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ESEN Ț A ARHITECTURII. SPA Ț IUL INTERIOR

Einfühlung (rezumat). Din condi ț ia neînsufle ț irii apriorice a obiectelor rezult ă ș i o rela ț ie de încredere pe care cel care empatetizeaz ă o

stabile ș te cu lumea; doar el confer ă obiectului via ță ș i suflet, cu toate c ă pentru con ș tiin ț a lui lucrurile se prezint ă pe dos. [Zeii pe care

omul grec ș i-i creeaz ă sunt, pentru el, vii]

El se transport ă pe sine în obiect, în m ă sura în care

transpune el în obiect este chiar propria-i fiin ță , adic ă propriul con ț inut incon ș tient

con ț inutul în-sim ț it [ein-gefühlt] reprezint ă o parte component ă esen ț ial ă a subiectului” 1 .

Cel care empatizeaz ă , f ă r ă s ă - ș i dea seama, se savureaz ă pe sine în obiect. C ă ci ceea ce

În-sim ț ire ș i opera de art ă (rezumat). «Nevoia de intropatie poate fi considerat ă ca o premis ă a voin ț ei artistice numai acolo unde voin ț a artistic ă înclin ă spre autenticul-organic, adic ă spre naturalism, în sensul superior. Sentimentul de fericire care este stârnit în noi prin reproducerea frumuse ț ii organice a vie ț ii, ceea ce omul modern caracterizeaz ă ca frumos, este o satisfacere a acelei nevoi interioare de

În formele operei de art ă noi ne savur ă m pe noi în ș ine. Valoarea unei linii, unei forme const ă pentru noi în valoarea

activitate proprie

vie ț ii pe care ea o con ț ine pentru noi. Forma ob ț ine frumuse ț ea ei numai prin sim ț ul nostru vital, pe care noi îl adâncim confuz în ea» 2 .

Percep ț ie vizual ă ș i mi ș care. “The mobile hand, tactile motricity, helps the whole body to grasp the feeling of space. Sight itself is imbued with motricity, because we can move our eyes directing them toward this or that object (…) Schmarsow argues that our body, our own living body is organized as an intermediary between the subject and the environment (Umwelt) … With all his reference to movement movement, motricity, locomotion (and its affective correlate: e-motion), Schmarsow introduces time into space. Space appears deeply interwined with time, if we consider that movement is in itself a translation in space through time. This aspect becomes clearly evident when Schmarsow analyses what is his central issue in architecture: not the façade, a bi-dimensional object of a static contemplation, but rather the interior space, the Innnenraum – the proper domain of spatial configuration – whose articulation in depth is experienced by the whole body … Husserl [also] always insisted on the crucial importance of movement in perception, necessary in his view to get a complete tridimensional experience of the object … The aspect of the object changes, while the object itself maintains its core. – Husserl underlines that any dynamics and statics of the body are meaningful because they refer to a ground: the Earth. The Earth is the orizon against which every motor behavior becomes comprehensible. In a very similar way, Schmarsow [before Husserl] remarks that our living body is so constructed that it moves or stands still (which is nevertheless a degree of movement, its degree zero) on a ground which is the Boden, the soil, the earth. […] Art as the ‘confrontation between the human being and the world is never a matter of universal, but always a matter of singularities” 3 .

În ț elegerea l ă untric ă a arhitecturii. “It is time to inquire into the origin and innermost essence of architecture … And we might begin this [theoretical] process of moving ‘from within’ with architecture, which so long has been externalized by an aesthetic imposed ‘from

without’ … It is important in a basic study to give due weight to the psychological origin of the creative act and to test the belief that in this art, as in all others, what is truly essential can only start in the mind of the artist and end in the mind of the observer […] The intuited form of space consists of the residues of sensory experience to which the muscular sensations of our body, the sensitive of our skin, and the structure of our body all contribute. As soon as we have learned to experience ourselves and ourselves alone as the center of this space, whose coordinates intersect in us, we have found the precious kernel on which architectural creation is based. Once the ever-active imagination takes hold of this germ and develops it according to the laws of the directional axes inherent in even the smallest nucleus of every spatial idea, the grain of mustard seed grows into a tree and an entire world surrounds us. Our sense of space and spatial

imagination press toward spatial creation; they seek their satisfaction in art. We call this art architecture: it is the creatress of space

all carry the dominant coordinate of the axial system within ourselves in the vertical line that runs from head to toe. This means that as long as we desire an enclosure for ourselves, the meridian of our body need not be visible defined; we ourselves, in person, are its visual manifestation. As the creatress of space, architecture creates enclosures for us in which the vertical middle axis in not physically present but remains empty. For this reason such interior spaces remain the principal element far into the evolution of architecture as an art. The spatial construct is an emanation of the human being present, a projection from within the subject, irrespective of whether we physically place ourselves inside the space or mentally project ourselves into it … The principal concern is always the spatial enclosure of the subject […] Should not architecture today, in turning back to the time-honored, inner aspect of its creations, once again find its way into the hearts of the general population by becoming the creatress of space? It is said that the spirit builds the body in its own image. The history of architecture is the history of the sense of space, and thus consciously and unconsciously it is a basic constituent in the history of worldviews” [Weltanschauungen : viziuni globale asupra lumii] 4 .

We

1 C.G. Jung, Tipuri psihologice, Opere complete 6, Trei, 2003, p. 315-316 2 Ion Iano ș i, Prefa ță , în : Worringer, Abstrac ț ie ș i intropatie, p. XXVIII.

3 Andrea Pinotti, “Body-Building: A. Schmarsow’s Kunstwissenschaft between Psychophysiology and Phenomenology”, in: German Art History and Scintific Thought. Beyond Formalism, Ed. By Mitchell Frank and Daniel Adler, Ashgate 2012 4 August Schmarsow, „The essence of architectural creation” (1893) (http://designtheory.fiu.edu/readings/mallgrave_schmarsow.pdf)