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LICEUL CU PROGRAM SPORTIV- ROMAN Prof.

TAMBA ANA

CONEXIUNI INTRE LITERATURA ROMANA SI LITERATURA UNIVERSALA Desi notiunea de literatura universala, de viziune universala a artei, este foarte veche, comparatismul ca metoda de studiu al literaturii nu s-a putut dezvolta decat odata cu aparitia unui anumit orizont al universalitatii, orizont care sa includa constiinta specificitatii literaturilor nationale si sentimentul comunitatii lor. In sec. al XX-lea, curentele moderniste au contribuit la aproprierea literaturilor si la largirea cat mai mare a sferei valorilor literare. Literatura comparata pune problema relatiilor dintre general si particular in literatura, dintre universal si specific national. Aceasta corelatie fundamentala a comparatismului poate fi cercetata sub diferite aspecte, cum sunt: contacte intre tari si cultura reflectate in arta, circulatia de motive, legende si mituri, forme si categorii literare comune, concordante etc. Aceasta lectie se axeaza pe cateva exemple care pun in lumina corelatiile dintre literatura romana si literatura universala, fara sa existe pretentia epuizarii problematicii deosebit de complexe.

A. Balzac si literatura romana


In literatura romana, inca din prima jumatate a sec. al XIX-lea si pana astazi, exemplul balzacian a suscitat un interes deosebit, determinand mai multe trepte de concordanta, de interferenta si asimilare a Comediei umane. Cunoasterea lucrarilor lui Balzac in versiune originala e atestata de cartile comandate de librariile iesene sau cataloagele bibliografice din Iasi si din Bucuresti in 1833. In saloanele literare ale vremii (1840), principalul subiect de discutie il reprezinta cartile lui Balzac. La difuzarea operei lui Balzac contribuie doi promotori culturali: Heliade Radulescu si Mihail Kogalniceanu, in sec.al XIX-lea. Cunoasterea romanului balzacian are urmari deosebite in literatura romana. Asimilarea metodei de creatie a marelui prozator francez se face gradat, necesitatea aplicarii ei se afirma teoretic din a doua jumatate a veacului al XIX-lea. B.P.Hasdeu in studiul Miscarea literelor in Esi 1863, compara nuvela Musu Tachi Paspandachi de I.V.Adrian cu romanul lui Balzac Slujbasii. In aceeasi epoca, concordanta cu opera balzaciana se va resimti in tipologie, fiziologiile, grefandu-se pe recent preluatele caractere clasice ale lui La Bruyere. Ex. C. Negruzzi, Fiziologia provincialului. O expresie aprofundata a fiziologiei de tip balzacian ofera Prologul romanului Ciocoii vechi si noi de Nicolae Filimon, in care se schiteaza tipul parvenitului. Arta tipologica balzaciana se va repercuta si asupra unor portrete, cum ar fi portretele satirice ale lui Heliade sau din nuvelistica lui B.P.Hasdeu. Preluarea metodei balzaciene se observa in dezvoltarea romanului. Exemplu: Tainele inimii de Mihail Kogalniceanu, 1850 si Ciocoii vechi si noi de Nicolae Filimon, 1863. Ultima opera literara amintita reprezinta un eveniment important in evolutia prozei realiste romanesti prin asimilarea artei balzaciene: infruntarea dintre exponentii a doua categorii sociale, importanta acordata contradictiilor sociale si politice; crearea de tipologii prin personaje pozitive si negative; portretele fizice care releva trasaturi de caracter; cadrul care joaca rol in definirea eroului mentalitatii si actelor sale; preocuparea de precizie topografica, atentia acordata documentului de epoca; culoarea locala reconstituita prin limbaj cu straturi lexicale grecesti si neogrecesti. Comedia umana e tradusa din ce in ce mai mult incepand cu sfarsitul sec. al XIX-lea: Eugenie Grandet -1896, Mos Goriot-1909, Colonelul Chabert-1910, Gobseck-1911, 1

Cautarea absolutului-1912, O afacere tenebroasa-1913, avand astfel impact asupra realismului romanesc. Relatiile literaturii romane cu opera balzaciana se consolideaza in perioada interbelica. Romancierii romani experimenteaza tehnici narative multiple ale romanului modern (sub influenta lui Marcel Proust si Andre Gide sau James Joyces),in acelasi timp insa se manifesta si tendinte de revenire la modelele traditionale,precum cel balzacian. George Calinescu este un partisan al lui Balzac atat pe taram teoretic, cat si in opera literara. Intr-o serie de articole (ex. Cateva cuvinte despre roman), pune in lumina trasaturile generalumane ale operei balzaciene care trebuie sa transpara din orice roman care-si indeplineste functia de cunoastere. Se formuleaza clasicitatea tipologiei si constructiei balzaciene. Romanul Enigma Otiliei(1938) are valoare estetica certa prin complexitatea metodei narative, predominanta fiind cea balzaciana: crearea de fresca sociala bucuresteana de la inceputul se. al XX-lea,temele balzaciene (tema mostenirii,tema paternitatii,tema casatoriei) , tipologia clasica (tipul parvenitului, al avarului, al babei absolute), descriptia atenta a cadrului, arta detaliului etc. O serie de scrieri ale lui Mihail Sadoveanu motiveaza influenta balzaciana prin tipologie si atmosfera (ex. Locul unde nu s-a intamplat nimic-roman,1933; Faceri de bine-nuvela) etc. Aspiratia de a construi o noua Comedie umana nu apare nicaieri mai evident decat la Cezar Petrescu, care isi propunea un amplu proiect literar, ciclic, format din 15-20 romane ale epocii de investigatie orizontala in realitatile si in procesele sociale, altele de investigatie verticala in realitatile si procesele psihologice ale individului, cum marturisea autorul. Scriitorul isi intituleaza proiectul literar Cronica veacului al XX-lea, titlurile ciclurilor indepartandu-se foarte putin de modelul lui Balzac. Ex.: Razboi si pace corespunde Scenelor din viata militara; Targurile unde se moare corespunde Scenelor din viata de provincie; Capitala care ucide corespunde Scenelor din viata pariziana etc. La Cezar Petrescu- scrie G. Calinescu- realista () nu e tratarea, ci tendinta de a epuiza tabloul personalitatilor umane; opera sa fiind cea mai bogata in personaje si medii din literatura noastra.Scriitorul a cautat sa sondeze cele mai variate straturi ale societatii romanesti din prima jumatate a secolului al XX lea ,prezentand monografic sau in cicluri de viata moravuri si tipuri umane,surprinzand fresca social-politica ( problema intelectualului,problema agrara,prefacerile social-politice ale Romaniei dupa primul razboi mondial,drama personala a omului chinuit si singur,lumea afaceristilor lipsiti de scrupule) etc. Criticul Ovid Crohmalniceanu observa in Literatura romana intre cele doua razboaie mondiale influenta balzaciana si in opere de dupa 1944, ex. Bietul Ioanide-1955 si Scrinul negru-1960 de George Calinescu sau Ion Marin Sadoveanu Sfarsit de veac in Bucuresti.-1944 Prezent in toate stadiile de evolutie a prozei romanesti ,opera lui Honore de Balzac ramane un stimulant al creatiei originale in domeniul romanului si al consolidarii genului proteic, contribuind la inscrierea valorilor acestei specii pe traiectoria literaturii universale.

B. Mihai Eminescu si Lermontov


Demonullui Lermontov apare in 1841,iar Luceafarul lui Eminescu in 1883.Cele doua poeme constituie sinteze de motive romantice,mitologice si folclorice,structurate independent,carora am putea sa le gasim un foarte general nucleu comun byronian. Chiar de la o prima lectura descoperim la cele doua poeme vizibile asemanari in simbolistica si pe planul creatiei. Astfel amandoua operele au ca subiect iubirea imposibila a unei fiinte supranaturale pentru o muritoare, sunt poeme ale elanului generos spre absolut. Atat Demonul , cat si Luceafarul constituie puncte de apogeu ale literaturii nationale si totodata creatii marcante ale romantismului european. Demonul si Luceafarul sunt poeme romantice, ample, cu o desfasurare epico-lirica, cu profunde implicatii simbolico-filosofice. 2

Luceafarul si Demonul se centreaza pe cuplu de indragostiti alcatuit dintr-o fiinta geniala, titanica si una pamanteana. Personajele sunt ipostaze lirice,simbolice. Daca Hyperion este o fiinta superioara, un principiu cosmic, demonul lui Lermontov se dovedeste a fi aproape de tipologia demonica a romantismului byronian. Demonul se comporta ca un proscris damnat tocmai din pricina superioritatii sale. El e conceput pe o linie predominant epica, satanismul fiind principiul opozitiei universale. Demonul face rau pentru ca doar asa poate sfida pe creatorul suprem. Personajul lui Lermontov este un principiu negator absolut, al carui spatiu de desfasurare e universul intreg. Hyperion din Luceafarul eminescian este un principiu cosmic creator, care intelege ordinea universului ca sistem constituit. Dialogul cu Demiurgul demonstreaza participarea sa la ordinea universala, fiind un element al sistemului. Demonul declama singur tirada despre diferenta dintre el si oameni, pe care in Luceafarul o rosteste Demiurgul. Elementul predominant e chinul nesfarsit , chinul fara hotar. Acest zbucium indeamna la renuntarea la nemurire. Luceafarul lui Eminescu recurge la o mitologie mai veche, antica si indica. Luceafarul ca personaj e construit cu elemente filosofico-lirice, abstracte, deschise unor interpretari plurivalente. Tamara din poemul lui Lermontov e femeia-inger, serafica, pe care, la Eminescu, o gasim in Inger si demon; Catalina se afirma ca simbol reprezentand conditia umana cu limitele ei. Poetul plaseaza in prim plan aspiratia spre Luceafar, adica spre superioritate si infinit in antiteza cu efemeritatea destinului unui muritor. In timp ce Tamara si Demonul sunt personaje a caror opozitie e determinata de antagonismul bine-rau, cea a cuplului eminescian, Catalina-Hyperion, e provocata de contradictia dintre finit si infinit, dintre geniu si mediocritate. De aceea finalul poemului lui Lermontov constituie o afirmare a imposibilei redemptiuni a eroului si ,intr-un sens ,un triumf al damnarii universale. Luceafarul se incheie cu o noua statuare a raportului dintre geniul creator si natura umana limitata, cu o subliniere a superioritatii lui Hyperion care ramane calm si imuabil in planul absolutului. Un alt personaj- cheie in ambele probleme e Creatorul. La Lermontov e personaj figurativ, el fiind marele dusman din trecut al eroului. Demiurgul eminescian apare ca voce a ratiunii, ca Logos, ca principiu cosmic coordonator. Aceasta prezentare a personajelor evidentiaza o diferentiere esentiala a celor doua poeme: Demonul e opera elanului de libertate, un mit al libertatii individuale cu implicatii epicosociale, pe cand Luceafarul e un mit cosmogonic. Daca Demonul cultiva poezia libertatii, Luceafarul cultiva poezia necesitatii-a ordinii cosmice, in inteles filosofic. Aceste diferente de viziune si substanta cosmica se remarca la toate nivelurile structurii tematice, momente narative, imagistica, fantastic. Motive comune celor doua poeme sunt: visul, calatoria cosmica, soarta oamenilor. Visul are functii diferite la cei doi creatori. In Demonul are caracter episodic de mediator epic. Demonul i se arata prima data Tamarei in vis intr-o atmosfera stranie; dragostea lui o inspaimanta ca forta unui duh malefic. In Luceafarul, fata il cheama cu insistenta pe astru. Visul are functia epica simbolica. El devine taramul cunoasterii absolute, al detasarii de contingent, astfel incat constituie un mediu ideal de comunicare. Poetul subliniaza si amplifica atmosfera de vis prin prezenta oglinzii, instrument de reflectare si de dedublare. Un alt punct de convergenta al celor doua opere il constituie caracterul lor fantastic. La Lermontov, fantasticul e legendar, cu aspect figurativ, luand cadru natura salbateca a muntilor Caucaz; fantasticul eminescian e mai legat de mit, e un fantastic alegorizant de imagistica conceptuala. Poemul lui Lermontov include elemente de pitoresc local, accentuand pe dramatismul scenic, urmarind constructia vizuala de tablouri. La Eminescu, pitorescul este esentializat, lasand in urma legenda, cele doua planuri: uman-terestru si universal-cosmic au semnificatii plurivalente filosofice.

Simbolismul lermontovian din Demonul este unidimensional, in timp ce la Eminescu acesta dobandeste valente multiple. Luceafarul lui M.Eminescu, mit al cunoasterii si absolutului, este un poem al reflectiei existentiale, al meditatiei asupra conditiei umane raportate la creatie. Corelatia intre Demonul si Luceafarulfixeaza doua faze ale romantismului european,in opera unor personalitati remarcabile,transfigurand framantarile intelectualului din secolul al XIX lea. Concluzii O literatura nationala poate fi privita ca o entitate prin anumite particularitati pe care i le confera limba, traditia culturala, fondul unitar al folclorului, mediul geografic. Toti acesti factori contribuie la formarea unei sensibilitati specifice spirituale, la crearea unei matrici stilistice, dupa cum o numea poetul si filosoful Lucian Blaga. O intelegere moderna a comparatismului impune studiul litaraturii universale intr-o deplina constiinta a particularitatilor lingvistice si a celorlalte componente ale particularitatilor nationale. George Calinescu preciza in Studii si comunicari- 1967: Universalitatea este o inima individuala puternica si sonora ale carei batai istorice se aud pe orice punct al globului , precum si in viitor.

The connections between Romanian and Universal literature


Though the notion of the universal literature, of the universal vision of the art is very old, the method of comparison in order to study literature, began to develop when the notion the horizon of the universal literature appeared, the horizon that includes the conscience that each national literature has some specific traits, but there are some common things for all of them. In the XX century, the modern tendencies in the literature contributed to the approach of the literatures and to the extension of the literary values. The comparison of the literatures arises the problem of relation between the general and the particular in each literature, between the universality and the specific traits of each national literature. This relation can be studied in different ways, for example: the relation between the countries and culture which can be seen in the art, the circulation of reasons, legends and myths, common literary categories. This work shows just a few examples which can prove the connection between our national literature and the universal one.

Balzac and the Romanian literature


In the Romanian literature since the beginning of the XIX century till nowadays Balzac played an important role in the development of the literature and this determined more levels of concordance, interference and assimilation of the Human comedy. The proof that his works were well known in our country is attested by the fact that libraries from Iasi and Bucharest ordered his books in 1833. At the literary meetings in that period of time the most exciting and important subject was represented by his books. To promote Balzacs books two Romanian men of culture worked a lot: Heliade Radulescu and Mihail Kogalniceanu in the XIX century. The study of Balzacs work has great consequences in the Romanian literature. The assimilation of his method of creativity is done gradually, the necessity to apply it appears in the second half of the XIX century. B.P.Hasdeu in his study The movement of the letters in the East compares the novel Musu Tachi Paspandachi by I.V.Adrian with the novel The clerk by Balzac. In that period of time the concordance with the work of Balzac would be seen in the typology, the physiologies being grafted on the classical characters of La Bruiere (for example The physiology of the provincials). A deep expression of the physiology presented by Balzac is the prologue of the novel Old and newboyars by Nicole Filimon, where the character of a parvenu is described. The art of the typology also affects some portraits, for example the satiric portraits of Heliade or from the novels of B.P.Hasdeu. Balzacs method was used and this can be noticed in the development of the novel. For example The secrets of the heart by Mihail Kogalniceanu, 1850 and The old and new boyars by Nicolae Filimon, 1863. The last one represents an important event in the evolution of the Romanian realistic novel, and some tendencies from the novels of Balzac can be noticed: the conflict of the exponents of two social categories, the importance paid to the political and social contradictions, the creation of some typologies based on positive and negative characters, the physical portrait talking about moral features, the background which is important to define the mentality and the behaviour of the 5

character, the special attention paid to the old documents, the local colour established with the help of the old language containing greek and neogreek aspects. The human comedy is translated more and more at the end of the XIX century: Eugenie Grandet-1896, Father Goriot-1909, The colonel Chabert-1910, Gobseck-1911, Search of the absolute-1912, A dubious affair-1913, having a great impact on the Romanian realism. The relation of the Romanian literature is better consolidated during the inter-war period. The Romanian novelists try many narrative techniques of the modern novel( under the influence of Marcel Proust and Andre Gide or James Joyces), but in the same time there is a tendency to come back to the traditional models (Balzac) George Calinescu is a supporter of Balzac both theoretically and practically. In some articles (Some words about the novel) he shows the human traits of Balzacs novel which must be revealed by any novel which accomplishes its function of cognition. The novel Otilias enigma (1938) has a certain esthetic value through the complexity of the narrative method, the predominant being that of Balzac: the creation of the social fresco of Bucharest at the beginning of the XX century, the themes treated by Balzac (the theme of paternity, the theme of inheritance, the theme of marriage), the careful description of the background, the classical typology (the type of the greedy man, the type of the parvenu), the art of the detail. Some works by Sadoveanu explain the influence of Balzac. The aspiration to build a new Human Comedy can be seen at the Romanian author Cezar Petrescu who realized a big literary project , made of 15 novels, novels that showed and investigated the relations and the social process of that period, novels that investigated the relations and the psychological process of the human being. The title of this literary project is The chronicle of the XX century and the titles of the cycles are almost similar with the titles found in the creation of Balzac. For example Peace and war and Balzac has Scenes from military life., The markets where you can die and Balzac has Scenes about the life in the province, The capital that kills and Scenes about the life of the partisans. G. Calinescu says that the tendency to make a huge portrait of the human personalities is the main element of the realism, his work being the richest one in characters and social levels from all the Romanian literature. The author tried to investigate the various levels of the society of that period, presenting human personalities, manners, the social and political fresco (the problem of the intellectual, the agricultural problem, the personal tragedy of the poor person, the world of the businessmen without any scruples, the social simulations after the second world war.) The critic Ovid Crohmalniceanu notices in the Romanian literature between the two wars the influence of Balzac, but also in some novels written after the second world war: foe example Poor Ioanide-1955, The black chest of drawers-1960 by George Calinescu or the end of the era in Bucharest-1944 by Ion Marin Sadoveanu. Present at all the levels of the evolution of the Romanian novel, the work of Honore de Balzac remains the stimulus of the original creation in this vast domain of the novel, contributing to the whole universal literature.

Mihai Eminescu and Lermotov


The Demon by Lermotov appears in 1841, and Lucifer by Eminescu in1883. The two poems are a synthesis or romantic, mythological and folk themes, free structured, to which we could find a byronian common point. Firstly we descover that the two poems have resemblances regarding the symbols and the way of creation. Thats why they have as subject the impossible love of a superior creature for a humain being. 6

Both The Demon and Lucifer are the apogee of the national literature and important creations of the european romanticism. The Demon and Lucifer are romantic poems with an epic and lyrical unfolding, with philosophal meaning. Lucifer and The Demon are a couple formed from a genial creature and a earthly one. The characters are symbols. If Hyperion is a cosmic principle, the Lermotovs demon proves to be near of the diabolical typology of the byronian romanticism. The Demon behaves like a convict because of his superiority. He makes bad just to challenge the suprem creator. Lermotovs character is an absolute negative principle, whose space of acting is the whole universe. Hyperion is a principle creator which understands that the univers is a system. The dialogue with the Demiutge shows his affiliation to the birth of the universe The Demon and Lucifer make the difference between he and the people. The principal element is the endless torture. This agony means the renunciation of immortality. Tamara from Lermotovs poem is the woman-angel, who is found in the poetry of Eminescu Angel and Demon; Catalina symbolises the humain condition and its limits.For the poet it is very important the aspiration for Lucifer, namely for his superiority which is compaired with the death of the humain destiny. While Tamara and The Demon symbolise the antithesis between good and bad, the one of Eminescu, Catalina and Hyperion are unleashed by the conflict between genius and mediocrity. Thats why Lermotovs poem ends with a sentence, while Lucifer with a new relation between the genius creator and limited nature of humain beings. Lucifer remains unchained in his absolute world. Another important character in the two poems is God. At Lermotov it is a figurative character, He is the enemy of the hero. The Demiurgeappears like the raisons voice. This presentation of characters shows an esential differentiation of the two poems: The Demon is a myth of freedom while Lucifer is a cosmogonic one.These differences of vision notice, notice himself as all the thematic structure levels and narative moments. Common themes for the two poems are: the dream, the cosmic journey, the humain fate. The dream has different functions at the two poets. The Demon has an episodic nature. Firstly he shows to Tamara in her dreams, in a strange atmosphere; his love scares her like a malefic ghost. In Lucifer the girl calls the star. The dream has a symbolical meaning,it is the land of absolute knowledge, the perfect place for a conversation. The poet fills this atmosphere with the mirror, an instrument of reflection and division. Another resemblance is the fantastical character. At Lermotov, the fiction is a legend with a figurative aspect and at Eminescu it is a myth. Lermotovs symbolism from the Demon is unidimensional while at Eminescu it has multiple meanings. Lucifer is the myth of the knowledge, it is a poem of meditation concerning humain beings creation. The connection between The Demon and Lucifer settles the two moments of romanticism in the writings of some remarcable personalities, being transfigured in the ideeas of XX siecle.

Conclusions
The national literature can be seen like an entity which has specific features offered by the language and by the customs. All these elements create a spiritual sensibility, a stylistic matrix how Lucian Blaga used ti say. George Calinescu was saying in his writing Investigations and communications-1969: the universality is a strong heart whivh historical beatings are heard everywhere in the world and in the future Compiled by teacher, Tamba Ana Translation by teacher, 7

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