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Parte Intreaga-parte Fractionara,Clasa a VII-A

Parte Intreaga-parte Fractionara,Clasa a VII-A

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CENTRU DE EXCELENTA CLASA A VII – A, Algebra

PARTEA INTREAGA SI PARTEA FRACTIONARA A UNUI NUMAR RATIONAL
Axioma lui Arhimede : Pentru orice numar rational x, exista un numar intreg k, unic, astfel incat k ≤ x < k + 1. Partea intreaga a unui numar rational. Se numeste partea intreaga a numarului rational x, numarul intreg k, cu proprietatea : k ≤ x < k + 1. Notam : k = [x] = partea intreaga a lui x. Deci : [x] ≤ x < [x] + 1. Partea fractionara a unui numar rational. Se numeste partea fractionara a numarului rational x, numarul rational x – [x]. Notam : {x} = x – [x] = partea fractionara a lui x. Deci : x = [x] + {x}. Proprietati : 1. x – 1 < [x] ≤ x , ∀x ∈ Q. 2. [x] ∈ Z. 3. 0 ≤ {x} < 1 4. [x + n] = [x] + n , ∀x ∈ Q, ∀n ∈ Z. 5. {x + n} = {x} , ∀x ∈ Q, ∀n ∈ Z. 6. [x] + [x +
1 2 n -1 ] + [x + ] + … +[ x + ] = [nx] , ∀x n n n

Q, ∀n ∈ N.

(Identitatea lui Hermite). Exemple : • • [3,2] = 3 ; [-2] = -2 ; [
1 ] = 0 ; [-4,3] = -5 2

{2} = 0 ; {-5} = 0 ; {3,2} = 0,2 ; {-3,2} =0,8 ; {4,3} =0,3 ; {-4,3} = 0,7. Exercitii : 1. Sa se calculeze partea intreaga si partea fractionara a numerelor : 7,3 ; -1,56 ; 2,(8) ; -3 1,3)2 ; (-3,4)3 ; (-1,1)4. 2. Fie numarul
a=

1 425 2586 ;;2 16 12

;

2005 14

; 3,(6) ; 1,72(32) ; -3,(12) ; (-

Sa se determine n ∈ N* astfel incat {a} = 0,999. 3. Se considera expresia E(x) = [2x] - [x] – [x +
1 ] 2

1 1 1 1 + + + ... + , n ≥ 1. 1⋅ 2 2 ⋅ 3 3 ⋅ 4 n ⋅ (n + 1)

a. Sa se arate ca pentru orice x , 0 ≤ x < b. Sa se arate ca E(x +
1 ) = E(x). 2

1 , avem E(x) = 0. 2

4. Sa se rezolve ecuatiile : a. [x] = 0 1

CENTRU DE EXCELENTA CLASA A VII – A, Algebra b. c. d. e. [x] = 1 [x] = -1 [x -1] = 2 [2x -1] = 3
1 5

f. [3x + 4] = g.  

1  7x − 6  =x+2 6  x − 2 x + 2 = h.  4  3    x + 1 x −1 = i.  ; 2  3   2 x − 2 =x+ ; j.  3  3  

 x + 2n + 1 x + 2n − 1  n + 3  = n + 2 , n ∈ N, fixat.   n x − n  *  n + 1  = x + n + 1 , n ∈ N \ {1}, fixat.  

5. Folosind identitatea lui Hermite rezolvati ecuatiile :
+ =0  + = 2005 , a.   4   4      4   4     radacinilor intregi . b.  3 x − 1  3 x + 1  3 x − 1  3 x + 1

cercetati

numarul

+ =1 c.   4   4    
+ = 2003 d.   4   4      3 x − 1  3x + 1

3 x −1

3 x + 1

+ = n, n ∈ Z , cercetati numarul radacinilor intregi . e.   4   4    

 3 x − 1

 3x + 1

2

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