to the mid of the interval [1; n 1] for M, it
uor de observat c n (41) are loc, de asemenea,
is easy to see that in (41) occur, also, relations:
relaiile:

pM = pn-M, M = 1, n 1 . (53)

Astfel, innd cont de (50) i (53), expresia (41) So, taking into, account (50) and (53),
poate reprezentat n forma: expression (41) can be represented in the form:

(n1) / 2 ~ *
n 1 2 p M I d ( M ), la n impar/odd
~*
I d = pM I d ( M ) = M =1
*
n / 21
, (54)
M =1 p ~ ~*
I ( n / 2 ) + 2 pM I d ( M ), la n par/even.
*
n / 2 d M =1

Bineneles, n caz general, valorile mrimilor Of course, in general case, the values of pM,
pM, M = 1, n 1 n (54) pot fi diferite. Totui, la M = 1, n 1 in (54) can be different. However, at
distribuirea aleatoare a voturilor alegtorilor cu random distribution of electors votes with uniform
repartiie uniform ntre partide, la care resturile Vi, distribution among parties, at which remainders Vi,

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i = 1, n au repartiie aleatoare uniform de intensitate i = 1, n have uniform random distribution of intensity


1/Q n intervalul [0; Q) (vezi seciunea 3), se poate 1/Q in the interval [0; Q) (see Section 3), one can
considera, cu o anumit aproximaie, c mrimile pM, consider, with certain approximation, that quantities
M = 1, n 1 sunt egale. Dac pM, M = 1, n 1 are equal. If

pM = 1/(n 1), M = 1, n 1 , (55)

atunci (54) se transform n then (54) turns into

(n 1) / ~
2

2 I d ( M ), la n impar/odd
*
n 1
1 ~* 1 M =1
I d* =
n 1 M =1
I d ( M ) =
n 1 ~ * n n / 21
~
(56)
I d ( ) + 2 I d* ( M ), la n par/even.
2 M =1

nlocuind (49) i (52) n (56), un urma unor Substituting (49) and (52) in (56), as a result of
transformri simple, obinem: simple transformations, one obtain:

( n + 1 )(11n 2 3 )
, la n impar/odd
25 n2
Id =
*
(57)
12M 11n 2 + 12n 20
, la n par/even.
2( n 1 )

Din (57 ) se poate uor identifica c funcia From (57 ) it can be easily identified that
t t
I d* (M, n) este monoton descresctoare fa de M i function I d* (M, n) is monotonically decreasing by M
monoton cresctoare fa de n doar la valori ale n pare and monotonically increasing by n only at even values
t* t*
(deoarece sign( I d / n ) = sign(11n2 22n + 8) > 0 la of n (because of sign( I d / n ) = sign(11n2 22n +
n 2) sau doar la valori ale n impare (deoarece 8) > 0 at n 2) or only at odd values of n (because of
t* t*
sign( I d / n ) = sign(11n3 + 3n + 6) > 0 la n 2); n sign( I d / n ) = sign(11n3 + 3n + 6) > 0 at n 2); in
t*
cazul general de valori n = 2, 3, 4, , funcia I d (M, n) general
t*
case of values n = 2, 3, 4, ..., the function

crete la trecerea de la valoarea n par la cea impar I d (M, n) increases when passing from the even value
nvecinat i, invers descrete la trecerea de la valoarea of n to the neighborhood odd one and vice versa -
t*
n impar la cea par nvecinat. Limita de sus a I d (M, decreases when passing from the odd value oft n to the
*
n), innd cont c n M, se obine la valori pe ct posibil neighborhood even one. The upper limit of I d (M, n),
mai mici ale M = n: la valori ale n pare, aceasta crete given that n M, is obtaining at the lowest possible
odat cu descreterea M = n (deoarece values of M = n: at even values of n, it increase with
t* the decreasing of M = n (because of
sign( I d ( M = n) / n ) = sign (23n2 + 40n 20) < 0 t*
la n 2), ncepnd cu 275/24% 11,46% pentru M = n = sign( I d ( M = n) / n ) = sign (23n2 + 40n 20) <
i atingnd 25% la M = n = 2; la valori ale n impare 0 at n 2), beginning with 275/24% 11.46% for M =
aceasta crete odat cu descreterea M = n (deoarece n = and reaching 25% at M = n = 2; at odd values of
t* n it increases with decreasing of M = n (because of
sign( I d ( M = n) / n ) = sign (11n2 + 6n + 9) < 0 la t*
n 2), ncepnd cu 275/12% 22,92% pentru M = n = sign( I d ( M = n) / n ) = sign (11n2 + 6n + 9) < 0
i atingnd 800/9% 29,63% la M = n = 3. at n 2), beginning with 275/12% 22.92% for M = n
De asemenea, la valori ale n impare, au loc = and reaching 800/9% 29.63% at M = n = 3.
relaiile Also, at odd values of n, take place the relations
t t t t
I d* (M, n) 2 I d* (M, 2n), I d* (M, n) < 2 I d* (M, 2n), n impar/odd. (58)

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5. Analiza comparativ a trei abordri. Cele 5. Comparative analyses of three approaches.


trei abordri din seciunea 4, n care s-a reuit The three approaches of Section 4, which succeeded with
obinerea de expresii analitice pentru valoarea medie a obtaining of analytical expressions for the average value
I d* (abordrile simplist, puternic simplificat i of I d* (simplistic, highly simplified and simplified
simplificat), au condus la rezultate, n multe cazuri approaches), led to results, in many cases different,
diferite, determinate de expresiile (25), (39) i (57). S determined by expressions (25), (39) and (57). Let
cercetm, inclusiv comparativ, rezultatele obinute. examine, including comparatively, the obtained results.

I d* , %
30

25
n=3
n=4
20 n=5
n=7
15 n = 10
n = 15
10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 M

Figura 5. Graficele funciei I d* ( M , n) , %mandate/


Figure 5. Grafics of function I d* ( M , n) , %seats.

~
I d* , % n=2
30 n=3
n=4
25
n=5
20 n=7
n = 10
15 n = 15
n = 20
10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 M
~
Figura 6. Graficele funciei I d* ( M , n) , %mandate/
~*
Figure 6. Grafics of function I d ( M , n) , %seats.

Mai nti de toate, este cazul de menionat c la n First of all, it is necessary to note that at n = 2 is
= 2 este obinut expresia exact pentru sperana obtained the exact expression for the mathematical
I d* expectancy, namely the (40) one, the upper limit of the
matematic a i anume cea (40), limita de sus a
definition domain for the mathematical expectancy of
domeniului de definiie pentru sperana matematic a I d* I d* being 25%. Also, at even values of n, for all the
fiind de 25%. De asemenea, la valori ale n pare, pentru
* three approaches, the mathematical expectancy of I d*
toate cele trei abordri, sperana matematic a I d este
is monotonically decreasing by M, and its upper limit is

130 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


INFORMATIC / INFORMATICS

monoton descresctoare fa de M, iar limita de sus a obtaining at M = n and do not depend on the value of
acesteia se obine la M = n i nu depinde de valoarea M = M = n, for the simplistic and highly simplified
n, pentru abordarea simplist i cea puternic simplificat, approaches, and - at M = n = 2, for the simplified
i la M = n = 2, pentru abordarea simplificat, i este approach, and is equal to 25% (see (40)). Moreover, at
egal cu 25% (vezi (40)). Mai mult ca att, la valori ale n odd values of n, for the simplistic and highly simplified
impare, pentru abordrile simplist i puternic I d*
approaches, the mathematical expectancy of is
*
simplificat, sperana matematic a I d este monoton monotony increasing with n, and its upper limit is
cresctoare fa de n, iar limita de sus a acesteia se obine obtained at M = n: for the simplistic approach it
la M = n: pentru abordarea simplist aceasta crete odat increases with M = n, from approx. 22.22% for M = n
cu creterea M = n, ncepnd cu cca. 22,22%, pentru M = = 3 and tending to 25% at M = n ; for highly
n =3, i tinznd ctre 25% la M = n ; pentru simplified approach, it increases with decreasing of M
abordarea puternic simplificat, aceasta crete odat cu = n, from 25% for M = n = and reaching about
descreterea M = n, ncepnd cu 25%, pentru M = n = , 29.63% at M = n = 3.
i atingnd cca. 29,63% la M = n = 3. Finally, for the simplified approach, the
n sfrit, pentru abordarea simplificat, sperana I d*
mathematical expectancy of is monotonically
*
matematic a I este monoton cresctoare fa de n doar
d increasing with n only at even values of n or only at
la valori ale n pare sau doar la valori ale n impare; n odd values of n; in the general case of values of n = 2,
t* t*
cazul general de valori n = 2, 3, 4, , funcia I d (M, n) 3, 4, ..., the function I d (M, n) increases when passing
crete la trecerea de la valoarea n par la cea impar from the even value of n to the neighboring odd one
nvecinat i invers descrete la trecerea de la valoarea and vice versa - decreases when passing from the even
n impar la cea par nvecinat. Limita de sus a speranei value of n to the neighboring odd one. The upper limit
matematice a I d* , pentru abordarea simplificat, se of the mathematical expectancy of I d* , for the
obine la valori pe ct posibil mai mici ale M = n: la simplified approach, is obtaining at lowest possible
valori ale n pare aceasta crete odat cu descreterea M = values of M = n: at even values of n, it increases with
n, ncepnd cu cca. 11,48% pentru M = n = i atingnd the decreasing of M = n, from approx. 11.48% for M =
25% la M = n = 2; la valori ale n impare aceasta crete n = and reaching 25% at M = n = 2; at odd values of
odat cu descreterea M = n, ncepnd cu cca. 22,92% n, it increases with the decreasing of M = n, from
pentru M = n = i atingnd cca. 29,63% la M = n = 3, approx. 22.92% for M = n = and reaching about
limita de sus coinciznd cu cea pentru abordarea puternic 29.63% for M = n = 3, the upper limit coinciding with
simplificat. the one for the highly simplified approach.
t
I d* ,%
30 n=2
n=3
25
n=4
n=5
20
n=7

15
n = 15
10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100M
t
Figura 7. Graficele funciei I d* (M, n), %mandate/
t*
Figure 7. Grafics of function I d (M, n), %seats.

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I d* , The dependence of the mathematical


Dependena speranei matematice a
*
pentru abordrile simplist, puternic simplificat i expectancy of I d, for the simplistic, strongly
simplificat, la o varietate relativ larg de date simplified and simplified approaches, at a relatively
iniiale, este reprezentat grafic n figurile 5-7. Dup wide variety of initial data, is graphically
cum se poate observa, caracterul acestor dependene represented in Figures 5-7. As can be seen, the
la abordrile nominalizate este, n linii mari, character of these dependencies at mentioned
asemntor. n detalii ns exist deosebiri. approaches is, broadly, similar. But there are
differences in details.
Dac domeniul de definiie al speranei
I d* , If for the simplistic approach the definition
matematice a pentru abordarea simplist, este
(0; 25]%, atunci pentru abordrile puternic domain of the mathematical expectancy of I d* is (0;
simplificat i cea simplificat acesta este (0; 25]%, then for the highly simplified and simplified
29,63]%. Dac limita de sus a speranei matematice a ones it is (0; 29.63]%. If for the simplistic approach
I d* , pentru abordarea simplist, la valori impare ale the upper limit of mathematical expectancy of I d* at
n este mai mic de 25%, atunci pentru abordarea odd values of n is less than 25%, then for the highly
puternic simplificat aceasta este mai mare de 25%, simplified approach that is more than 25%, and for
iar pentru abordarea puternic simplificat aceasta the strongly simplified approach it may be,
poate fi, n funcie de caz (valorile M i n), att mai depending on the case (M and n values), both greater
mare, ct i mai mic de 25%. and less than 25%.

n baza (25) i (39), obinem: Basing on (25) and (39), we obtain

I * , la n par/even
~* d
I d = * 25 1 (59)
I d + ( 1 2 ), la n impar/odd.
M n

Din (59) rezult c la valori ale n pare are loc From (59) results that at even values of n
~* ~
egalitatea I d = I d , iar la valori ale n impare I d* = I d* , and at odd values of n
*
occurs the equality
~* ~
inegalitatea I d > I d , ultima devenind tot mai I d* > I d* ,
*
the inequality the latter becoming more
pronunat odat cu reducerea M i creterea n. pronounced with decreasing of M and increasing of n.
Grafic diferena Graphically, the difference
~ ~ ~ ~
(n impar)= Id*(n impar) Id*(n impar= 25/(1 (n impar)= Id*(n impar) Id*(n impar= 25/(1
1/n2)/M, pentru un set relativ larg de cazuri, este 1/n2)/M, for a relatively large set of cases, is shown in
prezentat n figura 8. Din aceast figur se poate Figure 8. From this figure we can see, that function
~ ~
observa, c funcia ( M , n impar) este ( M , n impar) is decreasing with M, similar to
~
descresctoare fa de M, ca i I d* ( M , n) i I d* ( M , n) and I d* ( M , n) , and weakly dependent
~ ~
I d* ( M , n) , i slab dependent de n, iar limita de on n, and the upper limit for ( M , n impar) is
~ reached, given that n M, at n = M = 3 and is equal
sus pentru ( M , n impar) este atins, innd cont
to about 7.41%.
c n M, la n = M = 3 i este egal cu cca. 7,41%.

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~
8 , %

7
n=3
6

5
n=7
4

3
n = 19
2

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 M
~
Figura 8. Graficele funciei ( M , n impar)
~
Figure 8. Grafics of function ( M , n odd) .

n baza (39) i (59), obinem: Basing on (39) and (59), we obtain:

9
( n + 1 )( 1 2 ), la n impar/odd
~t ~ t 25 n
= I d* I d* = (60)
12M 13n 36n + 20
2
, la n par/even.
2( n 1 )
~t
, %
14
n=4
12 n=5
10
n=7
n=
8 n=
n=
6

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 M

~t
Figura 9. Graficele funciei (M, n)/
~t
Figure 9. Grafics of function (M, n).

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~t ~t
Grafic funcia (M, n), pentru un set relativ larg Grafically, the function (M, n), for a relatily
de cazuri, este prezentat n figura 9. De menionat c ~t
~t ~t ~* large set of cases, is shown in Figure 9. To note that (M,
(M, n=2) = (M, n=3) = 0, adic I d ( M , n = 2) = ~t ~*
t n=2) = (M, n=3) = 0, namely I d ( M , n = 2) =
~* t
I d* (M, n = 2) i Id (M, n = 3) = I d* ( M , n = 3) , iar t* ~* t
I d (M, n = 2) and Id (M, n = 3) = I d* ( M , n = 3) ,
pentru n > 3 are loc, dup cum era i de ateptat,
~* t* and for n > 3 take place, as was expected, the inequality
inegalitatea I d ( M , n) > I d (M , n = 2). ~* t*
~t I d ( M , n ) > I d (M , n = 2).
Din figur 9 se poate observa c funcia (M,n) From Figure 9 it can be seen, that the function
este descresctoare fa de M, ca i cea ~ t
~ (M,n), is decreasing with M, similar to the
( M , n impar), dar, totodat, semnificativ dependent ~
( M , n impar) one, but, at the same time, significantly
i de n, ndeosebi la valori pare ale n. Limita de sus
~t dependent also on n, especially at even values of n. The
pentru (M,n), la valori ale n pare, crete odat cu ~t
creterea n, tinznd ctre cca.13,54%, iar la valori ale n upper limit for (M,n), at even values of n, increases with
impare crete odat cu creterea n, n intervalul [3; 19], the increase of n, tending to approx. 13,54%, and at odd
atingnd valoarea maxim de cca. 2,14% la n = 19, iar values of n increases with the increase of n, in interval [3;
apoi descrete, tinznd ctre cca. 2,08%. 19], reaching the maximal value of about 2,14% at n = 19,
n ansamblu, mai aproape de realitate este, and then decreases, tending to approx. 2,08%.
probabil, abordarea simplificat. Overall, more accurate is, probably, the simplified
6. Concluzii. Sperana matematic a Abaterii approach.
relative medii pentru soluiile optime este propus de 6. Conclusion. The mathematical expectancy of
apreciat n baza caracteristicilor unei infiniti K de the Mean relative deviation for the optimal solutions is
scrutine cu distribuirea uniform a mrimilor Vik, proposed to estimate basing on characteristics of an
infinity K of elections with uniform distribution of
i = 1, n , k = 1, K sau, ceea ce este acelai lucru, a
quantities Vik, i = 1, n , k = 1, K or, that is the same, of
resturilor Vik, i = 1, n , k = 1, K . Sunt determinate
remainders Vik, i = 1, n , k = 1, K . Are defined such
aa caracteristici ale setului K de scrutine ca: 1)
domeniile de definiie ale resturilor ordonate n characteristics of the set K of elections as: 1) the definition
domains of remainders arranged in decreasing
descretere Rjk, j = 1, n , k = 1, K ; 2) expresiile pentru
Rjk, j = 1, n , k = 1, K ; 2) expressions for the size Ljk,
dimensiunile Ljk, j = 1, n , k = 1, K ale domeniilor de
j = 1, n , k = 1, K of the definition domains of ordered
definiie ale resturilor ordonate; 3) expresiile pentru
intervalele, delimitate de ctre hotarele nvecinate ale remainders; 3) expressions for the intervals, delimited by
domeniilor de definiie ale resturilor ordonate; 4) unele neighboring boundaries of the definition domains of
caracteristici ale intervalelor specificate la p. 3. ordered remainders; 4) some features of the intervals
n scopul aprecierii speranei matematice a specified in Section 3.
Abaterii relative medii, sunt descrise patru abordri: In order to evaluate the mathematical expectancy
direct, simplist, puternic simplificat i simplificat. of the Mean relative deviation, four approaches are
Pentru ultimele trei din acestea, sunt obinute expresii described: direct, simplistic, highly simplified and
analitice de calculare a speranei matematice a Abaterii simplified. For the last three of these, analytical
relative medii, n funcie de valorile mrimilor M i n. expressions for calculating the Mean relative deviation
Totodat, expresia exact aferent este obinut doar mathematical expectancy, depending on the values of M
pentru cazul n = 2. n celelalte cazuri, expresiile and n, are obtained. However, the related exact expression
respective sunt obinute n condiiile satisfacerii anumitor is obtained only for the case of n = 2. In other cases, the
supoziii. Este dat reprezentarea grafic a dependenei respective expressions are obtained in terms of satisfying
speranei matematice a Abaterii relative medii de valorile of certain assumptions. For a large variety of initial data,
mrimilor M i n, pentru o varietate larg de date iniiale. the graphical representation of the dependence of Mean
De asemenea, este efectuat analiza comparativ a relative deviation mathematical expectancy on M and n
abordrilor simplist, puternic simplificat i values is done. It is also performed the comparative
simplificat. n unele cazuri rezultatele obinute coincid, analysis of the simplistic, strongly simplified and
ndeosebi la valori ale n pare. simplified approaches. In some cases the obtained results
Mai aproape de realitate este, probabil, abordarea coincide, especially at even values of n.
simplificat. Oricum, pentru cazurile cu un numr n nu More accurate is, probably, the simplified
prea mare de partide i un numr M nu prea mic de approach. However, for cases with a number n of parties

134 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012


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I d* not too large and a number M of seats not too small, the
mandate, sperana matematic a este relativ mic.
Exemple conform celor trei abordri (hotarele de jos mathematical expectancy of I d* is relatively small.
corespund abordrii simplificate): 1) n = 5; M = 100; Examples according to the three approaches (lower
boundaries correspond to the simplified approach): 1) n =
1,2 1,4%; 2) n = 10; M = 100; media
*
media I d
5; M = 100; average I d 1,2 1,4%; 2) n = 10; M = 100;
*
I d* 1,4 2,5%; 3) n = 5; M = 200; media
average I d* 1,4 2,5%; 3) n = 5; M = 200; average
0,6 0,7%; 4) n = 10; M = 200; media
*
I d
I d* 0,6 0,7%; 4) n = 10; M = 200; average
0,7 1,2%; 5) n = 5; M = 500; media
*
I d
I d* 0,7 1,2%; 5) n = 5; M = 500; average
0,24 0,29%; 6) n = 10; M = 500; media
*
I d
0,24 0,29%; 6) n = 10; M = 500; average
*
0,28 0,50%. Dar chiar i la o eroare a reprezentrii I d
drepturilor unui alegtor n organul electiv de
0,28 0,50%. But even at an error of 0.4%seats in
*
0,4%mandate, la un numr total de 500 de mandate,
I d
aceasta conduce la o eroare absolut de 2 mandate. De the representation of a voter rights in the elective body, at
aceea este important folosirea, la distribuirea mandatelor a total of 500 seats, this leads to an absolute error of 2
n sisteme de votare cu reprezentare proporional, a unor seats. It is therefore important to use, when distributing
metode ct mai eficiente. seats in voting systems with proportional representation,
more efficient methods.

Referine:/ References:
1. Gallagher M. Proportionality, Disproportionality and Electoral Systems. In: Electoral Studies (1991), 10:1,
p. 33-51.
2. Bolun I. Comparison of indices of disproportionality in PR systems. In: Computer Science Journal of
Moldova, vol. 20, no. 2(59), 2012. Chisinau: IMCS.
3. Bolun I. Seats allocation in party-list elections. In: Economica, nr.2(76)/2011. - Chiinu: Editura ASEM.
4. Bolun I. Domeniul de definiie al disprporionalitii soluiei optime n sisteme RP. n: Analele Academiei
de Studii Economice din Moldova, Ed. 10. Chiinu: Editura ASEM, 2012.

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 3 (81) 2012 135


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ARMONIZAREA THE HARMONISATION OF


STATISTICILOR BUSINESS PE SHORT-TERM BUSINESS
TERMEN SCURT CU STATISTICS WITH THE
STANDARDELE EUROPENE: EUROPEAN STANDARDS:
ABORDRI I REALIZRI N APROACHES AND
PRACTICA STATISTIC ACHIVEMENTS IN THE
NAIONAL NATIONAL STATISTICAL
PRACTICE
Prof. univ., dr. Ion PRACHI, ASEM
Lect. univ. sup. drd. Oleg CARA, ASEM Professor, PhD. Ion PRACHI;
Senior Lect., PhD candidate Oleg CARA,
Evaluarea performanelor economice,
detectarea timpurie a vulnerabilitilor i a momen- AESM
telor de cotitur din ciclurile de afaceri, n special n
perioada de criz, cere un rspuns prompt i The evaluation of economic performances, the
coordonat din partea instituiilor statistice. Statisticile early detection of vulnerabilities and turning points in
business de calitate, comparabile la nivel business cycles, in particular, during crisis times,
internaional, prezint un deosebit interes pentru require an immediate coordinated response of
economiile pieelor emergente, precum cea statistical institutions. Qualitative business statistics,
moldoveneasc. Rspunznd la provocrile de a oferi comparable at the international level, are of special
o imagine coerent i adecvat a activitii economice interest for emerging market economies, such as the
prin utilizarea sistemului de indicatori, definiiilor Moldovan economy. Facing the challenges to produce
aplicate la nivelul Uniunii Europene i experienei a coherent and adequate image of economic activity,
internaionale avansate privind organizarea using the system of indicators, the definitions applied
observrilor statistice, n statistica Republicii at the European Union level and the advanced
Moldova, a fost realizat o serie de activiti n international experience on the organisation of
vederea crerii unui sistem integrat al statisticilor statistical surveys, a series of statistical activities were
ntreprinderilor, mai cu seam pe termen scurt. performed in the Moldovan statistics in order to create
n cadrul statisticilor pe termen scurt (STS), un an integrated system of business statistics, in
rol deosebit revine indicatorilor ce caracterizeaz particular, in what concerning the short-term statistics.
evoluia situaiei din industrie. In the framework of short-term statistics (STS)
n articol, sunt prezentate abordrile teoretice the indicators characterising the development of the
privind msurarea evoluiei produciei industriale; situation in industry are of special importance.
elaborarea i implementarea noii metodologii de In this article, the authors come with the
calcul al indicelui produciei industriale, precum i description of: theoretical approaches on the industrial
aplicarea instrumentului modern de ntocmire a production evolution measurement; the new
statisticilor pe termen scurt, inclusiv n industrie, methodology on the industrial production index, as
elaborate i implementate n statistica naional well as of the new, short-term integrated survey,
conform normelor i bunelor practici europene. including for industry, elaborated and implemented in
Cuvinte-cheie: statisticile pe termen scurt, national statistics according to European standards
indicele produciei industriale, armonizare, cercetarea and best practices.
integrat, eficien. Key-words: short-term statistics, index of industrial
production, harmonization, integration, efficiency.
1. PERFECIONAREA MSURRII
EVOLUIEI PRODUCIEI INDUSTRIALE 1. THE IMPROVEMENT OF MEASUREMENT
DIN REPUBLICA MOLDOVA EVOLUTION OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION
IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA
1.1. Indicele produciei industriale: abordri
teoretice i practice pe plan internaional. Indicele 1.1. The index of industrial production:
produciei industriale (IPI) reflect evoluia activitii theoretical and practical approaches on the
industriale i constituie unul din indicatorii cheie ce international level. The index of industrial production
caracterizeaz performanele economice ale unei ri. (IIP) reflects the development of industrial activity and
Destinaia IPI este, n special, identificarea punctelor represents one of the key indicators of the economic
de cotitur din activitatea economic n etapa performances of a country. The purpose of the IIP is,
incipient [9, p.27]. in particular, to identify turning points in economic

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Obiectivul indicelui produciei industriale este development at an early stage [9, p.27].
msurarea schimbrii n timp a volumui produciei cu It is the objective of the production index to
frecven nalt i la intervale egale de timp. IPI ofer measure changes in the volume of output at close and
msura evoluiei valorii adugate pe o anumit regular intervals. IIP provides a measure of the volume
perioad de referin. Formula teoretic a indicelui trend in value added over a given reference period. The
produciei (Q) este un indice de volum de tip theoretical formula for an index of production (Q) is a
Laspeyres, calculat potrivit formulei [6]: Laspeyres-type volume index, i.e. [6]:

N M (t )

L
pi , o * qi , t j, o * j, t
Q t
= i =1
N
j =1
M (0)
, (1)

i =1
pi , o * qi , o j , o * j,0
j =1

unde: where:
q exprim cantitatea produs, q output quantity,
p preul de producie, p output price,
preurile materialelor consumate, input material prices,
cantitile materialelor consumate, input material quantities,
i unul din produsele N, i one of N commodities,
j unul din materialele consumate M, j one of M input materials,
0 perioada de baz, 0 base period,
t perioada curent. t current period.
Indicele produciei reprezint o msur teoretic, The production index is a theoretical measure that
care trebuie aproximat prin msuri practice, fiindc, n must be approximated by practical measures, as in reality,
realitate, datele necesare pentru compilarea unui astfel the data necessary for the compilation of this index are not
de indice, pe baz lunar, nu sunt disponibile. De available on monthly basis. Therefore the challenge for
aceea, marea provocare pentru statisticieni este de a statisticians is to obtain the best approximation of short-
obine cea mai potrivit aproximare a evoluiei pe termen term movement in value added [9, p.38].
scurt a valorii adugate [9, p.38]. There are two approaches for the volume
Conform Recomandrilor ONU privind Indicele measurement according the UN Recommendations on
Produciei Industriale, exist dou abordri de msurare a the Index of Industrial Production, based on the use of
volumului, bazate pe utilizarea variabilelor ce variables that characterise:
caracterizeaz: The output of industrial activity, measured:
Rezultatele/produsele activitii industriale, in monetary/values terms (for example, the
reprezentate: value of industrial output: produced,
n expresie monetar/valoric (de exemplu, sold/delivered);
valoarea produciei industriale: produse, in physical quantities (for example, the
vndute/livrate); extracted quantity of coal, oil, gas,
n cantiti fizice (de exemplu cantitatea production of electricity);
crbune, petrol, gaze, extrase de energie Consumption by:
electrice produs). labour (for example, the number of hours
Consumurile de: worked or full-time equivalent of the
munc (de exemplu, numrul de ore lucrate number of employees);
sau numrul mediu de persoane ocupate consumed materials, both in value and
echivalent norm ntreag); physical expression (for example, the
materiale, exprimate att valoric, ct i n consumption of electricity, which
cantiti fizice (de exemplu, consumul de historically has been used for the
energie electric, care, istoric este, a fost measurement of changes of output for
folosit pentru msurarea evoluiei produciei some industrial activities) [9].
din anumite activiti industriale) [9]. At the same time, the following procedures are
Totodat, pentru msurarea evoluiei volumului used to the measure the development of industrial
produciei industriale, sunt utilizate procedurile de: production volume:
deflatare; deflation;
extrapolare [9]. extrapolation [9].
n calitate de deflatori pentru calcularea IPI, se The relevant price indices are used as deflators
utilizeaz indicii de pre relevani. for the IIP calculation.

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Metoda extrapolrii este bazat pe utilizarea The method of extrapolation is based on the use
cantitilor fizice de producie obinute sau consumate i of output or input in physical quantities and it is
este potrivit pentru produsele omogene. Astfel, aceast appropriate for homogenous products. Consequently,
metod, are un areal de utilizare redus fa de metoda this method has a rather low area of use as compared
deflatrii, fiind aplicat, n special n industria de minerit/ with the method of deflation, being applied in particular
extracie, precum i n cea de producere a energiei to the mining and quarrying activities and the
electrice. production of electricity.
n baza analizei experienei statelor UE, pot fi The three basic methods in IIP compilation may
evideniate trei metode principale de compilare a IPI: be outlined based on the analysis of EU member states
Metoda 1 prin msurarea rezultatelor activitii experience:
ntreprinderilor industriale pe ansamblu, exprimate Method 1 measuring the output of the
prin valoarea produciei obinute sau comercializate observation unit as a whole, expressed by the
(livrate), cifrei de afaceri etc. Ulterior, pentru value of produced or sold (delivered) output,
producerea indicelui de volum, este utilizat turnover, etc. Later on, the deflation method is
metoda deflatrii, prin aplicarea indicelui de pre used for the production of volume indices, by
relevant; applying a relevant price index;
Metoda 2 prin msurarea valorii nsi a Method 2 measuring the output value of (total
produselor industriale obinute, destinate vnzrii production, or sold, or production intended for
sau efectiv livrate. Ulterior, pentru inerea sale or delivered). At a later stage, the deflation
determinarea indicelui de volum, este utilizat method is used for the production of volume
metoda deflatrii, prin aplicarea indicelui preurilor index, by applying the price index of industrial
produciei industriale; products;
Metoda 3 prin msurarea cantitii fizice a Method 3 measuring the physical quantity of
produciei industriale obinute de ntreprinderi industrial output of enterprises (expressed in
(exprimate n tone, litri, buci etc.), la nivel de tonnes, litres, pieces etc.), at the product level.
produs. Two supplementary methods are used in
Suplimentar, la metodele de baz, sunt aplicate nc addition to the basic methods:
dou metode: Method 4 measuring the number of worked
Metoda 4 prin msurarea numrului de ore hours;
lucrate; Method 5 measuring the physical quantity (or
Metoda 5 prin msurarea cantitii fizice (sau deflated value) of consumed materials (raw
valorii deflatate) a materialelor consumate (materiei materials, electricity or other energy resources) [8].
prime, energiei electrice sau altor resurse The above-mentioned methods have both,
energetice) [8]. advantages and disadvantages, whereas more countries
Metodele menionate au anumite avantaje, dar i use a combination of methods, depending on the
dezavantaje, iar cele mai multe ri folosesc o specific economic activity, with one of the three first
combinaie de metode, n funcie de genul specific de basic methods as predominant.
activitate, cu una din primele trei metode de baz 1.2. Calculation method of industrial
dominante. production index in national statistics used until
1.2. Modalitatea de calcul a indicelui produciei 2011. Until 2011, the IIP calculation was based on the
industriale n statistica naional, aplicat nainte de data related to the value of industrial production, in
pn anul 2011. Pn n anul 2011, calcularea IPI current and comparable prices (of the previous year),
realizat de Biroul Naional de Statistic, se bazata pe provided directly by the enterprises with the main
datele privind valoarea produciei industriale n preuri economic activity in industry.
curente i comparabile (din anul precedent), furnizate Thus, the respondents had to face a difficult
nemijlocit de ctre ntreprinderile cu genul principal de situation of monthly recalculation of production
activitate industrial. volumes during the reporting period with the
Astfel, respondenilor le revenea o sarcin dificil application of average prices of the previous year. This
de recalculare, cu regularitate lunar, a volumelor had a negative impact both, on the response burden on
produciei obinute n perioada de raportare, cu aplicarea enterprises and on the statistical data quality, because
preurilor medii din anul precedent. Aceasta avea impact the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) did not have
negativ att asupra sarcinii de rspuns a ntreprinderilor, the possibility to check the data quality provided by the
ct i asupra calitii datelor statistice, cci nu permitea units at the disaggregated level.
Biroului Naional de Statistic (BNS) s efectueze As noticeable, the IIP compilation method used
evaluarea calitii datelor furnizate de uniti la nivel in our country did not correspond to any of advanced
dezagregat. methods practiced in other countries. Moreover, the
Precum se vede, metoda compilrii IPI, practicat data collection from enterprises neither did correspond
n ara noastr, nu se ncadra nici ntr-una din metodele to the best European practices, based on the

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avansate practicate de alte state. n plus, modalitatea de organisation of sample statistical surveys, using the
culegere a datelor de la ntreprinderi de asemenea nu respondent-friendly questionnaires.
corespundea bunelor practici europene, bazate pe Consequently, it was emergently necessary to
organizarea observrilor statistice prin metoda de sondaj, develop and implement new methodologies of IIP
cu utilizarea unor chestionare prietenoase calculation, according to international
respondenilor. recommendations and best practices of other states, in
Prin urmare, era stringent necesitatea elaborrii i particular of European Union, also taking into account
implementrii noii metodologii de calcul a IPI, precum i the peculiarities of our country.
perfecionarea modalitii de colectare a datelor de la entiti The analysis of the five main IIP compilation
n conformitate cu recomandrile internaionale i bunele methods, applied at European level, outlined the
practici ale altor state, n special ale UE, innd, totodat, cont relevance for our country of the second method based
de particularitile rii noastre. on the measurement of the value of industrial products,
Analiza celor cinci metode principale de compilare a using deflation, by applying the price index of
IPI, aplicate pe plan european, a pus n eviden relevana, industrial production. The advantage of this method,
pentru realitile rii noastre, a metodei a doua, bazat pe compared to the first one, consists in the fact that it
msurarea valorii nsi a produselor industriale obinute, cu offers a better approximation for IIP and the possibility
utilizarea deflatrii, prin aplicarea indicelui preurilor to have a correct image of industrial sector by
produciei industriale. Avantajul acestei metodei fa de homogenous activities and not by the main activity, as
prima metod, descris mai sus const n faptul,c ofer o in the case of the first method.
aproximare mai reuit a IPI i posibilitatea obinerii unei Methods 3, 4 and 5 applied by some European
imagini veridice a sectorului industrial pe activiti countries have a reduced relevancy for the case of the
omogene i nu dup principalul gen de activitate, ca n cazul Republic of Moldova, taking into account the economic
primei metode. activities characteristic to the industry of our country,
Metodele 3, 4 i 5 aplicate de unele ri europene, production heterogeneity and important structural
au o relevan redus pentru Republica Moldova, innd changes frequent in the industrial branch.
cont de genurile de activitate caracteristice industriei rii 1.3. The description of new methodology
noastre, eterogenitatea produciei, importante schimbri of IIP compilation. The method used. For the best
structurale frecvente n ramura industrial. approximation of theoretical IIP measure for the
1.3. Descrierea noii metodologii de compilare a IPI practical calculation of this index the following
Metoda utilizat. Pentru aproximarea ct mai procedure were developed: the evaluation of industrial
potrivit a msurii teoretice a IPI, la calcularea practic a products, at elementary level, with the later deflation
indicelui respectiv, a fost stabilit procedura de evaluare, based on the industrial price index and the use of the
la nivel elementar, a produselor industriale, cu deflatarea structure of gross value added as weights in the IIP
ulterioar pe baza indicelui preurilor n industrie i