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ACADEMIA ROMN Institutul de arheologie Vasile Prvan Bucureti

Cunoaterea prin cercetri interdisciplinare a vechilor aezri rurale din spaiul carpato-dunrean
Editor: Mihail Zahariade Coordonator: Ruxandra Alaiba Traducere din englez de Coralia Costa i Ctlin Hriban

Editura Junimea Iai 2009

Coperile I i IV: suport cel de vatr, Murgeni - Gura Bujoreni, sec. IV. 1st and 4th covers: support firedog, Murgeni - Gura Bujoreni, 4th century.

Restaurare - conservare / restoration - conservation: Cornel Hobincu, Cristian Pntea, Constantin Aghion
Georgeta Vrnceanu, Elena Plugariu Tehnoredactare computerizat / Computer typing: Vasile V. Alaiba

Desene / Drawings

Editura Junimea, Iai - ROMNIA Bd. Carol I, nr. 3-5, cod. 700506, tel./fax: 0232-410427 e-mail: junimeais@yahoo.com

S.C. IRIMPEX S.R.L. Brlad Str. C-tin Hamangiu nr. 15 Ionel Irimia: tel. / fax 0742040097 / 40235 415669 E-mail: scirimpex@yahoo.com Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naionale a Romniei Cunoaterea prin cercetri interdisciplinare a vechilor aezri rurale din spaiul carpato-dunrean / editor: Mihail Zahariade Iai, Junimea, 2009. ISBN 978-973-37-1363-0 I. Zahariade, Mihail (ed.) 902(948)
Editura rspunde la comenzi n limita tirajului disponibil. The printing house answers requests within the limit of the available number of copies. Reproducerea n orice form, inclusiv prin fotocopiere, fr acordul scris al editurii, intr sub incidena legii drepturilor de autor. The partial or total reproduction, in any form, including by photocopy, without the written approval of the printing house, is subject to the Copyright Law.

NCSIS Grant no. 517

Romanian Academy Vasile Prvan Archaeology Institute Bucharest

The knowledge by means of interdisciplinary researches aboutthe ancient rural sites throughout the Carpathian Danubian Space

Editor: Mihail Zahariade

Coordinate: Ruxandra Alaiba Translated from English by Coralia Costa and Ctlin Hriban

Junimea Publishing House Iai 2009

Autori / Authors
Mihail Zahariade Ruxandra Alaiba Vasile V. Alaiba Oleg Leviki Institutul de Arheologie Vasile Prvan Bucureti "Vasile Prvan" Archaeology Institute of Bucharest Institutul de Arheologie Vasile Prvan Bucureti "Vasile Prvan" Archaeology Institute of Bucharest Facultatea de Informatic. Universitatea Alexandru Ioan Cuza Iai Al. I. Cuza University Iai. Faculty of Informatic Institutul Patrimoniului Cultural, Academia de tiine, Republica Moldova Cultural Heritage Institute, Academy of Sciences, Republic of Moldova Centrul de studii antropologice, Academia Romn - filiala Iai Romanian Academy - Branch of Iassy, Anthropology Department Centrul de studii antropologice, Academia Romn - filiala Iai Romanian Academy - Branch of Iassy, Anthropology Department Institutul de Arheologie Iai Archaeology Institute of Iai Muzeul Naional de Istorie a Romniei National History Museum of Romania

Robert Simalcsik Angela Simalcsik Vasile Chirica

Ileana - Ildiko Zahariade

CUPRINS CONTENTS

Cuvnt nainte .....................................................................................................................................7 Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................9

PARTEA I (Part I)

Descoperiri din secolul al IV-lea n Podiul Brladului the fourth entury discoveries on the Brlad Plateau
Ruxandra Alaiba, Descoperiri din secolul al IV-lea n Podiul Brladului.....................................................14 Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau..........................................................................................15 Mihail Zahariade, Vasile Chirica, Ruxandra Alaiba, Descoperiri din secolul al IV-lea n subunitile geografice ale Podiului Central Moldovenesc. Privire special asupra judeului Iai..17 Fourth Century Discoveries in the geographical subunits of the Central Moldavian Plateau. A particular view on the Iai county......................................................................................................27 Mihail Zahariade, Ruxandra Alaiba, Descoperiri din secolul al IV-lea n subunitile geografice din Podiul Brlad. Privire special asupra judeului Vaslui ..................................................................... 38 The Fourth Century Discoveries in the geographical subunits in the Brlad Plateau. A particular view on the Vaslui county ................................................................................................ 55 Robert Simalcsik, Angela Simalcsik, Aspecte paleodemografice specifice unor populaii din secolul al IV-lea de pe actualul teritoriu al Judeului Vaslui ..........................................................74 Palaeodemographic aspects specific to some 4th century populaces on the present territory of Vaslui county ..............................................................................................80 Ruxandra Alaiba, Cercetrile arheologice de la Valea Mare - La Doroftei, secolele II-III i VI-VII, judeul Vaslui ...............................................................................................87 The archaeological researches of Valea Mare - La Doroftei, 23th and 67th centuries, Vaslui county .........96

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

Partea II (Part II) Staiunea Banca Gar - apte case the Banca Gar - apte case settlement
Oleg Leviki, Descoperiri din perioada hallstattian de la Banca Gar - apte case ................................102 The Hallstatt period Discoveries at Banca Gar - apte case Settlement ................................................ 105 Vasile V. Alaiba, Capaciti i funcionaliti ale ceramicii descoperite n staiunea din secolele III-V de la Banca Gar - apte case ................................................................................107 Capacities and functionalities of the pottery ware found at the III-IV Centuries Banca Gar - apte case Settlement .................................................................................................. 114 Ileana - Ildiko Zahariade, Restaurarea i conservarea materialului ceramic .......................................... 116 Restoration and Conservation of the pottery ...........................................................................................117 Ruxandra Alaiba, Cercetrile arheologice de la Banca Gar - apte case, secolele III-VI, judeul Vaslui .119 The archaeological researches of Banca Gar - apte case Settlement, 3-6th centuries, Vaslui county .....125 Ruxandra Alaiba, Cuptoare performante de ars ceramica, n spaiul dintre Carpai i Prut, secolele III a.Hr. - V p.Hr. ..............................................................................................................133 Performance kilns for pottery firing, in the area between the Carpathians and river Prut, (3)4rdcentury BC - 5thcentury AD ........................................................................................................139

Cuvnt nainte
Mihail Zahariade

Studierea prin cercetri arheologice a vechilor aezri rurale de la Dunrea de Jos, din primul mileniu, a reprezentat i reprezint o constant a istoriografiei romneti. Ea se nscrie pe linia cercetrilor tematice cu privire la Cultura romneasc i cultura european, Dezvoltare social i specificul vieii unei comuniti umane din primul mileniu, Proiecte de integrare regional i european n istoria Romniei. Specificul cultural al acestor teritorii a depins i de poziia geografic a diferitelor zone n raport cu cele dou provincii romane, Dacia i Moesia Inferior. n secolul al IV-lea, spaiul de la nordul Dunrii de Jos i al Mrii Negre, din zona geografic limitat la sud de Dunre, la est de Nistru, la vest i nord de limes Transalutanus i de Carpaii Nordici, a fost integrat vastului teritoriu legat de complexul cultural Sntana de Mure Cerneahov. Din cadrul acestui spaiu, n volum s-au prezentat descoperirile specifice pentru secolul al IV-lea din Podiul Brladului, sistematizate conform datelor cunoscute n literatura de specialitate, n principal n repertoriile arheologice realizate pentru Moldova, de Nicolae Zaharia, Mircea M. Petrescu-Dmbovia i Emilia Zaharia (1970) sau pentru judeul Iai, de Vasile Chirica, Marcel Tanasachi (1984 1985) i pentru judeul Vaslui, de Ghenu Coman (1980), dar i n rapoartele de spturi arheologice sau n alte lucrri cu privire la perioada n discuie. Conform acestor izvoare documentare n volum s-au prezentat, pe comune, i n cadrul lor pe sate, descoperirile specifice secolului al IV-lea, de cele mai multe ori menionndu-se i cele din secolul al III-lea sau din secolul al V-lea. Pentru fiecare punct s-a avut n vedere localizarea administrativ, jude, comun, sat, poziia geografic, numele locului, dar i al apelor curgtoare din apropiere i specificul inventarului. Profesorul Mircea Petrescu-Dmbovia, n colaborare cu soii, Nicolae i Emilia Zaharia, n Consideraiile privind aezrile din Moldova, care prefaeaz volumul aezrilor, De la paleolitic pn n secolul al XVIII-lea, ntr-un spaiu larg din capitolul legat de Perioada de trecere la evul mediu, analizeaz Cultura material din secolele IV-V, aa cum a fost reflectat de descoperirile arheologice consemnate n volum (1970, p. 74-91). n repertoriu ei au menionat, pentru secolul al IV-lea, pentru perioada corespunztoare culturii Sntana de Mure Cerneahov, 419 puncte rspndite, cum au remarcat autorii aproape pretutindeni pe teritoriul Moldovei, att n zona silvostepic, ct i n cmpiile cu caracter stepic (Ibidem, p. 161). Ei au stabilit i cinci zone mai intens locuite, Cmpia nord-estic a Moldovei, Podiul Sucevei i Podiul Central Moldovenesc, Culoarul Prutului i Depresiunea Hui Elan Horincea, dar au consemnat i dou zone mai puin locuite, n regiunea subcarpatic din centrul Moldovei i n Cmpia Siretului Inferior, regiuni care astzi sunt mai bine cunoscute. Dup ei, concentrarea aezrilor ntre Siret i Prut, este n legtur direct cu descoperirile corespunztoare de aezri dintre Prut i Nistru (Ibidem, p. 161). Tot ei au subliniat i faptul c, aceste zone au fost mai mult sau mai puin locuite i n perioada secolelor II-III p.Hr. (Ibidem). n primul repertoriu zonal al Judeului Vaslui, publicat de Ghenu Coman menioneaz existena, pentru perioada corespunztoare provinciei Dacia, din secolele II i III p.Hr., a 89 de puncte sigure i 3 neclare. De asemenea, n acelai jude Vaslui, pe terasele joase i medii, nsorite

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

i aproape de izvoare i ape, pentru perioada cuprins ntre sfritul secolului al III-lea pn la nceputul secolului al V-lea, a nregistrat 348 de puncte, aezri, necropole i descoperiri izolate (1980, p. 38-39). Dintre descoperirile din acest jude, la fel am detaat pe cele din secolul al IV-lea. La acesta s-au adugat investigaiile de teren realizate n mprejurimile satului Banca, de Ruxandra Alaiba i Gh. Gherghe, din 1987-1989, reluate n Monografia comunei Banca, realizat mpreun cu Marin Rotaru, n 2002. De asemenea, n primul repertoriu zonal al Judeului Iai, publicat de Vasile Chirica i Marcel Tanasachi, n dou volume, n 1984-1985, semnalrile de staiuni pentru aceast perioad au fost deosebit de numeroase. Astfel, n repertoriul judeului Iai s-au menionat 172 de obiective din secolele II-III, ntre care trei necropole, Trgu Frumos, ibneti i Schitu Duca, probabil 14 morminte izolate. De asemenea, pentru secolul al IV-lea, s-au semnalat pentru ntregul jude un numr deosebit de mare de staiuni 535, din care patru necropole i 11 morminte izolate (V. Chirica, n ~, M. Tanasachi 1985, p. 472). Pornind de la aceste repertorii i de la alte semnalri ale unor puncte din aceast perioad, mai ales n publicaiile mai noi, s-a realizat de Mihail Zahariade, Vasile Chirica i R. Alaiba, o prezentare a descoperirilor din secolul al IV-lea, din Podiul Brladului, dar i un repertoriu al descoperirilor specifice pentru secolul al IV-lea din zon, accesibil pe Internet, organizat de R. Alaiba. Cum am precizat, n repertoriu s-au dat i situaiile destul de frecvente n care existau suprapuneri stratigrafice, aezri din secolele II-III, suprapuse de cele din secolele IV-V, pentru ca pe aceleai vetre de sat sau pe vetre apropiate, acestea la rndul lor s fi fost suprapuse de unele datnd n perioade ulterioare. Aceste frecvente suprapuneri ridic un semn de ntrebare asupra legturilor dintre locuirile succesive. Tot n volum, prin studiul semnat de Robert Simalcsik i Angela Simalcsik, s-au analizat succint Aspectele paleodemografice specifice unor populaii din secolul al IV-lea de pe actualul teritoriu al Judeului Vaslui. Sinteza semnat de cei doi cunoscui antropologi ieeni, a fost structurat ca un studiu comparativ de ansamblu, att din punct de vedere paleodemografic, ct i paleoantropologic, asupra unor populaii aparinnd culturii Sntana de Mure, care au trit n secolul al IV-lea i la nceputul secolului al V-lea p.Hr, n cteva zone geografice din actualul jude Vaslui. Ei au pornit de la rezultatele paleoantropologice i demografice publicate deja, pentru necropolele i aezrile de la Bogdneti, Flciu, de Dan Botezatu i Georgeta Miu; pentru Brlad Valea Seac, de Vasile Palade; pentru Banca Gar - apte case, de Georgeta Miu i R. Alaiba; pentru Polocin - Islaz i Pogoneti, de Georgeta Miu i Mircea Mamalauc. Cum au subliniat autorii studiului, Spturile sistematice executate n necropolele sau aezrile menionate au scos la iveal un bogat material arheologic, antropologic, paleozoologic, de o deosebit importan n elucidarea problemelor legate de evoluia cultural, social, economic i biologic a populaiilor care au trit pe actualul teritoriu al judeului Vaslui n secolele IV-V p.Hr. Au fost consemnate, de R. Alaiba, Cercetrile arheologice de la Valea Mare - La Doroftei, secolele II-III i VII-VIII, judeul Vaslui, coordonate de profesorul Dan Gh. Teodor, realizate pentru cunoaterea specificului aezrilor din primul mileniu din Podiul Brladului. Prin publicarea cercetrilor arheologice ntreprinse aproape ntr-un deceniu de spturi sistematice, de R. Alaiba, n satul Banca Gar, judeul Vaslui, n staiunea pluristratigrafic aflat pe malul stng al rului Brlad, n punctul numit de localnici apte case, sub forma unei monografii arheologice, s-a ncercat s se surprind o mic parte din specificul vieii rurale din sudul Moldovei, prin prezentarea amnunit a tuturor descoperirilor, fapt sugerat de cercettorul Ion Ioni, care ne-a ndemnat spre publicarea ntregului material pe complexe, spre a forma astfel o baz de date verificabile. Publicarea in extenso a spturilor realizate n cadrul unei aezri locuite de o populaie de origine geto-dacic, care, din ultima parte a secolului al III-lea i-a stabilit vatra ntr-o zon mai accesibil legturilor intercomunitare, pe tipuri de locuine iar n cadrul lor, a unor date cantitative, ne-a ngduit realizarea unor investigaii mai ample, cu deosebire asupra ceramicii fine i uzuale, dar i a uneltelor, a obiectelor de podoab sau accesoriilor vestimentare.

Cuvnt nainte / Foreword

n primul rnd, Ileana - Ildiko Zahariade, a subliniat importana muncii de restaurare i conservare, realizat n Laboratorul de conservare - restaurare, din cadrul Muzeului Judeean tefan cel Mare - Vaslui, de Cornel Hobincu, Pntea Cristian i Constantin Aghion, pentru inventarul fiecrui complex descoperit la Banca Gar. n acest laborator s-au restaurat i conservat toate piesele descoperite n cele ase sectoare investigate (A-F), att ceramica preistoric, din perioada de tranziie de la eneolitic la bronz - bronz timpuriu, din perioada hallstattian, dar mai ales aceea din primul mileniu. S-a ncercat i o analiz statistic a inventarelor obinute pe antier. Nivelul de locuire din epoca hallstattian, n aezarea de la Banca Gar - apte case, dup cum arat complexele i materialele arheologice recuperate este reprezentat de vestigiile unei locuine de suprafa i de fragmente de ceramic atestate sporadic n straturile de sptur. Oleg Leviki, bun cunosctor al epocii fierului, a ncercat s ncadreze, Descoperirile din perioada hallstattian de la Banca Gar - apte case, din staiunea amplasat geografic la limita de vest a Dealurilor Flciului i la limita de est a Dealurilor - Colinelor Tutovei. Complexele i materialele arheologice recuperate au fost specifice unei locuiri aflate n zona mai puin dens populat de comunitile culturii Corlteni Chiinu, dar n care se extind i unele comuniti ale grupului Tmoani. Astfel, prezena n aezarea de la Banca Gar - apte case, a ceramicii caracteristice acestor formaiuni culturale, prezint o situaie mai mult dect fireasc. Astfel, Vasile V. Alaiba, a calculat capacitile diverselor forme ceramice, desigur, doar a recipientelor ntregibile, Capacitai i funcionaliti ale ceramicii descoperite n aezarea din secolele III-IV de la Gara Banc - apte case. Totodat, pentru fiecare complex s-au calculat procentele pe categorii de inventar. Aceste calcule statistice au permis ordonarea complexelor n funcie de cantitatea de ceramic modelat la mn, dar i n funcie de creterea apoi descreterea ceramicii modelate din past zgrunuroas sau mai puin zgrunuroas nisipoas i nlocuirea acesteia, n secolele V-VI, cu vasele n past cu cioburi pisate. Dei comunitatea de la Banca Gar a pstrat tradiiile culturale antice, se poate urmri transformarea populaiei de aici ca urmare a impactului cu lumea sarmatic i gotic, mai activ i n permanente legturi cu lumea exterioar, cu deosebire din zona Dunrii de Jos. Pentru sudul Moldovei, am sublinia importana acestei concentrri de aezri i necropole din veacurile III-V p.Hr., din spaiul bine delimitat i aprat natural dintre Siret, Brlad i Prut, aglomerare de staiuni care ngduie s se ntrevad existena unei organizri locale n obti, precum i a uneia zonale n uniuni de obti, probabil cu structuri apropiate de alte formaiuni politice consemnate de izvoarele vremii.

Foreword
The study by archaeological research of the old rural settlements on the Lower Danube, of the 1st millennium, has represented a constant concern of Romanian historiography. It is included in the line of thematic researches concerning the Romanian and European cultures. The social development and the specificity of a 1st millennium human community, Projects of regional and European integration in the history of Romania. The cultural specificity of these territories also depended on the geographic position of the various areas in relation to the Roman provinces, Dacia and Moesia Inferior. During the 4th century, the space north the Lower Danube and the Black Sea, in the geographic area limited to the south by the Danube, to the east by the Dniester, to the west and north by limes Transalutanus and the Northern Carpathians, was integrated to the vast territory related to the cultural complex Sntana de Mure Cerneahov. Within the same space, the volume describes the specific 4th century discoveries in Brlad Plateau, systematized in accordance with the data known from the specialized literature, mainly in

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Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

the archaeological repertoires prepared for Moldavia, by Nicolae Zaharia, Mircea PetrescuDmbovia and Emilia Zaharia (1970) or for the counties of Iai, by Vasile Chirica, Marcel Tanasachi (1984 1985) and respectively of Vaslui by Ghenu Coman (1980), and also in the archaeological excavation reports or in other works concerning the period under discussion. According to these documentary sources, the volume presents the discoveries specific to the 4th century structured as per communes and within communes as per villages. In most case the 3 rd or 5th century discoveries were also pointed out. For each point, there was taken into account the administrative localization, county, commune, village, geographic position, name of the place, and also nearby running waters and the specificity of the inventory. Professor M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, in collaboration with Nicolae and Emilia Zaharia, in the Considerations on the Settlements in Moldavia, that is the preface to the volume of such settlements from Paleolithic until the 18th century, over a wide space within the chapter pertaining to the Period of Transition to the Middle Ages, analyze the 4rd5th centuries material culture, as reflected by the archaeological discoveries described in the volume for this period (1970, p. 74-91). In the repertoire they mentioned for the 4th century for the period corresponding to the Sntana de Mure Cerneahov culture, 419 points spread, as remarked by the authors almost all over the territory of Moldavia, both in the forested steppe area and in the plains with steppe-like aspect (Ibidem, p. 161). They established five zones more intensively inhabited, the Northeastern plain of Moldavia, the Plateau of Suceava and the Central Moldavian Plateau, the Prut Corridor and the Hui Elan Horincea Depression, and also specified two other zones, less inhabited, in the Subcarpathian region of Central Moldavia and the Plain of the Lower Siret, regions which are better known nowadays. According to them, the concentration of the settlements between Siret and Prut Rivers is in direct connection to the discoveries corresponding to the settlements between the Prut and the Dniester (Ibidem, p. 161). They also pointed out the fact that these areas were more or less inhabited during the 2nd 3rd centuries AD too (Ibidem). In the first repertoire of the area, pertaining to the county of Vaslui, was organized by Ghenu Coman, in 1980. Among the discoveries in this county, we extracted, similarly, those pertaining to the 4th century. To these we added the field investigations made in the surroundings of village Banca, by R. Alaiba and Gh. Gherghe, in 1987-1989, presented in the Monograph of commune Banca, prepared with Marin Rotaru, in 2002. The repertoire of the 4 th century discoveries was prepared in this volume in accordance with the criteria used in older repertoires. In the first repertoire of the area, of the county of Iai, as published by Vasile Chirica and Marcel Tanasachi, in two volumes, in 1984-1985, the remarks for this period were particularly numerous. Starting from these, we prepared a presentation of the 4 th century discoveries in the Central Moldavian Plateau. As already pointed out, the repertoire also includes the settlements, rather frequent, where there existed stratigraphic overlapping, 2nd 3rd centuries settlements, of 4th century overlapping, while on the same village cores or on nearby cores, these were overlapped by others dated to later periods. Such frequent overlapping raises questions as for the links between the successive inhabitances. The volume also includes the study signed by Robert Simalcsik and Angela Simalcsik, entitled Paleodemographic aspects specific to 4th century populations on the current territory of Vaslui county. The short synthesis signed by the two known anthropologists of Iai was structured in the shape of a comparative general study both from the paleodemographic and from the paleoanthropological points of view, as for populations concerning to the Sntana de Mure culture, who lived in the 4th century and at the beginning of the 5th century AD, on the territory of localities in the area of the present county of Vaslui. They started from the already published paleoanthropological and demographic results, pertaining to the necropolises and settlements of Bogdneti, Flciu, by Dan Botezatu, Georgeta

Cuvnt nainte / Foreword

11

Miu and of Brlad - Valea Seac, by Vasile Palade; of Banca Gar - apte case, by Georgeta Miu and R. Alaiba; of Polocin - Islaz and Pogoneti, by Georgeta Miu and Mircea Mamalauc. As the authors of the study showed, the systematic researches in the above necropolises or settlements pointed out a reach archeological, anthropological, paleozoological material, particularly important in elucidating problems related to the cultural social economical and biological evolution of the populations that lived on the current territory of Vaslui county in the 4th5th centuries AD. The Central Moldavian Plateau, one of the geographic formations within the Brlad Plateau, was widely investigated by R. Alaiba, Archaeological Researches at Valea Mare - La Doroftei, Vaslui County: 2nd3rd century and 7th8th Century Finds. Together with professor D. Gh. Teodor, we made several test excavations near this settlement. The stratigraphic and chronological situation established for this settlement, with two different habitation levels, dated one in the first half and the other in the second half of the first millennium. The publication of the archaeological researches carried out throughout almost a whole decade consisting in systematic excavations which we undertook in the village Banca Gar, Vaslui county, in the pluristratigraphic settlement on the left of Brlad River, in the point referred to by the local inhabitants as apte case, in the form of an archaeological monograph study, was aimed at pointing out a little part of the specificity of rural life in south Moldavia, by the detailed presentation of all discoveries, as suggested by researcher Ion Ioni, who encouraged us to publish the whole material according to complexes, in order to create a verifiable database. The in extenso publication of the results of the excavations carried out in a settlement inhabited by a population of Geto-Dacian origin, that during the last part of the 3th century established its village core in an area more accessible to inter-communitarian links, according to the types of dwellings and within these, the publication of quantitative data, allowed us to elaborate wider investigations especially regarding the fine and daily pottery, but also of tools, of jewelry items of vestment accessories. First of all, Ileana-Ildiko Zahariade pointed out the importance of the restoration conservation work as carried out within the Conservation Restoration Laboratory within tefan cel Mare History Museum of Vaslui county, by Cornel Hobincu, Cristian Pntea and Constantin Aghion, for the inventory of each complex discovered at Banca Gar. It is also in this laboratory that there were restored and preserved all items discovered in six investigated sectors (A-F), both the prehistoric ceramic ware, of Eneolithic tradition, and the Bronze Age pottery, or the one of the Hallstatt period, and especially the one of the 1st millennium. The habitation level of the Hallstatt age, in the settlement of Banca Gar - apte case, as indicated by the archaeological complexes and materials recuperated therein is represented by the vestiges of a surface dwelling and potsherds sporadically confirmed in the excavation layers. The volume also includes the study signed by Oleg Leviki, The Hallstatt period Discoveries at Banca Gar - apte case, according to the geographic location, at the western limit of the Flciu Hills and at the eastern limit of Tutova Hills, was situated at the southeast periphery, less populated by the communities of the Corlteni Chiinu culture, there expanded also certain communities of the Tmoani group. Thus, the presence in the settlement of Banca Gar - apte case, of the ceramic ware specific to these cultural groups, is a natural situation. There was also attempted a statistic analysis of the inventories obtained in the settlement of Banca Gar. Thus, Vasile V. Alaiba, calculated the volumes of the various ceramic shapes, this operation pertaining naturally to the vessels whose shape could be established in Volumes and Functionalities of the Ceramic Ware Discovered in the 3rd4th Century Settlement of Gara Banc apte case. At the same time, for each complex there were calculated the percentages specific to each inventory category. Such statistic calculations allowed the ordering of the complexes according to the quantity of hand-made ceramic ware and also according to the increase and then decrease of the coarse or less coarse sandy paste vessels and the replacement hereof during the 5rd6th centuries with vessels whose paste contained smashed shards.

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Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

Although the community of Banca Gar maintained the ancient cultural traditions, there can be followed the transformation of the population down there as a result of the impact of the Sarmatians and Goths, more active and in permanent contact with the outer world, especially with the ara of the Lower Danube. For the south of Moldavia, we should point out the importance of this concentration of settlements and necropolises of the 3rd4th centuries AD, in the well naturally delimited and defended space between Siret, Brlad and Prut, agglomeration of settlements that allow to point out the existence of a local organization in kinships and a regional organization in unions of kinships, probably with structures close to other political structures specified in the sources of that epoch.

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PARTEA I (PART I)

DESCOPERIRI DIN SECOLUL AL IV-LEA N PODIUL BRLAD THE FOURTH ENTURY DISCOVERIES ON THE BRLAD PLATEAU

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Descoperiri din secolul al IV-lea n Podiul Brladului


Ruxandra Alaiba Cercetrile arheologice sistematice, de salvare sau perieghezele ntreprinse n zonele geografice din sudul Moldovei, n Podiul Brladului, un spaiu bine delimitat i aprat natural, aflat ntre Siret i Prut, cu o ntindere de peste 10 000 km2, au adus la lumin numeroase locuiri din toate perioadele vechi, relevnd astfel, unul dintre arealele cele mai populate. Din punct de vedere administrativ - teritorial, cuprinde n ntregime judeul Vaslui i parial judeele Iai, Bacu i Neam, patru din judeele provinciei istorice Moldova. Numele de Podi al Brladului, parte a Podiului Moldovei, cel mai ntins i mai reprezentativ podi al rii (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, p. 9), l-a luat de la bazinul hidrografic care-l dreneaz aproape n ntregime, dndu-i coeziune prin integrarea mai multor subuniti. Definirea geografic a Podiului Brladului nu se reduce la teritoriul traversat de rul Brlad, nici a celui ocupat de aflueni, ci la un spaiu mai ntins. n cadrul acestuia, conform sintezei coordonate de Vasile Bcuanu, n 1980, pornind i de la alte opinii, vezi n acest sens volumul publicat de Pierre Jeanrenaud, Aurel Saraiman, n 1995, se contureaz cteva principale subuniti geografice cu specificul lor: Podiul Central Moldovenesc, Colinele Tutovei, Dealurile i Cmpia Flciului. Podiul Central Moldovenesc prezentat de V. Tufescu, n 1940 i de C. Martiniuc, n 1955, a fost cunoscut n literatura geografic i sub alte denumiri, precum Podiul Sarmatic, Masivul sau Podiul Brladului Superior (N. enchea 1943; C. Martiniuc 1955). n sinteza semnat de Pierre Jeanrenaud i Aurel Saraiman, s-au stabilit limitele unitilor geografice din cadrul Podiului Brladului, cu deosebire, pe cursurile apelor. Pentru Podiul Central Moldovenesc, spre nord ei accept i demarcaia continu a vii Bahluiului1, la nord de Coasta Iailor, care domin Cmpia Moldovei, cu circa 200-300 m. Pentru ca limita sudic s o traseze pornind de la est de Bacu, prin sudul Vasluiului i nord-vestul Huilor, pe Vile Racovei i Lohanului, limitate de cueste puternice. Cotele maxime de nlime n podi au fost plasate ntre 400-550 m, n raport cu media de 300-320 m (P. Jeanrenaud, A. Saraiman 1995, p. 1, 3). Limita de est i vest s-a fixat pe Siret i Prut. n sinteza coordonat de Vasile Bcuanu, limita de nord urmeaz aua Ruginoasa, pentru a trece prin localitile Strunga - Sineti - Voineti - Mogoeti - Brnova - Tometi, pe Cuesta Iailor cunoscut i ca fruntea podiului, pe la sud de oraul Iai, pn la Prut. Extremitatea de sud s-a stabilit pe traseul ce trece prin Cuesta Racovei, pentru a se continua spre Siret cu Valea Morii i spre Prut cu Valea Lohanului i valea subsecvent Drslv - Hui2 i urm.). Pentru Podiul Brladului vom prezenta descoperirile cunoscute, specifice pentru secolul al IV-lea, n funcie de subunitile fizico-geografice ale acestuia: Podiul Central Moldovenesc, Colinele Tutovei, Dealurile i Cmpia Flciului.
Subunitatea de contact a Cmpiei Moldovei cu Podiului Brladului o constituie Cmpia Iailor, cu Depresiunea Voineti Brnova (Bcuanu et alii 1980, fig. 42). 2 Cf. sintezei coordonate de V. Bcuanu, pe linia localitilor Sagna Stnia Hndreti (Ibidem, p. 297). n literatura mai veche limita de sud s-a trasat pe linia albiilor rului Tutova i Zeletin (V. Mihilescu 1936, p. 92, fig. 15; V. Tufescu 1940, p. 77, fig. 2).
1

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau

15

Cadrul natural al Podiului Central Moldovenesc Relieful podiului este deluros, cu altitudinea celor mai multe interfluvii ntre 300-400 m, dei n unele locuri este depit. Cele mai joase altitudini se gsesc pe cursul inferior al vilor de pe partea stng a Brladului Superior (140 m), i valea Prutului cu numai 30 m. Relieful subunitilor de ordinul trei ale Podiului Central Moldovenesc, n genere se prezint sub forma unor dealuri sau platouri cu spinarea larg boltit de culmi separate de vi ntinse, dar adnci, cu diferene de nivel de pn la 200 m (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, p. 313-314). Aceste subuniti pot constitui i diviziuni pentru urmrirea formelor geografice preferate de comunitile din primul mileniu.

Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau


From the administrative/territorial point of view, the Brlad Plateau includes the whole Vaslui County, as well as areas from Iai, Bacu and Neam counties, i.e. four out of the eight counties of the historical province of Moldavia. The Brlad Plateau, which is a sub-unit of the Moldavian Plateau, includes a large portion of the central and southern Moldavia, within the SiretPrut interfluve, of over 10 000 km2. The name of Brlad Plateau comes from the river basin that drains almost its whole area and provides cohesion by integrating its several sub-units. As outlined within the synthetic work coordinated by Vasile Bcuanu as well as in several other more recent works (the book published by Pierre Jeanrenaud and Aurel Saraiman in 1995) the sub-units of the Brlad Plateau are as follows: the Central Moldavian Plateau, the Tutova Hills, the Falciu Hills and Plain. The Central Moldavian Plateau described by Victor Tufescu in 1940 and Constantin Martiniuc in 1955 was also known in the literature as the Sarmatic Plateau, the Upper Brlad Massif, the Upper Brlad Plateau (N. enchea 1943; C. Martiniuc 1955). The synthetic work coordinated by Pierre Jeanrenaud and Aurel Saraiman establishes the limits of the geographical units within the Brlad Plateau in their majority on water-courses mainly. The northern limit of the Central Moldavian Plateau is fixed along the edge of Bahlui Valley, north of the heights of Iai Escarpment that dominate the Moldavian Plain from a relative altitude 200-300 m, while the southern limit is made by a line starting from the Siret (east of Bacu), going eastward south of Vaslui and through north-western reaches of Hui town, on the Racova and Lohan Valleys, underlined by sharp escarpments. The highest points reach 400-550 m, compared to the average of 300-320 m (P. Jeanrenaud, A. Saraiman 1995, p. 1, 3). The eastern and western limits are given by Prut and Siret Rivers respectively. The northern limit is marked (according to the synthetic work of V. Bcuanu 1980, p. 297) by the Ruginoasa Saddle (the westernmost point), then following the line of villages: Strunga - Sineti - Voineti - Mogoeti - Brnova Tometi on the Iai Cuesta also known as the head of the plateau, south of the city of Iai, up to Prut River. The south extremity was set on the itinerary passing through the Racovei Cuesta, continuing towards Siret River with Morii Valley and towards Prut River with Lohan Valley and the subsequent Drslv Hui Valley3. Within the Brlad Plateau we shall describe the discoveries known to us, pending on the physical geographical sub-units thereof: Central Moldavian Plateau, Tutova Hills, Flciu Hills and Plain.

3 According to the synthesis coordinated by V. Bcuanu, on the line of localities Sagna Stnia Hndreti (Ibidem, p. 297). In the older literature the south limit was drawn along Zeletin and Tutova River (V. Mihilescu 1936, p. 92, fig. 15; V. Tufescu 1940, p. 77, fig. 2).

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Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

The natural environment of the Central Moldavian Plateau The relief of the plateau is hilly with the altitude of most interfluves contained between 300400 m, although in some areas the altitude is higher than this. The lowest areas are on the lower course of the valleys on the left side of Upper Brlad (140 m), and on the Prut Valley with only 30 m. The relief of the 3rd order sub-units of the Central Moldavian Plateau is generally represented by hills or plateaus widely arched with peaks separated by large though deep valleys, with differences of level of up to 200 m (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, p. 313-314). Such sub-units may represent also divisions for following the geographic forms preferred by the communities of the 1st millenary.

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Descoperiri din secolul al IV-lea n subunitile geografice ale Podiului Central Moldovenesc. Privire special asupra judeului Iai
Mihail Zahariade Vasile Chirica Ruxandra Alaiba a. Platourile Tansa Repedea, b. Platourile Dolheti Buneti, c. Depresiunea Brladului Superior, d. Dealurile Racova Stemnic, e. Dealurile Icuetilor, Faa Siretului, f. Dealurile Comarna Rducneni, Faa Prutului, g. Depresiunea Huilor.
Com. Al. I. Cuza, ape: Siret, iganca; aezare arina de Jos, Pe Holm, locuire Lutrie, sat cheia - La Izvoare, sat Volintireti - Movila lui tefan cel Mare i un ciob n Marginea de nord a satului. Sat Al. I. Cuza, Lutrie, din marginea de vest-sud-vest a satului, spre coala de 4 ani, n grdinile locuitorilor situate pe terasa inferioar a Siretului s-au descoperit urme de locuire i fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, I.1.A, p. 29, fig. 22/107); Pe Holm, la circa 700 m sud-est de sat, pe un martor de eroziune distrus n mare parte, din terasa de lunc a Siretului, ntr-un profil, la 0,70 m adncime, se observ resturile unor locuine din sec. IV, cu ceramic fin, cenuie sau cafeniucrmizie (N. Zaharia, M. Petrecu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 297; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, I.1.B, p. 29, fig. 21/7; 22/101, 106); arina de Jos, pe stnga prului iganca, la confluena cu Siretul, pe terasa de lunc, la circa 300 m sud-est de sat, se afl o aezare de sec. IV (Ibidem, I.1.C, fig. 21/7; 22/101, 106); la nord - vest de satul cheia - La Izvoare, se cunosc locuiri din sec. IV, n marginea oselei cheia - Al. I. Cuza, n jurul izvoarelor de pe terasa Siretului (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 302; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, I.3.A., p. 31, fig. 22/107); sat Volintireti Movila lui tefan cel Mare, n esul Siretului, la circa 7 km est-sud-est de Pacani, 2 km est de Siret i 1,5 km nord-nord-vest de Volintireti, s-a semnalat o locuire din sec. IV i doar un fragment n Marginea de nord a satului, n grdina lui Gh. Macovei (Ibidem, I.4.C-.4.D.). l Com. Brnova, ape: Nicolina, n care se vars valea iganului; sat Cercu - La intirim. Sat Cercu, punctul La intirim, la sud-est de cimitirul fostului sat Zane, la vest de sat, n preajma unor case izolate, se afl o staiune cu fragmente i de sec. IV (N. Zaharia 1955b, p. 903; idem, M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 174; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, X.2.A., p. 69). l Com. Breti, ape: elaru, Albeti, Cinca; aezri la Silite, ntre satele Albeti-Goeti, aezare la sudsud-est de Albeti, sat Cristeti, fragmente ceramice n punctul Lacurile - Izvoare i o locuire la Izvoare. Sat Breti, aezri cu ceramic din sec. IV, la Silite, pe platoul dinspre sud al satului, orientat ctre estsud-est spre Valea Luncii (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, VIII.1.B., p. 63); ntre satele Albeti-Goeti, la sud-sud-est de Albeti, cca 2 km i 1,5 km nord-nord-vest de Goeti (com. Lungani), pe un bot de deal desprins din platou, situat ntre dou vi toreniale, se afl o aezare din sec. IV (Ibidem, VIII.2.A.); sat Cristeti, punctul Lacurile - Izvoare, la partea superioar a versantului de est al dealului Izvoare s-au gsit dou fragmente de amfore romane din secolele II-IV p.Hr. (Ibidem, VIII.4.B.); iar la Izvoare, la circa 800 m nord-vest de sat, pe partea dreapt a drumului Cristeti - Trgu Frumos, pe panta lin a unui deal, s-a consemnat o locuire din sec. IV p.Hr. (Ibidem, VIII.4.E., fig. 22/51). l Com. Butea, la sud-est mrginit de Siret, Roia, Dochia, Gogea; necropol pe Dealul Neagului, sat Dealul Gureana, aezare pe Coasta Doljetilor.
l

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Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

Sat Butea, pe Dealul Neagului, o fie de teren izolat la nord-vest de sat, se afl o necropol cu ceramic din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 298; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, IX.1.E., p. 67); Dealul Gureana, la 1,5 km sud-est de sat, pe sectorul din terasa Siretului, numit Coasta Doljetilor, aezare din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 298; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, IX.1.F.). l Com. Ciorteti, ape: Ciorteti, Crasna, erbeti, Vaslui; sat erbeti aezri la Fundtura I i II. n sat erbeti - Fundtura I, la circa 400 m est de sat, n apropiere de valea rului erbeti se afl o aezare de sec. IV (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XII.5.A., p. 75); n Fundtura II, pe pantele de vest ale dealurilor care mrginesc valea prului erbeti, se afl o alt staiune cu mai multe aezri suprapuse, printre care i din sec. IV (Ibidem, XI.2.B., fig. 22/88). l Com. Ciurea, ape: Ciurea, Roa, Nicolina; fragmente ceramice pe Rpa i Fntna de pe Podi, La Chihan, Picioru Grani, Dealul Lunca, sat Dumbrava - Baba Nicula, sat Hlincea - Movila lui tefan Vod, sat Lunca Cetuii - Zane. Sat Ciurea, fragmente ceramice din sec. IV la Rpa i Fntna de pe Podi, la circa 1,5 km sud-vest de staia CFR Ciurea (N. Zaharia 1955b, p. 904; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 178; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XIII.1.D., p. 79); La Chihan, la 1 km sud de staia C.F.R., pe panta de nord-est a Dealului lui Vod, n marginea fostului sat Lunca Ciurei (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 177; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XIII.1.E.); Picioru Grani, n lutria de la poala Dealului Ciurei, situat n punctul numit Picioru Grani (N. Zaharia 1955b, p. 904; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 178; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XIII.1.G.); Dealul Lunca - continuare a Dealului Cetuia, pe panta de sud-vest a acestuia, n faa staiei C.F.R. Ciurea (N. Zaharia 1955b, p. 904; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 176-177; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XIII.1.H.); sat Dumbrava - Baba Nicula, n lungul malurilor rpoase ale prului Roa (N. Zaharia 1955b, p. 904; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 177; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XIII.3.A.; S. Sanie, . Sanie, 1973, p. 61 i urm.); sat Hlincea - Movila lui tefan Vod, pe terasa inferioar a prului Nicolina, n dreptul vechii iezturi din faa satului Hlincea, n jurul Movilei lui tefan Vod (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1956, p. 39; Ibidem 1970, p. 177; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XIII.4.D.); sat Lunca Cetuii - Zane, n jurul cimitirului din partea de sud-est a fostului Zane. l Com. Comarna, ape: prul Comarna cu Broteni, Tamarca; aezri la Osoi, pe Terasa Prutului, Marginea de sud-est a satului, locuire la Tarlaua Mare, Vatra satului I, fragmente ceramice la Ferma zootehnic nr. 1, Puntea Tincului, Vadul Bobului, sat Stnca, aezri n Marginea de sud-est a satului, La nord de sat, n es i n satul Osoi, o moned roman imperial aflat n colecia colii. Sat Osoi, pe partea dreapt a Terasei Prutului, la circa 1 km sud-est de sat, unde s-a identificat o ntins aezare cu ceramic din sec. IV, probabil i V (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 327; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XV.1.C., p. 86); Marginea de sud-est a satului, la ieirea din sat au fost distruse mai multe aezri printre care i una din sec. IV, cu fragmente de amfore romane (Ibidem, XV.2.C., p. 88, fig. 21/10; 22/8, 111-112); Tarlaua Mare, pe malul stng al prului Broteni, la circa 500 m est i sud de prelungirile Pdurii Mustea, au fost depistate mai multe niveluri de locuire printre care unul din sec. IV, cu ceramic fin sau zgrunuroas i cu fragmente de amfore romane (Ibidem, XV.2.D.); la fel la Vatra satului I, n sectorul nordic (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 317; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XV.2.E.); Ferma zootehnic nr. 1 - saivane, cu ocazia construirii cldirii fermei, la intrarea n sat pe partea dreapt, s-au semnalat fragmente de amfore romane i cu elemente de tradiie La Tne (Ibidem, XV.2.J.); la fel la Puntea Tincului, pe versantul stng al prului Broteni, la baza dealului Andrieul (Ibidem, XV.2.L., p. 89, fig. 22/9, 23, 26, 33, 58, 89, 98); Vadul Bobului, la circa 1 km vest-nord-vest de aezarea de la Puntea Tincului, ceramic local lucrat la roat din past fin sau zgrunuroas, fragmente de amfore romane, dar i vase lucrate la mn (Ibidem, XV.2.M., fig. 22/13, 24, 79, 81); sat Stnca, n Marginea de sud-est a satului, pe partea dreapt a oselei Osoi - Costuleni, pe un promontoriu, ntre indicatorii - km 96-97 -, aezare din sec. IV, cu ceramic fin i zgrunuroas (Ibidem, XV.4.B., fig. 22/75); La nord de sat, la circa 300 m pe partea dreapt a oselei Osoi-Stnca, pe o teras a Jijiei, puternic afectat de alunecri de teren, a fost distrus o aezare din sec. IV cu fragmente de amfore romane i ceramic local, lucrat la roat, din past fin sau zgrunuroas (Ibidem, XV.4.C.); n es, pe dreapta D.N. 28, la ieirea din sat, ntre acesta i oseaua veche, n dreptul indicatorului km 96, aezare din sec. IV, ceramica aparine speciei zgrunuroase, dar

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau

19

sunt i fragmente din specia fin; cteva descoperiri izolate, de pe teritoriul satului Osoi, din colecia colii, aparin i sec. IV, ntre ele o moned roman imperial (Ibidem, XV.4.D., p. 89-90, fig. 22/76). l Com. Costuleni, ape: Jijia, Comarna i Covasna, izvoarele Bohotinului; aezare n satul Cozia - La Nisiprie, sat Poiana Morii, Stna Veche, morminte de incineraie, loc neprecizat, sat Hilia, aezri pe Dealul Hiliei, La Iaz i doar un fragment pe Podiul Hilia. Sat Cozia - La Nisiprie, la 1,5 km, la poala dealului Voloaca Mic din esul Branitei, aezare cu ceramic i din sec. III-IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 317-318; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XVI.3.B., p. 93); sat Poiana Morii - Stna Veche, la marginea satului Cozia, ntr-o aezare din sec. IV a fost descoperit un fragment din peretele unui vas lucrat la roat din past fin, cenuie, decorat cu o figur uman imprimat, nconjurat de rozete alctuite din cte dou cercuri concentrice (E. Ciocea 1983, p. 200-205; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XVI.3.C.); Loc neprecizat, pe teritoriul satului Cozia, au fost distruse morminte de incineraie; s-au recuperat 6 vase i 2 fusaiole de lut, o cataram de fier, o fibul i un vrf de sgeat de bronz, datate n primele decenii ale sec. IV (I. Ioni 1982, p. 92; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XVI.3.D.); la vest-nord-vest de satul Hilia - Podiul Hilia, pe un platou nalt s-a gsit i un fragment de toart de amfor roman din sec. II-IV (Ibidem, XVI.4.A.); Dealul Hiliei, pe platoul situat la 1 km vest-sud-vest de sat, care se continu pe versantul drept al prului, aezare din sec. IV (Ibidem, XVI.4.B.); La Iaz, la circa 3 km sud-sud-vest de sat, aezare cu ceramic din sec. IV, din past fin i zgrunuroas (Ibidem, XVI.4.C., fig. 22/10, 15, 18, 20, 28-30, 3536, 45-46, 69, 82, 90-91, 99, 114, 120, 124) i o mrgic triunghiular (Ibidem, fig. 12/1). l Com. Cozmeti, ape: Mona cu Monioara, sat Podolenii de Jos - Sub Voloac. Sat Podolenii de Jos - Sub Voloac, n marginea de est, peste un pru - afluent al Monei, aezare din sec. IV, cu aglomerri de chirpici de la pereii locuinelor (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XVIII.2.B., p. 102). l Com. Dobrov, prul/brooks Dobrov, cu/with Pietrosu, Poiana Lung, Humria; aezare pe Tarlaua Jitria, Mnstirea Dobrov, Tarlaua Latia i Tarlaua Velnia. Sat Dobrov - Tarlaua Jitria, pe un platou nalt, mrginit de oseaua Dobrov - Codeti i prul Dobrov, n interfluviul format de acesta i prul lui Burdulea, se afl o aezare din sec. IV cu ceramic din past fin, cenuie (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXIII.1.B.; p. 124, 126); Mnstirea Dobrov, n perimetrul acestei mnstiri ctitorit de voievodul tefan cel Mare, n anii 1503-1504, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire i din secolul al IV-lea, n jurul mnstirii s-au gsit vetre de foc i alte complexe (Ibidem, XXIII.1.K., p. 127, fig. 22/5); Tarlaua Latia, n continuarea tarlalei Jitria, n stnga prului lui Burdulea, pe aceeai teras a Dobrovului a fost identificat o vatr de foc cu fragmente ceramice din sec. IV, din past fin cenuie (Ibidem, XXIII.1.M.); Tarlaua Velnia, pe partea dreapt a drumului Dobrov - Codeti - Vaslui, aezare din sec. IV, din care s-a menionat un vas din past fin cenuiedeschis, cu bru vlurit, delimitat de linii incizate (Ibidem, XXIII.1.N.). l Com. Dolheti, ape: Crasna, Cetuia; fragmente ceramice Podul peste Crasna i sat. Brdiceti - La odaie, Sub margini, aezare II-III, IV i numai IV la Salcmii lui Moraru - La Ulm. Sat Dolheti - Podul peste Crasna, la nord-est de prul Crasna, pe pantele dealului orientate vest-sud-vest, s-au gsit fragmente ceramice de sec. IV (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXIV.1.B., p. 129); sat Brdiceti - La Odoie, la circa 700 m sud-vest de sat, ntr-o adncitur plan se afl o staiune cu mai multe niveluri, printre care i de sec. II-III i IV, cu ceramic, fibul i monede romane (Ibidem, XXIV.2.A.); Salcmii lui Moraru - La Ulmi, la circa 1 km sud-vest de sat, pe partea dreapt a prului Cetuia, aezare cu fragmente i din secolul al IV-lea (Ibidem, XXIV.2.B); Sub margini, la circa 2 km sud-sud-est de sat, la hotarul cu jud. Vaslui, aezare bogat, cu ceramic din sec. II-IV (Ibidem, XXIV.2.G.). l Com. Dumeti, spre nord traversat de Bahlui, prul Osnzana, valea Csua Mare; fragmente ceramice pe Lanurile Cogenilor, Valea Osnzei, Vatra satului, aezri pe Panta nord-vestic a Dealului Cogeasca, Malul Iazului, sat Chilioaia, la Silitea, fragmente ceramice de sec. IV-V, precum i n satul Pueti - Biserica veche I i II, sat Comornia, Pe gsc I, aezare de sec. IV i n punctul II, ceramic de sec. IV, la Cirete, aezare sec. II-III i IV, iar fragmente ceramice, Peste iaz i la Cantonul silvic. Sat Dumeti, ntre Lanurile Cogenilor, pe ogoarele din marginea sudic a satului, n apropierea povrniului, s-au gsit fragmente ceramice de sec. IV (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXV.1.A., p. 131, 133); Valea Osnzei, la circa 1 km de sat, pe o suprafa delimitat de cotul prului Osnzana s-a identificat o aezare cu fragmente ceramice i din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXV.1.C., p. 133); Panta nordvestic a Dealului Cogeasca i sub poala nord-vestic a acestuia, spre valea Osnzenei, s-a descoperit o

20

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

parte dintr-o groap de bordei, n care, sub o ptur de cenu, s-au gsit cteva fragmente ceramice, printre care o margine de dolium i un fragment de amfor din past nisipoas, de culoare rocat, aparinnd sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 191; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXV.1.D.); la fel la Malul Iazului, pe malul de nord-nord-vest, n marginea de est a satului, aezare din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXV.1.E., fig. 22/38); Vatra satului, pe marginea drumului din sat, care pleac din osea spre iaz, s-au gsit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXV.1.F.); sat Chilioaia - Silitea, spre marginea de nord-vest, lng hotarul comunei Popeti, s-au cules fragmente aparinnd i sec. IV-V (Ibidem, XXV.3.D., p. 134); sat Pueti - Biserica veche I i II, pe vechea vatr, pe dou pante I i II desprite de o mic vlcea cu orientare spre sud-est, apar tot fragmente ceramice (Ibidem, XXV.5.B., p. 134-135, fig. 22/22, 27, 32, 71, 116); sat Comornia - Pe gsc I, la aproape 2 km sud-sud-est de Pueti i de biserica veche din lemn a fost depistat o aezare geto-dacic (sec. IV-III a.Hr.), suprapus de o alta din sec. IV, cu un fragment de amfor roman; Pe gsc II, la circa 300 m est de aezarea anterioar a fost descoperit ceramic din sec. III-II i din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXV.5.F., p. 135, fig. 22/72, 117); Cirete, sub Dealul Mare, pe partea dreapt a esului Macu, aezare cu ceramic din sec. III-II a.Hr. i IV p.Hr. (Ibidem, XXV.5.G.); Peste iaz, pe terasa ce urc n pant de la malul stng al iazului Pueti, spre podiul Rpgu, fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXV.5.I.); Cantonul silvic, la sud-est de sat, n zona pepinierei din faa cantonului silvic s-au gsit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV i V (Ibidem, XXV.5.J.). l Com. Gorban, mrginit la est de Prut; Bohotin, Mona i Monioara; aezare la Cantonul Silvic, sat Gura Bohotin, morminte de inhumaie n Vatra satului. Sat Gorban - Cantonul Silvic, la periferia de sud-vest a satului Gorban, aezare din sec. IV (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXIX.1.A., p. 154); sat Gura Bohotin - Vatra satului, n vatra satului s-au gsit morminte de inhumaie cu vase negre din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXIX.2.A.). l Com. Hluceti, mrginit spre com. Al. I. Cuza de rul Siret; aezare la Rpa lui Costache, La atelier, Cnepite - Luca i Rotunda i locuire La Bulgrie, doar fragmente ceramice la Lutrie. Sat Hluceti - Rpa lui Costache, pe versantul de nord-est al unui deal de deasupra terasei superioare a Siretului, aezare cu urme de locuire din sec. IV (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXXIII.1.C., p. 164); La atelier, pe o teras nalt a Siretului se afl o aezare ntins care se continu spre nord, pn spre Casa de Ap a Casei de Copii colari, unde s-au gsit urme de locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXIII.1.C., fig. 22/56, 80); La Bulgrie, la circa 500 m est-nord-est de sat s-au gsit fragmente ceramice de culoare cenuie, din past aspr, probabil o locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXIII.1.G.); Cnepite - Luca, la circa 1 km nord-vest de oseaua Mirceti - Al. I. Cuza, aezare din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXIII.1.H., fig. 22/92); Rotunda, la circa 500-700 m de osea, pe terasa inferioar a Siretului, aezare din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXIII.1.I., fig. 22/2, 54, 74); Lutrie, n marginea de sud-sud-est a satului se afl un martor de eroziune desprins din terasa inferioar a Siretului, unde s-au gsit fragmente de vase care par s aparin sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXIII.2.A.). l Com. Heleteni, la sud de Bahlui, Siret, Vatania, Boscoteni, igncilor, Dup Fntn; staiune la Staia de pompare, fragmente ceramice la Tarlaua I.A.S. Ruginoasa, Dealul Cotoc, Bra, tefan Ciubotaru. Sat Heleteni, la est de Staia de pompare a apei din Siret, n direcia fostei halte CFR Heleteni, ntins i bogat staiune cu mai multe niveluri de locuire printre care i din sec. II-III sau IV, cu o fusaiol prelucrat dintr-un ciob de vas i cu fragmente de amfore romane (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXXIV.1.E., p. 168); Tarlaua I.A.S. Ruginoasa, la circa 1,5 km nord-vest de halta Pietri, s-au semnalat fragmente ceramice datate n secolele IV-V (Ibidem, XXXIV.1.F., fig. 24/2, 4); Dealul Cotoc, la 1 km nord de sat, spre dealul Drghici s-au gsit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXIV.1.G.); Bra, pe partea dreapt a prului Boscoteni, la 1,5 km vest-nord-vest de sat, se afl o aezare din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXIV.1.H.); tefan Ciubotaru, n marginea de est-nord-est a satului, pe partea stng a prului Cotoc, s-au gsit fragmente ceramice corodate i atipice, care fac posibil existena unor aezri din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXIV.1.I.). l Com. Horleti, ape: Horleti, Voineti, Blc i Prul Mare; fragmente ceramice n punctul Coere II, aezare la Viioara, Movila, sat Bogdneti, la Vlcele, Rpa Pascului i pe Dealul Silite, fragmente ceramice la Curtur, sat Scopoeni, Dealul Checului i Iazul Glodului i aezare La Coere. Sat Horleti, pe platoul nalt al dealului Coere II, mrginit spre sud de Valea Glodului, s-au gsit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV i unul de amfor roman (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, XXXVI.1.B., p. 177); pe versantul de est al dealului Viioara, la 0,5 km sud-vest de Scopoeni, nu departe de punctul

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau

21

Rchii, se afl o aezare din sec. IV, cu ceramic lucrat la roat din past fin sau zgrunuroas cenuie (Ibidem, XXXVI.1.E., fig. 22/60); pe partea dreapt a vii Islaz, pe versantul de est al dealului Movila, aezare cu ceramic din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXVI.1.G.); sat Bogdneti - Vlcele, n marginea de nord a satului, pe platoul de est al dealului Vlcele, nivel de locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXVI.2.C., p. 179); la Curtur, pe partea dreapt a prului numit Blc, pe marginea de vest a satului, ceramic din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXVI.2.D.); pe ambii versani ai vii numite Rpa Pascului, bogat i relativ ntins staiune locuit i n sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXVI.2.E., fig. 22/100, 121); Dealul Silite, peste prul Frasin, pe un platou nalt mrginit de pante rpoase la vest, sud-vest i sud se ntinde o aezare i din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXVI.2.G.); sat Scopoeni, pe Dealul Checului s-au gsit fragmente ceramice i din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXVI.3.B.); La Coere, pe panta vestic a Dealului Checului, la 1 km sud-vest de sat, aezare cu ceramic din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXVI.3.C., p. 180); Iazul Glodului - Iazul lui Vrnav (necartat), pe pantele nord-vestice ale dealului Viioara, spre iazul lui Vrnav, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXVI.3.D.). l Com. Ipatele, pe Stavnic, Durduc, valea Popii; locuire pe arin, fragmente ceramice la Petreti, aezare Pe Brlan i n satele Alexeti - Tarlaua Movil sau Bcu - Pe Beci i fragmente ceramice pe Dealul Holciu II i aezare din sec. III-IV, pe Doschina. Sat Ipatele, arin, cu urme de locuire din sec. IV, se afl la circa 400 m vest de sediul fostului C.A.P. (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXXIX.1.E., p. 207); Pe Brlan, punct cu suprapuneri de locuire ntre care i o aezare din sec. IV, situat n marginea nord-estic a Dealului Cuzii, la 1 km sud de sat (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 215; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXXIX.1.J., p. 207-208); Petreti, unde, la vest de sat, pe panta estic a Dealului Recea, vis-a-vis de aezarea de pe Osoi I, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 215; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXXIX.1.L., p. 208); sat Alexeti - Tarlaua Movil, n marginea de sud-est a satului s-a semnalat o aezare din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXIX.2.B.), sat Bcu - Pe Beci, pe un deal situat pe partea dreapt a drumului spre Satu Nou (com. cheia), ncadrat la est de prul Stavnic i la vest de drumul spre Frenciugi, se afl o alt aezare cu urme de locuire din sec. IV (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 214; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXXIX.2.C.), Dealul Holciu II, pe terasa superioar a Velnei, s-au gsit fragmente din past fin, cenuie (sec. IV) ? (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 215; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXXIX.3.C.), Doschina, pe terasa inferioar a Stavnicului s-au gsit fragmente de amfore romane care presupun existena unei aezri din sec. III-IV (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 214; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXXIX.3.E.). l Com. Lungani, ape: Sineti, Goeti la izvoare cu valea Crbunia; aezri Dup biseric i La ipot. Sat Lungani - Dup biseric, pe panta de sud-vest a unui mic platou, n preajma bisericii, la est de bahna Cerbolea, aezare cu fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, XLII.1.A., p. 222); La ipot, n perimetrul unui izvor puternic ce se vars n Cerbolea, aezare cu ceramic lucrat la roat, din past cenuie, fin sau zgrunuroas, poate fi datat n sec. IV (Ibidem, XLII.1.E., p. 224, fig. 22/21, 47, 62, 119). l Com. Mironeasa, prul Ursia, cu Brusturei; fragmente ceramice la Cotul Lanului. Sat Mironeasa - Cotul Lanului sau Pe Moie, ntre drumurile Mironeasa - Hadmbu i Mironeasa - cheia, la est de pdure, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din past cenuie i cafenie, fin sau din past zgrunuroas, din sec. IV (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLV.1.G., p. 232). l Com. Miroslava, la sud de Bahlui, pe Valea Ursului, Boaghea, valea i lacul Ezreni, prul Mare, Corne i Locii; fragmente ceramice La Bulgrii, Dealul Miroslava II, Ferma Miroslava - Dealul Hurpuz, sat Brtuleni - Dealul Holm, aezare La rp, sat Ciurbeti - Dealul Brca II, fragmente ceramice La Prisac, sat Corneti, aezare La nord-est de sat, fragmente ceramice Tarlaua ferm, Vatra Satului I, Boaghea, sat Danca, aezare, Marginea de nord a satului, sat Horpaz, fragmente ceramice, Dealul Ctmnoaei (Valea Ursului), Dealul Nucului, sat Uricani - Dealul Cimitirului i sat Valea Ursului - La nord de sat. Sat Miroslava - La Bulgrii, n apropierea instalaiei de pompare a apei s-a descoperit o important staiune arheologic cu fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1956, p. 41; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 208; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVI.1.C., p. 233); Dealul Miroslava II, n faa cartierului Dacia, n apropierea stlpului nr. 15 de nalt tensiune, ceramic aparinnd i sec. IV (Ibidem, XLVI.1.E.); Ferma Miroslava - Dealul Hurpuz, pe interfluviul dintre lacul Iezreni i un pru ce l alimenteaz dinspre nord-vest, s-au gsit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XLVI.1.G., p. 235); sat Brtuleni - Dealul Holm, sub poala nordic a

22

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

Dealului Brtuleni, spre esul Bahluiului, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice i din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 172; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVI.3.B.); La rp, la circa 1 km nord de sat, ntr-o veche raven, sub poala dealului Brtuleni, s-a descoperit o aezare cu ceramic din sec. IV (N. Zaharia 1955a, p. 288; idem 1955b, p. 903; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 172; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVI.3.C.); sat Ciurbeti - Dealul Brca II, la circa 300-400 m est de aezarea din Dealul Brca I, cu fragmente ceramice (N. Zaharia 1955a, p. 293; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 176; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVI.4.E., p. 236); La Prisac, la circa 2 km sud-vest de sat, pe Dealul Recea, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (N. Zaharia 1955a, p. 293; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 176; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVI.4.F., p. 236); sat Corneti - La nord-est de sat, pe panta arabil a dealului ce desparte satele Corneti i Danca, aezare cu urme de locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, XLVI.5.A.); Tarlaua ferm, n marginea de nord a satului Corneti, ntre sat i barajul din avalul lacului Iezreni, numit i Podul la Danca s-a gsit ceramic din sec. IV, lucrat la mn, dar i la roat, din past cenuie sau cafenie, aceasta din urm cu decor vlurit (Ibidem, XLVI.5.C., fig. 21/8; 22/4, 57, 59, 95); Vatra Satului I, la Gura Vii Boaghea, n marginea nord-est a satului a aprut o ptur cu depuneri cenuoase, n urma unor lucrri, n care s-au gsit resturi ceramice i din sec. IV (N. Zaharia 1955a, p. 293; idem 1955b, p. 904; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 181; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVI.5.D., p. 237); Boaghea, la nord-vest de sat spre valea Boaghea, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice corodate (N. Zaharia 1955a, p. 293; idem 1955b, p. 903-904; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 180; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVI.5.E.); sat Danca - Marginea de nord a satului, pe partea dreapt a drumului ce face legtura ntre satele Danca i Corneti, aezare din sec. IV (Ibidem, XLVI.6.B.); sat Horpaz, pe valea Prului Ursului, n captul nordic al Dealului Ctmnoaei (Valea Ursului), s-a descoperit ceramic i din sec. IV (N. Zaharia 1955a, p. 293; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 193; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVI.8.A.); pe versantul nord-est al Dealului Nucului la circa 300 m de esul Nicolinei, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. III-IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1956, p. 37; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVI.8.D., p. 238); sat Uricani - Dealul Cimitirului, la 200 m nord de cimitir, pe suprafaa unui tpan, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice (N. Zaharia 1955, p. 288; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1956, p. 34; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 223; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVI.10.D., p. 239), sat Valea Ursului - La nord de sat, sub poala dealului la 300-400 m, n dreptul oselei Iai-Voineti, s-au gsit fragmente ceramice aparinnd i sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 224; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVI.12.C., p. 240). l Com. Mirosloveti, strbtut de Moldova i de valea Ciohoreanca; aezare la Dealul Boului i fragmente ceramice n satul Ciohorni, punctul fosta Grdina C.A.P. La Mirosloveti, pe versantul de vest al Dealul Boului s-a semnalat o aezare din sec. IV, din care se pstreaz un vas mare de provizii, fragmentar, din past fin zgrunuroasa, cenuie, cu decor vlurit pe buz i pe umr (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVII.1.B., p. 241); sat Ciohorni - Grdina C.A.P., n perimetrul grdinii din vatra satului s-a semnalat o aezare din sec. IV, cu ceramic din past cenuie, fin i din past zgrunuroas i un fragment de toart de la o amfor roman (Ibidem, XLVII.2.D.). l Com. Mogoeti, ape: prul Prloagele, fragmente ceramice la Mogoeti - Dealul intirim, Pe Grui, Dealul Bului, Dealul anta, Fntna lui Onu (Oni) i aezare la Mnjeti, Budi - Corn. Sat Mogoeti - Dealul intirim, la intrarea n sat, pe un promontoriu din partea dreapt a oselei s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVIII.1.D., p. 244); Pe Grui, n partea de nord a satului s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XLVIII.1.E.); n sectorul nordic al satului, numit cartierul Galata, pe Dealul Bului, au fost recoltate materiale ceramice aparinnd i sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 208-209; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVIII.1.F., p. 244); Dealul anta, pe panta dealului Budului (Dealul uroaiei), lng drum s-au gsit fragmente ceramice aparinnd sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 209; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVII.1.G., p. 246); Fntna lui Onu (Oni), la circa 2 km sud-vest de satul Ciurea, pe panta de nord-est a Dealului Calu, n locul numit Fntna lui Onu, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 209; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVIII.1.L.), sat Mnjeti, n punctul Budi - Corn, la circa 700 m nord i vest-nord-vest de sat, pe versanii de sud i est ai unui deal, se afl o aezare bogat i ntins din sec. IV, cu ceramic din past cenuie, fin sau din past zgrunuroas (Ibidem, XLVIII.4.D., p. 247, fig. 22/16, 43, 49, 55, 73, 109).

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau


l

23

Com. Mogoeti Siret, prul Gropi; fragmente ceramice, Dealul Morii - Izvoare, sat Muncelu de Sus - La ipot, trei brzdare de plug de fier n anul Anticar, bogat aezare, Muncelu de Sus - Pe groap. Sat Mogoeti Siret, punctul Dealul Morii - Izvoare, la circa 1 km nord de coala General i la 300 m nord-est de fostele grajduri C.A.P. s-au semnalat fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLIX.1.B., p. 248, fig. 22/17) iar n punctul anul Anticar, ntre pdurea Muncel i pdurea Sturza, la circa 400-500 m de prima, s-au descoperit trei brzdare de plug de fier din sec. IV (Ibidem, XLIX.2.D., p. 248, fig. 10/1, 4); sat Muncelu de Sus - La ipot, centrul satului, n faa colii vechi, este o aezare cu ceramic i din sec. IV (Ibidem, XLIX.2.E., p. 248, 250, fig. 10/6); Pe groap sau La Gropi, la circa 500 m sud i vest-sud-vest de sat, pe ambele maluri ale prului Gropi, bogat staiune cu urme de locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, XLIX.2.F., p. 250, fig. 22/93). l Com. Oeleni, ape Arinoasa, prul Coasta Agudului, Mare, Maxineti; locuire la Beizadea II, aezare la Alburia - Fntna lui Calistru, Beizadea I, Maxineti iar n satul Hndreti, amfore romane la Zgia II. Sat Oeleni - Beizadea II, la circa 2,5 km sud-est de sat, pe partea dreapt a prului Maxineti, locuire din sec. IV (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LIII.1.A, p. 295, fig. 52/62); Alburia - Fntna lui Calistru, la circa 2,5 km sud-sud-est de sat i la circa 400 m nord-est de podul de peste Bahna Maxineti, aezare din sec. IV cu elemente ce ar putea proveni dintr-o locuire din sec. II-III (Ibidem, LIII.1.D, p. 295-296, fig. 52/76-77); Beizadea I, pe partea stng a Prului Morii, la circa 1 km sud-est de sat, aezare din sec. IV cu fragmente ceramice destul de corodate i atipice (Ibidem, LIII.1.F, p. 297); pe partea dreapt a drumului Oeleni - Bra (jud. Neam), nu departe de podul peste Maxineti, a fost identificat o aezare din sec. IV (Ibidem, LIII.1.G.); sat Hndreti - Zgia II, pe partea dreapt a oselei Brtuleti Hndreti, pe culmea dealului Zgia, s-au gsit tori de amfore romane, aparinnd unei aezri din sec. II-IV (Ibidem, LIII.2.A.). Com. Popeti, ape: Sineti, Iugani, Hlpetii, Dudu; fragmente ceramice, sat Dorocani, Dealul Viilor I i II, Vatra nou a satului, locuire pe Dealul Iugani, sat Hrpeti fragmente ceramice la Gropul Morii. n Dorocani - Dealul Viilor I, la 1,5 km nord de sat s-a semnalat i ceramic de sec. IV (I. Nestor et alii 1952, p. 27; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 190; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LVII.2.E., p. 316); n vatra nou a satului, n grdina locuitorului Tincu Dumitru, au fost descoperite fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (N. Zaharia 1955a, p. 293; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 190; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LVII.2.G.); Dealul Iugani, pe panta de sudest a dealului, spre grla Iugani, locuire din sec. IV, n asociere cu amfore decorate cu striuri dese (Ibidem, LVII.2.K, p. 316-317, fig. 51/5; 52/17); pe panta de sud-vest a Dealul Viilor II au fost descoperite materiale ceramice din past cenuie zgrunuroas, din sec. IV i din sec. II-III, cu fragmente de amfore romane (Ibidem, LVII.2.L., p. 317, fig. 52/3); sat Hrpeti, pe tarlaua Gropul Morii, din dreptul barajului iazului, spre satul Chilioaia (com. Dumeti), s-au cules fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, LVII.3.A.). l Com. Rducneni, ape: Jijia, Bohotin, Cozia, Pgubaul, Corbului, Bazga; bogat aezare La Ciread, Mitoc, fragmente ceramice n Vatra satului, pe Dealul Beleaga I, grdina lui Marcoci, Brigada silvic i un cuptor de ars oale n satul Isaiia - Satu Nou. Sat Rducneni - La Ciread, n marginea de sud a fostului sat Bazga, pe un platou nalt, secionat la est de prul Pgubaul iar la vest, de prul Bazga, se ntinde o bogat aezare cu nivel de locuire din sec. IV (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXI.1.A., p. 334); n Vatra satului, n grdina locuitorului Zota Dumitru, s-au gsit fragmente ceramice aparinnd i sec. IV (Ibidem, LXI.1.C.); pe partea dreapt a prului Mitoc, la circa 2,5 km nord-est de Rducneni, a fost descoperit o aezare cu fragmente ceramice i din sec. III-IV (Ibidem, LXI.1.I.); Dealul Beleaga I, la sud de cartierul Bazga, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice de sec. IV (Ibidem, LXI.1.K.); n Vatra satului, grdina lui Marcoci Valentin, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXI.1.L.); la Brigada silvic, lng oseaua Iai Rducneni, n faa porii brigzii silvice, prin sparea anului, pentru cablul telefonic, sau gsit fragmente ceramice de sec. IV (Ibidem, LXI.1.M.); n satul Isaiia - Satu Nou, n faa casei locuitorului Stratulat I, s-a descoperit ntmpltor un cuptor de ars oale, rotund, cu diametrul de 1,40 m, la adncimea de 1m, pe vatra cuptorului se aflau dou ulcioare, dintre care unul a fost recuperat ntreg i al doilea fragmentar, sec. III-IV (Ibidem, LXI.3.A.). Com. Scnteia, ape: Rebricea, Rebricea Seac; aezri la Ruca, Din sus de Moraru, Vatra satului I, sat Bodeti, pe Tarlaua Bodeti, sat Boroseti, Dealul Borosetilor, sat Lunca Rate, Vatra satului. Sat Scnteia, o aezare cu mult ceramic aparinnd i sec. IV, s-a semnalat n punctul Ruca, din spatele grii, de pe terasa inferioar de pe partea dreapta a Rebricei (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985,

24

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

LXVI.1.C., p. 360), n punctul Din sus de Moraru, n faa grii, pe versantul de pe partea stng a Rebricei (Ibidem, LXVI.1.G., p. 362) iar o alt aezare tot cu multe fragmente ceramice din sec. IV, n Vatra satului I, la est de biseric, pe terasa din stnga Rebricei (Ibidem, LXVI.1.E.); n satul Bodeti Tarlaua Bodeti, la circa 500 m vest-sud-vest de sat, la 1,5 km sud-est de biseric, pe partea dreapt a unui pru care se vars n iazul Recea, pe versanii de sud-sud-est i sud-vest ai dealului la baza cruia se afl iazul, se ntinde o aezare bogat din sec. IV, de unde s-au recuperat fragmente de vase i de amfore romane (Ibidem, LXVI.2.A., fig. 52/20, 31, 41, 67), n satul Boroseti - Dealul Borosetilor sau Pe Lesa, pe versantul sudic al dealului, numit i Pe Lesa, a fost identificat i cercetat o important staiune, n cadrul creia sporadic s-au gsit urme de locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXVI.3.D., p. 363) iar n satul Lunca Rate, n Vatra satului, pe terasa joas din stnga prului Rebricea, ce strbate satul de la nord la sud, ceramic din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXVI.5.A.). l Com. Schitu Duca, aezare sec. II-IV, Prlita, sat Dumitretii Glii, locuire Tarlaua Cimitir, materiale Tarlaua Rachi I-II, fragente ceramice, sat Poiana - La Prlita, locuire, Satu Nou, La sud-est de sat. Sat Schitu Duca - Prlita, la ieirea din sat, pe partea dreapt a oselei, se observ zone compacte cu lipitur de la pereii locuinelor de suprafa i fragmente ceramice din sec. II-IV (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXV.C., p. 356); satul Dumitretii Glii - Tarlaua Cimitir, n partea de nord a satului, pe partea dreapt a oselei Iai - Vaslui, pe versantul opus celui care se afl biserica Schitu Duca, s-au descoperit mai multe nivele de locuire printre care i unul din sec. IV; cu fragmente ceramice lucrate la roat din past cenuie, fin sau zgrunuroas (Ibidem, LXV.C., fig. 52/40, 85), uneori cu decor vlurit, cruia i aparin mai multe fusaiole (Ibidem, fig. 40/13, 17), precum i fragmente de amfore romane, decorate cu striuri sau caneluri; Tarlaua Rachi I-II, n partea de nord a satului, la nord-vest de tarlaua Cimitir, pe o ntindere de circa 1 km, au fost depistate materiale arheologice din mai multe perioade, ntre care relativ intens este locuirea din sec. IV, cu ceramic lucrat la roat, din past cenuie, fin sau zgrunuroas (Ibidem, LXV.3.B.); n satul Poiana - La Prlita, n marginea de nord a satului, pe partea dreapt a oselei Iai-Vaslui, fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXV.6.B., p. 358); satul Satu Nou - La sud-est de sat, n lungul drumului ce duce spre Costuleni, locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXV.7.A.). l Com. Sineti, ape: acov, Mndroaia, Gmboasa; aezri pe Coasta Mrgineanu, Balta la Cosndache. Sat Sineti, Coasta Mrgineanu, n marginea de nord-est, pe panta dealului numit arn, situat n unghiul fcut de drumul Sineti - Obrijeni (com. Popeti) i valea ce pleac de la Grla Gorbanului, se afl o aezare din sec. IV (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXVIII.1.D., p. 369); Balta la Cosndache, la circa 1,5 km nord-est de Sineti, pe panta uor nclinat spre est, s-au gsit mai multe fragmente de vase dintre care unul pare a fi de la o amfor roman din past rocat-cramizie, altele din past fin, cenuie atribuite sec. IV (Ibidem, LXVIII.1.E.). l Com. Stolniceni - Prjescu, strbtut de Siret, Mnstirea cu vile Prului i La trei Deci; aezri bogate la Ftna lui Tanasache, satul Brteti - ntre Chicerea i Valea Prului. Sat stolniceni - Prjescu La Ftna lui Tanasache, aezare din sec. IV, situat pe dreapta oselei Stolniceni - Prjescu - Cozmeti, ntre drumul spre Brteti i Valea ipot, n care se remarc ceramica modelat din past cenuie, fin i din past zgrunuroas i prezena amforelor romane (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXX.1.A., p. 373, fig. 52/30, 51); sat Brteti - ntre Chicerea i Valea Prului, la circa 500 m de ultima i circa 1 km est-sud-est de sat, pe terasa inferioar a Siretului se afl o aezare din sec. IV, cu ceramic cenuie fin sau zgrunuroas, ori maroniu-cafenie, cu fragmente de amfore romane i fragmente de vase lucrate cu mna (Ibidem, LXX.2.D., p. 375, fig. 51/22; 52/7, poate i 50/10, 22). l Com. Strunga, ape: valea Mihaili, Cireului Frceni, Strunga i Bahna; fragmente ceramice pe Dealul Drmoxa, aezare la Calda, sat Criveti, La Hrtop, materiale la Rpa de la ipot, urme de locuire la La nord-nord-est de sat i fragmente ceramice pe Valea Cireului. Sat Strunga, n punctul Dealul Drmoxa, aflat sub poala estic a dealului, la 100-150 m nord-vest de indicatorul km 156, n lungul oselei Trgu Frumos - Strunga, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 295; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXI.1.B., p. 377); n punctul Calda, la circa 1,5 km nord-est de Strunga, pe partea stng a oselei Trgu Frumos - Strunga, n apropierea iazului, aezare din sec. IV cu ceramic fin cenuie, unele fragmente cu profil n T (Ibidem, LXXI.1.F., fig. 51/18; 52/71), n satul Criveti - La Hrtop - Spre Budi, pe partea dreapt a drumului care duce din Criveti spre Movileni, la vest de carierele de piatr, sa semnalat o aezare cu ceramic din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 185; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXI.3.A., p. 379); Rpa de la ipot, n marginea nordic a satului,

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau

25

pe platoul din dreptul bisericii i al Curilor Buhuoaiei i pe un pinten de deal ce ptrunde n sat, s-au descoperit materiale arheologice din sec. IV (N. Zaharia 1955b, p. 903; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 184; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXI.3.C., fig. 51/10, 52/45); La nord-nordest de sat, pe pantele de est i vest ale dealului, la circa 500 m de sat (spre linia ferat), nivel de locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXXI.3.D.); Valea Cireului, la 2 km nord-est de sat, n spturile carierelor de nisip s-au gsit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 185; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXVI.5.A.). l Com. cheia, ape: Stavnic, Izvoarele Mare, Rebricei, ape Humria, Vicneasa, Gunoasa, Valea Rea; aezri, sec. III-IV, Cierul lui Ignat, Floreti, materiale, Muncelu, sat Cueti, locuire Muncelu Tutu, aezri, sat Cioca-Boca - Cimitir, Tarlaua Cioate, Trboi, locuire Cpoteti, materiale, sat Drgueni rinc, aezri Silite, sat Frenciugi, La Pode, Vatra Satului, Satu Nou, esul lui tefan, Promoroace Sud i ceramic la Bobeic, locuire n Cier. Sat cheia o aezare cu nivel de locuire din sec. III-IV s-a menionat pentru punctul Cierul lui Ignat, unde, pe un bot de deal situat la sud de sat, la vest de fostul C.A.P. cheia, ntr-un loc mrginit la vest de un afluent al Stavnicului i la sud de drumul spre Satu Nou (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 212; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.1.C., p. 384), alte materiale aparinnd sec. IV, la circa 500 m nord de sat, au fost descoperite n punctul Muncelu (Ibidem, LXXII.1.D.) i Floreti, pe marginea sudic i sud-vestic a dealului Muncelu, o alt aezare cu ceramic lucrat la roat, din past cenuie, datat sec. III-IV (Ibidem, LXXII.1.E., p. 386); un alt nivel de locuire din sec. IV s-a menionat pentru satul Cueti Muncelu Tutu - La Gostat, n marginea de sud-est a satului, la baza dealului Nisiprie, de aici provin i cteva bile de lut i piatr ( = 1-3 cm), care pot aparine acestei locuiri (Ibidem, LXXII.2.A.); de asemenea, la sud de satul Cioca-Boca - Cimitir, pe un bot de deal aparinnd terasei medii a prului Uria, era o aezare cu mai multe nivele de locuire printre care i fragmente de amfore romane din sec. IV (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 209; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.3.A.); n punctul Tarlaua Cioate, n marginea de nord-nord-vest a satului, pe drumul Cpotetilor, lng moar, la intersecia oselei cheia Mironeasa, o aezare cu ceramic din sec. IV (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 209; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.3.B.); Trboi, pe terasa inferioar a Stavnicului, la circa 800 m nord-est de sat, ntre Pdurea Cpoteti, la vest i Stavnic, la est, aezare cu ceramic din sec. IV (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 209; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.3.D., p. 386-387); Cpoteti, pe terasa inferioar a Stavnicului, la nord-est de sat, ntre Cpoteti i Stavnic, locuire din sec. IV cu fragmente de amfore romane (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 209; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.3.E., p. 387); tot n com. cheia, n satul Drgueni - rinc, pe panta de sud-vest a dealului Bhnii, lng locul numit Poiana, erau materiale arheologice aparinnd sec. IV-V, cu fragmente de amfore romane (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 213; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.4.E.) i la Silite, n marginea de vest a satului, pe un bot de deal situat la nord de oseaua spre Frenciugi, aezare din sec. IV, cu fragmente de amfore romane (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 212; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.4.J., p. 387-388) iar n satul Frenciugi n Cier, pe un bot de deal situat pe malul drept al Stavnicului, lng fostul C.A.P., nivel de locuire cu fragmente de vase din sec. IV (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 213; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.5.A., p. 388); n punctul La Pode, la sud-est de sat, pe un loc mrginit la est de terasa inferioar a Stavnicului iar la vest de oseaua spre Negreti, s-a gsit o aezare cu mai multe nivele de locuire, una aparinnd sec. IV (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 213-214; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.5.B.) sau n Vatra Satului, pe partea dreapt a Stavnicului, a fost descoperit o aezare cu mai multe nivele de locuire printre care i unul din sec. IV (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 213-214; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.5.C.), n Satu Nou, n punctul esul lui tefan, n partea de sud, pe un bot de deal din terasa inferioar a Stavnicului, aezare cu mai multe nivele de locuire unul aparinnd sec. IV cu fragmente de amfore romane (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 210; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.7.B., p. 389); n punctul Promoroace - Sud, pe terasa inferioar a Stavnicului, la sud-vest de sat, lng Cooperativa de consum, aezare cu nivel de locuire din sec. IV (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 210; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.7.D.) i n punctul Bobeic, la circa 2 km de sat, pe un tell situat pe malul drept al Stavnicului, ceramic din sec. IV cu fragmente de amfore romane (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 210; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.7.E.). l Com. Tansa, ape: Tansa, Gureni, Jigoreni, Glodeni; sat Suhule, fragm. ceramice, Dealul Suhuleului. Sat Suhule - Dealul Suhuleului, la sud-est de marginea sudic a satului, pe crarea spre satul Vleni (com. ibneti), s-au gsit fragmente ceramice (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, LXXIV.2.A., p. 395). l Com. Tometi, situat la sud de vrsarea Jijiei n Bahlui, Chicera; sat Vldiceni, Schitul Vldiceni.

26

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

n satul Vldiceni, n punctul Schitul Vldiceni, pe suprafaa unui mamelon orientat nord-sud, situat n apropierea schitului, s-au descoperit framente ceramice din sec. IV (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXVII.4.B., p. 406). l Com. ibana, traversat de acov, ibana, Veja, Armii; fragmente ceramice, Dup Vie, sat Grbeti ntre Grle, aezare n satul Poiana Mnstirii - Lanul Hambarului. Sat ibana - Dup Vie, la 400 m est-nord-est de ferma zootehnic ibana, pe stnga prului Pietrosu, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, p. 422, LXXX.1.B.); satul Grbeti - ntre Grlele Murgoaiei i Humriei, la circa 1 km sud-sud-vest de biserica satului, fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXXX.4.C., p. 424); satul Poiana Mnstirii - Lanul Hambarului, pe versantul de est al Dealului Hambarului, la vest de sat, mai jos de cimitir, aezare cu ceramic din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXXX.8.B.). l Com. uora, mrginit la est de Prut i n parte la sud de Jijia; materiale arheologice La ru i la Confluena Jijia-Bahlui I, II, III. Sat uora - La ru, la sud-vest de sat, n spatele colii Generale, la circa 300-400 m sud-sud-est de podul mare de fier peste Jijia, bogat staiune n cuprinsul creia s-au gsit materiale ceramice din sec. III-IV (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXXIII.2.B., p. 437); Confluena Jijia-Bahlui I, II, III, pe ambele pri ale oselei Iai - uora, pe dreapta Jijiei, circa 300-500 m est de confluena Bahluiului cu Jijia, s-au descoperit importante materiale arheologice i de sec. IV (Ibidem, LXXXIII.2.E., p. 439). l n com. ibneti, traversat de acov, Jigoranca, Glodeni, Gureanca, Durceasca, prul Armii; fragmente ceramice la ibneti, Pe deal la Brnzei, La Sud de sat, aezare la Ciriteii Mari, fragmente ceramice n satul Glodenii Gndului la Suhatul Glodenilor, n satul Grieti - Iazu Mucului, locuire de sec. III-IV; aezare n satul Jigoreni - Cuibul Hultanului, aezare la Jigoranca, fragmente ceramice pe Grindul Piersicrie i n satul Rzboieni - Tarlaua Dubu, ceramic n satul Tungujei - Silitea Marginii, Gorgana, aezare, Velnia, sat Vleni - Silitea, locuire i la Jigoreni - Candachia, un ciob. Sat ibneti, Pe deal la Brnzei, la circa 1 km sud-sud-est de marginea satului, fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXXI.1.A., p. 427); Ciriteii Mari, la circa 1 km nord de sat, pe un platou care se ntinde pn la est de Rzboieni, s-a gsit ceramic fin sau zgrunuroas, n asociere cu amfore romane (Ibidem, LXXXI.1.C.), la fel La Sud de sat, ntre praiele acov i Durceasa (Ibidem, LXXXI.1.F.), precum i n satul Glodenii Gndului la Suhatul Glodenilor, la circa 1 km est de sat, de o parte i de alta a drumului spre Suhat (Ibidem, LXXXI.2.A.), sat Grieti - Iazu Mucului, la vest de sat, pe panta vestic a dealului, spre Iaz, este o locuire,sec. III-IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 323; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXXI.3.A., p. 428), n satul Jigoreni - Cuibul Hultanului, pe platoul dealului i la 400 m sud-vest de livad, spre prul Humria, aezare din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXXXI.4.C.), Grindul Piersicrie, pe partea stng a prului Humria, pe panta domoal de sud-sud-vest a dealului Grindu, la 1 km nord de coala General, fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXXXI.4.E.), la circa 1 km sud de marginea vestic a satului, pe locul La Movil, pe prul Jigoranca, aezare cu ceramic, cu fragmente de amfore romane (Ibidem, LXXXI.4.H., p. 429), n satul Rzboieni - Tarlaua Dubu, la circa 400-500 m vest de tarlaua La Cercel, pe panta lin a platoului ce coboar spre grla Dubu, aezare cu ceramic din sec. IV, fin sau zgrunuroas, ori lucrat cu mna din past grosier (Ibidem, LXXXI.5.B.), n satul Tungujei - Silitea Marginii, la sud de satul Tungujei, pe platoul dealului Marginea, ceramica din sec. IV-III (Ibidem, LXXXI.7.A., p. 430, fig. 49/8), Velnia, n marginea de nord-vest a satului ntre Grla lui Matei i oseaua Iai-Negreti, aezare cu ceramic (Ibidem, LXXXI.7.D.), pe dealul Gorgana, situat la circa 1 km nord de sat, s-au gsit fragmente ceramice care ar putea aparine sec. IV (Ibidem, LXXXI.7.E.), satul Vleni - Silitea, la sud de sat, pe partea stng a prului Gureanca, pe panta de sud a unui platou, locuire, i amfore romane (Ibidem, LXXXI.8.A., p. 427, fig. 52/36), un fragment de amfor roman, la Jigoreni - Candachia, 1,5 km nordvest, pe coasta de nord-est a dealului (Ibidem, LXXXI.4.G., p. 428). l Com. Voineti, ape: Stavnic cu Stvnicel, prul Voineti, aezare pe Pe Chiclui, Grla Pdurarului, n satul Vocoteti - La vest de coal. Sat Voineti, la circa 300 m est-sud-est de marginea sud-estic a satului, pe Dealul Chiclui, aezare cu ceramic din past cenuie fin, n asociere cu fragmente de amfore romane (Ibidem, LXXXVIII.1.B., p. 457, fig. 52/15, 64), unele cu trsturi specifice ceramicii carpice, ca past i profil (Ibidem, fig. 52/49, 58); la circa 1 km est de sat, la baza versantului estic al dealului Chiclui, pe o mic teras a prului numit Grla Pdurarului, aezare cu ceramic, fragmente de amfore romane i n satul Vocoteti - La

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau

27

l l l l l l

vest de coal, pe ambele pri ale drumului, se afl i o locuire, unde s-au gsit fragmente ceramice de la vase din past fin, cenuie sau cafenie, cu decor vlurit (Ibidem, LXXXVIII.5.C., p. 457-458 i 460). Com. Daga, praiele Mnstirea, Grboveu, nu are locuiri de sec. IV (Ibidem, XXI, p. 118-120). Com. Grajduri, nu are ceramic de sec. IV (Ibidem, XXX, p. 156-159). Com. Grozeti, nu are ceramic de sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXII, p. 162-163). Com. Mdrjac, nu s-au semnalat locuiri de sec. IV (Ibidem, LXIII, p. 225-227). Com. Mona, nu are ceramic de sec. IV (Ibidem, L, p. 251-253). Com. Priscani, nu are ceramic de sec. IV (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LIX, p. 327-328).

Fourth Century Discoveries in the geographical subunits of the Central Moldavian Plateau. A particular view on the Iai county
a. Tansa Repedea Plateaus, b. Dolheti Buneti Plateaus, c. Upper Brlad Depression, d. Racova Stemnic Hills, e. Icueti Hill, Front of Siret, f. Comarna Hill Rducneni, Front of Prut, g. Hui Depression. Com. Al. I. Cuza, ape: Siret, iganca; site arina de Jos, Pe Holm, habitation Lutrie, village cheia La Izvoare, village Volintireti - Movila lui tefan cel Mare and a shard in the northern end of the village. Village Al. I. Cuza, Lutrie, of the west-southwest extremity of the village, toward the 4 year school, in the gardens of the inhabitants situated on the lower terrace of Siret River there were discovered traces of habitation and ceramic fragments dated to the 4 th century (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, I.1.A, p. 29, fig. 22/107); Pe Holm, at about 700 m southeast from the village, on an erosion witness mostly destroyed, on the meadow terrace of the Siret, in a profile, at the depth of 0,70 m, one can notice the remains of dwellings dated to the 4th century, with fine pottery, grey or coffee brown- brick red as hue (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 297; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, I.1.B, p. 29, fig. 21/7; 22/101, 106); arina de Jos, on the left of iganca brook, at the confluence with the Siret, on the meadow terrace, at circa 300 m southeast from the village, there is a 4 th century settlement (Ibidem, I.1.C, fig. 21/7; 22/101, 106); to the northwest of the village cheia - La Izvoare, there have been acknowledged 4th century inhabitancies, to the side of road cheia - Al. I. Cuza, near the springs on the Siret terrace (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 302; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, I.3.A., p. 31, fig. 22/107); in village Volintireti - Movila lui tefan cel Mare, in the plain of Siret, at circa 7 km east-southeast of Pacani, 2 km east of Siret and 1,5 km north-northwest of Volintireti, there was pointed out a 4th century habitation and only one fragment of The northern end of the village, in the garden of Gh. Macovei (Ibidem, I.4.C-.4.D.). l Com. Brnova, waters: Nicolina, which iganului valley flows into; the settlement of Cercu - La intirim. Village Cercu, point La intirim, southeast of the cemetery of former village Zane, west of the village, around isolated houses, there is a site with fragments also of the 4 th century (N. Zaharia 1955b, p. 903; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 174; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, X.2.A., p. 69). l Com. Breti, waters: elaru, Albeti and Cinca; sites at Silite, between villages Albeti-Goeti, the settlement of south-southeast of Albeti, in the village Cristeti, potsherds at the point Lacurile - Izvoare and an habitation at Izvoare. Village Breti, settlements with 4th century pottery, at Silite, on the southern plateau of the village, eastsoutheast oriented toward Valea Luncii (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, VIII.1.B., p. 63); between villages Albeti-Goeti, at south-southeast of Albeti, about 2 km and 1,5 km north-northwest of Goeti (com. Lungani), on a hill end detached from the plateau, situated between two torrential valleys, there is a 4th century settlement (Ibidem, VIII.2.A.); village Cristeti, point Lacurile - Izvoare, in the upper part
l

28

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

of the eastern versant of Izvoare Hill, there were found two fragments of Roman amphorae dated to the 2nd4th centuries AD. (Ibidem, VIII.4.B.); while at Izvoare, at about 800 m northwest of the village, on the right side of the road Cristeti - Trgu Frumos, on the mild slope of a hill, there was identified a 4 th century AD habitation (Ibidem, VIII.4.E., fig. 22/51). l Com. Butea, limited to the southeast by Siret, Roia, Dochia, Gogea; necropolis on Neagului Hill, village Gureana Hill settlement on Doljetilor Coast. Village Butea, on Neagului Hill, on a stripe of land to the northwest isolated from the village, there is a necropolis with 4th century pottery (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 298; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, IX.1.E., p. 67); village Gureana Hill, at 1,5 km southeast of the village, on the sector on the Siret terrace, named Doljetilor Coast, there is a 4th century settlement (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 298; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, IX.1.F.). l Com. Ciorteti, ape: Ciorteti, Crasna, erbeti, Vaslui; in the village erbeti there are sites Fundtura I-II. In village erbeti - Fundtura I, at about 400 m east of the village, near the valley of brook erbeti there is a 4th century settlement IV (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XII.5.A., p. 75); in Fundtura II, on hills that limit the valley of brook erbeti, there is a site with several overlapped settlements, some dated to the 4th century as well (Ibidem, XI.2.B., fig. 22/88). l Com. Ciurea, water courses: Ciurea, Roa, Nicolina; potsherds on Rpa and Fntna de pe Podi, La Chihan, Picioru Grani, Dealul Lunca, village Dumbrava - Baba Nicula, village Hlincea - Movila lui tefan Vod, village Lunca Cetuii - Zane. Village Ciurea, small potsherds dated to the 4th century at Rpa and Fntna de pe Podi, at about 1,5 km southwest of the railway station of Ciurea (N. Zaharia 1955b, p. 904; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 178; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XIII.1.D., p. 79); La Chihan, at 1 km south of the railway station, on the northeast slope of the hill Dealul lui Vod, to the extremity of the former village Lunca Ciurei (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 177; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XIII.1.E.); Picioru Grani, in the clay quarry at the feet of Ciurei Hill, situated in the point named Picioru Grani (N. Zaharia 1955b, p. 904; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 178; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XIII.1.G.); Lunca Hill continuation of the Cetuia Hill, on the southwest slope hereof, in front of the railway station Ciurea (N. Zaharia 1955b, p. 904; idem, M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 176-177; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XIII.1.H.); village Dumbrava - Baba Nicula, along the ravine of Roa brook (N. Zaharia 1955b, p. 904; idem, M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 177; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XIII.3.A.; S. Sanie, . Sanie, 1973, p. 61 i urm.); village Hlincea - Movila lui tefan Vod, on the lower terrace of Nicolina brook, at the level of the old pond in front of Hlincea Hill, around the Mound Movila lui tefan Vod (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1956, p. 39; Ibidem 1970, p. 177; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XIII.4.D.); village Lunca Cetuii - Zane, around the cemetery on the southeast side of the former village Zane. l Com. Comarna, Comarna brook with Broteni, Tamarca; settlements at Osoi, on the Terrace of River Prut, The southeast end of the village, habitation at Tarlaua Mare, the village core, potsherds at Zootechnical farmyard no. 1, Puntea Tincului, Vadul Bobului, village Stnca, settlements in The southeast end of the village, North of the village, n es and in the village Osoi, an imperial Roman coin belonging to the school collection. Village Osoi, on the right side of the Terrace of the Prut, at about 1 km southeast of the village, where there was identified a large settlement with pottery dated to the 4th century, and possibly the 5th century as well (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 327; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XV.1.C., p. 86); The southeast end of the village, at exit of the village, there were destroyed several settlements out of which one dated to the 4th century, with fragments of Roman amphorae (Ibidem, XV.2.C., p. 88, fig. 21/10; 22/8, 111-112); Tarlaua Mare, on the left of Broteni brook, at about 500 m east and south of the extensions of Mustea Woods, there were identified several habitation levels one of them containing fine and coarse 4th century pottery and fragments of Roman amphorae (Ibidem, XV.2.D.); the same for The village core I, in the northern sector (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 317; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XV.2.E.); the zootechnical farmyard no. 1, with the occasion of the construction of the farmyard building, at the entrance into the village on the right side, there were pointed out fragments of Roman amphorae and with elements of La Tne tradition (Ibidem, XV.2.J.); the same for Puntea Tincului, on the left slope of Broteni brook, at the feet of Andrieul Hill (Ibidem, XV.2.L.,

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau

29

p. 89, fig. 22/9, 23, 26, 33, 58, 89, 98); Vadul Bobului, at about 1 km west-northwest of the settlement of Puntea Tincului, local hand-made pottery out of fine or coarse paste, fragments of Roman amphorae, and also hand-made vessels (Ibidem, XV.2.M., fig. 22/13, 24, 79, 81); village Stnca, in the Southeast end of the village, on the right side of the road Osoi - Costuleni, on a promontory, between indicators - km 96-97 -, there is a 4th century settlement with fine and coarse pottery (Ibidem, XV.4.B., fig. 22/75); North of the village, at about 300 m on the right side of the road Osoi-Stnca, on a terrace of Jijia River, very much subjected to land sliding, there was destroyed a 4 th century settlement with fragments of Roman amphorae and local wheel-made ceramic ware, of fine or coarse paste (Ibidem, XV.4.C.); n es, on the right side of D.N. 28, when exiting the village, between hereof and the old road, at the level of the road sign km 96, there is a 4th century settlement with pottery belonging to the coarse ceramic ware category, but there are also fragments of fine pottery too; few isolated discoveries, on the territory of the village Osoi, belonging to the school collection, are dated to the 4 th century, and among them an imperial Roman coin (Ibidem, XV.4.D., p. 89-90, fig. 22/76). l Com. Costuleni, ape: Jijia, Comarna and Covasna, Bohotinului springs; settlement in the village Cozia La Nisiprie, village Poiana Morii, Stna Veche, incineration tombs, unspecified location, in village Hilia, settlements on Hiliei Hill, La Iaz and only one fragment of Hilia Plateau. Village Cozia - La Nisiprie, at 1,5 km, at the feet of Voloaca Mic Hill in Branitei Plain, settlement with pottery dated also to the 3rd4th centuries (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 317318; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XVI.3.B., p. 93); village Poiana Morii - Stna Veche, at the end of the village Cozia, in a settlement of the 4th century there was discovered a fragment of the wall of a grey fine paste wheel-made vessel, ornamented with an impressed human face, surrounded with rosettes made of two concentric circles (E. Ciocea 1983, p. 200-205; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XVI.3.C.); Unspecified location, on the territory of village Cozia, there were destroyed incineration tombs; 6 vase and 2 clay whorls, an iron clip, a fibula and one bronze arrowhead dated to the first decades of the 4 th century were recuperated (I. Ioni 1982, p. 92; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XVI.3.D.); la westnorthwest of village Hilia - Podiul Hilia, on a high plateau there was also found a fragment of a handle of a Roman amphora dated to the 2nd4th centuries (Ibidem, XVI.4.A.); Hiliei Hill, on the plateau situated 1 km west-southwest of the village, that continues on the right slope of the brook, 4th century settlement (Ibidem, XVI.4.B.); La Iaz, at about 3 km south-southwest of the village, settlement with 4 th century pottery, made of fine and coarse paste (Ibidem, XVI.4.C., fig. 22/10, 15, 18, 20, 28-30, 35-36, 45-46, 69, 82, 90-91, 99, 114, 120, 124) and a triangular bead (Ibidem, fig. 12/1). l Com. Cozmeti, waters: Mona with Monioara, village Podolenii de Jos - Sub Voloac. Village Podolenii de Jos - Sub Voloac, in the east end, over a brook - affluent of Mona, there is a 4 th century settlement, with agglomerations of adobe from the dwelling walls (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XVIII.2.B., p. 102). l Com. Dobrov, waters: Dobrov brook, with Pietrosu, Poiana Lung, Humria; settlement on Lot Jitria, Dobrov Monastery, Lot Latia and Lot Velnia. Village Dobrov - Lot Jitria, on a high plateau, delimited by road Dobrov - Codeti and Dobrov brook, in the interfluve formed by this and Burdulea brook, there is a 4th century settlement with grayish fine paste ceramic ware (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXIII.1.B.; p. 124, 126); Dobrov Monastery, within the perimeter of this monastery founded by Prince Stephen the Great, in 1503-1504, there were identified habitation traces also dated to the 4th century, around the monastery there were found hearths and other features (Ibidem, XXIII.1.K., p. 127, fig. 22/5); Lot Latia, in continuation of Lot Jitria, to the left of Burdulea brook, on the same terrace of Dobrov there was identified a hearth with potsherds dated to the 4th century, made of grayish fine paste (Ibidem, XXIII.1.M.); Lot Velnia, on the right side of the road Dobrov - Codeti - Vaslui, 4th century settlement, out of which there was mentioned a vessel made of light grey fine paste, with a wavy belt, delimited by incised lines (Ibidem, XXIII.1.N.). l Com. Dolheti, waters: Crasna, Cetuia; potsherds Podul peste Crasna and village Brdiceti - La odaie, Sub margini, settlements dated to 2nd 3rd, 4th and only 4th centuries at Salcmii lui Moraru - La Ulm. Village Dolheti - Podul peste Crasna, north-east of Crasna brook, on the west-southwest oriented slopes of the hill, there were found potsherds dated to the 4th century (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXIV.1.B., p. 129); in village Brdiceti - La Odoie, at about 700 m southwest of the village, in a small flat pit there is settlement with several layers, out of which some dated to the 2nd-3rd and 4th centuries, with ceramic ware, fibula and Roman coins (Ibidem, XXIV.2.A.); Salcmii lui Moraru - La Ulmi, at about 1 km

30

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

southwest of the village, on the right side of Cetuia brook, settlement with fragments dated also to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXIV.2.B); Sub margini, at about 2 km south-southeast of the village, at the frontier with the county of Vaslui, a settlement rich in 2nd4th century ceramic ware (Ibidem, XXIV.2.G.). l Com. Dumeti, crossed to the north by Bahlui River, Osnzana brook, Csua Mare valley; potsherds on Cogeni Fields, Osnzei Valley, The village core, settlements on the northwestern slop of Cogeasca Hill, Malul Iazului, in village Chilioaia, at Silitea, potsherds of the 4th5th centuries, as well as in village Pueti Old Church I and II, in village Comornia, Pe gsc I, 4th century settlement and in point II, ceramic ware dated to the 4th century, at Cirete, settlement of the 2nd3rd and 4th centuries, while the potsherds were dated to the 4th century, at Peste iaz and Forest administration. Village Dumeti, between Cogenilor Fields, on the fields in the southern side of the village, near the hill, there were found 4th century potsherds (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXV.1.A., p. 131, 133); Osnzei Valley, at about 1 km from the village, on a surface delimited by the turn of Osnzana brook, there was identified a settlement with potsherds dated to the 4 th century too (Ibidem, XXV.1.C., p. 133); The northwestern slope of Cogeasca Hill and under the northwestern foot hereof, toward Osnzenei valley, there was identified a part of a hut pit, in which, hidden under a layer of ash, there were found several potsherds, among which a border of dolium and a fragment of amphora made of reddish sandy paste dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 191; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXV.1.D.); the same at Malul Iazului, on the north-northwest bear the east border of the village, a 4th century settlement (Ibidem, XXV.1.E., fig. 22/38); the village core, on the side of the village road starting from the main road toward the pond, there were found potsherds dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXV.1.F.); in village Chilioaia - Silitea, toward the northwest end, near the frontier to com. Popeti, there were found fragments dated to the 4th5th centuries as well (Ibidem, XXV.3.D., p. 134); village Pueti - Old Church I and II, on the old core, on two slopes I and II separated by a small southeast oriented valley, there appeared also potsherds (Ibidem, XXV.5.B., p. 134-135, fig. 22/22, 27, 32, 71, 116); in village Comornia - Pe gsc I, at almost 2 km south-southeast of Pueti and the old wooden church there was found a Geto-Dacian settlement (4th 3rd centuries), overlapped by another one of the 4th century, with a fragment of Roman amphora; Pe gsc II, at about 300 m east of the previous settlement there was identified 3rd 2nd centuries ceramic ware but also pottery dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXV.5.F., p. 135, fig. 22/72, 117); Cirete, under Dealul Mare Hill, on the right side of the Macu Plain, there is a settlement with 3rd2nd centuries BC and 4th century AD pottery (Ibidem, XXV.5.G.); Peste iaz, on the terrace sloping up from the left shore of Pueti pond, toward Rpgu plateau, there were found potsherds dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXV.5.I.); The forest administration, south-east of the village, in the area of the nursery garden in front of the forest administration there were found potsherds dated to the 4th and 5th centuries (Ibidem, XXV.5.J.). l Com. Gorban, limited to the east by Prut River; Bohotin, Mona and Monioara; settlement at the Forest Administration, village Gura Bohotin, inhumation tombs in the village core. Village Gorban Forest administration, at the southwest periphery of village Gorban, there is a settlement dated to the 4th century (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXIX.1.A., p. 154); village Gura Bohotin - village core, in the village core there were found inhumation tombs with black vessels dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXIX.2.A.). l Com. Hluceti, delimited toward com. Al. I. Cuza by Siret River; settlement at Rpa lui Costache, La atelier, Cnepite - Luca and Rotunda and habitation at La Bulgrie, only potsherds at Lutrie. Village Hluceti - Rpa lui Costache, on the northeast versant of a hill above the upper terrace of Siret River, settlement with traces of habitation dated to the 4 th century (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXXIII.1.C., p. 164); La atelier, on a high terrace of the Siret there is a large settlement that continues north, up to the Water Tower of the Childrens House, where there were found traces of habitation dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXXIII.1.C., fig. 22/56, 80); La Bulgrie, at about 500 m east-northeast of the village there were found grayish potsherds made of rough paste, probably a habitation dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, XXXIII.1.G.); Cnepite - Luca, at about 1 km north-west of the road Mirceti - Al. I. Cuza, settlement dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXXIII.1.H., fig. 22/92); Rotunda, at about 500-700 m from the road, on the lower terrace of the Siret, settlement dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, XXXIII.1.I., fig. 22/2, 54, 74); Lutrie, in the south-southeast end of the village there is an erosion witness detached from the lower terrace of the Siret, where fragments of vessels seem to belong to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXXIII.2.A.).

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau


l

31

Com. Heleteni, south of Bahlui, Siret, Vatania, Boscoteni, igncilor, Dup Fntn; settlement at the Staia de pompare, potsherds at Tarlaua I.A.S. Ruginoasa, Cotoc Hill, Bra, tefan Ciubotaru. Village Heleteni, east of the Staia de pompare for the Siret water, in the direction of former railway station of Heleteni, there is a large and rich settlement with several layers of habitation and among them some dated to 2nd3rd or 4th centuries, with a whorl made of a potsherd and with fragments of Roman amphorae (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXXIV.1.E., p. 168); Lot I.A.S. Ruginoasa, at about 1,5 km northwest of Pietri railway station, there were pointed out potsherds dated to the 4 th5th centuries (Ibidem, XXXIV.1.F., fig. 24/2, 4); Cotoc Hill, 1 km north of the village, toward Drghici Hill, there were found potsherds dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXXIV.1.G.); Bra, on the right side of Boscoteni brook, 1,5 km west-northwest of the village, there is a settlement (Ibidem, XXXIV.1.H.); tefan Ciubotaru, in the east-northeast end of the village, on the left side of Cotoc brook, there were found corroded and atypical potsherds, which indicate the possible existence of settlements (Ibidem, XXXIV.1.I.). l Com. Horleti, waters: Horleti, Voineti, Blc and Prul Mare; potsherds in the point Coere II, settlement at Viioara, Movila, in the village Bogdneti, at Vlcele, Curtur, Rpa Pascului, Silite Hill, potsherds at Curtur and in the village Scopoeni, on Checu Hill and Glod Pond and settlement La Coere. Village Horleti, on the high plateau of hill Coere II, limited to the south by Glod Valley, there were found potsherds dated to the 4th century and one made of Roman amphora (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, XXXVI.1.B., p. 177); on the eastern slope of Viioara Hill, at 0,5 km southwest of Scopoeni, not far from the point Rchii, there is a 4th century settlement, with wheel-made pottery of grayish fine or coarse paste (Ibidem, XXXVI.1.E., fig. 22/60); on the right side of Islaz valley, on the eastern slope of Movila hill, settlement with ceramic ware dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXXVI.1.G.); village Bogdneti Vlcele, in the north end of the village, on the eastern plateau of Vlcele hill, habitation level dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXXVI.2.C., p. 179); at Curtur, on the right side of Blc brook, on the west end of the village, ceramic ware dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, XXXVI.2.D.); on both versants of the valley named Rpa Pascu, rich and relatively wide settlement inhabited also during the 4 th century (Ibidem, XXXVI.2.E., fig. 22/100, 121); Silite Hill, over Frasin brook, on a high plateau delimited by ravine slopes to the west, southwest and south, there lies a settlement dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXXVI.2.G.); in village Scopoeni, on Checu Hill there were found potsherds dated to the 4th century too (Ibidem, XXXVI.3.B.); La Coere, on the western slope of Checu Hill, at 1 km southwest of the village, settlement with ceramic ware dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXXVI.3.C., p. 80); Glodu Pond - Vrnavs Pond (not mapped), on the northwestern slopes of Viioara hill, toward Vrnavs Pond, there were identified potsherds dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXXVI.3.D.). l Com. Ipatele, on Stavnic, Durduc, Popii valley; habitation on arin, potsherds at Petreti, settlement Pe Brlan and in the villages Alexeti - Tarlaua Movil or Bcu - Pe Beci and potsherds on Dealul Holciu II and settlement dated to the 3rd4th centuries on Doschina. Village Ipatele, arin, with traces of habitation dated to the 4th century, is situated at about 400 m west of the former C.A.P. quarters (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXXIX.1.E., p. 207); Pe Brlan, point with superposition of habitation among which with a 4th century settlement too, situated in the northeastern side of Cuzii hill, at 1 km south the village (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 215; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXXIX.1.J., p. 207-208); Petreti, where, west of the village, on the eastern slope of Recea Hill, in front of the settlement on the Osoi I, there were found potsherds (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 215; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXXIX.1.L., p. 208); in village Alexeti - Tarlaua Movil, in the southeast side of the village there was pointed out a settlement dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXXIX.2.B.), in village Bcu - Pe Beci, on a hill situated on the right side of the road toward Satu Nou (com. cheia), flanked to the east by Stavnic brook and to the west by the way to Frenciugi, there is another settlement with traces of habitation dated to the 4th century (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 214; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXXIX.2.C.), Holciu II Hill, on the upper terrace of Velna, there were found fragments made of grayish fine paste (A. Rusu 1981-82, p. 215; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XXXIX.3.C.), Doschina, on the lower terrace of Stavnic there were found fragments of Roman amphorae which involve the existence of a 3rd4th centuries settlement (Ibidem 1984, XXXIX.3.E.; A. Rusu 1981-82, p. 214). l Com. Lungani, waters: Sineti, Goeti la izvoare with Crbunia valley; sites Dup biseric and La ipot. Village Lungani - Dup biseric, on the southwest slope of a small plateau, near the church, east of Cerbolea marsh, settlement with potsherds dated to the 4th century (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985,

32

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

XLII.1.A., p. 222); La ipot, within the perimeter of a strong spring flowing into Cerbolea, settlement with wheel-made pottery, of grayish fine or coarse paste, it can be dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XLII.1.E., p. 224, fig. 22/21, 47, 62, 119). l Com. Mironeasa, waters: Ursia brook, with Brusturei; potsherds at Cotul Lanului. Village Mironeasa - Cotul Lanului or Pe Moie, between roads Mironeasa - Hadmbu and Mironeasa cheia, east of the forest, there were discovered potsherds of grayish and coffee brown fine or coarse paste, dated to the 4th century (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLV.1.G., p. 232). l Com. Miroslava, south Bahlui River, on Ursului Valley, Boaghea Valley, Ezreni valley and lake, Paraul Mare, Corne and Locii brooks; settlement with potsherds La Bulgrii, Dealul Miroslava II, Ferma Miroslava - Hurpuz Hill, village Brtuleni - Holm Hill, settlement La rp, village Ciurbeti Dealul Brca II, potsherds La Prisac, village Corneti, settlement To the northeast of the village, potsherds at The Farmyard lot, the Village core I, Boaghea, village Danca, settlement in The north end of the village, village Horpaz potsherds at Ctmnoaei Hill (Ursului Valley), Nucului Hill, village Uricani - Dealul Cimitirului and in the village Valea Ursului - North of the village. Village Miroslava - La Bulgrii, near the water pumping installation there was discovered an important archaeological settlement with potsherds dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1956, p. 41; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 208; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVI.1.C., p. 233); Miroslava Hill II, in front of the Dacia quarters, near high power supply pillar no. 15, pottery belonging also to the 4 th century (Ibidem, XLVI.1.E.); Miroslava FarmyardHurpuz Hill, on the interfluve between Lake Iezreni and a brook that feeds it from northwest, there were found potsherds dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XLVI.1.G., p. 235); in village Brtuleni Holm Hill, at the northern foot of Brtuleni Hill, towards Bahlui meadow, there were found potsherds and dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 172; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVI.3.B.); La rp, at about 1 km north of the village, in an ancient ravine, at the feet of Brtuleni Hill, there was discovered a settlement with ceramic ware dated to the 4 th century (N. Zaharia 1955a, p. 288; idem 1955b, p. 903; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 172; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVI.3.C.); in village Ciurbeti - Dealul Brca II, at about 300-400 m east of the settlement on Brca Hill I, with potsherds dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia 1955a, p. 293; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 176; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVI.4.E., p. 236); La Prisac, at about 2 km southwest of the village, on Recea hill, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia 1955a, p. 293; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 176; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVI.4.F., p. 236); in village Corneti - northeast of the village, on the ploughed slope of the hill separating villages Corneti and Danca, there is a settlement with traces of habitation dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XLVI.5.A.); the farmyard lot, in the north end of village Corneti, between the village and the dam down of Lake Iezreni, named also Podul la Danca, there was found 4th century ceramic ware, both hand-made and wheel-made, of grayish or coffee brown paste, the latter one with wavy ornaments (Ibidem, XLVI.5.C., fig. 21/8; 22/4, 57, 59, 95); the Village Core I, at Gura Vii Boaghea, in the northeast end of the village there appeared a layer with grayish deposits, following certain works; it contained ceramic fragments dated also to the 4th century (N. Zaharia 1955a, p. 293; idem 1955b, p. 904; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 181; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVI.5.D., p. 237); Boaghea, northwest of the village towards Boaghea valley, there were discovered corroded potsherds dated to the 4 th century (N. Zaharia 1955a, p. 293; idem 1955b, p. 903-904; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 180; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVI.5.E.); in village Danca the northern end of the village on the right side of the road connecting villages Danca and Corneti, there is a settlement dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XLVI.6.B.); in village Horpaz, on the valley of Ursului brook, at the northern end if Ctmnoaei Hill (Valea Ursului), there was identified ceramic ware dated to the 4th century too (N. Zaharia 1955a, p. 293; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 193; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVI.8.A.); on the northeast versant of Nucului Hill at about 300 m from Nicolinei meadow, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 3rd4th centuries (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1956, p. 37; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVI.8.D., p. 238); in village Uricani - Cimitirul Hill, at 200 m north of the cemetery, on the surface of a flat land, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4 th century too (N. Zaharia 1955, p. 288; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1956, p. 34; idem, M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 223; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVI.10.D., p. 239) i in village Valea Ursului north of the village, at the feet of the hill at 300-400 m, in the area of the road Iai-

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau

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Voineti, there were found potsherds dated also to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 224; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVI.12.C., p. 240). l Com. Mirosloveti, crossed by Moldova River and Ciohoreanca Valley; settlement on Boului Hill and potsherds in village Ciohorni, point former C.A.P. Garden. At Mirosloveti, on the western versant of Boului Hill there was pointed out a settlement dated to the 4th century, out of which a large food storage vessel has been preserved in fragmentary condition, made of grayish fine paste, with wavy ornamentation on the rim and shoulder (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVII.1.B., p. 241); in village Ciohorni - C.A.P Garden, within the perimeter of the garden in the village core there was pointed out a 4th century settlement, with pottery made of grayish fine and coarse paste and a fragment of a handle of a Roman amphora (Ibidem, XLVII.2.D.). l Com. Mogoeti, Prloagele brook, potsherds at Mogoeti intirim Hill, Pe Grui, Bului Hill, anta Hill, Fntna lui Onu (Oni) and settlement at Mnjeti, Budi - Corn. Village Mogoeti intirim Hill, at the entrance into the village, on a promontory on the right side of the road, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4 th century (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVIII.1.D., p. 244); Pe Grui, in the northern side of the village there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XLVIII.1.E.); in the northern sector of the village, also referred to as Galata quarters, on Bului Hill, there were gathered ceramic materials dated also to the 4 th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 208-209; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVIII.1.F., p. 244); anta Hill, on the slope of uroaiei Hill, near the road, there were found potsherds dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 209; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVII.1.G., p. 246); Fntna lui Onu (Oni), at about 2 km southwest of village Ciurea, on the northeast slope of Calu Hill, in the place named Fntna lui Onu, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 209; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLVIII.1.L.), in village Mnjeti, in the point Budi - Corn, at about 700 m north and west-northwest of the village, on the southern and eastern slopes of a hill, there stands a wide and rich settlement dated to the 4th century, with grayish ceramic ware made of fine or coarse paste (Ibidem, XLVIII.4.D., p. 247, fig. 22/16, 43, 49, 55, 73, 109). l Com. Mogoeti Siret, on Gropi brook; potsherds on Morii Hill - Izvoare and in village Muncelu de Sus - La ipot, three iron plough shares in anul Anticar and settlement at Muncelu de Sus - Pe groap. Village Mogoeti Siret, point Morii Hill - Izvoare, at about 1 km north de coala General and at 300 m northeast of the former C.A.P. stables, there were pointed out potsherds dated to the 4 th century (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, XLIX.1.B., p. 248, fig. 22/17) and in point anul Anticar, between Muncel Forest and Sturza Forest, at about 400-500 m of the former, there were discovered three iron plough shares dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XLIX.2.D., p. 248, fig. 10/1, 4); La ipot, in the village centre, in front of the Old School, there is a settlement with ceramic ware dated also to the 4 th century (Ibidem, XLIX.2.E., p. 248, 250, fig. 10/6); Pe groap or La Gropi, at about 500 m southz and west-southwest of the village, on both of Gropi brook, there is a rich settlement with traces of habitation dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, XLIX.2.F., p. 250, fig. 22/93). l Com. Oeleni, Arinoasa, Coasta Agudului Mare brook, Maxineti; habitation at Beizadea II, settlement at Alburia - Fntna lui Calistru, Beizadea I, Maxinetivillage Hndreti, Roman amphorae at Zgia II. Village Oeleni - Beizadea II, at about 2,5 km southeast of the village, on the right side of Maxineti brook, habitation dated to the 4th century (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LIII.1.A, p. 295, fig. 52/62); Alburia Fntna lui Calistru, at about 2,5 km south-southeast of the village and at about 400 m northeast of the bridge over Maxineti marsh, settlement dated to the 4 th century with elements that might result from a 2rd3th centuries habitation (Ibidem, LIII.1.D, p. 295-296, fig. 52/76-77); Beizadea I, on the left side of Morii brook, at about 1 km southeast of the village, settlement dated to the 4 th century with potsherds rather corroded and atypical (Ibidem, LIII.1.F, p. 297); on the right side of the road Oeleni - Bra (jud. Neam), not far from the bridge over Maxineti marsh, there was identified a settlement dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, LIII.1.G.); village Hndreti - Zgia II, on the right side of the road Brtuleti Hndreti, on the peak of Zgia hill, there were found handles of Roman amphorae belonging to a 2 nd 4th century settlement (Ibidem, LIII.2.A.). l Com. Popeti, ape: Sineti, Iugani, Hlpetii, Dudu; potsherds in village Dorocani, Viilor Hill I and II, the new village core, habitation on Iugani Hill, in village Hrpeti potsherds at Gropul Morii. In Dorocani Viilor Hill I, at 1,5 km north of the village there was pointed out pottery also dated to the 4th century (I. Nestor et alii 1952, p. 27; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 190; V.

34

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LVII.2.E., p. 316); in the new village core, in the garden of inhabitant Tincu Dumitru, there were found potsherds dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia 1955a, p. 293; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 190; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LVII.2.G.); Iugani Village, on the southeast slope of the village, toward Iugani brook, there is a 4 th century habitation in connection with amphorae decorated with thick grooves (Ibidem, LVII.2.K, p. 316-317, fig. 51/5; 52/17); on the southwest slope of Viilor Hill II there were discovered ceramic materials made of grayish coarse paste, dated to the 4th century and to the 2nd 3rd as well, with fragments of Roman amphorae (Ibidem, LVII.2.L., p. 317, fig. 52/3); in village Hrpeti, on the lot Gropul Morii, near the pond dam, toward village Chilioaia (com. Dumeti), there were gathered potsherds (Ibidem, LVII.3.A.). l Com. Rducneni, waters: Jijia, Bohotin, Cozia, Pgubaul, Corbului, Bazga; rich settlement La Ciread, Mitoc, potsherds in the village core, on Beleaga hill I, Marcocis garden, the forest administration and a kiln in village Isaiia - Satu Nou. Village Rducneni - La Ciread, in the southern end of the former village Bazga, on a high plateau, sectioned to the east by Pgubaul brook and the west by Bazga brook, there is a rich settlement with habitation level dated to the 4th century (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXI.1.A., p. 334); in the village core, in the garden of inhabitant Zota Dumitru, there were found potsherds dated to the 4 th century too (Ibidem, LXI.1.C.); on the right side of Mitoc brook, at about 2,5 km northeast of Rducneni, there was discovered a settlement with potsherds dated also to the 3rd4th centuries (Ibidem, LXI.1.I.); on Beleaga Hill I, south of Bazga quarters, there were discovered 4th century potsherds (Ibidem, LXI.1.K.); in the village core, in the garden of Marcoci Valentin, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, LXI.1.L.); at the Forest administration, near the road Iai Rducneni, in front of the gate of the forest administration quarters, when digging the ditch for the telephone line, there were found 4th century potsherds (Ibidem, LXI.1.M.); in village Isaiia - Satu Nou, in front of the house of inhabitant Stratulat I, there was by chance discovered a round kiln, with the diameter of 1,40 m, at the depth of 1m, with two pitchers on the hearth of the kiln, one of these vessels being recuperated whole while the other as fragments; they were dated to the 3rd4th centuries (Ibidem, LXI.3.A.). l Com. Scnteia, waters: Rebricea, Rebricea Seac; settlements, Ruca, Din sus de Moraru, the village core I, village Bodeti, lot Bodeti, village Boroseti, Boroseti Hill, village Lunca Rate, village core II. In Village Scnteia, a settlement with a lot of pottery dated also to the 4th century was pointed out in point Ruca, behind the railway station, on the lower terrace on the right side of Rebricea (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXVI.1.C., p. 360), in point Din sus de Moraru, in front of the railway station, on the versant on the left side of Rebricea (Ibidem, LXVI.1.G., p. 362) and another settlement also with a lot of potsherds dated to the 4th century, in the village core I, east of the church, on the terrace to the left of Rebricea (Ibidem, LXVI.1.E.); in village Bodeti - Tarlaua Bodeti, at about 500 m west-southwest of the village, 1,5 km southeast of the church, on the right side of a brook that flows into pond Recea, on the south-southeast and southwest versants of the hill at the basis of which there is the pond, there lies a rich settlement dated to the 4th century, wherefrom fragments of vessels and of Roman amphorae were recovered (Ibidem, LXVI.2.A., fig. 52/20, 31, 41, 67), in village Boroseti Boroseti Hill - Pe Lesa, on the southern versant of the hill, also named Pe Lesa, there was identified and investigated an important settlement, within which there were found sporadically traces of habitation (Ibidem, LXVI.3.D., p. 363) and in village Lunca Rate, in the village core II, on the low terrace to the left of Rebricea brook, that crosses the village from north to south, ceramic ware dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, LXVI.5.A.). l Com. Schitu Duca, settlement dated to the 2nd4th centuries at Prlita and in village Dumitretii Glii, habitation at Cemetery lot and materials also at Rachi Lot I-II, potsherds in village Poiana - La Prlita and traces of habitation in Satu Nou, southeast of the village. Village Schitu Duca - Prlita, when exiting the village, on the right side of the road, one can notice compact zones with daub from the walls of the surface dwellings and potsherds of the 2 nd4th centuries (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXV.C., p. 356); village Dumitretii Glii Cemetery lot, in the north part of the village, on the right side of the road Iai - Vaslui, on the opposite versant to then on which there stands the church Schitu Duca, there were discovered several levels of habitation out of which one dated to the 4th century; with potsherds from wheel-made vessels, of grayish fine or coarse paste (Ibidem, LXV.C., fig. 52/40, 85), sometimes with a wavy ornament, and in which several whorls were also found (Ibidem, fig. 40/13, 17), as well as fragments of Roman amphorae, decorated with grooves; Rachi Lot I-II, in the north part of the village, northwest of the Cemetery lot, throughout a surface about 1 km wide, there were identified archaeological materials of several periods, out of which

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau

35

the 4th century habitation is relatively intensive, with wheel-made pottery, of grayish fine or coarse paste (Ibidem, LXV.3.B.); in village Poiana - La Prlita, in the north side of the village, on the right side of the road Iai-Vaslui, potsherds dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, LXV.6.B., p. 358); village Satu Nou southeast of the village, along the way that leads to Costuleni, traces of habitation dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, LXV.7.A.). l Com. Sineti, acov, Mndroaia, Gmboasa; settlements on Coasta Mrgineanu, Balta la Cosndache. Village Sineti, Coasta Mrgineanu, on the northeast side, on the slope of the hill referred to as arn, situated in the angle made by the road Sineti - Obrijeni (com. Popeti) and the valley starting from Gorbanul Brook, there is a settlement (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXVIII.1.D., p. 369); Balta la Cosndache, at about 1,5 km northeast of Sineti, on the slightly east oriented slope, there were found several fragments of vessels out of which one seems to be of a Roman amphora made of brick - reddish paste, some others of grayish fine paste and dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, LXVIII.1.E.). l Com. Stolniceni - Prjescu, crossed by Siret River, Mnstirea with Prul and La trei Deci valleys; rich settlements at Ftna lui Tanasache, village Brteti - ntre Chicerea and Prului Valley La Ftna lui Tanasache, settlement dated to the 4th century, situated on the right side of the road Stolniceni - Prjescu - Cozmeti, between the road to Brteti and Valea ipot, within which the pottery modeled of grayish fine and coarse paste can be noticed together with the presence of Roman amphorae (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXX.1.A., p. 373, fig. 52/30, 51). In village Brteti - ntre Chicerea and Prului Valley, at about 500 m from the latter point and about 1 km east-southeast of the village, on the lower terrace of Siret there is a settlement dated to the 4 th century, with grayish fine or coarse pottery, or coffee brown pottery, with fragments of Roman amphorae and fragments of hand-made vessels (Ibidem, LXX.2.D., p. 375, fig. 51/22; 52/7, possibly also 50/10, 22). l Com. Strunga, waters: Mihaili, Cireului, Frceni, Strunga and Bahna Valleys; potsherds on Drmoxa Hill, settlement at Calda and in village Criveti, La Hrtop, materials at Rpa de la ipot, traces of habitation at the north -northeast of the village and potsherds on Cireului Valley. Village Strunga, in point Drmoxa Hill, situated at the eastern feet of the hill, at about 100-150 m northwest of the indicator km 156, along the road Trgu Frumos - Strunga, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 295; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXI.1.B., p. 377); in point Calda, at about 1,5 km northeast of Strunga, on the left side of the road Trgu Frumos - Strunga, near the pond, there is a settlement dated to the 4 th century with grayish fine ceramic ware, certain fragments with T profile (Ibidem, LXXI.1.F., fig. 51/18; 52/71), in village Criveti - La Hrtop - Spre Budi, on the right side of the road leading from Criveti to Movileni, west of the stone quarries, there was pointed out a settlement with ceramic ware dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 185; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXI.3.A., p. 379); Rpa de la ipot, in the north side of the village, on the plateau near the church and the Buhuoaiei Courts and on a hill crest that enters into the village, there were discovered archaeological materials dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia 1955b, p. 903; idem, M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 184; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXI.3.C., fig. 51/10, 52/45); north -northeast of the village, on the east and west slopes of the hill, at about 500 m of the village (toward the rail line), there is a habitation level (Ibidem, LXXI.3.D.); Cireului Valley, 2 km northeast of the village, in the excavations of the sand quarries there were found potsherds dated to the 4 th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 185; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXVI.5.A.). l Com. cheia, waters: Stavnic, with Izvoru Mare, Humria, Vicneasa, the springs of Rebricea, Gunoasa, Valea Rea; settlements dated to the 3 rd4th centuries at Cierul lui Ignat, Floreti, materials at Muncelu, village Cueti, habitation at Muncelu Tutu, settlements in the village Cioca-Boca - Cimitir, Tarlaua Cioate, Trboi, habitation at Cpoteti, materials in the village Drgueni - rinc and settlement at Silite, village Frenciugi, habitation n Cier, settlements La Pode, the Village core and in Satu Nou, in esul lui tefan, Promoroace - South and ceramic ware at Bobeic. In Village cheia a settlement with habitation level dated to 3rd4th centuries was mentioned in point Cierul lui Ignat, where, on a hill crest situated south of the village, west of the former C.A.P. cheia, in a place limited to the west by an affluent of Stavnic and to the south by the road to Satu Nou (A. Rusu 19811982, p. 212; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.1.C., p. 384), there were found other materials dated to the 4th century, at about 500 m north of the village, there were discovered in points Muncelu (Ibidem, LXXII.1.D.) and Floreti, on the south and southwest sides of Muncelu Hill, another settlement

36

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

with grayish wheel-made pottery, dated to the 3rd4th centuries (Ibidem, LXXII.1.E., p. 386); another habitation level dated to the 4th century was mentioned for village Cueti - Muncelu Tutu - La Gostat, in the southeast side of the village, at the feet of Nisiprie Hill, where there were found also several clay and stone balls ( = 1-3 cm), which might belong to this habitation (Ibidem, LXXII.2.A.); also, south of village Cioca-Boca - Cimitir, on a hill crest of the medium terrace of Uria brook, there was a settlement with several habitation levels and with fragments of Roman amphorae dated to the 4 th century among them (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 209; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.3.A.); in point Cioate Lot, in the north-northwest end of the village, on Cpoteti road, near the mill, at the crossroad of the way cheia Mironeasa, there is a settlement with ceramic ware dated to the 4 th century (A. Rusu 19811982, p. 209; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.3.B.); Trboi, on the lower terrace of Stavnic, at about 800 m northeast of the village, between Cpoteti Forest, to the west and Stavnic, to the east, settlement with ceramic ware dated to the 4th century (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 209; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.3.D., p. 386-387); Cpoteti, on the lower terrace of Stavnic, northeast of the village, between Cpoteti and Stavnic, habitation dated to the 4th century with fragments of Roman amphorae (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 209; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.3.E., p. 387); also in the commune cheia, in village Drgueni - rinc, on the southwest slope of Bhnii hill, near the place named Poiana, there were archaeological materials dated to the 4 th5th centuries, with fragments of Roman amphorae (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 213; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.4.E.) and at Silite, in the west end of the village, on a hill crest situated north of the way to Frenciugi, there is a settlement dated to the 4th century, with fragments of Roman amphorae (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 212; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.4.J., p. 387-388) and in village Frenciugi - n Cier, on a hill crest situated on the right flank of Stavnic, near the former C.A.P., there is a habitation level with potsherds dated to the 4th century (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 213; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.5.A., p. 388); in point La Pode, southeast of the village, on a place limited to the east by the lower terrace of Stavnic and to the west by the road that leads to Negreti, there was found a settlement with several habitation levels, one belonging to the 4th century (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 213-214; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.5.B.) or in the Village core, on the right side of Stavnic, there was discovered a settlement with several habitation levels among which one dated to the 4th century (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 213-214; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.5.C.), Satu Nou, in point esul lui tefan, in the south side, on a hill crest of the lower terrace of Stavnic, a settlement with several habitation levels dated to the 4 th century with fragments of Roman amphorae (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 210; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.7.B., p. 389); in point Promoroace - Sud, on the lower terrace of Stavnic, southwest of the village, near the former Cooperativa de consum, there is a settlement with habitation level dated to the 4 th century (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 210; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.7.D.) and in point Bobeic, at about 2 km from the village, on a tell situated on the right of Stavnic, with ceramic, fragments of Roman amphorae (A. Rusu 1981-1982, p. 210; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXII.7.E.). l Com. Tansa, waters: Tansa, Gureni, Jigoreni, Glodeni; village Suhule, ceramic on Suhule Hill. In village Suhule - Suhule Hill, southeast of the south end of the village, on the path to village Vleni (com. ibneti), there were found potsherds (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, LXXIV.2.A., p. 395). l Com. Tometi, situated south of the flowing of Jijia into Bahlui, Chicera; village Vldiceni - Schitul Vldiceni.In village Vldiceni, in point Schitul Vldiceni, on the surface of a north-south oriented mamelon, situated near the skete, there were discovered potsherds (Ibidem, 5, LXXVII.4.B., p. 406). l Com. ibana, crossed by acov, ibana, Veja, Armii; potsherds, Dup Vie, Grbeti - ntre Grle/between brooks, settlement in village Poiana Mnstirii - Lanul Hambarul. Village ibana - Dup Vie, at 400 m east-northeast of the zootechnical farmyard village ibana, on the left side of Pietrosu brook, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4 th century (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, p. 422, LXXX.1.B.); village Grbeti - between brooks Murgoaiei and Humriei, at about 1 km south-southwest of the church village, there were found potsherds (Ibidem, LXXX.4.C., p. 424); village Poiana Mnstirii - Lanul Hambarul, on the east versant of Hambarul Hill, west of the village, down the cemetery, settlement with ceramic ware dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, LXXX.8.B.). l Com. uora, delimited to the east by Prut River and partly to the south by Jijia; archaeological materials at La ru and Jijia-Bahlui Confluence I, II, III. Village uora - La ru, southwest of the village, behind the Primary-Secondary School, at about 300400 m south-southeast of the main iron bridge over Jijia, rich settlement containing ceramic materials dated to the 3rd4th centuries (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXXIII.2.B., p. 437); The Confluence of

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau

37

Jijia-Bahlui I, II, III, on both sides of road Iai - uora, on the right side of Jijia, about 300-500 m east of the confluence of Bahlui to Jijia, there were discovered important archaeological materials dated also to the 4th century (Ibidem, LXXXIII.2.E., p. 439). l In com. ibneti, crossed by acov, Jigoranca, Glodeni, Gureanca, Durceasca, Armii; potsherds at ibneti, Pe deal la Brnzei, south the village, settlement at Ciriteii Mari, potsherds in village Glodenii Gndului at Suhatul Glodenilor and Grieti - Iazu Mucului, 3rd4th century habitation; settlement in village Jigoreni - Cuibul Hultanului, Jigoranca, potsherds on Piersicrie Mound and in village Rzboieni Dubu Lot, ceramic ware in village Tungujei - Silitea Marginii, Gorgana and settlement at Velnia, and in village Vleni - Silitea, habitation also at Jigoreni - Candachia, only one shard. In village ibneti, Pe deal la Brnzei, at about 1 km south-southeast of the village end, potsherds dated to the 4th century (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXXI.1.A., p. 427); Ciriteii Mari, at about 1 km north of the village, on a plateau that spreads up to the east of Rzboieni, there was found fine or coarse ceramic ware dated to the 4th century, in association with Roman amphorae (Ibidem, LXXXI.1.C.), the same for south the village, between brooks acov and Durceasa (Ibidem, LXXXI.1.F.), as well as in village Glodenii Gndului at Suhatul Glodenilor, at about 1 km east of the village, on both sides of the road that links the village to Suhat (Ibidem, LXXXI.2.A.), in village Grieti - Iazu Mucului, west of the village, on the western slope of the hill, toward Mucului Pond, 3 rd4th century habitation (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 323; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXXXI.3.A., p. 428), in village Jigoreni - Cuibul Hultanului, on the hill plateau and at 400 m southwest of the orchard, toward Humria brook, settlement dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, LXXXI.4.C.), Piersicrie Mound, on the left side of Humria brook, on the soft south-southwest slope of Grindu Hill, at 1km north of the Primary Secondary School, there were found potsherds (Ibidem, LXXXI.4.E.), at about 1 km south of the west end of the village, on the place known as La Movil, on Jigoranca brook, there is a settlement with 4th century ceramic ware, with fragments of Roman amphorae (Ibidem, LXXXI.4.H., p. 429), in village Rzboieni - Dubu Lot, at about 400-500 m west of La Cercel lot, on the mild slope of the plateau that goes down to Dubu brook, settlement with ceramic ware dated to the 4th century, fine or coarse, or handmade of raw paste (Ibidem, LXXXI.5.B.), in village Tungujei - Silitea Marginii, south of village Tungujei, on the plateau of Marginea hill, ceramic ware of the 4th3rd centuries (Ibidem, LXXXI.7.A., p. 430, fig. 49/8), Velnia, in the northwest end of the village between Grla lui Matei Brook and the road Iai - Negreti, there is a settlement with ceramic ware (Ibidem, LXXXI.7.D.), on Gorgana Hill, situated at about 1 km north the village, there were found potsherds that might (Ibidem, LXXXI.7.E.) and in village Vleni - Silitea, south the village, on the left side of Gureanca brook, on the south side of a plateau, 4th century habitation, in association with amphorae (Ibidem, LXXXI.8.A., p. 427, fig. 52/36) and onle one fragment of Roman amphora dated to the 4 th century, at Jigoreni - Candachia, at about 1,5 km northwest of the village, on the northeast coast of the hill (Ibidem, LXXXI.4.G., p. 428). l Com. Voineti, Stavnic cu Stvnicel, Voineti brook, settlement on Pe Chiclui, Grla Pdurarului, in village Vocoteti - West of the school. Village Voineti, at about 300 m east-southeast of the southeast side of the village, on Chiclui Hill, there is a settlement with ceramic ware, of grayish fine paste, wheel-made in association with fragments of Roman amphorae (Ibidem, LXXXVIII.1.B., p. 457, fig. 52/15, 64), some with features specific to the Carpic pottery, in terms of paste and profile (Ibidem, fig. 52/49, 58); at about 1 km east of the village, at the feet of the eastern versant of Chiclui hill, on a small terrace of the brook known as Grla Pdurarului, there is a settlement with ceramic ware, with fragments of Roman amphorae and to the west of village Vocoteti - West of the school, on both sides of the road, where there were found potsherds from grayish or brown fine paste ornamented with wavy lines (Ibidem, LXXXVIII.1.C., p. 457-458; 5.C., p. 460). l Com. Daga, brooks Mnstirca, Grboveu, has no 4th century pottery(Ibidem, 1984, XXI, p. 118-120). l Com. Grajduri has no 4th century pottery (Ibidem, XXX, p. 156-159). l Com. Grozeti has no 4th century pottery (Ibidem, XXXII, p. 162-163). l Com. Mdrjac there have been pointed out no 4th century habitations (Ibidem, LXIII, p. 225-227). l Com. Mona has no 4th century pottery (Ibidem, L, p. 251-253). l Com. Priscani has no 4th century pottery (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LIX, p. 327-328).

38

Descoperiri din secolul al IV-lea n subunitile geografice din Podiul Brlad. Privire special asupra judeului Vaslui
Mihail Zahariade Ruxandra Alaiba
Podiul Brladului a. Podiul Central Moldovenesc b. Dealurile Flciului c. Cmpia Flciului d. Colinele Tutovei
l

Com. Albeti, ape: Idrici cu Idriciul Sec, Albeti, Crasna, Brlad; fragmente ceramice n Deal; staiune Moeni; resturi ceramice n jurul cantonului silvic, sat Corni-Albeti, la Valea Velniei, sat Crasna, aezare La grdina de zarzavat. Sat Albeti - n Deal, n marginea de sud-est s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV, de la vase lucrate la roat, din past dens, de culoare cenuie, cu baza inelar, decorate prin lustruire cu motive vlurite i resturi de vase din past zgrunuroas (G. Coman 1980, I.2. p. 45); Moeni, punct situat la 400 m sud de sat, pe dou pante medii interfluviale, cu numeroase izvoare, cu o important staiune din care s-au adunat numeroase fragmente ceramice, dup forme, tehnic de lucru i decor, din sec. IV, V-VI (Ibidem, I.3., p. 45-46); n jurul cantonului silvic din mijlocul pdurii Tlhreti, de pe stnga prului Idrici, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, I.6., p. 46); la fel i n satul Corni-Albeti, n marginea de nord, la Valea Velniei (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 317; G. Coman 1980, I.7., p. 46); sat Crasna, La grdina de zarzavat, la cca 700 m nord de gar, pe un promontoriu situat ntre calea ferat i rul Brlad, s-a descoperit o aezare cu resturi ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, I.10., p. 47). l Com. Alexandru Vlahu, fost Pleeti, ape: Valea Socilor cu Leurda, Ibana, Simila; locuire la Capul Dealului, sat Ibneti, n marginea vestic i n satul Mnzai, resturi ceramice n Marginea de sud-vest. Sat Alexandru Vlahu, Capul Dealului, pe interfluviul din marginea estic s-au semnalat resturi de locuire i din sec. IV, fragmente ceramice lucrate cu mna, dar mai ales la roat, din past fin cenuie i din past zgrunuroas (G. Coman 1980, II.1., p. 48); sat Ibneti, n marginea vestic, n jurul confluenei a dou priae cu albiile ravenate, este o staiune cu numeroase fragmente de la vase lucrate la roat din past fin cenuie, decorate prin lustruire, din sec. IV (Ibidem, II.3., p. 48-49); pe panta interfluvial din faa bisericii vechi, n ruin, din marginea de sud-vest a satului Mnzai, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV i V-VI, care provin de la borcane lucrate la roat din past n amestec cu cioburi pisate sau cu microprundi, de culoare crmizie sau cenuii i cu prag pe gt (Ibidem, II.6., p. 50). l Com. Arsura, ape: oprleni, Barahoi, valea Ttarului, Ruginosu; aezare Cetuia Mogoeti, locuire la Cumpeni, fragmente ceramice la Poiana, Via lui oncu, staiune n faa cldirii noi a colii, fragmente ceramice n Interfluviu, sat Mihail Koglniceanu, resturi ceramice Lng iaz, locuire La sud-est de sat, sat Phneti, fragmente ceramice Pe panta medie a Dealului Henciu i La est-sud-est de sat. Sat Arsura, ntre marginea de nord-est i pe dreapta prului se afl o ntins staiune i cu o aezare din sec. IV, care se ntreptrunde cu Cetuia Mogoeti (G. Coman 1980, III.2., p. 51); Cumpeni, la circa 500 m est de sat s-a semnalat o ntins staiune i cu un nivel de locuire din sec. IV, din care provin fragmente din vase lucrate la roat din past fin-cenuie, strchini, castronae etc., cu baza inelar (Ibidem, III.4., p. 51, fig. 137/1); la fel la Poiana sau Ruptura, pe dealul Poiana Mare, la vest de Cetuie (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 310; G. Coman 1980, III.5., p. 52); la nord-vest de Arsura, n Via lui oncu Constantin, s-a descoperit o staiune i cu fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 310; G. Coman 1980, III.6.); n

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau

39

faa cldirii noi a colii generale, din partea de vest a satului Arsura, se afl o staiune datat n sec. IVV, cu fragmente de dolium decorate cu incizii i resturi de vase mici cu baza inelar, de la vase-borcan cu nisip sau cioburi pisate n amestec, cu marginea rotunjit i evazat i cu baza tiat cu sfoara (G. Coman 1980, III.7.); la circa 400 m sud-est de sat, pe un Interfluviu format de prul Ruginosu cu o raven, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, III.11.); Lng iaz-ul situat la sud-est de satul Mihail Koglniceanu, fost Rpi, pe stnga prului oprleni, aici s-au descoperit resturi ceramice lucrate cu mna i la roat din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 337; G. Coman 1980, III.16., p. 53); La sud-est de sat, circa 1,5 km i la sud de drumul Drnceni-Rpi, pe ambele maluri ale prului Barahoi, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 337; G. Coman 1980, III.17.); sat Phneti, la circa 300 m vest de sat, Pe panta medie a Dealului Henciu, pe o aeztur se afl o staiune cu fragmente ceramice de la vase lucrate la roat din past fin cenuie sau ciment, cu marginea rotunjit i evazat i cu baza de cele mai multe ori inelar, din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 337; G. Coman 1980, III.21.); de La est-sud-est de sat, circa 500 m, s-au adunat fragmente ceramice provenind de la vase lucrate cu mna i la roat, din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia, p. 337; G. Coman 1980, III.23.). l Com. Banca, ape: Brld, Horoiata, Petrioara, Banca, Ghermneti; n vatra satului, pe valea Bncii, La vest de sat, sat Banca Gar, locuire apte case, aezare, Sediul SMA, aezare i necropol, Pe un grind; sat 1 Decembrie, n partea de nord-vest; sat Ghermneti, resturi de vase n jurul bisericii, satul Micleti, La obria vii Vlcioaia, sat Slcioara, n apropierea podului, sat Srbi, aezri Satul Nou, n partea de sud-vest; sat Stoieti, aezri n punctul Rdule, pe dealul Rduleti, n vatra satului; sat Strmtura Mitoc, la circa 2 km nord, sat ifu, Scripneti. Sat Banca, n vatra satului, la est, pe valea prului Bncii, n rpile formate n urma alunecrilor de teren i pe vale s-au descoperit resturi de locuire de sec. IV, n urma spturilor de salvare din 1983, realizate de R. Alaiba (Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, p. 33, nr. 8; R. Maxim [Alaiba], Gh. Gherghe 1987-1989, p. 251, nr. 6); tot n vatra satului, de o parte i de alta pe valea Bncii, de o parte i de alta, n curtea locuitorului Brezuleanu Gheorghe, pn la casa inginerului tefni Vintil, s-a semnalat o aezare n care au aprut fragmente ceramice, unelte i un cuptor de olrie cu ntreaga arj, prsit dup ardere, coninnd vase lucrate la roat poate de un meter olar local (G. Coman 1980, IV.1., p. 55-56; Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, p. 33, nr. 8; R. Maxim, Gh. Gherghe 1987-1989, p. 251, nr. 7), Pe dreapta prului Bujoreni, la est de valea Vldoaia, la circa 3 km sud de satul Banca (Ibidem 1987-1989, p. 251, nr. 8; sat Banca Gar, Sediul SMA, aflat la ieirea n es a rului Brlad, la 300 m sud de Banca Gar, att pe dreapta, unde este sediul fermei, ct i pe stnga spre moar i crmidrie, se afl o bogat staiune i cu resturi ceramice i din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 310-311, o staiune cu punctele a-d i f, trecut la Banca, ea se afl la sud de Banca Gar; G. Coman 1980, IV.2., p. 56; Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, p. 32, nr. 2); Pe un grind din stnga rului Brlad, situat la aproximativ 2,5 km sud de oseaua Sltioara Banca Gar, s-au descoperit urme de locuire din sec. III-IV, la suprafa cu fragmente ceramice, dar i lipitur, zgur, piatra, considerat a proveni de la cuptoare, tot de aici provine o urn funerar, un vas de sec. III (Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, p. 32, nr. 5; R. Maxim, Gh. Gherghe 1987-1989, p. 251-252, nr. 10); apte case (Ibidem 1987-1989, p. 252, nr. 11); sat 1 Decembrie, n partea de nord-vest, la circa 100 m, pe stnga rului Brlad se ntinde o aezare din sec. IV din care s-au adunat fragmente ceramice cenuii, altele negricioase cu buza ngroat i baza inelar, resturi de amfore, fusaiole, cute, lipitur, piatr de la cuptoare (Ibidem 1987-1989, p. 252, nr. 15; Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, p. 35, nr. 14, fig. VI/5, 8, 10; IX/1; X/5, 7), unele fragmente din past mai zgrunuroas, canelate, pot proveni de la castroane i vase de provizii datate n prima jumtate a sec. V, apropiat de Vasile Palade de aezarea de la Brlad - Valea Seac, Dodeti i Banca Gar - apte case (Idem, fig. VIII/1-2; IX/2-5); sat Ghermneti, n vatra de sud-est, n jurul bisericii s-au descoperit numeroase resturi de vase lucrate la roat, din past fin-cenuie, cu baza inelar i cu decor realizat prin lustruire, din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 345; G. Coman 1980, IV.7., p. 57; Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, p. 36, nr. 19); la aproximativ 2 km vest de sat, n partea dreapt a prului Ghermneti, se afla o aezare cu multe fragmente ceramice din past fin i zgrunuroas cenuie, de asemenea, Vasile Palade a cercetat, n malul drept al rpei, un pu cu o adncime de 6-7 m fa de solul actual, cptuit cu ghizduri de lemn, n interior cu dou recipiente ciuturi fcute din coaj de tei, cu baza de lemn, din aceeai specie de copac, alturi cu fragmente de la dou funii realizate din coaj de tei tnar, din sec. IV (1978, p. 407 i urm.; Gh. Bichir 1996, p. 188); la

40

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

circa 1 km vest de satul Micleti, La obria vii Vlcioaia i la 200 m spre nord-vest se afl o aezare din sec. IV, n care s-au gsit resturi de vase lucrate cu mna i la roat, fusaiole bitronconice, mrgele albastre, etc. (G. Coman 1980, IV.12., p. 57; Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, p. 38, nr. 24); sat Slcioara, fost apte case, n marginea sudic a fermei Slcioara, la ieirea prului Horoiata n esul Brladului, n apropierea podului se afl patru tumuli, unul pe stnga i trei pe dreapta i resturi de vase din sec. IV (Ibidem, IV.13.; R. Maxim, Gh. Gherghe 1987-89, p. 253); sat Srbi, ncepnd din marginea de nord-est a satului la punctul Satul Nou se afl o bogat staiune de unde provin resturi de vase lucrate la roat din past fin-cenuie, cu baza inelar i cu decorul realizat prin lustruire, resturi de amfore romane confecionate din past cu nisip n amestec, de culoare crmizie sau glbuie, fusaiole bitronconice, din sec. III-IV i V-VI (G. Coman 1980, IV.23., p. 57-58; Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, p. 39, nr. 30); n partea de sud-vest, circa 200 m, pe dreapta rului Brlad, s-au descoperit numeroase resturi de locuire, ceramic din past fin cenuie i zgrunuroas, pri de amfore, fusaiole, lipitur, piatr, zgur, din sec. IV-V (R. Maxim, Gh. Gherghe 1987-1989, p. 254, nr. 23; Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, p. 39, nr. 29, fig. VIII/3); sat Stoieti, n punctul Rdule, la circa 1 km nord-vest de sat, pe podiul nclinat, s-au gsit numeroase fragmente de vase lucrate la roat din past fin-cenuie sau nisipoas, ciment (R. Vulpe et alii 1951, p. 226; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 354; G. Coman 1980, IV.33., p. 58; Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, p. 40, nr. 32); tot pe dealul Rduelti, pe ambele pri ale drumului ce duce spre Ghermneti, pe partea nclinat a dealului spre valea Petriori, se ntinde o bogat aezare de sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, IV. 34. p. 58, nedatat; R. Maxim, Gh. Gherghe 1987-1989, p. 254, nr. 24; Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, nr. 33, fig. X/13); n vatra satului, s-au descoperit resturi de vase lucrate la roat, fie din past fin-cenuie, fie din past n amestec cu nisip, microprundi sau cioburi pisate, cu baza inelar sau cu baza tiat cu sfoara, din sec. IV-V (G. Coman 1980, IV. 35. p. 58-59; Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, nr. 34); sat Strmtura Mitoc, la circa 2 km nord, pe partea dreapt a rului Brlad, s-a surprins i o locuire de sec. IV-V, cu vase din past fin cenuie, cu analogii la Valea Seac Brlad (R. Maxim, Gh. Gherghe 1987-1989, p. 254, nr. 26; Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, p. 41, nr. 35, fig. VI/7, 9; VII/3-4); sat ifu, Scripneti, la circa 200 m vest, pe ambele pri ale oselei Viioarauletea i ale vechiului drum ifu - Stoieti, aezare din sec. III-IV (R. Maxim, Gh. Gherghe 19871989, p. 255, nr. 27; Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, nr. 36, fig. VI/1, 6; VII/1; X/6). l Com. Bcani, ape: Simila, Ibana, Bogdana, nu sunt aezri de sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, V. p. 61). l Com. Bceti, ape: Brlad; fragmente ceramice Capul Dealului, vestigii Aanei Vasile, sat ibnetii Buhlii, locuire n jurul colii i vase Pe botul dealului. Sat Bceti, n partea de nord-vest a botului de deal, numit Capul Dealului, ctre satul Bbua, s-au descoperit numeroase fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 14; G. Coman 1980, VI.2., p. 62); la Aanei Vasile s-au semnalat vestigii din sec. IV (M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 14; G. Coman 1980, VI.4.); sat ibnetii Buhlii, n jurul colii erau resturi de locuire din sec. III-IV (Ibidem, VI.8., p. 63); de la 1 km sud de coal, de Pe botul dealului, pe valea prului Pietrosu, s-au adunat resturi de vase din sec. III-IV (Ibidem, VI.9.). l Com. Blteni, ape: Brlad, Stemnic-Buda; fr urme de locuire de sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, p. 64-65). l Com. Berezeni, ape: Prut, Muata, Bozasca, Srata; aezare Pe stnga unui pria, Troienai, Vicoleni, Pe terasa dreapt a Prutului, Muata, sat Rnceni, n partea sudic a vetrei, resturi de vase, sat Stuhule, locuire n jurul podului. Sat Berezeni, la circa 600 m est de moara Srata, la 1,5 km de satul Horinceni - Berezeni i la 300 m de podul Sratei, Pe stnga unui pria s-a descoperit o aezare cu resturi ceramice, care dup tehnica de lucru, forme i decor aparin sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, VIII.1., p. 66); la Troienai, din stnga barajului din marginea de vest a satului Horinceni s-au semnalat resturi de locuire i din sec. IV i s-au recuperat fragmente de vase lucrate la roat din past fin cenuie, cni cu toart uor bitronconice i cu baza inelar, castronae i strchini cu corpul bitronconic, dar i fragmente de vase lucrate cu mna, borcane n a cror past se gsesc cioburi pisate (Idem 1969, p. 292; Idem, 1980, VIII.2., p. 67); Vicoleni, de pe terasa interfluvial din vatra satului provin numeroase fragmente de cni, castronae, strchini etc., lucrate la roat din past fin cenuie, decorate, fie cu un bru fin, fie cu motiv n val, lustruit, din sec. IV, V-VI, dar i un cuptor de olar prevzut n focar cu pilon central (idem 1969, p. 292; idem, 1980, VIII.5.); ntre marginile de sud ale Satului Nou i de nord ale satului Bozia Nou, astzi ncadrate n Berezeni, Pe terasa dreapt a Prutului, s-au gsit resturi de locuire din sec. III-IV, printre care i mnui de amfore romane (G. Coman 1980, VIII.8., p. 68); pe stnga prului Muata, n jurul colii sau gsit numeroase fragmente de vase lucrate la roat, din past fin-cenuie i din past zgrunuroas, cni,

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau

41

castroane, castronae, recipiente de provizii i borcane mai neglijent executate, din sec. IV-V (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 351; G. Coman 1980, VIII.11.); sat Rnceni, n partea sudic a vetrei s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 352; G. Coman 1980, VIII.12.); sat Stuhule, la 350 m sud-est, de o parte i de alta a prului Bozasca, n jurul podului se afl resturi de locuire din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 354; G. Coman 1969, p. 292; idem 1980, VIII.14.). l Municipiul Brlad, ape: Brlad, Simila; morminte Casa de ap, locuire Valea rnii, Podul Palerma, aezare La sud de Podul Palerma i resturi ceramice La Confluen. Brlad, Casa de ap din incinta oraului, unde s-au investigat patru morminte de nhumaie avnd ca inventar vase i obiecte de podoab din sec. IV (V. Palade 1971, p. 259-275, fig. 1-6; G. Coman 1980, IX.2., fig. 133/4, p. 70); la Valea rnii, Poarta rnii, puncte cu resturi de locuire din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 313; G. Coman 1980, IX.5.); la Podul Palerma, la circa 2,5 km sud-est de ora, pe interfluviul tiat n terasa inferioar din dreapta rului Brlad, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 313; G. Coman 1980, IX.5.); la circa 1 km sud de Podul Palerma, lng rul Brlad, se afla o aezare cu materiale din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 313; G. Coman 1980, IX.7.); la circa 400 m n spatele Fabricii de rulmeni, n jurul Confluenei rului Simila cu Brladul, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, IX.10, p. 71). l Com. Blgeti, ape: Elan cu Srata, Sreni i Creana, Licov, Valea Oanei, praiele Sipeni i Zbancului; resturi de vase pe Interfluviu, n marginea de est a satului, Rpa Frasinului, La Colonel, Marginea de sud-est, Pe mijlocul satului, Iazul lui Stoian, aezare Scndureni, sat Sipeni, ceramic n dreapta ipotelor, locuire Pe cursul inferior. Sat Blgeti, pe Interfluviul format de prul Licov cu un pria local, s-au descoperit resturi de vase din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, X.1., p. 74); n marginea de est a satului, pe toat valea format de prul Creana spre rul Elan, cam pe 1 300 m s-au ntlnit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 340; G. Coman 1980, X.3., p. 74-75); la Rpa Frasinului, pe un bot de deal interfluvial situat la circa 3 km sud-est de satul Blgeti, erau resturi de vase lucrate la roat, cni cu toart, strchini, castronae de sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 340; G. Coman 1980, X.4., p. 75, fig. 137/6); La Colonel, la circa 1,5 km nord-est de satul Blgeti, la punctul de confluen al prului Sreni, s-au aflat resturi ceramice din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 340, punctul e; G. Coman 1980, X.4., p. 75, fig. 137/6); sat Igeti, ncepnd de la 500 m nord de sat, pe stnga i mai ales pe dreapta prului Licov, pe o distan de circa 1,5 km n lungime i tot atta n lime, la sud-est de Scndureni, se afl o bogat staiune cu o locuire din sec. IV i V (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 347, punctele b, c, f; G. Coman 1980, X.9., p. 76, fig. 138/4-5); n marginea de sud-est, de o parte i de alta a prului Licov, se gsesc numeroase fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 347; G. Coman 1980, X.10., p. 77-78); Pe mijlocul satului, curge un pru cu direcie vest-est, care se vars n Licov, pe dreapta, deasupra obriei sale s-au gsit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 340); la fel la circa 350 m vest de biseric pn la obria prului, la Iazul lui Stoian (Ibidem, X.11-12, p. 78); sat Sipeni, n dreapta ipotelor, n grdina lui cazan i curtea colii generale noi s-au descoperit numeroase resturi ceramice din sec. IV i Pe cursul inferior al priaului care pornete de la ipote, nainte de a iei din sat erau resturi de locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, X.15-16, p. 78-79). l Com. Bogdana, ape: Bogdana cu Plopoasa, Similioara, Suceveni-Horgeti; fibul La stejar, fragmente ceramice n faa satului. Sat Bogdana, la circa 600 m sud-est, pe stnga prului Bogdana, n silitea satului disprut erbneti, La stejar s-a gsit o fibul de bronz din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 314; G. Coman 1980, X.1., p. 80); iar pri de vase n faa satului, n marginea de nord-est, n unghiul ntre prul Bogdana i drumul spre Lipov (Ibidem, XI.5. p. 81). l Com. Bogdneti, ape: Horoiata cu Valea Seac, Bogdneti; fragmente ceramice, n vatra satului, locuire Corlteti, sat Buda, fragmente ceramice n vatra nordic i n marginea nordic. Sat Bogdneti, n vatra satului, la nord-vest de coal s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV; Corlteti, Mnstirea, sat disprut, la circa 3 km sud-est de vatra veche, pe panta domoal de pe stnga prului Bogdneti, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire, sat Buda, n vatra nordic s-a aflat ceramic tot de sec. IV, precum i pe interfluviul situat n marginea nordic (G. Coman 1980, XII.1-4., p. 83).

42
l

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

Com. Bogdnia, ape: Bogdana i Bogdnia; sat Coroieti, fragmente ceramice pe interfluviu, sat Tunseti, locuire La Moar. Sat Coroieti, pe interfluviul format de praiele Bogdana i Bogdnia, s-au descoperit numeroase fragmente ceramice de la vase lucrate la roat, din past fin, de culoare cenuie, cu baza inelar i cu decor lustruit, din sec. IV; sat Tunseti, La Moar, n marginea de est, pe stnga Bogdanei, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XIII.2,5., p. 85-86). l Com. Boeti, ape: Gugul i Blgeti; locuire la Boeti - Vatr, sat Gugeti, vase la Bocana. Sat Boeti - Vatr, pe locul dintre biseric, primrie, coal i grdina Iustinei t. Iacob, de o parte i de alta a prului, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV; sat Gugeti, la Bocana, la circa 1 km vest de sat, n jurul unor puternice izvoare, s-au descoperit resturi de vase, care dup tehnica de lucru, past, culoare, decor erau din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XIV.1-2., p. 87-88). l Com. Buneti-Avereti, ape: Crasna cu Hruca i Cetuia; sat Armeni, fragmente ceramice Promontoriu interfluvial, locuire La sud de sat. Sat Armeni, pe Promontoriul interfluvial, situat la 1,5 km sud-sud-vest de sat, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV i La sud de sat, circa 2 km i la 200 m nord de Moara Negrui, pe stnga rului Crasna, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire de sec. III-IV (G. Coman 1980, XV.7-8.). l Com. Codieti, ape: Dobrov, Rediu, Lunca i Vasluiul; ceramic La sud-est de sat. Sat Codieti, la circa 600 m sud-est de sat, ntre poalele dealului i dreapta prului Rediu, aproape de punctul de confluien s-a descoperit ceramic cenuie, din past dens, avnd baza inelar i ornamente lustruite orizontal sau n val, din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XVI.1., p. 91). l Com. Coroieti de Sus, ape: Horasca, Dumbrava, Pereschivu Mic; locuine n marginea sudic. Sat Coroietii de Sus, n marginea sudic, pe panta uoar din stnga prului Pereschivul Mic, la numai 50 m de pod, n malurile taluzate ale oselei, au ieit la iveal trei profile de locuine din care s-au adunat resturi ceramice din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XVII.2., p. 93). l Com. Costeti, ape: Chicani i Brlad; resturi ceramice n vatra satului, n preajma podului, n bucla apei Brladului. Sat Costeti, n vatra satului, spre nord, n jurul grdinii lui Ion Ostase, au aprut numeroase resturi ceramice din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XVIII.2., p. 95); la fel n apropierea bisericii vechi, n preajma podului din centrul satului (Ibidem, XVIII.4., p. 96) i la circa 3 km est de satul Costeti, la 600 m nord de ferma de bovine, i la 1 km vest de gara Crasna, n bucla apei Brladului aproape drept fcut de oseaua Crasna - Brlad, pe dreapta (Ibidem, XVIII.6.). l Com. Creeti, ape: Lohan, Recea; resturi ceramice n vatra satului, n spatele grii. Sat Creeti, n vatra satului la sud-est s-au descoperit resturi ceramice, dup natura pastei, tehnic i decor erau din sec. IV, precum i n spatele grii Creeti, ntre osea i rul Lohan, pe o ntins suprafa (G. Coman 1980, XIX.1-2., p. 98-99). l Com. Dneti, ape: Luncii, Fereti, Rchia; resturi ceramice n livad, brzdar de plug La nord de sat, resturi de vase Iazul Buragi, ipotul lui Mantu, vestigii La Tufari, Zltreti, sat Bereasa, resturi ceramice la Zarea Rcanilor, sat Emil Racovi, n vatra de vest. Sat Dneti, n livada fostului CAP, din marginea estic a satului, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. III-IV (G. Coman 1980, XX.3., p. 100); la circa 500 m nord de sat i 150 m de drumul Dneti - Emil Racovi, s-a descoperit un brzdar de plug de fier de sec. IV (Gh. Radu, N. N. Maftei, 1970, p. 15; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 319; G. Coman 1980, XX.7., p. 101); la circa 200 m nord-vest de Iazul Buragi, s-au descoperit resturi de vase din sec. IV (Gh. Radu, N. N. Maftei, 1970, p. 17; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 319; G. Coman 1980, XX.8.); La Tufari, la circa 700 m nord de sat, s-au descoperit vestigii din sec. IV (Gh. Radu, N. N. Maftei, 1970, p. 18; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 320; G. Coman 1980, XX.10.); ipotul lui Mantu, situat la circa 1 km nord de sat, pe dreapta vii Fundtura, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (Gh. Radu, N. N. Maftei, 1970, p. 19; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 320; G. Coman 1980, XX.11.); pe interfluviul Zltreti format de prul Dneti i Fntna Floarei, situat la circa 3 km sud-est de sat, s-au descoperit vestigii din sec. IV (Gh. Radu, N. N. Maftei, 1970, p. 19; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 320; G. Coman 1980, XX.15.); sat Bereasa, pe panta de nord-vest a dealului Zarea Rcanilor, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IVV ( G. Coman 1980, XX.20., p. 102; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 320-321); sat Emil Racovi, fost urneti, n vatra de vest a satului, pe proprietatea lui Gh. Vieru, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, p. 331; G. Coman 1980, XX.24.).

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau


l

43

Com. Deleni, ape: Brlad, Ghilahoi; locuire la Avrmeti, sat Bulboaca, n jurul haltei. Sat Deleni, n marginea de sud-est, la Delenii de Jos, fost Mrgineni, la Avrmeti, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XXI.3., p. 105, fig. 168/6); sat Bulboaca, n jurul haltei CFR, se aflau fragmente ceramice datate la sfritul sec. IV (Ibidem, XXI.5., p. 105-106). l Com. Deleti, ape: Buda, Fstca, Valea Munteanului, Valea lui Coni, Albeti, Stemnic, Hrova, Ruginoasa; resturi ceramice la Valea Perilor, Valea lui Coni, sat Albeti, resturi ceramice pe platou, sat Bleti, aezare la Coada Silitii, sat Cozmeti, aezare la Grama, locuire pe mal, sat Hrova, locuire la Vrtegu, fragmente ceramice la Movil, sat Rdueti, locuiri la Hrboanca i La nord de coal. Sat Deleti, Valea Perilor, din vatra satului, situat la 150 m vest de coal, au fost descoperite resturi ceramice din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XXII.1., p. 107); n jurul unor puternice izvoare de la obria Vii lui Coni, la circa 1 km nord-est de sat, s-a descoperit o staiune i cu ceramic din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXII.4., p. 108); sat Albeti, pe platoul din stnga punctului de confluen al prului Albeti, situat la 200 m sud-est de biseric, se aflau resturi ceramice din sec. III-IV, de aspect carpic i Sntana de Mure (Ibidem, XXII.7.); sat Bleti, la circa 500 m est, n punctul Coada Silitii, se cunoate o important staiune care ocup o suprafa de circa 10 ha, cu o aezare din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXII.8., p. 108-109); sat Cozmeti, la est de prul Ruginoasa, n punctul Grama, s-au descoperit aezri atribuite sec. III-IV (Ibidem, XXII.11., p. 109); pe malul drept al Stemnicului, pe dealul din faa staiunii precedente, s-au gsit resturi de locuire din sec. III-IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 12-13; G. Coman 1980, XXII.12); sat Hrova, n marginea sudic, la est de drumul care coboar spre ferma de stat Laza, imediat lng drum, din cele dou promontorii alturate numite Vrtegu, pe cel mai apropiat de sat se afl resturi de locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXII.17., p. 110); la Movil, circa 1 km de marginea satului, la vest de drumul dinspre ferma Laza i de prul Hrova, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXII.18.); sat Rdueti, n marginea nord-estic din dreapta barajului, la Hrboanca, s-a descoperit o staiune cu resturi de locuire i din sec. IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 17; G. Coman 1980, XXII.20.); la nord de coal, 150 m, pe stnga prului Rdueti, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXII.21.). l Com. Dimitrie Cantemir, fost Hurdugi, ape: Grumezoaia, Cla; resturi ceramice La coal, n marginea de nord; sat Grumezoaia, n marginea nordic, sat Guiei, n vatra de sud-vest, Pe dreapta prului Cla, sat Urlai, la Siliteni. Sat Dimitrie Cantemir, pe terenul dintre coal, magazinul stesc i primrie, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XXIII.1., p. 112); n marginea de nord, ntre dreapta prului i osea s-au descoperit unele resturi ceramice de sec. IV (Ibidem, XXIII.2.); sat Grumezoaia, n marginea nordic, de o parte i de alta a unei ravene, s-au descoperit numeroase resturi ceramice din past fin-cenuie, lucrate la roat, fie din past grosier, brun, produse cu mna, din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXIII.4., p. 113); sat Guiei, n vatra de sud-vest, n jurul grdinei lui Toader Munteanu, s-a descoperit o aezare cu resturi ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXIII.7.); n partea de nord-nord-vest, la circa 1 km, Pe dreapta prului Cla s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXIII.8.); sat Urlai, la 200 m nord, att pe botul dealului interfluvial, ct i pe dreapta lui, la Siliteni, s-au descoperit resturi de vase din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXIII.9., p. 114). l Com. Dragomireti, ape: Tutova, Semenea, Popetiul, Lipova; sat Popeti, necropol pe Nastac, fragmente ceramice la intirim, sat Vladia, aezare La vest de sat. Sat Popeti, pe Nastac, n partea de est-nord-est, pe un platou care coboar n panta lin spre vest, pe lng marginea satului, se afl o necropol datat la sfritul sec. III - nceputul sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XXIV.3., p.115); n marginea de sud, pe un bot de deal cuprins ntre stnga prului i sat,punctul la intirim, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXIV.4.); sat Vladia, la circa 800 m vest de sat, ntre dreapta rului Tutova i pdure, se afl o aezare de sec. IV, cu resturi de vase lucrate la roat, din past dens, cenuie i cu baza inelar (Ibidem, XXIV.10., p. 116). l Com. Drnceni, ape: Ruginoasa, Barahoi; sat Ghermneti, resturi ceramice Peste drum de coal, Obria prului Barahoi, locuire Pe Dop, pe malul estic, sat oprleni, resturi ceramice Pe interfluviu. Sat Ghermneti, peste drum de coal, n jurul fostului C.A.P. i a terenului de sport, se afl resturi ceramice din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XXV.5., p. 119); la circa 500 m sud de sat, n dreptul drumului Germneti Drnceni Bi, n punctul Pe Dop, s-au descoperit urme de locuire din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 336; G. Coman 1980, XXV.8.); la circa 1 km sud-vest de sat, spre obria prului Barahoi, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. III-IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 336; G. Coman 1980, XXV.9.); pe panta lin a dealului din

44

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

stnga drumului spre Arsura, pe malul estic al prului Barahoi, la circa 1 km vest de sat, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. II-IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 336; G. Coman 1980, XXV.10.); sat oprleni, pe interfluviul situat la circa 400 m nord-nord-vest de sat, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 337; G. Coman 1980, XXV.14., p. 119-120). l Com. Duda-Epureni, ape: Prul lui Ivan, Recea, Valea Grecului; sat Epureni, locuire la Bena, sat Valea Grecului, resturi de vase pe panta estic a vii. Sat Epureni, la circa 2 km sud, n dreptul iazului la Bena, se afl resturi de locuire din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XXVI.5., p. 122); sat Valea Grecului, la circa 400 m nord, pe panta estic a vii s-au descoperit resturi de vase lucrate la roat, din past dens, cenuie din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 337, G. Coman 1980, XXVI.7.). l Com. Dumeti, ape: Brlad, Hodorani, Gureanca; resturi ceramice la est de sat, locuiri La Troi, La Jitnie, sat Dumetii Vechi, Spre linia ferat. Sat Dumetii Noi, la est de sat, pe valea Hodorani, n anurile oselei Buhieti - Roman, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. III-IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970; G. Coman 1980, XXVII.1., p. 124); la 2 km est de sat i la circa 800 m nord de halta CFR, n apropiere de confluena prului Gureanca cu Brladul, pe ultimele prelungiri ale Dealului Capul Crucii, La Troi, s-au descoperit urme de locuire din sec. III-IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 21; G. Coman 1980, XXVII.2.); la 3 km est de sat, La Jitnie, la poalele Dealului Izvorului, pe stnga oselei Bceti - Negreti, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire de sec. III-IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 21; G. Coman 1980, XXVII.5.); sat Dumetii Vechi, la 500 m est, pe un loc ce domin valea Brladului i se pierde n dreptul liniei ferate Buhieti - Roman, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 21; G. Coman 1980, XXVII.7., p. 125). l Com. Epureni, ape: Florena, Rpa Galben, Moaca, Brlleti; resturi de vase La Velni, La Rpa Galben, La confluena prului Moaca, aezare la oldneti i n satul Brlleti, la Stania, sat Bursuci, locuire la Crmidrie, sat Horga, n centru i n vatra de sud-est. Sat Epureni, la circa 600 m sud de sat, n punctul La Velni delimitat de cldirea IAS, oseaua MurgeniBrlad i prul Florena, s-au descoperit resturi de vase lucrate la roat de sec. IV-V (G. Coman 1980, XXVIII.3., p. 126), la circa 400 m sud-vest de sat, la Rpa Galben, pe stnga prului s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXVIII.4.); la circa 700 m vest de sat, n jurul punctului de confluen al prului Moaca, s-au aflat numeroase fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 343, un singur punct; G. Coman 1980, XXVIII.5.); la 500 m nord de gara Epureni i la 1,5 km sud-sud-est de sat, la oldeni - oldneti, se afl o ntins staiune cu o aezare din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 344; G. Coman 1980, XXVIII.8., p. 127, fig. 136/10); sat Brlleti, ncepnd de la marginea nord-estic, pe stnga prului Brlleti, la Stania - La Arie s-a descoperit o aezare cu resturi ceramice de sec. IV, ntre care o amfor roman (R. Vulpe et alii 1951, p. 222 i urm.; G. Coman 1980, XXVIII.16., p. 130); sat Bursuci, n marginea estic, pe valea prului dintre cantonul silvic i osea, la Crmidrie s-a descoperit o staiune cu resturi de locuire din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 341; G. Coman 1980, XXVIII.22., p. 131); sat Horga, n centru, ncepnd cu locuina lui S. Manolache, spre sud, pe lng biseric i n jurul colii generale, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 346; G. Coman 1980, XXVIII.24.); n partea de sud-est a vetrei, aproape de halta CFR, de o parte i de alta a unui pria, s-au descoperit numeroase resturi de vase dintr-o aezare de sec. IV (Ibidem, XXVIII.26, p.131). l Com. Flciu, ape: Prut, Belciugu, Bozia, Copceanca-Marcu; necropol la Casa de Ap, sat Bogdneti, locuire La nord de sat, interfluviu, ceramic pe terasa joas, aezare la Complexul de porcine, sat Bozia, resturi ceramice La Gura Boziei, sat Copceana, locuire pe dreapta prului, ceramic n marginea de sud-vest, sat Rnzeti, Pe promontoriu, mormnt Pe terasa joas, resturi ceramice la Gura Mihlceni. Sat Flciu, pe terasa din marginea sudic, la Casa de Ap, s-a descoperit o necropol biritual cu resturi de locuire din sec. IV, din care s-au recuperat cteva vase lucrate la roat i cteva lucrate cu mna (V. Palade 1971, p. 215 i urm., fig. 1-4; G. Coman 1980, XXIX.3., p. 136, fig. 135/1-4, 6-9, 10; 138/7); sat Bogdneti, la circa 700 m nord de sat, pe terasa dintre esul Prutului i osea se afl resturi de locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXIX.5.); pe terasa interfluvial cuprins ntre prul Copceanca i o veche albie a Prutului, s-au descoperit materiale din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXIX.6., p. 137); pe terasa joas tiat de calea ferat care duce la podul de peste Prut, se afl resturi ceramice din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau

45

Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 340; G. Coman 1980, XXIX.8., p. 138); la circa 500 m sud de sat, pe terasa din faa Complexului de porcine, s-a descoperit o aezare cu numeroase resturi ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXIX.9.); sat Bozia, La Gura Boziei, punctul de confluen, situat la circa 800 m sud-sudest de sat, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXIX.12.); sat Copceana, n marginea de sud-sud-vest, pe dreapta prului, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXIX.17., p. 139); n marginea de sud-vest, n panta medie, s-a descoperit o oal cu toart, de culoare cenuie, cu baza inelar i cu decor de linii oblice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXIX.18., p. 139, fig. 138/6); sat Rnzeti, pe promontoriul din marginea nordic, cuprins ntre confluena Belciugului i Puierni, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 352; G. Coman 1980, XXIX.19., fig. 145/5); pe terasa joas cuprins ntre biseric i locuina nv. Ion Cahu, s-a descoperit un mormnt de nhumaie, care avea ca inventar vase, fibule i mrgele probabil din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXIX.20); la circa 2 km sud de sat, la punctul Gura Mihlceni, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXIX.21.). l Com. Ggeti, ape: Jiglia, Holob, Elan, cu Urdeti, Colub; sat Giurcani, resturi ceramice la Grozeti, La Budi, Argeaua, aezare la Berbeceni, sat Popeni, locuire pe dreapta Elanului, aezare La est de sat, sat Tupilai, morminte n centru, aezare n jurul podului. Sat Giurcani, pe botul dealului interfluvial din mahalaua Grozeti, situat n partea de sud-vest, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (C. C. Cihodaru et alii 1951, p. 228; N. Zaharia, M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em Zaharia 1970, p. 345; G. Coman 1980, XXX.5., p. 142-143); ntre marginea nordic, spre instalaiile barajului, de o parte i de alta a prului Jiglia, La Budi sau Via Lupe s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. II-III, dar i cni cu toart, castronae, strchini, din past dens de culoare cenuie, cu baza inelar din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em Zaharia 1970, p. 346; G. Coman 1980, XXX.6., p. 143); la circa 600 m sud de sat, la Argeaua, s-au descoperit resturi de vase din sec. IV-V (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em Zaharia 1970, p. 346; G. Coman 1980, XXX.8.); la circa 2,5 km est de sat, pe ambele laturi ale prului Holob, la Berbeceni se afl o aezare cu materiale din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXX.10.), sat Popeni, la circa 600 m nord de sat, pe dreapta Elanului, se gsesc resturi de locuire din sec. IV-V (Ibidem, XXX.15., p. 144, fig. 139/6); la est de sat, circa 3 km, la obria prului Holob, se afl o aezare cu resturi ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXX.16.); sat Tupilai, n centru, pe stnga prului, s-a semnalat prezena unor morminte, care, dup resturile ceramice gsite la suprafa se dateaz n sec. IV sau la circa 1,5 km nord-nord-est de sat, n jurul podului de pe oseaua Tupilai Pota Elan, se afl o aezare cu resturi ceramice din sec. IV i n marginea de sud-sud-est se afl resturi de locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXX.18-20., p. 145). l Com. Ghergheti, ape: Studine; aezare n sudul vetrei, sat Lunca, locuire La obria vii, aezare pe dreapta Studineului, sat Valea Lupului, resturi ceramice n marginea nord-estic. Ghergheti, n sudul vetrei, de o parte i alta a prului Studine, se afl o aezare din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XXXI.1., p. 146); sat Lunca, la obria vii din marginea nord-estic se afl resturi de locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXI.6.); la circa 500 m sud-vest de sat, pe dreapta Studineului, se afl alt aezare (Ibidem, XXXI.8., p. 147); sat Valea Lupului, n marginea nord-estic, pe dreapta unui pria local, sau descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. III-IV (Ibidem, XXXI.9.). l Com. Grceni, ape: Racova, Racovia, Dumbrveni, Crceneanca; resturi ceramice la Capul Plopilor, n arin la vale, sat Dumbrveni, locuire la Hrisob, Dealului Chicani, sat Trohan, resturi de vase la Est i sud-est i Pe stnga Racovei. Sat Grceni, Capul Plopilor, Coada Plopilor sau La Plopi, situat n marginea de sud-est, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. III-IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 17; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 322-323; G. Coman 1980, XXXII.1., p. 148); n vatra satului, n arin la vale, la sud de coal, pe dreapta prului unde au fost grajdurile CAP, s-au descoperit vestigii din sec. IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 17; G. Coman 1980, XXXII.2.); sat Dumbrveni, n marginea de est, pe versantul nord-estic al Dealului Chicani, la Hrisob, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. III-IV (R. Vulpe et alii 1950, p. 43; G. Coman 1980, XXXII.4., p. 149; M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 17;), pe prelungirile Dealului Chicani, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. III-IV (Ibidem, p. 17; G. Coman 1980, XXXII.6.); sat Trohan, la est i sud-est de oseaua Pungeti-Bceti, s-au descoperit resturi de ceramic din sec. al IV (G. Coman 1980, XXX.9.; M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 17); la est-sud-est de aezarea precedent, pe stnga Racovei, sud-est afl Dealul Alba, orientat nord-nord-vest / sud-sud-est, unde s-a descoperit o aezare cu resturi ceramice din sec. III-IV (Ibidem 1958, p. 17; G. Coman 1980, XXX.10.).

46
l

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

Com. Grivia, ape: Brlad, Trestiana, Gruzoaia, Jrv; aezri La confluena i Spre sud, sat Trestiana, La marginea pdurii. Sat Grivia, la circa 1 km nord-vest de sat, la confluena unei ape locale cu Jrvul, se afl o aezare din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XXXIII.2., p.151); cu circa 500 m spre sud de aezarea precedent se afl o aezare din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXIII.2.); sat Trestiana, la circa 800 m vest de sat, pe terenul cuprins ntre dreapta rului Brlad i marginea pdurii de salcmi, s-a descoperit o aezare din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXIII.8., p. 152). l Com. Hoceni, ape: Barboi cu Valea Seac, Bujorul; sat Barboi, resturi de vase la Rari, sat Deleni, locuiri la Talaba i sat Oeleni, interfluviu, fragmente ceramice Lng coal. Sat Barboi, la circa 1,5 km nord, ntre marginea pdurii i Barboi, la Rari s-au descoperit resturi de vase din past cenuie, fin, cni, strchini, cu baza inelar, din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XXXIV.2., p. 153); sat Deleni, n marginea de est, pe dreapta prului, la Talaba, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (Idem, XXXIV.3.); sat Oeleni, pe Interfluviul din marginea de sud-vest s-au descoperit urme de locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXIV.5., p. 154); Lng coal s-au gsit fragmente ceramice cenuii, atipice, din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXIV.6.). l Hui ora, ape: Lohan, Recea; nu are aezri din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XXXV, p. 155-156). l Com. Iana, ape: Studine; sat Silitea, aezare La vest de sat. Sat Silitea, pe malul drept al Studineului, La vest de sat, lng marginea pdurii Muncelul, s-a descoperit o aezare din sec. IV (D. Popescu 1965, p. 719; G. Coman 1980, XXXVI.5., p. 157). l Com. Ivneti, ape: Racova, Coeti, Tulburea, Broteni; locuire la Cimeaua lazului, mormnt la Movila Tbcaru, vestigii Ursoaia, aezare Gologofta, resturi ceramice n marginea sudic, sat Bleca, locuire n marginea vestic, resturi ceramice n vatra estic; sat Broteni, locuire n marginea nordestic. Sat Ivneti, Cimeaua lazului, punct situat n marginea de nord-nord-vest, pe stnga oselei spre Bacu, unde s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 20; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 323; G. Coman 1980, XXXVII.3., p. 160); la circa 500 m nord-est de marginea de nord-vest, pe promontoriul din stnga Racovei, la Movila Tbcaru, alturi de un schelet s-au gsit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 20; G. Coman 1980, XXXVII.4.); la circa 1 km nord-est de marginea nord-vestic a satului, de o parte i de alta a unui pria de pe stnga Racovei, la Ursoi, Ursoaia veche, Vrzrie, s-a descoperit o staiune cu vestigii din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXVII.5.); n Gologofta, sat contopit cu Ivneti, la circa 200 m sud de Centrul de vinificare, s-a descoperit o aezare din sec. IV (C. C. Cihodaru 19331934, p. 45; R. Vulpe et alii 1950, p. 43; M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 21; Al. Andronic, I. Ioni, Fl. Banu 1962, p. 800; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 323; Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 35; G. Coman 1980, XXXVII.6.); ntre cimitirul actual, pru i grdinia de copii, n marginea sudic a Gologoftei, se gsesc resturi ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXVII.7.); sat Bleca, n marginea vestic, n jurul colii generale s-a descoperit o staiune cu astfel de resturi de locuire (C. C. Cihodaru 1933-34, p. 83; M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold, 1958, p. 19, fig. 12/1-4; G. Coman XXXVII.10.); n vatra estic, n faa Complexului zootehnic s-au gsit resturi ceramice, dup past, forme, decor aparin sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXVII.12.); sat Broteni, pe promontoriul din marginea nord-estic, cuprins ntre dreapta Racovei i stnga prului Broteni, se afl resturi de locuire din sec. IV (C. C. Cihodaru 1937-1938, p. 32 i urm.; G. Coman 1980, XXXVII.15.). l Com. Iveti, ape: Tutova, Bisericii; aezare la Ciuciurul lui Ivan, resturi ceramice n partea de vest, sat Pogoneti, n jurul fostelor grajduri, La nord-nord-est, La Punte i Marginea de vest. Sat Iveti, la circa 3 km nord-nord-est de sat, pe panta din stnga Tutovei, la Ciuciurul lui Ivan, era o aezare din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XXXVIII.1., p. 164); n curtea fostului CAP, situat n partea de vest, pe dreapta rului Tutova, se gsesc fragmente ceramice de sec. IV-V (V. Palade 1970, p. 73 i urm., fig. 1/1-5), ulterior stenii au semnat nc trei morminte (G. Coman 1980, XXXVIII.6.); sat Pogoneti, la 500 m nord-vest i la circa 500 m nord de Belceti, n jurul fostelor grajduri CAP, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXVIII.8., p. 165); la circa 1,5 km nord-nord-est, de pe dreapta oselei Pogoneti - Iveti spre marginea livezii, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XXXVIII.10); n vatra vestic a satului Pogoneti, pe stnga rului Tutova, La Punte, s-au descoperit materiale ceramice din sec. IV (I. Mitrea 1972, p. 145; G. Coman 1980, XXXVIII.12); n marginea de vest, pe dreapta rului Tutova, n triunghiul dintre cele trei ctune, Pogoneti, Breana i Belceti, s-au gsit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (V. Palade 1974; G. Coman 1980, XXXVIII.14, p. 165-166).

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau


l l

47

Com. Laza, ape: Hrova; nu s-au gsit locuiri din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XXXIX, p. 167-168). Com. Lipov, ape: Lipov, Chioc, Cpuneni, Corbu; resturi ceramice la Jitrie i la Coada iazului. Sat Lipov, la punctul de confluen al prului Corbu cu prul Lipov, la Jitrie, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XL.2., p. 169); la circa 1,5 km est de sat, pe dreapta barajului, de o parte i de alta a oselei, la Coada iazului, Podul Lung, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XL.3., p. 170). l Com. Lunca Banului, ape: Prut; nu are aezri din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XLI, p. 171-172). l Com. Mluteni, ape: Horincea, Leaua, Recea, Zoieana, Licov, prul Satului, Mnzteti; fragmente ceramice La intrarea estic, la Grdinrie, aezri Leaua i n satul Lupeti la Fntna Mare, Pe dreapta confluenei, resturi ceramice n spatele morii, aezri n Marginea de sud-est; sat Mnstirea, La sud de sat, fragmente ceramice Pe stnga Licovului, sat Mnzteti, locuire n Marginea estic, sat ucani, fragmente ceramice n jurul colii, vestigii La nvtorul Cruceanu. Sat Mluteni, ncepnd din jurul podului de la intrarea estic n sat pn la biseric i coal, se afl o staiune i cu un nivel cu fragmente ceramice din past bun, cenuie, de sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 349; G. Coman 1980, XLII., p. 173); la 200 m vest de aezarea de pe Cetuia, pe panta vestic vii Recea, la Grdinrie, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 349; I. Glodariu 1974, p. 195; G. Coman 1980, XLII.6., p. 174); la circa 700 m est de sat se afl prul Leaua, de unde i denumirea locului Leaua, unde, ctre sat, pe o distan de 1 km i pe partea stng ctre Schineni, se afl o bogat staiune n care s-au aflat i resturi ceramice din sec. IV, pri de amfore romane i o moned de bronz constantinian (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 349; G. Coman 1980, XLII.10., p. 174-175); sat Lupeti, la circa 2,5 km nord, la obria prului Horincea, la Fntna Mare, se afl o ntins i important staiune unde s-au descoperit numeroase resturi de vase din sec. IV i V (Ibidem, XLII., 12., p.175); ntre coal i locuina lui M. Leonte, de o parte i de alta a prului care se vars n Horincea, dar mai ales pe dreapta confluenei, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 348; G. Coman 1980, p. LXII.14.); n marginea de sud, n spatele morii de stat Leonte, s-au descoperit numeroase resturi ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, p. LXII.15.); n marginea de sud-est, pe stnga Horincei, cam n dreptul morii Leonte, se afl o aezare din care s-au recoltat resturi din sec. IV (Ibidem, XLII.16.); sat Mnstirea, la circa 800 m sud de sat, de o parte i de alta a unui pria care curge de la vest la est, vrsndu-se pe dreapta Licovului, se afl o ntins staiune distrus n mare parte de ravenri i alunecri de straturi, unde s-a descoperit i ceramic din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 356; G. Coman 1980, LXII.19., p. 176); 400 m de staiunea precedent, pe stnga Licovului, n marginea de sud a livezii, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XLII.20); sat Mnzteti, din marginea estic, de o parte i de alta a drumului, inclusiv partea stng a prului Mnzteti, pn n esul Horincii, se afl resturi de locuire din sec. IV, V-VI (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 350; G. Coman 1980, XLII.24., p. 177); sat ucani, n jurul celor dou cldiri ale colii, s-au gsit vestigii din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 356; G. Coman 1980, XLII.26.); de la obria prului satului, pe dreapta sa, pn spre pod, unde locuiete nvtorul Cruceanu, s-au gsit vestigii din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 356; G. Coman 1980, XLII.27.). l Com. Micleti, ape: Racul, Fundtura; resturi ceramice la Fundtura, sat Chirceti, locuiri la Dumbrav, La Velni, un vas la Coasta Vii Seci, ceramic la Corcodu, sat Popeti, locuire Pe botul dealului. Sat Micleti, la circa 1,3 km sud-est de sat i la 200 m sud-vest de casa pdurii, de pe oseaua Micleti Boeti, la Fundtura, s-au gsit resturi ceramice lucrate la roat din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XLIII.1., p. 180); sat Chirceti, fost Rui, n marginea de sud-est, n punctul Dumbrav, La Moar, unde era sediul CAP, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 317; G. Coman 1980, XLIII.2.); n marginea nordic a satului Chirceti-deal, ntr-o fundtur de vale numit La Velni, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. II-III i IV (Ibidem, XLIII.3., p. 180-181); la circa 1 km sud-vest de marginea sudic a satului Chirceti-Deal, din punctul Coasta Vii Seci, s-a recuperat un vas lucrat la roat, din past cenuie din sec. IV (Ibidem, XLIII.4., p. 181); pe promontoriul din marginea de sud-sud-vest a satului Chirceti Vale, fost Prieni, la Corcodu, s-a descoperit o staiune avnd ceramic din sec. IV (Ibidem, XLIII.7.); sat Popeti, pe botul dealului, situat la circa 500 m vest de sat, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 330; G. Coman 1980, XLIII.13, p. 181-182).

48
l

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

Com. Munteni de Jos, ape: Brlad, Crasna; moned, sat Secuia, locuire n marginea de vest Sat Munteni de Jos, de aici provine o moned roman, Constantius II (B. Mitrea 1961, p. 149; G. Coman 1980, XLIII.1., p. 183); sat Secuia, n marginea de vest, pe dreapta oselei Vaslui - Crasna, n locul grdinii de zarzavat, erau resturi de locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, XLIII.6, p. 184). l Com. Murgeni, ape: Oia, Elanul cu Ursoaia, Srata, Bujorni, Leaua sau Licov; fragmente ceramice la Bbneaa, spre imobilul CFR, aezri la Gura Bujoreni, la Iancobescu, Valea Trnii, locuiri La est de Murgeni, tiubeeni, aezare la Ilioaia, sat 23 August, resturi ceramice n jurul colii Mgeana i n sat Crja, Crja de Jos, locuiri la Brsani, n jurul podului, aezri la Maa, la Brsana, sat Leti, ceramic Pe promontoriu, La sud-vest de sat, sat Sreni, locuire n faa colii, aezare n marginea de est, sat Schineni, locuire La Hor, fragmente ceramice pe dreapta prului, sat Vdeni, resturi ceramice La Stn, la Gura Holob, Casa de Ap. Sat Murgeni, n jurul locului cu izvoare minerale din marginea de vest a localitii, la Bbneaa, pe stnga izvoarelor s-au gsit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 351; G. Coman 1980, XLV.2., p. 186); ntre Circumscripia veterinar, spre imobilul CFR i grdina lui N. Munteanu, s-au gsit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (idem 1973, p. 39, 49; idem 1980, XLV.4.); n marginea de sud-vest, la ferma de stat, la Gura Bujoreni s-au descoperit urme de locuire din sec. IV, ntre materiale era o figurin zoomorf poate un cine din past fin cenuie, obiecte de podoab, fibul de bronz romanic, fragmentar, o monede de argint romane, emisiune Claudius II Gothicus sau Constantius I (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 351; G. Coman 1973, p. 39, 49; idem 1980, XLIII.6., fig. 134/4-5; 141/12; 142/18; 144/1); la 200 m n faa Fabricii de produse lactate, pe un promontoriu lung de 700-800 m, la Iancobescu, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (idem 1973, p. 49, 52; idem 1980, XLV.8.); la circa 2 km vest de Murgeni, la obria prului Bujorni, la Valea Trnii se afl o ntins aezare cu materiale din sec. II-IV (N. Zaharia, M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 351; G. Coman 1973, p. 9, fig. 20; idem 1980, XLV.9., p. 187, fig. 142/16-17); la circa 700 m est de Murgeni, n jurul punctului de confluen al prului Oia, vechea vatr a satului, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. II-IV (Ibidem, XLV.13.); la circa 1,5 km sud-est de Murgeni, la confluena prului Ursoaia cu Elanul, n punctul tiubeeni, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 351; G. Coman 1980, XLV.14.); la circa 3 km sud-est de Murgeni, pe stnga Elanului, la Ilioaia, s-a descoperit o aezare din sec. II-IV (Ibidem, XLV.15., fig. 133/10); cu circa 500 m mai la sud de stnile Ilioaia i la 300 m est de Podul Colonel, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire de sec. IV (idem 1973, p. 39, 49; idem 1980, XLV.16.); sat 23 August, fost Floreni, n jurul colii generale era resturi ceramice de sec. IV (Ibidem, XLV.21., p. 188); la circa 1,5 km sud-sud-vest da sat, n jurul izvoarelor, la Mgeana, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. II-IV (Ibidem, XLV.22.); sat Crja, n jurul locuinei prof. C. Chirica i a bisericii din Crja de Jos, s-au descoperit resturi de vase care, dup felul pastei, tehnic, forme i decor, aparin sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XLV.25.); n marginea nordic, n jurul grajdurilor CAP, la Brsani s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 342; G. Coman 1980, XLV.26.); la intrarea principal n sat, dinspre Murgeni, n jurul podului i al priaului care strbate grdina lui T. Vultur, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV-V (Ibidem, XLV.27.); n marginea sud-estic, pe panta domoal de lng balt, n partea nord-estic a punctului Maa, s-au descoperit multe aezri din sec. IV (Ibidem, XLV.30., p. 188-189); la circa 3 km sud de sat, pe botul dealului situat ntre rul Elan i Balta Rdeanu, se afl mai multe aezri, ntre care una din sec. IV (Ibidem, XLV.32., p. 189); la circa 2 km vest de sat, la Brsana, se afl aezri din sec. IV-V (Ibidem, XLV.33.); sat Leti, n vatra dinspre nord, n jurul locuinei lui Toader Zamfir, de o parte i de alta a prului, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, XLV.41.); pe promontoriul interfluvial, situat n marginea de sud-sud-vest, s-a descoperit ceramic din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 347; G. Coman 1980, XLV.43., p. 189); la circa 1,5 km sud-vest de sat, pe panta uoar de pe stnga prului Licov, n dreapta drumului de ar Leti - ucani, s-au descoperit resturi de vase lucrate cu mna i la roat, mai ales din past zgrunuroas, de culoare cenuie i crmizie, din sec. IV (Ibidem, XLV.47., p. 190); sat Sreni, n faa colii, de o parte i de alta a rpei, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, XLV.48.); n marginea de est, ntre fostul sediu i grajdurile CAP, de o parte i de alta a prului, s-a descoperit o aezare cu ceramic din sec. IVV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 353; G. Coman 1980, XLV.49.); sat Schineni, cu circa 400 m sud de aezarea precedent, La Hor, s-au aflat resturi de locuire din sec. II-IV (Ibidem, XLV.53., p. 191); ntre coal, cooperativa de consum, pe dreapta prului s-au gsit

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau

49

fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XLV.54., p. 191); sat Vdeni, la circa 1,5 km nord de sat, pe stnga prului Holob, La Stn, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. II-IV (Ibidem, XLV.58.); la circa 500 m nord de sat, la Gura Holob, se afl o bogat staiune cu numeroase fragmente ceramice din sec. IV-V (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 352; G. Coman 1980, XLV.59.); n dreapta drumului de intrare n sat, la Casa de Ap, s-au gsit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XLV. 61., p. 191). l Ora Negreti, ape: Brlad, Stavnic; locuire la ignie, morminte la Velna, resturi ceramice La lutrie, locuire Pe arin, sat Parpania, resturi ceramice n nord-est, Dealul Chetru. Negreti, n marginea de nord-vest a oraului, pe stnga barajului, la ignie, s-au gsit urme de locuire din sec. IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 32; N. Zaharia 1955, p. 909; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 326; G. Coman 1980, XLVI.1. p. 195; G. Coman, R. Maxim 1979, p. 333-335; Eadem 1985-1986, p. 149-169); pe dreapta barajului, a fostului pru Velna, s-au gsit dou morminte de nhumaie datate n sec. IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 3233; I. Ioni 1966, fig. 1, nr. 16; idem, 1968, p. 293; G. Coman 1980, XLVI.2.); n jurul lutriei din marginea de sud-est a oraului, pe terasa stng a rului Brlad, lng cimitirul evreiesc, se ntinde o bogat staiune n care s-au gsit i resturi ceramice din sec. IV-VI (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 32-33; N. Zaharia 1955b, p. 909; G. Coman 1980, XLVI.4.); n partea de sud-sud-est a oraului Pe arin, pe terasa joas din stnga rului Brlad, la circa 1 km sud de Parpania, se cunosc resturi de locuire din sec. III-IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 32-33; N. Zaharia 1955, p. 909; G. Coman 1980, XLVI.5.); sat Parpania, n nord-est, pe terasa inferioar a prului Stavnic, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice care dup felul pastei, forme i decor, aparin sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 327; G. Coman 1980, XLVI.12., p. 196); la Dealul Chetru, s-au gsit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (N. Zaharia 1955b, p. 909, neidentificat; G. Coman 1980, XLVI.12bis). l Com. Olteneti, ape: Lohan, valea Turchii, Crasna; aezare n spatele grii, sat Curteni, locuiri la Rpa Negroaiei, La Odaie, sat Phna, Capul Dealului, satul Trzii, n vatr, sat Vineeti, resturi ceramice La confluena vii Turchii, locuire Pe stnga Crasnei. Sat Olteneti, n marginea de vest, n spatele grii, s-au descoperit o aezare din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 327; G. Coman 1980, XLVII.2., p. 198); sat Curteni, n marginea de sud-est, pe dreapta Lohanului, la Rpa Negroaiei s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV-VI (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 318; G. Coman 1980, XLVII.7., p. 199); La Odaie, situat n apropierea Iazului lui Solomon, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (N. Zaharia 1955b, p. 909; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 318; G. Coman 1980, XLVII.8.); sat Phna, la circa 1 km sud-vest de sat, pe captul botului de deal cuprins ntre Crasna i Lohan, n punctul Capul Dealului, Lutrie, se cunoate o important staiune i cu resturi ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, XLVII.12); la fel n vatra satului Trzii, lng biseric (Ibidem, XLVII.15.); sat Vineeti, la confluena vii Turchii se afl resturi ceramice din sec. IV i resturi de locuire n marginea de nord, pe stnga Crasnei (Ibidem, XLVII.20, 22., p. 200). l Com. Oeti, ape: Buda cu Fundul Negrea; locuire La sud de sat. Sat Oeti, la 400 m sud se gsesc resturi de locuire din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XLVIII.1., p. 202). l Com. Pdureni, fost Crligai, ape: Srata cu Prul Mare; resturi de vase n vatra satului, n vatra de nord-vest, sat Vleni, La Grne. Sat Pdureni, n vatra satului, ntre coal, primrie i magazin, s-au descoperit resturi de vase din past cenuie din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, XLIX.1., p. 204); n vatra de nord-vest, pe dreapta prului, n jurul grdinii lui T. D. Penioar, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice care provin de la vase lucrate la roat, din past brun, cenuie, cu decor lustruit i baze inelare din sec. IV-VI (Ibidem, XLIX.3.); sat Vleni, fost chiopeni, n malurile oselei din centrul satului, La Grne s-au descoperit resturi de vase care, dup felul pastei, forme i decor aparin sec. IV (Ibidem, XLIX.7., p. 205). l Com. Perieni, ape: Tutova, Prul Crng; aezare n fundul Vii Rocani, Pe stnga oselei spre Pogana, necropol n satul Podu Pietri, resturi ceramice la Hrtop, locuire pe terasa inferioar. Sat Perieni, n partea de nord-vest, n fundul Vii Rocani, pe o parte i de alta a ravenei, s-a descoperit o aezare din sec. III-IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1957, p. 76, fig. 10/2-8; G. Coman 1980, L.1., p. 206); la circa 1,5 km sud-sud-vest de sat i 700 m nord-vest de bifurcaia oselei Perieni - Pogana, pe stnga oselei spre Pogana, se cunoate o aezare din sec. IV (Ibidem, L.5., p. 207); sat Podu Pietri, la circa 300 m est de sat s-au descoperit o necropol din sec. IV (Em. Zaharia, N. Zaharia, V. Palade 1962, p.

50

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

591, fig. 1-7; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 328; Ioni 1971, p. 204; G. Coman 1980, L.10.); la circa 500 m nord de necropola amintit la punctul precedent, n punctul Hrtop, pe stnga Tutovei, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 591-597, fig. 1-7; G. Coman 1980, L.11.); pe terasa inferioar din dreapta Tutovei, la jumtatea distanei dintre Pietri i Ciocani, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. III-IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 328; G. Coman 1980, L.11.). l Com. Pogana, ape: Tutova cu Crjoani; materiale ceramice Lutria. Sat Pogana, pe terasa sud-vestic din marginea satului, pe stnga rului Tutova, n Lutria, s-au descoperit materiale ceramice din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, LI.2., p. 209). l Com. Poieneti, ape: Simila, Racova; aezare i necropol pe Mgura Dealul teilor, necropol ipotul lui Stan, sat Floreti, resturi de vase la Gdeasa. Sat Poieneti, pe Mgura Dealul teilor s-a cercetat o necropol i aezare din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, LII.1., p. 211-212), de aici provine un rest de amfor pe gt cu un X, realizat cu vopsea roie (Em. Popescu 1976, p. 401, fig. punct 443; la 600 m sud de staiunea Dealul Teilor, n jurul magaziilor C.A.P. i la ipotul lui Stan, azi Casa Apei, se cunoate o necropol din sec. III-IV (Ibidem, LII.3., p. 212); sat Floreti, la circa 2 km sud-sud-est de sat, pe stnga Similei, la Gdeasa s-au descoperit numeroase resturi de vase, care dup natura pastei, forme i decor aparin sec. IV (C. C. Cihodaru 1938, p. 35-37, fig. 14-15; R. Vulpe 1953, p. 219; G. Coman 1980, LII.9., p. 213). l Com. Puieti, ape: Tutova, Iezerul, Cociuba, Fulgul, Ciubota, fr aezri (G. Coman 1980, LIII.). l Pungeti, ape: Racova cu Speia, Lipova; resturi de vase n jurul priaului, locuiri Dealul Btrna, Dealului Recea, sat Armoaia, aezare La Loturi, sat Toporti, resturi ceramice la Borcutul Toportilor, aezare n jurul grajdurilor. Sat Pungeti, n jurul priaului care curge n faa bisericii, s-au descoperit resturi de vase din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, LIV.1., p. 217); la poalele sud-vestice ale Dealului Btrna, din marginea de est-sud-est, de pe stnga Racovei, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. III-IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 18; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 330, pl. CCXLV/16; G. Coman 1980, LIV.2., p. 217-218); la circa 3 km vest-nordvest de sat, pe ultima prelungire a Dealului Recea sau Scurtoci, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 18; G. Coman 1980, LIV.4., p. 218); sat Armoaia, n partea de nord-nord-est, la confluena Speiei, La Loturi, s-a descoperit o aezare cu resturi ceramice din sec. III-IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 19; G. Coman 1980, LIV.7., p. 218); sat Toporti, la captul de sud-sud-est al Dealului Toportilor, n punctul Borcutul Toportilor, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. III-IV (R. Vulpe et alii 1950, p. 43; C. C. Cihodaru 1933-1934, p. 45 i urm.; M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 19; G. Coman 1980, LIV.12., p. 219); n marginea de sud-vest, n jurul grajdurilor CAP, se afl o aezare din sec. IV; G. Coman 1980, LIV.13. p. 219). l Com. Rebricea, ape: Bolai, Rateul Cuzei; fragmente de vase n spatele colii, n marginea estic, sat Rateul Cuzei, Halta CFR, sat Sasova, n jurul izvoarelor. Sat Rebricea, pe panta domoal, n spatele colii i primriei, s-au descoperit numeroase fragmente de vase de sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, LV.1., p. 220); n marginea estic, pe terasa joas din dreapta prului, la 300 m sud de staiunea precedent, s-au gsit resturi ceramice aprinnd sec. IV (Ibidem, LV.2.); sat Rateul Cuzei, ncepnd din jurul colii pn dincolo de osea, s-au descoperit resturi cermice din sec. IV (Ibidem, LV.8., p. 221); la circa 1 km est de halta CFR, pe panta de est i sud a botului de deal situat n dreapta prului Bolai, s-au gsit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, LV.9.); sat Sasova, n jurul izvoarelor din partea sud-vestic s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV, V-VI (Ibidem, LV.10.). l Com. Roieti, ape: Idrici, Brlad, Ciunta; resturi ceramice la coal..., sat Codreni, vestigii la Tlhreti, sat Gara Roieti, resturi de vase La stn, locuire n Bucla din dreapta rului, sat Gura Idrici, resturi ceramice la Ciunta, Stna lui Zlatan i aezare La Coer. Sat Roieti, pe locul dintre coal, dispensar i primrie, de o parte i de alta a prului, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din vase lucrate la roat, din past cenuie, de sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, LVI.1., p. 222); sat Codreni, fost Tlhreti, ntre marginea nordic a satului i pdure, pe dreapta prului Idrici, s-a descoperit o ntins staiune cu vestigii i din sec. IV (Ibidem, LVI.3., p. 223); sat Gara Roieti, La stn, pe un promontoriu din marginea de nord-vest, pe stnga Brladului, s-au descoperit resturi de vase din sec. IV, V-VI (Ibidem, LVI.5.; R. Maxim, Gh. Gherghe 1987-1989, p. 250, nr. 1); ntre bucla din dreapta rului Brlad, ntre biseric i oseaua naional Brlad - Vaslui, s-au descoperit resturi de

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau

51

locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, LVI.6.); sat Gura Idrici, la circa 1 km sud-vest de sat, n jurul izvoarelor iazului, de o parte i de alta a priaului Ciunta s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (C. C. Cihodaru et alii 1951, p. 227; G. Coman 1980, LVI.9., p. 223-224); n marginea nord-estic, pe promontoriul cuprins de bucla Idrici, La Coer, se afl o staiune i cu o aezare din sec. IV (Ibidem, LVI.12., p. 224; D. Gh. Teodor, R. Maxim 1983, p. 464-469; eadem, Gh. Gherghe 1987-1989, p. 250, nr. 2); la stna lui Zlatan din marginea estic a satului, pe stnga prului Idrici, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, LVI.15.). l Com. Soleti, ape: Vasluiul, Blai; sat erboteti, mormnt n Marginea de sud-est. Sat erboteti, pe botul dealului din marginea de sud-est, astzi nconjurat de barajul local, s-a descoperit un mormnt de nhumaie din inventarul cruia s-a recuperat o can de lut i o sabie de fier atribuite sec. IV (I. Ioni 1964, p. 312; G. Coman 1980, LVII.2., p. 227). l Com. Stnileti, ape: Prut; sat Bogdana-Voloseni, aezare La est de sat, sat Budu-Cantemir, locuire Pe dreapta prului. Sat Bogdana-Voloseni, la circa 500 m est de sat, n panta lin de pe stnga prului, se afl o aezare din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, LVIII.2., p. 229); sat Budu-Cantemir, la circa 600 m sud-sud-est de sat, pe dreapta prului, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV-V (Ibidem, LVIII.4.). l Com. tefan cel Mare, ape: Brlad; resturi de vase n jurul izvoarelor, sat Brzeti, vestigii Ludeasca. Sat tefan cel Mare, n marginea de sud, lng fostele grajduri CAP, n jurul izvoarelor din dreapta oselei Vaslui - tefan cel Mare, s-au descoperit resturi de vase din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, LIX.1., p. 230); sat Brzeti, la circa 500 m sud-vest de halta CFR, pe terasa inferioar a rului Brlad s-au aflat resturi ceramice din sec. III- IV (Ibidem, LIX.2., p. 230-231); la circa 1 km nord-est de halta CFR Brzeti, n punctul Ludeasca, sunt vestigii din sec. IV (Ibidem, LIX.4., p. 231). l Com. uletea, aezare i necropol, ipote, fragmente ceramice Spre sud de ipote, sat Fedeti, aezri Spre coala veche, Cetuie, sat Jiglia, resturi ceramice La nord-est, locuiri Moara Juvar, La Pod. Sat uletea, de o parte i de alta a prului, la Silite sau ipote, la circa 600 m sud-est de sat, s-au descoperit urme de locuire din sec. IV i necropola (C. C. Cihodaru et alii 1951, p. 215; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 355; G. Coman 1980, LX.1, p. 233, fig. 137/4; M. Rotaru 1981-82, p. 243 i urm., fig. 1-4); pe partea estic a interfluviului situat n continuarea staiunii ipote, spre sud, n jurul podului, s-au gsit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, LX.2., p. 233); sat Fedeti, spre coala veche, ipot i Ion Orman se afl o aezare de sec. IV, reine atenia un atelier de confecionat piepteni de corn de cerb, descoperit n faa colii vechi (V. Palade 1971b, p. 202 i urm.; G. Coman 1980, LX.7., p. 234); la circa 1,5 km sud-vest de sat, la Cetuie, s-au atestat aezri din sec. IIIIV (Ibidem, LX.13., p. 235); sat Jiglia, la circa 800 m nord-est i 300 m nord de moar, pe dreapta prului s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, LX.17.); n marginea de nord-est, la Moara Juvar, se afl numeroase resturi de locuire din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 347; G. Coman 1980, LX.18.); n vatra nord-estic, La Pod, de o parte i de alta a prului, se afl bogate resturi de locuire din sec. IV-V (Ibidem, LX.19.). l Com. Tanacu, ape: Vaslui, Burghiriu; aezri Jitari, esul iganilor, locuire n zona nordic, n jurul colii generale. Sat Tanacu, la circa 4 km sud de sat, n apropiere de drumul Huului, la Jitari, a fost identificat o aezare bogat n resturi ceramice din sec. III-IV (G. Coman 1980, LXI.3., p. 239); la est de acesta, peste esul iganilor, n apropierea Fntnii lui Luca, s-a descoperit o aezare bogat n materiale datate n sec. IV (Ibidem, LXI.4.); n zona nordic, lng biseric, de o parte i de alta a prului, se afl resturi de locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXI.6.); la fel n jurul colii generale s-au gsit resturi ceramice (Ibidem, LXI.7.). l Com. Tcuta, ape: Valea Larg, Recea; materiale La Saivane, sat Dumasca, resturi ceramice Izvorul lui Rzlog i Valea Negruului i sat Mirceti, Silite. Sat Tcuta, n marginea de vest, pe panta domoal din stnga prului, n locul numit La Saivane sau Lutria Vieru, s-au descoperit materiale din sec. IV-VI (G. Coman 1980, LXII.2., p. 242, fig. 138/8); sat Dumasca, n jurul unor izvoare din marginea nordic, ntre Izvorul lui Rzlog i Valea Negruului sau descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXII.8., p. 242); sat Mirceti, pe locul numit Silite, din marginea satului, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. II-III i IV (N. Zaharia, M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Zaharia, p. 325; Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 28; G. Coman 1980, LXII.15., p. 243). l Com. Ttrni, ape: Crasna; vase la Magazinului stesc, sat Blai, vestigii n Deal, aezare Dealul Rziei, sat Giurgeti, resturi ceramice n Dumbrav, sat Leoti, aezare Dealului Berbeceni. Sat. Ttrni, n timpul construirii magazinului stesc s-au descoperit cteva vase lucrate la roat, din sec.

52

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

IV-V (G. Coman 1980, LXIII.7., p. 246, fig. 139/5; 146/1-2, 4); sat Blai, la circa 1 km vest, pe panta Dealului Cinelui, pe locul numit n Deal, spre pdurea tiobornilor, s-au descoperit vestigii din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXIII.9.); la vest de sat, pe Dealul Rziei, se cunoate o aezare din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXIII.11.); sat Giurgeti, la vest de sat, n punctul numit n Dumbrav, situat pe dreapta prului Crasna, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice (Ibidem, LXIII.14., p. 246-247); sat Leoti, la circa 1,5 km sud de sat, pe panta Dealului Berbeceni, se afl i o aezare din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXIII.17., p. 247). l Com. Todireti, ape: Brlad, acov, Vlnicelul; aezri Spre coala general, vestigii n vatr, locuire la Sediul IAS, fragmente ceramice Marginea de nord-nord-est, La Canton, sat Drgeti, Pe Izlaz - Sub Silite, sat Plopoasa, Moman, sat Silitea, aezri Corlate, sat Valea Plopii, locuire Pe botul dealului. Sat Todireti pe terenul spre coala general i casa de natere se cunosc aezri din sec. III-IV (N. Zaharia 1955b, p. 910; G. Coman 1980, LXIV.2., p. 248); n vatr, n anurile oselei din faa postului de poliie s-au descoperit vestigii din sec. III-IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 24-26; G. Coman 1980, LXIV.3.); la intrarea n sat dinspre est, pe terasa stng a rului Brlad, la sediul IAS, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, LXIV.4.); n marginea de nord-nord-est, n stnga drumului spre Drgeti, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. III-IV (M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 24-26; G. Coman 1980, LXIV.6.); pe locul denumit La Canton din marginea de vest-nord-vest, pe oseaua Bceti-Negreti, ntre terasa inferioar de pe stnga Brladului i prul lui Malo, s-au gsit resturi ceramice din sec. III-IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 24-26; G. Coman 1980, LXIV.7., p. 248-249); sat Drgeti, n marginea de sudsud-vest, n punctul numit Pe Izlaz - Sub Silite, s-au descoperit numeroase resturi din sec. IV-V (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 29-30; G. Coman 1980, LXIV.9., p. 249, fig. 169/810); sat Plopoasa, pe un platou situat la circa 1 km nord de sat, pe locul Moman, se afl resturi ceramice care par s aparin sec. IV (Ibidem, LXIV.13.); sat Silitea, pe latura de vest a dealului pe care se afl satul, la circa 1,4 km nord-nord-est, pe locul numit Corlate, se cunosc aezri din sec. III-IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu, 1955, p. 28-29; G. Coman 1980, LXIV.17., p. 250); sat Valea Plopii, pe botul dealului situat n marginea de vest, pe malul stng al rului acov, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. III-IV (Ibidem, LXIV.21.). l Tutova, ape: Brladul, Hobana; nu are aezri din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, LXV, p. 252-253). l Vaslui municipiu, ape: Racova, Vasluiul, Brlad; morminte pe Terasa din faa spitalului, locuire n faa fabricii de mobil, necropol n faa statuii, locuire la Drghici, resturi ceramice Pe stnga vechiului curs, sat Brodoc, locuiri La vadurile rului, resturi de vase Dincolo de calea ferat. Ora Vaslui, cu ocazia unor lucrri edilitare pe Terasa din faa spitalului s-au semnalat dou morminte de nhumatie din sec. IV-V, n inventarul crora erau vase din past fin sau zgrunuroas, un pieptene de os, dou fibule de bronz cu piciorul ntors pe dedesubt, 12 mrgele de chihlimbar (G. Coman 1980, LXVI.2., p. 255, fig. 136/11; 139/1-4, 7; 141/8-9; 142/1-12); n faa fabricii de mobil i peste calea ferat, n marginea de vest a oraului, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. III-IV (Ibidem, LXVI.3.); spturile pentru amplasarea unor blocuri n faa statuii lui tefan cel Mare, au scos la iveal o necropol biritual datat la sfritul sec. IV i prima parte a sec. V (Ibidem, LXVI.7., p. 255, fig. 137/5; 139/8; 145/8; 168/7, 9); n spatele spitalului vechi, la Drghici, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV, VVI (Ibidem, LXVI.8.); la circa 1 km nord-vest de ora, pe stnga vechiului curs al rului Brlad, s-au gsit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, LXVI.9.); sat Brodoc, localitate component, la circa 800 m nord-est de sat, la vadurile rului Brlad, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXVI.13., p. 256); tot n direcia punctului precedent, dar la 1,5 km departe de sat, imediat dincolo de calea ferat, s-au descoperit resturi de vase din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, LXVI.14.). l Com. Vleni, ape: Vasluiul, Srata Feretilor; sat Fereti, aezare n Marginea sudic. Sat Fereti, la fostul sediu C.A.P., situat pe interfluviul din marginea sudic, al Sratei Feretilor cu un pria local, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice datate la sfritul sec. IV - prima jumtate a sec. V, cu un cuptor de olar ( = 1,55 m; h = 2 m), cu ncperea de acces mai adnc, situat la 2,60 m (G. Coman 1980, LXVII.1., p. 259). l Com. Vetrioaia, ape: Prut; locuire cheia, resturi ceramice La Stni, La ipot, aezri Pojorni, n jurul grdinilor, resturi de amfore La Cram. Sat Vetrioaia, la sediul seciei fermei Pojorni, situat la circa 2 km nord de reedin, pe locul numit cheia, se afl resturi de locuire din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, LXVIII.1., p. 261); cu 500 m mai la sud de staiunea precedent, n locul numit La Stni, s-au identificat resturi ceramice din sec. III-IV (Ibidem, LXVIII.2., p. 261-262); la 500 m nord de sediul reedinei IAS Pojorni, de o parte i de alta a drumului,

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau

53

n locul numit La ipot, s-au descoperit numeroase fragmente de vase din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 352; G. Coman 1980, LXVIII.3., p. 262); n jurul sediuluireedin IAS Pojorni, de o parte i de alta a oselei se cunosc mai multe aezri, una din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXVIII.4.); n marginea de sud-est, n jurul grdinilor CAP, se afl i o aezare din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXVIII.18., p. 263); la circa 2,5 km vest de Satu Nou - Vetrioaia, n locul numit La Cram, pe coama dealului s-au descoperit resturi de amfore romane din sec. III-IV (Ibidem, LXVIII.20.). l Com. Viioara, ape: Brlad, Dodeti, Jiglia; fragmente ceramice La Holban, locuire spre coal, sat Dodeti, aezri ipot i Clugreasca, halta CFR Dodeti, locuire La nord de sat, resturi ceramice La grdina, sat Urdeti, Pelmeana, sat Viltoteti, Vatra de sud-est. Sat Viioara, de pe terasa de la obria prului satului, La Holban, s-au adunat numeroase fragmente ceramice din sec. II-III, IV (G. Coman 1980, LXIX.2., p. 264, fig. 133/7; 142/23,); spre coal, primrie i locuina lui N. Chelaru, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXIX.3., p. 265); sat Dodeti, la obria prului Dodeti - Jiglia, ntr-un fund de vale situat ntre satele Dodeti i Tmeni, exist dou puncte ipot i Clugreasca, unde s-au descoperit resturi de vase de provizii cu mei carbonizat i o mare varietate de vase modelate din past fin, ca i amfore romane din sec. IV, cu locuine, cuptoare pentru copt, cuptoare de olar, din fier un cntar, un brzdar, catarame, podoabe (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 343; Ioni 1971, p. 204; G. Coman 1980, LXIX.4., p. 265-266, fig. 142/23; 136/9); halta CFR Dodeti, la 500 m, la nord de sat, pe un grind, ntre calea ferat i stnga rului Brlad, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXIX.8., p. 267); la grdina de zarzavat, situat la 300 m vest de sat, pe terasa joas a Brladului, se afla resturi ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXIX.10.); sat Urdeti, la circa 800 m nord de sat, pe locul numit Pelmeana, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice care par s aparin sec. IV (Ibidem, p. 267, LXIX.11.); sat Viltoteti, n vatra de sud-est, n jurul grdinii lui tefan Stamate, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, p. 267, LXIX.13.). l Com. Vinderei, ape: Jrav; sat Docneasa, resturi ceramice Docneasa. Sat Docneasa, pe malurile prului Jrav, n dreptul haltei C.F.R. Docneasa, s-au gsit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, LXX.5., p. 270). l Com. Voineti, ape: Tutova, ape: Bulbuceni, Mrului, Iezerul; sat Avrmeti, aezare tiubeeni, resturi ceramice Lungaa, Captul unui bot de deal, sat Obreni - Lingurari, necropol Dealul Corului, aezare Grdina CAP. Sat Avrmeti, la 1 km sud-est de sat, n punctul numit tiubeeni, se afl o aezare cu resturi ceramice din sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, LXXI.7., p. 272); la circa 1 km sud de sat, n punctul denumit Lungaa, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. IV (C. N. Mateescu 1942-1943, p. 52, pomenete un punct numit Porniturile Scuele; G. Coman 1980, LXXI.8.); pe captul unui bot de deal care se pierde n marginea nordic a fermei pomicole nr. 1, s-au descoperit fragmente ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXXI.9., p. 273); sat Obreni - Lingurari, la vest de sat ntr-o lutrie de pe Dealul Corului s-au efectuat spturi de salvare ntr-o necropol din sec. IV, n inventar i cu vase lucrate la roat din past fin de culoare cenuie, strchini, ceti, unul din past zgrunuroas, fragmente de amfore dar i vase lucrate cu mna din past grosier (R. Vulpe et alii 1950, p. 43; I. Mitrea 1969, p. 219-232, fig. 3-4; G. Coman 1980, LXXI.13., p. 274, fig. 136/1-7); la circa 400 m nord-est de necropol, peste vale i drumul comunal, n locul numit Grdina CAP se afl o aezare corespunztoare necropolei, din sec. IV (C. C. Cihodaru et alii 1951; R. Vulpe 1950, p. 43; I. Mitrea 1969, p. 230; G. Coman 1980, LXXI. 14.). l Com. Vultureti, ape: Rebricea, Brladul; resturi ceramice la Marginea de sud, Prelungirea dealului, sat Buhieti, resturi de vase la Gara Buhieti, necropol la Dealul Bleti. Sat Vultureti, n marginea de sud, pe dreapta oselei Buheti - Negreti, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. III-IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 36; G. Coman 1980, LXII.1., p. 276); pe prelungirea dealului de sud care se pierde n esul Brladului, pe locurile lui Ion Gh. Zaharia i V. Sicrieru, s-au descoperit fragmente de vase din sec. III-IV (Ibidem, LXII.4.); sat Buhieti, pe promontoriul situat la 200 m sud-vest de gara Buhieti, s-au descoperit resturi de vase atribuite sec. IV (Ibidem, LXII.6., p. 276-277); la circa 1 km nord-vest de gar, pe panta vestic a dealului Bleti, aproape de es, se afl o necropol datat n sec. IV (N. Zaharia 1955b, p. 908; M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 37; G. Coman 1980, LXXII.8., p. 277). l Com. Vutcani, ape: Vutcani, Pota Elan; locuiri Pe stnga prului, resturi ceramice n jurul bisericii, aezare La Movili, sat Pota-Elan, resturi ceramice la Salcmii lui Huiu.

54

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

Sat Vutcani, pe stnga prului Vutcani, ntre Primrie i coala general 2, se aflau mai multe locuiri ntre care i o aezare de sec. IV (G. Coman 1980, LXXIII.1., p. 278); n jurul bisericii Sf. Neculai i a locuinei prof. Ion Diaconu, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice sec. IV (Ibidem, LXXIII.4.); la circa 1 km sud de sat, de o parte i de alta a prului Vutcani, La podul Racovii, n punctul numit La Movili, se afl o alt aezare din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXXIII.7., p. 279); sat Pota-Elan, la nord de sat, n locul numit Salcmii lui Huiu, se afl resturi ceramice din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXXIII.10.). l Com. Zpodeni, ape: Telejna, Brlad, Unceti; staiune n marginea de sud-vest, resturi ceramice Capul dealului, sat Butucria, locuire Childeti, sat Unceti, locuire La Pot. Sat Zpodeni, pe capul dealului din marginea de sud-vest, la fostul sediu C.A.P., se afl o staiune cu un nivel din sec. IV (I. Ioni 1966, p. 192; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 335, pl. CCXLVIII/6; Al. Andronic, I. Ioni, Fl. Banu 1962, p. 800; G. Coman 1980, LXXIV.2., p. 280, fig. 137/2-3; 138/1-3); pe interfluviul format de prul Telejna cu valea Brladului, n punctul numit Capul Dealului, situat la circa 3 km sud de sat, s-au descoperit resturi ceramice din sec. III-IV (M. PetrescuDmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 9; G. Coman 1980, LXXIV.4.); sat Butucria, la circa 2 km est de sat, pe panta vestic numit Childeti, de pe Dealul mare, Dealul Buna, s-a descoperit o silite cu resturi de locuire din sec. IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 316; G. Coman 1980, LXXIV.5.); sat Unceti, la gura vii prului Unceti, n punctul numit La Pot, pe terasa cuprins ntre esul Brladului i osea, la circa 2,5 km sud-sud-est de gara Buhieti, s-au descoperit resturi de locuire atribuite sec. IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 9; G. Coman 1980, LXXIV.7., p. 281). l Com. Zorleni, ape: Brlad, Zorleni, Simila; aezri Ferma Fntnele, necropol La Plopi, aezri Pe dreapta prului, n aval, Pe terasa joasa, sat Popeni, locuire Ghenetii Vechi, resturi ceramice Spre coala general, Promontoriu. Sat Zorleni, n faa Fermei Fntnele, pe stnga Brladului, la circa 400 m, n aezare din sec. IV s-a descoperit un cuptor de olar cu toat arja n el, n focrie cu pilon central de susinere a grtarului (V. Palade 1969, p. 339; idem 1987-1989, p. 53 i urm.; G. Coman 1980, LXXV.2., p. 283); la circa 1,5 km est de sat, pe dreapta oselei Zorleni - Popeni, n punctul denumit La Plopi, se afl o necropol datat n sec. IV (Ibidem, LXXV.5., p. 284); la circa 500 m nord de necropola menionat, pe dreapta prului care vine din Popeni, s-a semnalat o aezare din sec. IV; tot pe dreapta prului, la circa 400 m n aval, se afl o alt aezare din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXXV.6-7.); la circa 1 km sud de sat, la confluena vii Vrlezu, pe dreapta cii ferate Brlad - Zorleni, s-au semnalat resturi de locuire din sec. IV; la fel i la circa 2 km sud de sat, pe terasa joasa dintre calea ferat i stnga Brladului (Ibidem, LXXV.8-9.); sat Popeni, n viuga numit Ghenetii Vechi, pe dreapta oselei Murgeni - Popeni, s-a semnalat i un nivel de locuire din sec. IV (Ibidem, LXXV.16.); spre coala general i biseric s-au gsit resturi ceramice din sec. IV i pe promontoriul din marginea de vest, ntre oseaua Popeni - Zorleni i pru, la grdina de zarzavaturi, alte numeroase fragmente ceramice din sec. III-IV (Ibidem, LXXV.21-22., p. 285).

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau

55

The Fourth Century Discoveries in the geographical subunits in the Brlad Plateau. A particular view on the Vaslui county
Brlad Plateau, a. Central Moldavian Plateau, b. Flciu Hills, c. Flciului Hills, d. Tutova Hills. Com. Albeti, water courses: Idrici with Idriciul Sec, Albeti, Crasna, Brlad; potsherds in n Deal, settlement Moeni, ceramic remains In the area of the forest administrative quarters, village CorniAlbeti, at Velniei Valley, village Crasna, settlement La grdina de zarzavat. In village Albeti - n Deal, in the southeast end of the village there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4th century from grayish thick wheel-made vessels, with ring-like base, decorated by polishing with wavy motifs and remains of coarse paste vessels (G. Coman 1980, I.2. p. 45); Moeni, point situated 400 m south the village, on two average interfluvial slopes, with numerous springs, with an important settlement out of which numerous potsherds were gathered, according to shape, execution technique and ornamentation, dated to the 4th, 5th6th centuries (Ibidem, I.3., p. 45-46); In the area of the forest administration quarters in the middle of Tlhreti forest, on the left side of Idrici brook, there were found ceramic remains dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, I.6., p. 46); the same in the village Corni-Albeti, in the north end, at Velniei Valley (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 317; G. Coman 1980, I.7., p. 46); village Crasna, La grdina de zarzavat, at about 700 m north of the railway station, on a mound situated between the railway and Brlad River, there was found a settlement with ceramic remains dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, I.10., p. 47). l Com. Alexandru Vlahu, former Pleeti, waters: Socilor Valley with Leurda, Ibana, Simila; habitation Capul Dealului, village Ibneti, To the west end, village Mnzai, ceramic remains In the southwest end. In village Alexandru Vlahu, Capul Dealului, on the interfluve in the east end of the village, there were pointed out habitation remains dated also to the 4th century, shards of hand-made and especially wheelmade grayish fine and coarse paste vessels (G. Coman 1980, II.1., p. 48); village Ibneti, In the west end, around the confluence of two brooks with ravine beds, is a settlement with numerous shards of grayish fine paste wheel-made vessels, decorated by polishing, dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, II.3., p. 48-49); on the interfluvial slope in front of the old church, in ruins, In the southwest end of the village Mnzai, there were discovered ceramic remains dated to the 4th and 5th6th centuries, which resulted from wheel-made jars of a brick-red or grayish paste containing smashed shards or very fine gravel, with a threshold on the neck (Ibidem, II.6., p. 50). l Com. Arsura, waters: oprleni, Barahoi, Ttarului valley, Ruginosu; settlement Cetuia Mogoeti, habitation at Cumpeni, potsherds at Poiana, Via lui oncu, settlement In front of the new school building, potsherds in Interfluvium, village Mihail Koglniceanu, ceramic remains Near the pond, habitation Southeast of the village, village Phneti, potsherds On the middle slope of Henciu Hill and Eastsoutheast of the village. In village Arsura, between the northeast end and the right side of the brook, there is a wide site that includes a 4th century settlement, that interpenetrates the Mogoeti Fort (G. Coman 1980, III.2., p. 51); Cumpeni, at about 500 m east of the village, there was pointed out a wide settlement and a habitation level dated to the 4th century, in which there were discovered potsherds of grayish fine wheel-made pottery, dishes, small bowls etc., with ring-like basis (Ibidem, III.4., p. 51, fig. 137/1); the same in Poiana or Ruptura, on Poiana Mare Hill, west of Cetuie (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 310; G. Coman 1980, III.5., p. 52); to the northwest of Arsura, in the vineyard of oncu Constantin, there were discovered a site and potsherds dated to the 4th century IV (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 310; G. Coman 1980, III.6.); Isn front of the new school building, to the west side of village Arsura, there is a site dated to the 4th5th centuries, with fragments of dolium decorated with incisions and fragments of small vessels with ring-like basis, from pots-jars, with sand or smashed shards mixed in the paste, with rounded flared border and rope cut basis (G. Coman
l

56

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

1980, III.7.); at about 400 m southeast of the village, on an Interfluvium formed by Ruginosu brook with a ravine, there were found 4th century potsherds (Ibidem, III.11.); near the pond situated southeast of village Mihail Koglniceanu, former Rpi, on the left side of oprleni brook, there were discovered 4 th century hand-made and wheel-made pottery remains (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 337; G. Coman 1980, III.16., p. 53); southeast of the village, at about 1,5 km and also south the Drnceni-Rpi road, on both of Barahoi brook, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 337; G. Coman 1980, III.17.); in village Phneti, at about 300 m west of the village, on the average slope of Henciu Hill, on a flattened land, there is a settlement with shards of grayish fine paste or cement vessels, with rounded and flared border and in most of the cases with a ring-like base, dated to the 4 th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 337; G. Coman 1980, III.21.); east-southeast of the village, at about 500 m, there were gathered fragments of wheel-made and hand-made vessels dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia, p. 337; G. Coman 1980, III.23.). l Com. Banca, waters: Brld, Horoiata, Petrioara, Banca, Ghermneti; in the village core, on Bncii valley, west of the village, in village Banca Gar, habitation apte case, settlement, SMA quarters, settlement and necropolis, On a mound; village 1 Decembrie, in the northwest side of the village; village Ghermneti, remains of vessels Around the church, village Micleti, at the spring of Vlcioaia valley, village Slcioara, near the bridge, village Srbi, settlements in Satul Nou, in the southwest side, village Stoieti, settlement in Rdule point, on Rduelti hill, in the village core; village Strmtura Mitoc, at about 2 km north, village ifu, Scripneti. In village Banca, in the village core, to the east, on the valley of Bncii brook, in the ravines formed as a result of the land sliding and on the valley there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4 th century, as a result of salvage excavations carried out in 1983, carried out by R. Alaiba (Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, p. 33, nr. 8); also in the village core, on both sides of Bncii valley, in the yard of inhabitant Brezuleanu Gheorghe, up to the house of engineer tefni Vintil, there was pointed out a settlement in which there appeared ceramic fragments, tools and a pottery kiln with the whole batch, left after baking, containing wheel-made pots created by a local potter (G. Coman 1980, IV.1., p. 55-56; Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, p. 33, nr. 8); village Banca Gar, SMA quarters, situated at the exit into the meadow of Brlad River, 300 m south of Banca Gar, both on the right side, where is the company quarters, and on the left side toward the mill and brick workshop, there is a rich settlement with ceramic remains dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 310-311, a settlement with points a-d and f, included in Banca, is situated south of Banca Gar; G. Coman 1980, IV.2., p. 56; Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, p. 32, nr. 2); On a mound to the left of Brlad River, situated at about 2,5 km south of the road Sltioara Banca Gar, there were discovered habitation traces dated to the 3rd4th centuries, with ceramic fragments on the surface, but also with daub, slag, stone, considered as resulting from kilns, and also a funeral urn, a 3 th century vessel (Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, p. 32, nr. 5); village 1 Decembrie, in the northwest side of the village, at about 100 m, on the left side of Brlad River, there lies a 4th century settlement out of which grayish but also blackish potsherds with thickened rim and ring-like base were gathered, and also parts of de amphorae, whorls, whetstone, daub, stones from the kilns (Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, p. 35, nr. 14, fig. VI/5, 8, 10; IX/1; X/5, 7), some fragments of coarser paste, with grooves, may result from bowls and food storage pots dated to the first half of the 5th century V, which Vasile Palade put into connection with the settlement of Brlad - Valea Seac, Dodeti and Banca Gar - apte case (Idem, fig. VIII/1-2; IX/2-5); village Ghermneti, in the southeast core, around the church, there were discovered numerous shards from grayish fine paste wheel-made vessels with ring-like base and ornamentation created by polishing, dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 345; G. Coman 1980, IV.7., p. 57; Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, p. 36, nr. 19); at approximately 2 km west of the village, to the right of Ghermneti brook, there was a settlement with numerous shards of vessels made grayish fine and coarse paste; Vasile Palade also researched in the right of the ravine, a pit with the depth of 6-7 m from the current treading level, lined with wood, and which contained two recipients made of lime tree bark, with a wooden base also of lime tree, together with fragments of two ropes obtained from young lime tree bark, dated to the 4th century (1978, p. 407 sq.; Gh. Bichir 1996, p. 188); at about 1 km west of village Micleti, at the spring of Vlcioaia valley and 200 m to the northwest there is a 4 th century settlement, that contained remains of hand-made and wheel-made vessels, biconical whorls, blue beads, etc. (G. Coman 1980, IV.12., p. 57; Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, p. 38, nr. 24); village Slcioara,

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau

57

former apte case, in the southern end of Slcioara farmyard, at the exist of Horoiata brook in meadow of Brlad, n near the bridge there are four tumuli, one to the left and three to the right remains of vessels dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, IV.13.; R. Alaiba, Gh. Gherghe 1987-89); village Srbi, starting from the northeast end of the village in point Satul Nou there is a rich settlement which brought to light remains of grayish fine paste wheel-made vessels, with ring-like base and the ornamentation made by polishing, remains of Roman amphorae with the paste containing sand, of yellowish or brick-red color, biconical whorls, dated to the 3rd4th and 5th6th centuries (G. Coman 1980, IV.23., p. 57-58; Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, p. 39, nr. 30); in the southwest side of the village, about 200 m, on the right side of Brlad River, there were discovered numerous habitation remains, pottery made of grayish fine and coarse paste, parts of amphorae, whorls, daub, stone, slag, dated to the 4 th5th centuries (Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, p. 39, nr. 29, fig. VIII/3); village Stoieti, in point Rdule, at about 1 km northwest of the village, on the sloped plateau, there were found numerous fragments of wheel-made vessels of grayish fine or sandy, cement paste (R. Vulpe et alii 1951, p. 226; N. Zaharia, M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 354; G. Coman 1980, IV.33., p. 58; Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, p. 40, nr. 32); also on Rduleti hill, on both sides of the road to Ghermneti, on the sloped side of the hill to Petriori valley, there is a rich 4th century settlement (G. Coman 1980, IV. 34. p. 58, not dated; Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, nr. 33, fig. X/13); in the village core, there were found remains of wheelmade vessels, either of grayish fine paste, or of paste mixed with sand, fine gravel or smashed shards, with ring-like base or with the base cut with the rope, dated to the 4th5th centuries (G. Coman 1980, IV. 35. p. 58-59; Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, nr. 34); village Strmtura Mitoc, at about 2 km north, on the right side of Brlad River, there was also found a 4 rd5th century habitation, with vessels made of grayish fine paste, with analogies in Valea Seac - Brlad (Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, p. 41, nr. 35, fig. VI/7, 9; VII/3-4); sat ifu, Scripneti, at about 200 m to the west, on both sides of the road Viioara-uletea and of the old road to Stoieti, there is a 3 rd4th centuries settlement (Gh. Gherghe, M. Rotaru 2002, nr. 36, fig. VI/1, 6; VII/1; X/6). l Com. Bcani, waters: Simila, Ibana, Bogdana, there are no 4th ct. settlements (G. Coman 1980, V. p. 61). l Com. Bceti, waters: Brlad; potsherds at Capul Dealului, vestiges Aanei Vasile, village ibnetii Buhlii, habitation Around the school and vessels On the hill crest. village Bceti, in the northwest side of the hill crest, named Capul Dealului, toward village Bbua, there were discovered numerous shards dated to the 4th century (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 14; G. Coman 1980, VI.2., p. 62); at Aanei Vasile there were pointed out vestiges dated to the 4th century (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1955, p. 14; G. Coman 1980, VI.4.); village ibnetii Buhlii, Around the school there were habitation remains dated to the 3rd4th centuries (Ibidem, VI.8., p. 63); 1 km south the school, on the Hill crest, on the valley of Pietrosu brook, there were collected remains of 3rd4th centuries vessels (Ibidem, VI.9.). l Com. Blteni, waters: Brlad, Stemnic-Buda; without traces of 4th century habitation (Ibidem, p. 64-65). l Com. Berezeni, waters: Prut, Muata, Bozasca, Srata; settlement to the left of a brook, Troienai, Vicoleni, on the right terrace of River Prut, Muata, village Rnceni, in the south part of the hearth, remains of vessels, village Stuhule, habitation Around the bridge. Village Berezeni, at about 600 m east of Srata Mill, 1,5km away of village Horinceni - Berezeni and 300 m of Sratei bridge, on the left side of a brook, there was uncovered a settlement with potsherds, which according to the technique of execution, shape and ornamentation belong to the 4 th century (G. Coman 1980, VIII.1., p. 66); at Troienai, left of the dam to the west end of village Horinceni there were pointed out remains of habitation which were dated to the 4 th century and there were recovered fragments of grayish fine paste wheel-made vessels, mugs with a handle, slightly biconical and iwht the ring-like base, small bowls and dishes with biconical body, and also fragments of hand-made vessels, jars whose paste contains smashed shards (idem 1969, p. 292; idem, 1980, VIII.2., p. 67); Vicoleni, on the interfluvial terrace in the village core, there were found numerous fragments of mugs, small bowls, dishes etc., wheel-made of grayish fine paste, ornamented either with a fine belt, or with a polished wavy motif, dated to the 4th, 5th6th centuries, and also a potters kiln with a central pillar in the fire chamber (idem 1969, p. 292; idem, 1980, VIII.5.); between the south end of Satu Nou and the north end of village Bozia Nou, nowadays included in Berezeni, On the right terrace of River Prut, there were found habitation remains dated to the 3rd4th centuries, but also gloves of Roman amphorae (G. Coman 1980, VIII.8., p. 68); on the left side of Muata brook, around the school, there were found numerous fragments of wheel-

58

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

made vessels, of grayish fine paste and of coarse paste, mugs, small bowls, recipients for food storage and jars carried out in a more negligent way, dated to the 4th5th centuries (N. Zaharia, Petrescu Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 351; G. Coman 1980, VIII.11.); village Rnceni, in the south part of the hearth there were discovered ceramic remains dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, Petrescu Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 352; G. Coman 1980, VIII.12.); village Stuhule, at 350 m southeast, on both sides of Bozasca brook, Around the bridge there are habitation remains dated to the 4 th century (N. Zaharia, Petrescu Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 354; G. Coman 1969, p. 292; idem 1980, VIII.14.). l City of Brlad, waters: Brlad, Simila; tombs The Water Tower, habitation rnii Valley, Palerma Bridge, settlement south of Palerma Bridge and ceramic remains At the Confluence. Brlad, The Water House within the city limits there were investigated four inhumation tombs with a potters workshop with vessels and treasure items dated to the 4th century (V. Palade 1971, p. 259-275, fig. 1-6; G. Coman 1980, IX.2., fig. 133/4, p. 70); at rnii valley, rnii gate, points with habitation remains dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 313; G. Coman 1980, IX.5.); at Palerma bridge, at about 2,5 km southeast of the city, on the interfluvium crossed in the lower terrace to the right of Brlad River, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 313; G. Coman 1980, IX.5.); at about 1 km south of Palerma bridge, near Brlad River, there was a settlement with materials dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 313; G. Coman 1980, IX.7.); at about 400 m behind the Bearing Factory, around the Confluence of Simila to the Brlad River, there were discovered ceramic remains dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, IX.10, p. 71). l Com. Blgeti, waters: Elan with Srata, Sreni and Creana, Licov, Valea Oanei, brooks Sipeni and Zbancului; remains of vessels on the Interfluvium, in the east end of the village, Rpa Frasinului, La Colonel, The southeast end, in the middle of the village, Stoians pond, settlement Scndureni, village Sipeni, ceramic ware to the right of ipotele, habitation on the lower river course. Village Blgeti, on the Interfluvium formed by Licov brook with a small local brook, there were discovered remains of vessels dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, X.1., p. 74); in the east end of the village, on the whole valley formed by Creana brook toward Elan River, for about 1.300 m there were encountered shards dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 340; G. Coman 1980, X.3., p. 74-75); at Rpa Frasinului, on a hill crest of the interfluvium, situated at about 3km southeast of village Blgeti, there were shards of wheel-made vessels, mugs with handles, dishes, small bowls, dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 340; G. Coman 1980, X.4., p. 75, fig. 137/6); La Colonel, at about 1,5 km northeast of Blgeti, at the point of confluence of Sreni brook, there were found ceramic remains dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 340, point e; G. Coman 1980, X.4., p. 75, fig. 137/6); village Igeti, starting from 500 m north of the village, on the left side and especially on the right side of Licov brook, over an area of about 1,5km length and the same as width, southeast of Scndureni, there is a rich settlement with a habitation dated to the 4 th and 5th centuries (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 347, points b, c, f; G. Coman 1980, X.9., p. 76, fig. 138/4-5); in the southeast end, on both sides of Licov brook, there are numerous pottery fragments dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 347; G. Coman 1980, X.10., p. 7778); in the middle of the village, there flows a brook on the west-east direction, that flows into Licov, on the right, above its spring, there were found ceramic fragments dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 340); thee same at about 350 m west of the church at the brook spring, at Stoians pond (Ibidem, X.11-12, p. 78); village Sipeni, to the right of ipote, in Cazans garden and the new school yard there were discovered numerous ceramic remains dated to the 4th century and on the lower course of the brook springing from ipote, before exiting the village there were habitation remains dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, X.15-16, p. 78-79). l Com. Bogdana, waters: Bogdana with Plopoasa, Similioara, Suceveni-Horgeti; fibula La stejar, potsherds in front of the village. village Bogdana, at about 600 m southeast, on the left of Bogdana brook, on the meadow of former village erbneti, La stejar there was found a bronze fibula dated to the 4 th century (N. Zaharia, M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 314; G. Coman 1980, X.1., p. 80); and parts of vessels in front of the village, on the northeast end of the village, in the angle between Bogdana brook and the way to Lipov (Ibidem, XI.5. p. 81).

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau


l

59

Com. Bogdneti, waters: Horoiata with Valea Seac, Bogdneti; potsherds, in the village core, habitation Corlteti, village Buda, potsherds in the northern village core and the northern end. village Bogdneti, in the village core, to the northwest of the school, there were discovered 4th century potsherds; Corlteti, Mnstirea, former village, at about 3 km southeast of the old village core, on the slow slope on the left side of Bogdneti brook, there were discovered remains of habitation dated to the 4th century and in village Buda, in the northern village core there was found ceramic ware dated to the 4th century, as well as on the interfluvium situated in the northern end (G. Coman 1980, XII.1-4., p. 83). l Com. Bogdnia, waters: Bogdana and Bogdnia; village Coroieti, ceramic fragments on the interfluvium, village Tunseti, habitation La Moar. Village Coroieti, on the interfluvium formed by Bogdana and Bogdnia brooks, there were found numerous potsherds resulting from wheel-made vessels, of grayish fine paste, with ring-like basis and with a polished ornamentation, dated to the 4th century; village Tunseti, La Moar, in the east end of the village, on the left side of Bogdana, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4 th century (G. Coman 1980, XIII.2,5., p. 85-86). l Com. Boeti, waters: Gugul, Blgeti; habitation at Boeti, The village core, village Gugeti, Bocana. Village Boeti - Vatr, on the place between the church, city hall, school and garden of Iustina t. Iacob, on both sides of the brook, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4 th century; village Gugeti, at Bocana, at about 1 km west of the village, around strong springs, there were found potsherds which according to the technique of execution, paste, color, ornamentation were dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, XIV.1-2., p. 87-88). l Com. Buneti-Avereti, waters: Crasna with Cetuia and Hruca; village Armeni, potsherds on the interfluvial mound, habitation south the village. In village Armeni, on the interfluvial mound, situated 1,5 km south-southwest of de village, there were discovered ceramic fragments dated to the 4th century and south the village, about 2 km and 200 m north of Negrui Mill, on the left side of Crasna, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 3rd4th centuries (G. Coman 1980, XV.7-8.). l Com. Codieti, waters: Dobrov, Rediu, Lunca and Vasluiul; ceramic ware southeast of the village. In village Codieti, at about 600 m southeast the village, between the feet of the hill and the right side of Rediu brook, near the point of confluence, there was discovered grayish ceramic ware made of thick paste, with ring-like base and horizontal or wavy polished ornaments, dated to the 4 th century (G. Coman 1980, XVI.1., p. 91). l Com. Coroieti de Sus, waters: Horasca, Dumbrava, Pereschivu Mic; dwellings in the southern end. In village Coroietii de Sus, in the southern end, on the slow slope to the left of Pereschivul Mic brook, at only 50 m distance to the bridge de pod, in the sloped sides of the road, there were found three dwelling profiles which provided ceramic remains dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, XVII.2., p. 93). l Com. Costeti, waters: Chicani and Brlad; ceramic remains in the village core, around the bridge, in the angle formed by Brlad road. In village Costeti, in the village core, to the north, around the garden of Ion Ostase, there appeared numerous potsherd dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, XVIII.2., p. 95); the same near the old church, around the bridge in the village centre (Ibidem, XVIII.4., p. 96) and at about 3 km east of village Costeti, at 600 m north of the bovine farmyard, and 1 km west of Crasna railway station, in the almost 90o angle formed by Crasna Brlad road, on the right side (Ibidem, XVIII.6.). l Com. Creeti, waters: Lohan, Recea; ceramic remains in the village core, behind the railway station. In village Creeti, In the village core to the southeast, there were discovered potsherds which according to the type of paste, technique and ornamentation belonged to the 4 th century, as well as behind the railway station, between the road and Lohan, over a wide surface G. Coman 1980, XIX.1-2., p. 98-99). l Com. Dneti, waters: Luncii, Fereti, Rchia; ceramic remains In the orchard, plough share north of the village, fragments of vessels at Buragi Pond, ipotul lui Mantu, vestiges La Tufari, Zltreti, village Bereasa, ceramic remains at Zarea Rcanilor, village Emil Racovi, in the west village core. In village Dneti, in the orchard of former CAP, to the east end of the village, there were discovered ceramic remains dated to the 3rd4th centuries (G. Coman 1980, XX.3., p. 100); at about 500 m north the village and 150 m from the road Dneti - Emil Racovi, there was discovered an iron plough share dated to the 4th century (Gh. Radu, N. N. Maftei, 1970, p. 15; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 319; G. Coman 1980, XX.7., p. 101); at about 200 m northwest of Buragi Pond, there were discovered remains of vessels dated to the 4 th century (Gh. Radu, N. N. Maftei, 1970, p. 17; N.

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Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 319; G. Coman 1980, XX.8.); La Tufari, at about 700 m north of the village, there were discovered vestiges dated to the 4th century (Gh. Radu, N. N. Maftei, 1970, p. 18; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 320; G. Coman 1980, XX.10.); ipotul lui Mantu, situated at about 1km north the village, on the right side of Fundtura valley, there were discovered ceramic remains dated to the 4th century (Gh. Radu, N. N. Maftei, 1970, p. 19; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 320; G. Coman 1980, XX.11.); on the interfluvium Zltreti formed by Dneti brook and Floarei Well, situated at about 3 km southeast of the village, there were discovered vestiges dated to the 4 th century (Gh. Radu, N. N. Maftei, 1970, p. 19; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 320; G. Coman 1980, XX.15.); in village Bereasa, on the northwest slope of the Zarea Rcanilor hill, there were discovered ceramic remains dated to the 4th5th centuries (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 320-321; G. Coman 1980, XX.20., p. 102); in village Emil Racovi, former urneti, in the west village core, on the property of Gh. Vieru, there were discovered ceramic remains dated to the 4 th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 331; G. Coman 1980, XX.24.). l Com. Deleni, waters: Brlad, Ghilahoi; habitation at Avrmeti, village Bulboaca, around the railway station. In village Deleni, in the southeast end of the village, at Delenii de Jos, former Mrgineni, at Avrmeti, there discovered the remains of a habitation dated to the 4 th century (G. Coman 1980, XXI.3., p. 105, fig. 168/6); in village Bulboaca, around the railway station, there were fragments of ceramic ware dated to the end of the 4th century (Ibidem, XXI.5., p. 105-106). l Com. Deleti, waters: Buda, Fstca, Munteanului Valley, Coni Valley, Albeti, Stemnic, Hrova, Ruginoasa; ceramic remains at Perilor Valley, Coni Valley, village Albeti, ceramic remains on the plateau, village Bleti, settlement at Coada Silitii, village Cozmeti, settlement at Grama, habitation on the river bank, village Hrova, habitation at Vrtegu, potsherds at Movil, village Rdueti, habitations at Hrboanca and north of the school. In village Deleti, Perilor Valley, from the village core, situated at 150 m west of the school, there were discovered ceramic fragments dated to the 4 th century (G. Coman 1980, XXII.1., p. 107); in the area of strong springs at the source of Coni Valley, at about 1 km northeast of the village, there was discovered a settlement which also contained ceramic ware dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXII.4., p. 108); in village Albeti, on the plateau to the left of the confluence point of Albeti brook, situated 200 m southeast of the church, there were ceramic remains dated to the 3rd4th centuries, of Carpic and Sntana de Mure aspects (Ibidem, XXII.7.); in village Bleti, at about 500 m east, in the punctul Coada Silitii, there has been acknowledged an important settlement that occupies a surface of about 10 ha, with a settlement dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXII.8., p. 108-109); in village Cozmeti, east of Ruginoasa brook, in the point Grama, there were discovered settlements assigned to the 3rd4th centuries (Ibidem, XXII.11., p. 109); on the right bank fo Stemnic, on the hill in front of the previous settlement, there were habitation remains of the 3rd4th centuries (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 1213; G. Coman 1980, XXII.12); in village Hrova, in the southern end of the village, east of the way that goes down to the State farmyard Laza, just by the road, out of the two neighboring promontories referred to as Vrtegu, on the one closest to the village there are habitation remains dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, XXII.17., p.110); at Movil, about 1km away of the village end, west of the way toward Laza farmyard and of Hrova brook, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXII.18.); in village Rdueti, in the northeast end to the right of the dam, at Hrboanca, there was discovered a settlement with habitation remains dated also to the 4th century (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 17; G. Coman 1980, XXII.20.); north of the school, 150 m, on the left side of Rdueti brook, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXII.21.). l Com. Dimitrie Cantemir, former Hurdugi, waters: Grumezoaia, Cla; ceramic remains At the school, In the north end of the village; village Grumezoaia, in the north end, village Guiei, in the southwest village core, on the right of Cla brook, village Urlai, at Siliteni. In village Dimitrie Cantemir, on the land between the school, village store and mayoralty, there were found ceramic remains dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, XXIII.1., p. 112); in the north end, between the right of the brook and the road there were discovered some ceramic remains dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, XXIII.2.); village Grumezoaia, in the northern end, on both sides of a ravine, there were discovered numerous ceramic potsherds of grayish fine paste, of wheel-made pottery, or of brown hand-made coarse paste, dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXIII.4., p. 113); village Guiei, in the

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southwest core of the village, around the garden of Toader Munteanu, there was discovered a settlement containing ceramic fragments dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXIII.7.); in the north-northwest side of the village, at about 1 km, on the right of Cla brook there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, XX III.8.); village Urlai, at 200 m to the north, both on the interfluvial hill crest, and to the right hereof, at Siliteni, there were discovered fragments of vessels dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, XXIII.9., p. 114). l Com. Dragomireti, waters: Tutova, Semenea, Popetiul, Lipova; village Popeti, necropolis on Nastac, ceramic fragments in intirim, village Vladia, settlement west of the village. In village Popeti, on Nastac, in the east-northeast side, on a plateau descending slowly westwards, in the area of the village end, there is a necropolis dated to the end of the 3 rd century beginning of the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, XXIV.3., p.115); in the south end, on a hill crest contained between the left of the brook and the village, at intirim, there were discovered ceramic fragments dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXIV.4.); in village Vladia, at about 800 m west of the village, between the right of Tutova River and the forest, there is a 4th century settlement with fragments of wheel-made vessels, of grayish thick paste and with ring-like base (Ibidem, XXIV.10., p. 116). l Com. Drnceni, waters: Ruginoasa, Barahoi; in village Ghermneti, ceramic fragments In front of the school, The spring of Barahoi brook, habitation Pe Dop, on the east slope, village oprleni, ceramic fragments on the interfluvium. In village Ghermneti, in front of the school, in the area of the former C.A.P. and of the sportsground, there are ceramic fragments dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, XXV.5., p. 119); at about 500 m south the village, in the area of the way Germneti Drnceni Bi, at the point Pe Dop, there were discovered traces of habitation dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 336; G. Coman 1980, XXV.8.); at about 1 km southwest of the village, toward the spring of Barahoi brook, there were discovered ceramic fragments dated to the 3 rd4th centuries (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 336; G. Coman 1980, XXV.9.); on the slow slope of the village to the left of the way to Arsura, on the east of Barahoi brook, at about 1km west of the village, there were discovered ceramic remains of the 2 nd4th centuries (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 336; G. Coman 1980, XXV.10.); village oprleni, on the interfluvium situated at about 400 m north-northwest of the village, there were discovered ceramic remains dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 337; G. Coman 1980, XXV.14., p. 119-120). l Com. Duda-Epureni, waters: Prul lui Ivan, Recea Valea Grecului; village Epureni, habitation a Bena, village Valea Grecului, fragments of vessels On the east side of the valley. In village Epureni, at about 2 km south, near the pond la Bena, there are habitation remains dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, XXVI.5., p. 122); village Valea Grecului, at about 400 m to the north, on the east side of the valley there were discovered fragments of wheel-made vessels, of grayish thick paste dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 337, G. Coman 1980, XXVI.7.). l Com. Dumeti, waters: Brlad, Hodorani; ceramic fragments east of the village, habitation La Troi, La Jitnie, village Dumetii Vechi, Of the railway line. In village Dumetii Noi, east of the village, on the Hodorani valley, in the ditches of the road Buhieti Roman, there were discovered ceramic fragments of the 3rd 4th centuries (N. Zaharia, M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970; G. Coman 1980, XXVII.1., p. 124); 2 km east of the village and at about 800 m north of CFR railway station, near the confluence of Gureanca brook with Brlad River, on the last extensions of Capul Crucii Hill, in the point La Troi, there were discovered habitation traces dated to the 3rd 4th centuries (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 21; G. Coman 1980, XXVII.2.); 3 km east of the village, La Jitnie, at the feet of Izvorului Hill, on the left side of the road Bceti-Negreti, there were discovered habitation remains of the 3rd4th centuries (M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 21; G. Coman 1980, XXVII.5.); village Dumetii Vechi, at 500 m east of the village, on a place which dominates the valley of Brlad River and gets lost at the level Of the railway line Buhieti - Roman, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4th century (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 21; G. Coman 1980, XXVII.7., p. 125). l Com. Epureni, waters: Florena, Rpa Galben, Moaca, Brlleti; fragments of vessels La Velni, La Rpa Galben, Confluence point of Moaca brook, settlement at oldneti and also in village Brlleti,

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at Stania, village Bursuci, habitation at Crmidrie, village Horga, in the centre and in the southeast village core. In village Epureni, at about 600 m south of the village, in the point La Velni delimited by the IAS building, Murgeni - Brlad road and Florena brook, there were discovered remains of wheel-made vessels dated to the 4th5th centuries (G. Coman 1980, XXVIII.3., p. 126), at about 400 m southwest of the village, at Rpa Galben, on the left of the brook there were discovered ceramic remains dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXVIII.4., p. 126); at about 700 m west of the village, in the are of the Confluence point of Moaca brook, there were numerous ceramic fragments dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 343, only one point; G. Coman 1980, XXVIII.5.); at 500 m north of Epureni railway station and 1,5 km south-southeast of the village, at oldeni - oldneti, there is a wide site with a settlement dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 344; G. Coman 1980, XXVIII.8., p. 127, fig. 136/10); in village Brlleti, starting from the northeastern end, on the left of Brlleti brook, at Stania - La Arie there was discovered a settlement with ceramic fragments of the 4th century, and a Roman amphora amid them (R. Vulpe et alii 1951, p. 222 sq.; G. Coman 1980, XXVIII.16., p. 130); village Bursuci, in the eastern end, on the valley of the brook between the forest administrative quarters and the road, at Crmidrie there was discovered a settlement with habitation remains dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 341; G. Coman 1980, XXVIII.22., p. 131); village Horga, in the centre, starting with S. Manolaches dwelling, southwards, near the church and in the school area, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 346; G. Coman 1980, XXVIII.24.); in the southeast side of the village core, close to the railway station, on each side of a small brook, there were discovered numerous remains of vessels resulting from a 4 th century settlement (Ibidem, XXVIII.26., p.131). l Com. Flciu, waters: Prut, Belciugu, Bozia, Copceanca with Marcu; necropolis at the Water tower, village Bogdneti, habitation North of the village, interfluvium, ceramic remains On the lower terrace, settlement at the Porcine farmyard, village Bozia, ceramic remains at Gura Boziei, village Copceana, habitation On the right of the brook, ceramic ware In the southwest end and in village Rnzeti, on the mound, tomb On the low terrace, ceramic remains at Gura Mihlceni. In village Flciu, on the terrace in the southern end, at the Water tower, there was discovered a biritual necropolis with habitation remains of the 4th century, out of which several wheel-made and vessels and several hand-made ones were recuperated (V. Palade 1971, p. 215 sq., fig. 1-4; G. Coman 1980, XXIX.3., p. 136, fig. 135/1-4, 6-9, 10; 138/7); village Bogdneti, at about 700 m north of the village, on the terrace between the meadow of Prut River and the road there are habitation remains dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXIX.5.); on the interfluvial terrace contained between Copceanca brook and an old riverbed of the Prut, there were discovered materials dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXIX.6., p. 137); on the low terrace cut by the railway leading to the bridge over the Prut, there are ceramic remains dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 340; G. Coman 1980, XXIX.8., p. 138); at about 500 m south of the village, on the terrace in front of the porcine farmyard, there was discovered a settlement with numerous ceramic remains dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, XXIX.9.); in village Bozia, at La Gura Boziei, the confluence point situated about 800 m south southeast of the village, there were discovered ceramic remains dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, XXIX.12.); in village Copceana, in the south-southwest end, on the right of the, brook, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXIX.17., p. 139); in the southwest end of the village, in the average slope, there was discovered a pot with handle, of grayish paste with ringlike base and ornamentation consisting in oblique lines; it was dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, XXIX.18., p. 139, fig. 138/6); village Rnzeti, on the mound in the northern end, contained between the confluence of Belciug and Puierni, there were discovered ceramic remains dated to the 4 th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 352; G. Coman 1980, XXIX.19., fig. 145/5); on the low terrace contained between the church and the dwelling of primary school teacher Ion Cahu, there was discovered an inhumation tomb, which had the potters workshop, vessels, fibulas and beads probably dating from the 4th century (Ibidem, XXIX.20); at about 2 km south the village, in the point named Gura Mihlceni, there were discovered ceramic remains (Ibidem, XXIX.21.). l Com. Ggeti, waters: Jiglia, Holob, Elan, with Urdeti, Colub; ceramic remains at Grozeti, La Budi, Argeaua, settlement at Berbeceni, village Popeni, habitation on the right of Elan, settlement east of the village, village Tupilai, tombs in the centre settlement in the bridge area.

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In village Giurcani, on the crest of the interfluvial hill in Grozeti outskirts, situated in the southwest side of the village, there were discovered ceramic remains dated to the 4th century (C. C. Cihodaru et alii 1951, p. 228; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em Zaharia 1970, p. 345; G. Coman 1980, XXX.5., p. 142-143); between the north end, towards the dam plants, on both sides of Jiglia brook, La Budi or Lupe Vineyard, there were discovered 2rd3th centuries potsherds, but also mugs with a handle, small bowls, dishes, made of grayish thick paste, with ring-like base, dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em Zaharia 1970, p. 346; G. Coman 1980, XXX.6., p. 143); at about 600 m south the village, at Argeaua, there were discovered remains of 4rd5th centuries vessels (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em Zaharia 1970, p. 346; G. Coman 1980, XXX.8.); at about 2,5 km east of the village, on both sides of Holob brook, at Berbeceni there is a settlement with materials dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXX.10.), village Popeni, at about 600 m north of the village, on the right of Elan, there are 4rd5th centuries remains (Ibidem, XXX.15., p. 144, fig. 139/6); east of the village, about 3 km away, at the spring of Holob brook, there is a settlement with pothsherds dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXX.16.); village Tupilai, in the centre, on the left of the brook, there was pointed out the presence of tombs which, according to the ceramic fragments found on the surface, are dated to the 4th century or at about 1,5 km north-northeast of the village, in the area of the bridge on Tupilai Pota Elan road, there is a settlement with potsherds dated to the 4th century and in the south-southeast end there are habitation remains dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXX.18-20., p. 145). l Com. Ghergheti, waters: Studine; settlement The area of the village core, village Lunca, habitation at the spring of the valley, settlement on the right of Studine, village Valea Lupului, ceramic fragments in the northeastern side. Ghergheti, The area of the village core, on both sides of Studine brook, there is a settlement dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, XXXI.1., p. 146); village Lunca, at the spring of the valley from the northeast end there are habitation remains dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, XXXI.6.); at about 500 m southwest of the village, on the right of Studine, there is a settlement dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXXI.8., p. 147); village Valea Lupului, in the northeast end, on the right side of a local brook, there were discovered ceramic remains dated to the 3rd4th centuries (Ibidem, XXXI.9.). l Com. Grceni, waters: Racova, Racovia, Dumbrveni, Crceneanca; potsherds at Capul Plopilor, n arin la vale, village Dumbrveni, habitation at Hrisob, village Trohan, fragments of vessels to the East and southeast and On the left of Racova. In village Grceni, Capul Plopilor, Coada Plopilor or La Plopi, situated on the southeast end, there were discovered ceramic remains dated to the 3rd-4thcenturies (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 17; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 322-323; G. Coman 1980, XXXII.1., p. 148); in the village core, n arin la vale, point situated south of the school, on the right side of the brok where there were the CAP stables, there were discovered vestiges dated to the 4 th century (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 17; G. Coman 1980, XXXII.2.); village Dumbrveni, in the east end, on the northeast slope of Chicani Hill, at Hrisob, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 3rd4th centuries (R. Vulpe et alii 1950, p. 43; M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 17; G. Coman 1980, XXXII.4., p. 149), on the extensions of Chicani Hill, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 3rd4th centuries (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 17; G. Coman 1980, XXXII.6.); village Trohan, east and southeast of the road Pungeti-Bceti, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4 th century (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 17; G. Coman 1980, XXX.9.); east-south-east of the previous settlement, on the left of Racova, to the southeast there is the Alba Hill, with north-northwest / south-southeast orientation, there was discovered a settlement with potsherds dated to the 3rd4th centuries (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 17; G. Coman 1980, XXX.10.). l Com. Grivia, waters: Brlad, Trestiana, Gruzoaia, Jrv; settlements At the confluence and to the south, village Trestiana, at the forest end. In village Grivia, at about 1 km northwest of the village, at the confluence of a local watercourse with the Jrv, there is a settlement dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, XXXIII.2., p.151); about 500 m southward the above settlement, there is a settlement dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXXIII.2.); village Trestiana, at about 800 m west of the village, on the land contained between the right of the Brlad and the acacia forest limit, there was discovered a settlement (Ibidem, XXXIII.8., p. 152). l Com. Hoceni, waters: Barboi with Valea Seac, Bujorul; village Barboi, fragments of vessels at Rari, village Deleni, habitations at Talaba and village Oeleni, interfluviu, ptosherds near the school.

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In village Barboi, at about 1,5 km to the north, between the forest limit and Barboi, at Rari there were discovered potsherds resulting from grayish fine paste vessels, mugs, dishes, with the ring-like base, dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, XXXIV.2., p. 153); in village Deleni, to the east end, on the right of the brook, at Talaba, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, XXXIV.3.); in village Oeleni, on the interfluvium in the southwest end, there were discovered habitations dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXXIV.5., p. 154); near the school there were found grayish atypical shards, dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXXIV.6.). l Town of Hui, waters: Lohan, Recea; there are no settlements dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, XXXV, p. 155-156). l Com. Iana, waters: Studine; village Silistea, settlement west of the village. In village Silistea, on the right of Studine, west of the village, near the limit of Muncelul forest, there was discovered a settlement dated to the 4th century (D. Popescu 1965, p. 719; G. Coman 1980, XXXVI.5., p. 157). l Com. Ivneti, waters: Racova, Coeti, Tulburea, Broteni; habitation at Cimeaua lazului, tomb at Tbcaru Mound, vestiges at Ursoaia, settlement Gologofta, potsherds in the southern end, village Bleca, habitation in the western end, potshreds in the eastern village core; village Broteni, habitation in the northeast end. In village Ivneti, Cimeaua lazului, point situated in the north-northwest end, on the left side of the road to Bacu, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4thv century (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 20; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 323; G. Coman 1980, XXXVII.3., p. 160); at about 500 m northeast of the northwest end, on the promontory on the left of Racova, at Tbcaru Mound, near a skeleton, there were found ceramic fragments dated to the 4th century (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 20; G. Coman 1980, XXXVII.4.); at about 1 km northeast of the northwest end of the village, on both sides of a local brook to the left of Racova, at Ursoi, Ursoaia veche, Vrzrie, there was discovered a site with vestiges dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXXVII.5.); in Gologofta, village united to Ivneti, at about 200 m south of Centre of vinification, there was discovered a settlement dated to the 4 th century (C. C. Cihodaru 1933-1934, p. 45; R. Vulpe et alii 1950, p. 43; M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 21; Al. Andronic, I. Ioni, N. Banu 1962, p. 800; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 323; Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 35; G. Coman 1980, XXXVII.6.); between the current cemetery, brook and the kinder-garden, in the south end of Gologofta, there are ceramic fragments dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXXVII.7.); in village Bleca, in the west end, in the area of the school, there was discovered a site with habitation remains dated to the 4th century (C. C. Cihodaru 1933-34, p. 83; M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em Bold 1958, p. 19, fig. 12/1-4; G. Coman XXXVII.10.); in the east village core, in front of the Zootechnical farmyard, there were discovered ceramic fragments which according to the type of paste, shape and ornamentation are dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXXVII.12.); village Broteni, on the promontory in the northeast end, contained between the right side of Racova and the left of Broteni brook, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4 th century (C. C. Cihodaru 1937-1938, p. 32 sq.; G. Coman 1980, XXXVII.15.). l Com. Iveti, waters: Tutova, Bisericii; settlement at Ciuciurul lui Ivan, potsherds in the west side, in village Pogoneti, ceramic remains in the area of the former stables, potsherds to the north-northeast, La Punte and in the west end. In village Iveti, at about 3 km north-northeast of the village, on the slope to the left of Tutova River, at Ciuciurul lui Ivan, there was discovered a settlement dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, XXXVIII.1., p. 164); in the yard of the former CAP, situated in thewest side, on the right of Tutova River, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4th century and the first half of the 5th century (V. Palade 1970a, p. 73 sq., fig. 1/1-5), later on, the villagers discovered three other tombs (G. Coman 1980, XXXVIII.6.); in village Pogoneti, at 500 m northwest and at about 500 m north of Belceti, in the area of the former CAP stables, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XXXVIII.8., p. 165); at about 1,5km north-northeast, on the right side of Pogoneti - Iveti road, toward the end of the orchard, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, XXXVIII.10); in the west end of village Pogoneti, on the left of Tutova River, La Punte, there were discovered ceramic materials (I. Mitrea 1972, p. 145; G. Coman 1980, XXXVIII.12); in the west end, on the right side of Tutova River, in the triangle formed by the three small hamlets, Pogoneti, Breana and Belceti, there

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were found potsherds dated to the 4th century (V. Palade 1974; G. Coman 1980, XXXVIII.14, p. 165166). l Com. Laza, waters: Hrova; no habitations were found (G. Coman 1980, XXXIX, p. 167-168). l Com. Lipov, waters: Lipov, Chioc, Cpuneni, Corbu; potsherds at Jitrie and Coada iazului. In village Lipov, at the point of confluence between Corbu brook with Lipov brook, at Jitrie, there were found ceramic fragments dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, XL.2., p. 169); at about 1,5 km east of the village, on the right side of the dam, on both sides of the road, at Coada iazului, Podul Lung, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XL.3., p. 170). l Com. Lunca Banului, waters: Prut; no 4th century settlements (G. Coman 1980, XLI, p. 171-172). l Com. Mluteni, waters: Horincea, Leaua, Recea, Zoieana, Licov, the village brook, Mnzteti; potsherds at the east entrance, at Grdinrie, settlements at Leaua and in village Lupeti at Fntna Mare, to the right of the confluence, ceramic remains behind the mill, settlements in the southeast end; in village Mnstirea, south of the village, potsherds to the left of Licov, in village Mnzteti, habitation in the east end, in village ucani, potsherds in the area of the school, vestiges at primary school teacher Cruceanu. In village Mluteni, starting with the area of the bridge from the east entrance into the village up to the church and school, there is a site and a level of potsherds showing grayish fine paste, dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 349; G. Coman 1980, XLII., p. 173); 200 m west of the settlement on Cetuia, on the west slope of Recea valley, at Grdinrie, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 349; I. Glodariu 1974, p. 195; G. Coman 1980, XLII.6., p. 174); at about 700 m east of the village there is Leaua brook, and from it also the name of the place, Leaua, where over 1km distance toward the village, and on the left side toward Schineni, there is a rich site in which there were also found ceramic remains dated to the 4th century, parts of Roman amphorae and a Constantinian bronze coin (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 349; G. Coman 1980, XLII.10., p. 174-175); in village Lupeti, at about 2,5 km to the north, at the origin of Horincea brook, at Fntna Mare, there is a wide and important site in which there were found numerous fragments of vessels dated to the 4 th and 5th centuries (Ibidem, XLII., 12., p.175); between the school and the dwelling of M. Leonte, on both sides of the brook flowing into Horincea, and especially to the right of the confluence, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 348; G. Coman 1980, p. LXII.14.); in the south end, behind Leontes State mill, there were discovered numerous ceramic fragments dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, p. LXII.15.); in the southeast end, on the left of Horinca, at the level of Leontes mill, there is a settlement from where there were gathered remains dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XLII.16.); in village Mnstirea, at about 800 m south of the village, on both sides of a small brook running from west to east, flowing to the right of Licov, there is a wide settlement mostly destroyed by ravines and land sliding, in which there was discovered also ceramic ware dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 356; G. Coman 1980, LXII.19., p. 176); 400 m away from the previous settlement, on the left side of Licov, in the south end of the orchard, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, XLII.20); in village Mnzteti, starting with the east end, on both sides of the road, including the left side of Mnzteti brook, up to Horincii meadow, there are habitation remains dated to the 4th, 5th6th centuries (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 350; G. Coman 1980, XLII.24., p. 177); village ucani, in the area of the two school buildings, there were found vestiges dated to the 4 th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 356; G. Coman 1980, XLII.26.); from the spring of the village brook, on its right, up to the bridge, where primary school teacher Cruceanu lives, there were found vestiges dated to the 4 th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 356; G. Coman 1980, XLII.27.). Com. Micleti, waters: Racul, Fundtura; ceramic remains at Fundtura, village Chirceti, habitations at Dumbrav, La Velni, a vessel at Coasta Vii Seci, ceramic ware at Corcodu, village Popeti, habitation on the hill crest. In village Micleti, at about 1,3 km southeast of the village and 200 m southwest of the forest house, from the Micleti Boeti road, at Fundtura, there were found ceramic fragments of wheel-made pottery dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, XLIII.1., p. 180); in village Chirceti, former Rui, in the southeast end, in point Dumbrav, La Moar, where there was the quarters of the former CAP, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4 th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em.

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Zaharia 1970, p. 317; G. Coman 1980, XLIII.2.); in the north end of village Chirceti-deal, in a valley dead-end named La Velni, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 2nd3rd and 4th centuries (Ibidem, XLIII.3., p. 180-181); at about 1 km southwest of the south end of village ChircetiDeal, in point Coasta Vii Seci, there was recuperated a wheel-made vessel, of grayish paste, dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XLIII.4., p. 181); on the promontory in the south-southwest end of village Chirceti Vale, former Prieni, at Corcodu, there was discovered a site with ceramic ware dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, XLIII.7.); in village Popeti, on the hill crest, situated at about 500 m west of the village, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 330; G. Coman 1980, XLIII.13, p. 181-182). l Com. Munteni de Jos, waters: Brlad, Crasna; coin in village Secuia, habitation in the west end In village Munteni de Jos, there was found a Roman coin, Constantius II (B. Mitrea 1961, p. 149; G. Coman 1980, XLIII.1., p. 183); in village Secuia, in the west end, on the right side of Vaslui Crasna road, on the place of the vegetable garden, there were habitation remains dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, XLIII.6, p. 184). l Com. Murgeni, waters: Oia, Elanul with Ursoaia, Srata, Bujorni, Leaua or Licov; potsherds at Bbneaa, towards the CFR building, settlements at Gura Bujoreni, at Iancobescu, Trnii Valley, habitations east of Murgeni, tiubeeni, settlement at Ilioaia, village 23 August, ceramic remains in the area of Mgeana school and in village Crja, Crja de Jos, habitations at Brsani, in the area of the bridge, settlements at Maa, at Brsana, village Leti, ceramic ware On the promontory, Southwest of the village, in village Sreni, habitation in front of the school, settlement in the east end, in village Schineni, habitation La Hor, potsherds on the right side of the brook, in village Vdeni, ceramic remains La Stn, at Gura Holob, the Water Tower. In village Murgeni, in the area of the mineral springs in the west end of the locality, at Bbneaa, on the left side of the springs, there were found potsherds dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 351; G. Coman 1980, XLV.2., p. 186); between the Veterinary clinic, toward the CFR building and the garden of N. Munteanu, there were found ceramic remains dated to the 4th century (idem 1973, p. 39, 49; idem 1980, XLV.4.); in the southwest end of the village, to the State farmyard, at Gura Bujoreni there were found 4th century habitation traces; between the materials discovered down there, there was a zoomorphic statuette possibly a dog , made of grayish fine paste, jewelry items, a Roman bronze fibula, in fragmentary condition, a Roman silver coin issued by Claudius II Gothicus or Constantius I (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 351; G. Coman 1973, p. 39, 49; idem 1980, XLIII.6., fig. 134/4-5; 141/12; 142/18; 144/1); at 200 m distance, in front of the Milk processing centre, on a promontory 700-800 m long, at Iancobescu, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4th century (idem 1973, p. 49, 52; idem 1980, XLV.8.); at about 2km west of Murgeni, at the spring of Bujoreni brook, at rnii Valley, there is a wide settlement with materials of the 2nd4th centuries (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 351; G. Coman 1973, p. 9, fig. 20; idem 1980, XLV.9., p. 187, fig. 142/16-17); at about 700 m east of Murgeni, in the area of the confluence point of Oia brook, the old village core, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 2nd4th centuries (Ibidem, XLV.13.); at about 1,5 km southeast of Murgeni, at the confluence of Ursoaia brook with Elanul, in point tiubeeni, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 351; G. Coman 1980, XLV.14.); at about 3 km southeast of Murgeni, on the left of Elan, at Ilioaia, there was discovered a settlement dated to the 2nd4th centuries (Ibidem, XLV.15., fig. 133/10); about 500 m south of Ilioaia sheepfolds and 300 m east of Colonel Bridge, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4th century (idem 1973, p. 39, 49; idem 1980, XLV.16.); in village 23 August, former Floreni, in the area of the school there were ceramic remains dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, XLV.21., p. 188); at about 1,5km south-southwest of the village, in the ara of the springs, at Mgeana, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 2 nd4th centuries (Ibidem, XLV.22.); in village Crja, around the dwelling of teacher C. Chirica and the church of Crja de Jos, there were discovered remains of vessels which according to the type of paste, technique, shapes and ornamentation, are dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, XLV.25.); in the north end, around the former CAP stables, at Brsani there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 342; G. Coman 1980, XLV.26.); at the main entrance in the village, coming from Murgeni, in the area of the bridge and of the brook that crosses the garden of T. Vultur, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4th5th centuries (Ibidem, XLV.27.); in the southeast side, on the slow slope near the marsh, north-east of point

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Maa, there were discovered numerous settlements dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, XLV.30., p. 188189); at about 3km south the village, on the hill crest situated between Elan River and Rdeanu pond, there are several sites, one of them dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XLV.32., p. 189); at about 2km west of the village, at Brsana, there are 4r5th centuries settlements (Ibidem, XLV.33.); in village Leti, in the north village core, in the area of the dwelling of Toader Zamfir, on both sides of the brook, there were habitation remains dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XLV.41.); on the interfluvial promontory, situated in the south-southwest end, there was discovered ceramic ware dated to the 4 th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 347; G. Coman 1980, XLV.43., p. 189); at about 1,5 km southwest of the village, on the slow slope to the left of Licov brook, to the right of the country road Leti - ucani, there were discovered fragments of wheel-made and hand-made vessels, of coarse paste mainly, of grayish and brick-red hue, dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XLV.47., p. 190); in village Sreni, in front of the school, on both sides of the ravine, there were found habitation remains dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XLV.48.); in the east end, between the former quarters and the CAP stables, on both sides of the brook, there was discovered a settlement with ceramic ware dated to the 4th5th centuries (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 353; G. Coman 1980, XLV.49.); in village Schineni, at about 400 m south of the previous settlement, La Hor, there were habitation remains dated to the 2nd4th centuries (Ibidem, XLV.53., p. 191); between the school, the village store, on the right side of the brook, there were found potsherds dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, XLV.54., p. 191); in village Vdeni, at about 1,5 km of the village, on the left of Holob brook, La Stn, there were discovered ceramic remains dated to the 2nd4th centuries (Ibidem, XLV.58.); at about 500 m north of the village, at Gura Holob, there is a rich settlement with numerous potsherds dated to the 4th5th centuries (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 352; G. Coman 1980, XLV.59.); on the right side of the way into village, at the Water Tower, there were potsherds dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XLV. 61., p. 191). l Town of Negreti, waters: Brlad, Stavnic; habitation at ignie, tombs at Velna, ceramic remains La lutrie, habitation at Pe arin, in village Parpania, ceramic remains in the north-east, Chetru hill. Negreti, in the northwest end of the town, on the left of dam, at ignie, there were found traces of habitation dated to the 4th century (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 32; N. Zaharia 1955, p. 909; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 326; G. Coman 1980, XLVI.1. p. 195); on the righ side of the dam, of former brook Velna, there were found inhumation tombs dated to the 4th century (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 32-33; I. Ioni 1966, fig. 1, nr. 16; idem, 1968, p. 293; G. Coman 1980, XLVI.2.); in the area of the clay quarry to the southeast end of the town, on the left terrace of Brlad River, near the Jewish cemetery, there lies a rich settlement in which there were found too ceramic remains dated to the 4th6th centuries (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 32-33; N. Zaharia 1955, p. 909; G. Coman 1980, XLVI.4.); in the south-southeast end of the town, at Pe arin, on the low terrace to the left of Brlad River, at about 1 km south of Parpania, there have been acknowledged habitation remains dated to the 3rd4th centuries (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 32-33; N. Zaharia 1955, p. 909; G. Coman 1980, XLVI.5.); village Parpania, in the northeast end, on the lower terrace of Stavnic brook, there were found ceramic remains which according to the type of paste, shape and ornamentation belong to the 4 th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 327; G. Coman 1980, XLVI.12., p. 196); on Chetru Hill, there were found ceramic fragments dated to the 4 th century (N. Zaharia 1955, p. 909, unidentified; G. Coman 1980, XLVI.12bis). l Com. Olteneti, waters: Lohan, Turchii valley, Crasna; settlement behind the railway station, village Curteni, habitations at Rpa Negroaiei, La Odaie, village Phna, Capul Dealului, satul Trzii, in the village core, village Vineeti, potsherds at the confluence of Turchii valley, habitation on the left side of Crasna. In village Olteneti, in the west end, behind the railway station, there was discovered a settlement dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 327; G. Coman 1980, XLVII.2., p. 198); in village Curteni, in the southeast end, on the right side of Lohan, at Rpa Negroaiei there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4rd6th centuries (N. Zaharia, M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 318; G. Coman 1980, XLVII.7., p. 199); La Odaie, situated close to Solomons pond, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4 th century (N. Zaharia 1955, p. 909; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 318; G. Coman 1980, XLVII.8.); in village

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Phna, at about 1 km southwest of the village, on a hill crest contained between Crasna and Lohan, in point Capul Dealului, Lutrie, there has been acknowledged an important settlement with ceramic remains dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, XLVII.12); the same in the village core of satul Trzii, near the church (Ibidem, XLVII.15.); in village Vineeti, at the confluence of Turchii valley there are ceramic fragments dated to the 4th century and habitation remains in the north end, on the left of Crasna (Ibidem, XLVII.20, 22., p. 200). l Com. Oeti, waters: Buda with Fundul Negrea; habitation south of the village. In village Oeti, 400 m southwards there are habitation remains (G. Coman 1980, XLVIII.1., p. 202). l Com. Pdureni, former Crligai, waters: Srata with Prul Mare; potsherds in the village core, in the northwest village core, in village Vleni, La Grne. In village Pdureni, in the village core, between school, mayoralty and village store, there were discovered fragments of vessels made of grayish paste dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, XLIX.1., p. 204); in the northwest village core, on the right side of the brook, in the are of the garden of T. D. Penioar, there were discovered potsherds resulting from wheel-made vessels, of grayish good paste, with polished ornaments and ring-like bases, dated to the 4th6th centuries Ibidem, XLIX.3.); village Vleni, former chiopeni, in the of the road in the village centre, At Grne there were discovered fragments of vessels which according to the type of paste, shape and ornamentation belong (Ibidem, XLIX.7.p. 205). l Com. Perieni, waters: Tutova, Crng brook; settlement at the bottom of Rocani Valley, on the left side of the road to Pogana, necropolis in village Podu Pietri, ceramic remains at Hrtop, habitation on the lower terrace. In village Perieni, in the northwest side, at the bottom of Rocani valley, on both sides of the ravine, there was discovered a settlement dated to the 3 rd4th centuries (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1957, p. 76, fig. 10/28; G. Coman 1980, L.1., p. 206); at about 1,5 km south -southwest of the village and 700 m northwest of the crossroad of the road Perieni - Pogana, on the left side of the road to Pogana, there has been acknowledge a settlement dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, L.5., p. 207); in village Podu Pietri, at about 300 m east of the village there was discovered a necropolis dated to the 4th century (Em. Zaharia, N. Zaharia, V. Palade 1962, p. 591, fig. 1-7; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 328; Ioni 1971, p. 204; G. Coman 1980, L.10.); at about 500 m north of the necropolis specified in the previous point, in point Hrtop, on the left of Tutova River, there were discovered ceramic remains dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 591-597, fig. 1-7; G. Coman 1980, L.11.); on the lower terrace on the right of Tutova River, at mid-distance between Pietri and Ciocani, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 3 rd4th centuries (N. Zaharia, M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 328; G. Coman 1980, L.11.). l Com. Pogana, waters: Tutova cwith Crjoani; ceramic materials at Lutria. In village Pogana, on the southwest terrace at the village end, on the left side of Tutova River, in Lutria, there were discovered ceramic materials dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, LI.2., p. 209). l Com. Poieneti, waters: Simila, Racova; settlement and necropolis on Mgura Dealul teilor, necropolis ipotul lui Stan, village Floreti, potsherds at Gdeasa. In village Poieneti, on Mgura Dealul teilor there was researched a necropolis and a settlement dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, LII.1., p. 211-212); down here there was found a fragment of an amphora with an X sign on the neck, drawn with red paint (Em. Popescu 1976, p. 401, fig. point 443; 600 m south the settlement Dealul Teilor, in the area of the former C.A.P. storage spaces and at ipotul lui Stan, nowadays the Water Tower, there was acknowledged a necropolis din sec. III-IV (Ibidem, LII.3., p. 212); village Floreti, at about 2 km south-southeast de village, on the left side of Simila, at Gdeasa there were found numerous fragments of vessels, which, according to the type of paste, shape and ornamentation belong to the 4th century (C. C. Cihodaru 1938, p. 35-37, fig. 14-15; R. Vulpe 1953, p. 219; G. Coman 1980, LII.9., p. 213). l Com. Puieti, waters: Tutova, Iezerul, Cociuba, Fulgul, Ciubota, no settlements (Ibidem, LIII.). l Pungeti, waters: Racova with Speia, Lipova; potsherds in the brook area, habitations at Btrna Hill, Recea Hill, village Armoaia, settlement at La Loturi, village Toporti, potsherds at Borcutul Toportilor, settlement in the area of the stables. In village Pungeti, in the area of the brook running in front of the church, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, LIV.1., p. 217); at the southwest feet of Btrna Hill, in the east-southeast side, to the left of Racova, there were discovered habitation remains din sec. III-IV (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 18; idem, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970,

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p. 330, pl. CCXLV/16; G. Coman 1980, LIV.2., p. 217-218); at about 3 km west-northwest of the village, on the last extension of Recea Hill or Scurtoci, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4th century (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 18; G. Coman 1980, LIV.4., p. 218); in village Armoaia, in the north-northeast side, at the confluence of Speia, La Loturi, there was discovered a settlement with ceramic remains of the 3 rd4th centuries (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 19; G. Coman 1980, LIV.7., p. 218); in village Toporti, at the south-southeast end of Toportilor Hill, in the point Borcutul Toportilor, there were discovered ceramic fragments dated to the 3rd4th centuries (R. Vulpe et alii 1950, p. 43; C. C. Cihodaru 1933-1934, p. 45 sq.; M. PetrescuDmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 19; G. Coman 1980, LIV.12., p. 219); in the southwest end, in the area of the stables of CAP, there is a 4th century settlement; G. Coman 1980, LIV.13. p. 219). l Com. Rebricea, waters: Bolai, Rateul Cuzei; fragments of vessels behind the school, in the east end, village Rateul Cuzei, railway station, village Sasova, in the area of the springs. In village Rebricea, on the slow slope, behind the school and the mayoralty, there were discovered numerous fragments of 4th century vessels (G. Coman 1980, LV.1., p. 220); in the east end, on the low terrace to the right of the brook, 300 m south of the previous settlement, there were found ceramic remains belonging to the 4th century (Ibidem, LV.2.); in village Rateul Cuzei, starting with the area around the school up to beyond the road, there were discovered ceramic remains dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, LV.8., p. 221); at about 1 km east of the railway station, on the east and south slopes of the hill crest situated to the right of Bolai brook, there were found potsherds dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, LV.9.); in village Sasova, in the area of the springs in the southwest side, there were found ceramic remains dated to the 4th, 5th6th centuries (Ibidem, LV.10.). l Com. Roieti, waters: Idrici, Brlad, Ciunta; ceramic remains at the School..., village Codreni, vestiges at Tlhreti, village Gara Roieti, remains of vessels in the La stn, habitation in the right loop, village Gura Idrici, ceramic remains at Ciunta, Stna lui Zlatan and settlement at La Coer. In village Roieti, on the place between the school, medical practice and mayoralty, on both sides of the brook, there were discovered fragments of wheel-made vessels of greyish paste, dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, LVI.1., p. 222); in village Codreni, former Tlhreti, between the north end of the village and the forest, on the right side of Idrici brook, there was discovered a wide settlement with vestiges dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, LVI.3., p. 223); in village Gara Roieti, La stn, on the left side of Brlad River, there were discovered remains of vessels dated to the 4 th, 5th6th centuries (Ibidem, LVI.5.); between the right loop of River Brlad, between the church and the national road Brlad - Vaslui, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, LVI.6.); in village Gura Idrici, at about 1 km southwest of the village, in the area of the springs around the pond, on both sides of Ciunta brook there were discovered ceramic remains dated to the 4th century (C. C. Cihodaru et alii 1951, p. 227; G. Coman 1980, LVI.9., p. 223-224); in the northeast end of the village, on the promontory contained between the Idrici loop, La Coer, there is a site with a settlement dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, LVI.12., p. 224); at Zlatans shepfold in the east end of the village, on the left of Idrici brook, there were discovered potsherds specific to the 4th century AD. (Ibidem, LVI.15.). l Com. Soleti, waters: Vasluiul, Blai; village erboteti, tomb in the southeast end of the village. In village erboteti, on the hill crest in the southeast end of the village, nowadays surrounded by the local dam, there was discovered an inhumation tomb and a potters workshop where there were identified a clay mug and an iron sword assigned to the 4 th century (I. Ioni 1964, p. 312; G. Coman 1980, LVII.2., p. 227). l Com. Stnileti, waters: Prut; village sat Bogdana-Voloseni, settlement east of the village, village BuduCantemir, habitation to the right of the brook. In village Bogdana-Voloseni, at about 500 m east of the village, in the slow slope to the right of the brook, there is a settlement dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, LVIII.2., p. 229); in village BuduCantemir, at about 600 m south-of the village, to the right of the brook, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4rd5th centuries (Ibidem, LVIII.4.). l Com. tefan cel Mare, waters: Brlad; potsherds in the area of the springs, village Brzeti, vestiges at Ludeasca. In village tefan cel Mare, in the south end, near the former CAP stables, in the area of the brooks, to the right of the road Vaslui - tefan cel Mare, there were discovered remains of vessels dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, LIX.1., p. 230); in village Brzeti, at about 500 m southwest of the railway station, on the low terrace of Brlad River, there were found ceramic remains of the 3 rd4th centuries

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(Ibidem, LIX.2., p. 230-231); at about 1 km northeast of the railway station of Brzeti, in the point Ludeasca, there are vestiges dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, LIX.4., p. 231). l Com. uletea, waters: Glod and uletea Valley, settlement and necropolis, ipote, potsherds southwards of ipote, village Fedeti, settlements toward the old school, Cetuie, village Jiglia, ceramic remains to the northeast, habitations at Moara Juvar, La Pod. In village uletea, on both sides of the brook, at Silite or ipote, at about 600 m southeast of the village, there were discovered traces of habitation dated to the 4 th century and a necropolis (C. C. Cihodaru et alii 1951, p. 215; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 355; G. Coman 1980, LX.1, p. 233, fig. 137/4; M. Rotaru 1981-82, p. 243 sq., fig. 1-4); on the east side of the interfluvium situated further from the site of ipote, southwards, in the area of the bridge, there were found potsherds dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, LX.2., p. 233); in village Fedeti, toward the old school, ipot and Ion Orman, there is a 4th century settlement, in which mention should be made of comb making workshop using deer antlers, discovered in front of the old school (V. Palade 1971b, p. 202 sq.; G. Coman 1980, LX.7., p. 234); at about 1,5 km southwest of the village, at Cetuie, there were confirmed settlements dated to the 3rd4th centuries (Ibidem, LX.13., p. 235); in village Jiglia, at about 800 m northeast and 300 m north of the mill, on the right side of the brook there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, LX.17.); in the northeast end, at Juvar Mill, there are numerous habitation remains dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 347; G. Coman 1980, LX.18.); in the northeast end, La Pod, on both sides of the brook, there are rich habitation remains dated to the 4 th5th centuries (Ibidem, LX.19.). l Com. Tanacu, waters: Vasluiul, Burghiriul; settlements at Jitari, esul iganilor, habitation in the north area, around the school. In village Tanacu, at about 4 km south of the village, close to the Hui road, at Jitari, there was identified a settlement rich in potsherds dated the 3rd4th centuries (G. Coman 1980, LXI.3., p. 239); to the east of it, beyond The Gipsys Meadow (esul iganilor,) close to Lucas Fountain, there was discovered a settlement containing numerous materials dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, LXI.4.); in the north area, near the church, on both sides of the brook, there are habitation remains dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, LXI.6.); similarly, in the area of the school, there were recovered such remains too (Ibidem, LXI.7.). l Com. Tcuta, waters: Valea Larg, Recea; materials La Saivane, village Dumasca, ceramic remains Izvorul lui Rzlog and Negruul valley and village Mirceti, Silite. In village Tcuta, in the west end, on the slow slope to the left of the brook, in the area named La Saivane or Lutria Vieru, there were discovered materials dated to the 4th6th centuries (G. Coman 1980, LXII.2., p. 242, fig. 138/8); in village Dumasca, around the springs in the north end, between Izvorul lui Rzlog and Negruului valley there were discovered ceramic remains dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, LXII.8., p. 242); in village Mirceti, on the place called Silite, in the village end, there were found potsherds dated to the 2nd3rd and 4th centuries (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia, p. 325; Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 28; G. Coman 1980, LXII.15., p. 243). l Com. Ttrni, waters: Crasna; vessels at the village shop, village Blai, vestiges On the hill, settlement Rziei hill, village Giurgeti, potsherds In the clearing, village Leoti, settlement on Berbeceni hill. In village Ttrni, during the construction of the village shop there were found several wheel-made vessels dated to the 4th5th centuries (G. Coman 1980, LXIII.7., p. 246, fig. 139/5; 146/1-2, 4); village Blai, at about 1 km vest, on the slope of Cinelui hill, on the place named on the hill (n Deal), toward tiobornilor forest, there were discovered vestiges dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, LXIII.9.); west of the village, on Rziei hill, there has been acknowledged a settlement dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, LXIII.11.); in village Giurgeti, west of the village, in the point named in the clearing (n Dumbrav), on the right side of Crasna brook, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, LXIII.14., p. 246-247); village Leoti, at about 1,5 km south of the village, on the slope of Berbeceni hill, there is also a settlement dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, LXIII.17., p. 247). l Com. Todireti, waters: Brlad, acov, Vlnicelul; settlements towards the school, vestiges in the village core, habitation at the IAS quarters, potsherds in the north-northeast end, La Canton, village Drgeti, Pe Izlaz - Sub Silite, village Plopoasa, Moman, village Silitea, settlements at Corlate, village Valea Plopii, habitation on the hill crest. In village Todireti on the ground toward the school and the childbirth house there have been acknowledged settlements of the 3rd4th centuries (N. Zaharia 1955, p. 910; G. Coman 1980, LXIV.2., p.

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau

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248); in the village core, in the ditches of the road in front of the police station there were found 3rd4th century vestiges (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 24-26; G. Coman 1980, LXIV.3.); at the east entrance into the village, on the left side terrace of Brlad River, at the IAS quarters, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4 th century (G. Coman 1980, LXIV.4.); in the northnortheast end, on the left of the way to Drgeti, there were discovered 3 rd4th centuries potsherds (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 24-26; G. Coman 1980, LXIV.6.); on the place named La Canton in the west-northwest end, on the way Bceti-Negreti, between the lower terrace on the left of Brlad and Malo brook, there were found ceramic remains dated to the 3 rd4th centuries (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 24-26; G. Coman 1980, LXIV.7., p. 248-249); in village Drgeti, in the south-southwest end, in the point named Pe Izlaz - Sub Silite, there were discovered 4rd5th centuries potsherds (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 29-30; G. Coman 1980, LXIV.9., p. 249, fig. 169/8-10); in village Plopoasa, on a plateau situated at about 1km north of the village, on the place named Moman, there are ceramic remains that seem to be dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, LXIV.13.); in village Silitea, on the west side of the hill on which there spreads the village, at about 1,4km to the north-northeast, on the place named Corlate, there have been acknowledged 3rd4th centuries settlements (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 28-29; G. Coman 1980, LXIV.17., p. 250); in village Valea Plopii, on the hill crest situated in the west end, on the left of acov, there were discovered 3rd4th centuries habitation remains (Ibidem, LXIV.21.). l Tutova, waters: Brlad, Hobana; there are no settlements dated to the 4 th century (G. Coman 1980, LXV, p. 252-253). l City of Vaslui, waters: Racova, Vaslui, Brlad; tombs on the terrace in front of the hospital, habitation in front of the furniture factory, necropolis in front of the statue, habitation at Drghici, ceramic remains on the left of the old river bed, village Brodoc, habitation at the river fords, fragments of vessels beyond the railway line. City of Vaslui, with the occasion of urban works on the terrace in front of the hospital there were identified two inhumation tombs dated to the 4th5th centuries, and the potters workshops therein contained vessels of fine or coarse paste, a bone comb, two bronze fibulas with the foot turned underneath, 12 amber beads (G. Coman 1980, LXVI.2., p. 255, fig. 136/11; 139/1-4, 7; 141/8-9; 142/112); in front of the furniture factory and beyond the railway line, in the west end of the city, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 3rd4th centuries (G. Coman 1980, LXVI.3.); the excavations for the construction of blocks of flats in front of the statue of Stephen the Great pointed out a biritual necropolis dated to the end of the 4th century and the first half of the 5th century (Ibidem, LXVI.7., p. 255, fig. 137/5; 139/8; 145/8; 168/7, 9); behind the old hospital, at Drghici, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4th, 5th6th centuries (Ibidem, LXVI.8.); at about 1km northwest of the city, on the left of the old bed of Brlad River, there were discovered ceramic remains dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, LXVI.9.); in village Brodoc, composing locality, at about 800 m northeast of the village, in the fords of river Brlad, there were found habitation remains dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, LXVI.13., p. 256); also in the direction of the previous point, but at 1,5km distance from the village, just beyond the railway line, there were discovered remains of vessels (G. Coman 1980, LXVI.14.). l Com. Vleni, waters: Vaslui, Srata Feretilor; village Fereti, settlement in the south end. In village Fereti, at the quarters of the former C.A.P., situated on the interfluvium in the south end, formed by Sarata Fereti with a local brook, there were discovered ceramic remains dated to the end of the 4th century first half of the 5th, with a kiln ( = 1,55 m; h = 2 m), with a deeper access room, situated at 2,60 m (G. Coman 1980, LXVII.1., p. 259). l Com. Vetrioaia, waters: Prut; habitation cheia, ceramic remains La Stni, La ipot, settlements at Pojorni, in the area of the gardens, remains of amphorae La Cram. In village Vetrioaia, at the quarters of the farmyard in Pojorni, situated about 2km north of the quarters, on the place named cheia, there are habitation remains dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, LXVIII.1., p. 261); 500 m more to the south if compared to the previous settlement, in the location named La Stni, there were identified ceramic remains dated to the 3rd4th centuries (Ibidem, LXVIII.2., p. 261-262); 500 m north of the quarters of IAS Pojorni, on both sides of the road, in the place named La ipot, there were discovered numerous fragments of vessels dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 352; G. Coman 1980, LXVIII.3., p. 262); around the quarters of IAS Pojorni, on both sides of the road there have been acknowledged several settlements, out of which one dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, LXVIII.4.); in the southeast end, in the area of the CAP

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Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

gardens, there is also a settlement dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, LXVIII.18., p. 263); at about 2,5 km west of Satu Nou - Vetrioaia, in the place named La Cram, on the hill crest there were discovered remains of Roman amphorae dated to the 3rd4th centuries (Ibidem, LXVIII.20.). l Com. Viioara, waters: Brlad, Dodeti, Jiglia; potsherds La Holban, habitation toward the school, village Dodeti, settlements at ipot and Clugreasca, railway station of Dodeti, habitation north of the village, ceramic remains In the vegetable garden, village Urdeti, Pelmeana, village Viltoteti, the southeast village core. In village Viioara, on the terrace at the spring of the village brook, La Holban, there were gathered numerous potsherds dated to the 2nd3rd, 4th centuries (G. Coman 1980, LXIX.2., p. 264, fig. 133/7; 142/23,); toward the school, mayoralty and dwelling of N. Chelaru, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, LXIX.3., p. 265); in village Dodeti, at the origing of Dodeti Jiglia brook, at the bottom of a valley situated between villages Dodeti and Tmeni, there are two points ipot and Clugreasca, where there were found food storage vessels containing carbonized millet as well as a wide variety of vessels shaped of fine paste and Roman amphorae of the 4 th century, with dwelling, ovens, kilns, iron items such as a scale, a plough share, clips, jewellery items (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 343; I. Ioni 1971, p. 204; G. Coman 1980, LXIX.4., p. 265-266, fig. 142/23; 136/9); the railway station of Dodeti, at 500 m, north of the village, on a mound, between the railway and the left side of Brlad River, there were discovered habitation remains dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, LXIX.8., p. 267); In the vegetable garden, situated 300 m west of the village, on the low terrace of Brlad, there are ceramic remains dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, LXIX.10.); in village Urdeti, at about 800 m north of the village, on the place named Pelmeana, there were discovered potsherds which seem to belong to the 4th century (Ibidem, p. 267, LXIX.11.); in village Viltoteti, in the southeast village core, in the area of of tefan Stamates garden, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, p. 267, LXIX.13.). l Com. Vinderei, waters: Jrav; village Docneasa, potsherds Docneasa. In village Docneasa, on the left of Jrav brook, at the level of the railway station of Docneasa, there were found potsherds dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, LXX.5., p. 270). l Com. Voineti, waters: Tutova, Bulbuceni brook, Mrului, Iezerul; village Avrmeti, settlement tiubeeni, potsherds at Lungaa, the end of a hill crest, village Obreni - Lingurari, necropolis on Corului hill, settlement at the CAP garden. In village Avrmeti, 1 km southeast of the village, in the point named tiubeeni, there is a settlement with potsherds dated to the 4th century (G. Coman 1980, LXXI.7., p. 272); at about 1 km south of the village, in the point named Lungaa, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4th century (C. N. Mateescu 1942-43, p. 52, specifies a point named Porniturile Scuele; G. Coman 1980, LXXI.8.); on the end of a hill crest which disappears in the north end of the fruit tree orchard no. 1, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, LXXI.9., p. 273); in village Obreni - Lingurari, west of the village in a clay quarry on Corului Hill there were carried out salvage excavations in a 4 th century necropolis; in the potters workshop and with wheel-made vessels of greyish fine paste, dishes, mugs, a vessel of coarse paste, fragments of amphorae and also hand-made vessels of raw paste (R. Vulpe et alii 1950, p. 43; I. Mitrea 1969, p. 219-232, fig. 3-4; G. Coman 1980, LXXI.13., p. 274, fig. 136/1-7); at about 400 m northeast of the necropolis, beyond the valley and the village road, in the place named the CAP garden there is a settlement which corresponds to the necropolis, dated to the 4 th century (C. C. Cihodaru et alii 1951, R. Vulpe 1950, p. 43; I. Mitrea 1969, p. 230; G. Coman 1980, LXXI. 14.). l Com. Vultureti, waters: Rebricea, Brlad; potsherds in the south end, the hill extension, village Buhieti, remains of vessels at the railway station of Buhieti, necropolis at Bleti hill. In village Vultureti, in the south end, on the right side of the road Buheti - Negreti, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 3rd4th centuries (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 36; G. Coman 1980, LXII.1., p. 276); on the south hill extension which disappears in the meadow of Brlad, on the lots of Ion Gh. Zaharia and V. Sicrieru, there were discovered fragments of vessels dated to the 3rd4th centuries (Ibidem, LXII.4.); in village Buhieti, on the promontory situated 200 m southwest of the railway station of Buhieti, there were discovered remains of vessels assigned to the 4th century (Ibidem, LXII.6., p. 276-277); at about 1 km northwest of the railway station, on the west slop of Bleti hill, close to the meadow, there is a necropolis dated to the 4 th century (N. Zaharia 1955, p. 908; M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em Bold, M. Dinu 1955, p. 37; G. Coman 1980, LXXII.8., p. 277).

Descoperiri n Podiul Brladului-sec. IV / Fourth Century Discoveries on the Brlad Plateau


l

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Com. Vutcani, waters: Vutcani, pota Elan; habitation on the left side of the brook, potsherds around the church, settlement La Movili, village Pota-Elan, potsherds at Huius acacias. In village Vutcani, on the left side of Vutcani brook, between the mayoralty and school no. 2, there were several habitations out of which a settlement dated to the 4 th century (G. Coman 1980, LXXIII.1., p. 278); around the church of St. Nicholas and the dwelling of teacher Ion Diaconu, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, LXXIII.4.); at about 1 km south the village, on both sides of Vutcani brook, at Racovii bridge, in the point named La Movili, there is another settlement dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, LXXIII.7., p. 279); village Pota-Elan, north of the village, in the point named Salcmii lui Huiu (Huius acacias), there are potsherds dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, LXXIII.10.). l Com. Zpodeni, waters: Telejna, Brlad, Unceti; site in the southwest end, potsherds on the hill crest, village Butucria, habitation Childeti, village Unceti, habitation La Pot. In village Zpodeni, on the hill crest in the southwest end of the locality, at the quarters of the former C.A.P., there is a settlement with a level dated to the 4th century (I. Ioni 1966, p. 192; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 335, pl. CCXLVIII/6; Al. Andronic, I. Ioni, Fl. Banu 1962, p. 800; G. Coman 1980, LXXIV.2., p. 280, fig. 137/2-3; 138/1-3); on the interfluvium formed by Telejna brook with the valley of Brlad, in the point named Capul Dealului (the hill crest), situated at about 3km south the village, there were discovered potsherds dated to the 3rd4th centuries (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 9; G. Coman 1980, LXXIV.4.); village Butucria, at about 2 km east of the village, on the west slope named Childeti, of Dealul mare, Dealul Buna, there was identified a meadow with habitation remains dated to the 4th century (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 316; G. Coman 1980, LXXIV.5.); village Unceti, at the mouth of Unceti brook valley, in the point named La Pot, on the terrace contained between the plain of Brlad and the road, at about 2,5 km south-southeast of Buhieti railway station, there were discovered habitation remains assigned to the 4th century (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, M. Dinu, Em. Bold 1958, p. 9; G. Coman 1980, LXXIV.7., p. 281). l Com. Zorleni, waters: Brlad, Zorleni, Simila; settlements at Fntnele farmyard, necropolis La Plopi, settlements on the right side of the brook, downstream, on the low terrace, village Popeni, habitation Ghenetii Vechi, potsherds toward the school, on the Promontory. In village Zorleni, in front of Fntnele farmyard, to the left of Brlad, at about 400 m, in a settlement dated to the 4th century there was discovered a kiln containing all the batch, and which in the fire chamber had a central pillar for sustaining the perforated plate (V. Palade 1969, p. 339; idem 1987-1989, p. 53 sq.; G. Coman 1980, LXXV.2., p. 283); at about 1,5 km east of the village, to the right of the road Zorleni - Popeni, in the point named La Plopi, there is a necropolis dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, LXXV.5., p. 284); at about 500 m north of the above necropolis, to the right of the brook coming from Popeni, there was pointed out a 4th century settlement; also to the right of the brook, at about 400 m downstream, there is a settlement dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, LXXV.6-7.); about 1 km south the village, at the confluence of Vrlezu valley, on the right of the railway line Brlad - Zorleni, there were pointed out habitation remains dated to the 4 th century; similarly, about 2km south the village, on the low terrace between the railway line and the left of the Brlad (Ibidem, LXXV.8-9.); in village Popeni, in the small valley named Ghenetii Vechi, on the right side of the road Murgeni - Popeni, there was also pointed out a habitation level dated to the 4 th century (Ibidem, LXXV.16.); toward the school and the church there were found potsherds dated to the 4th century and on the promontory to the west end, between the road Popeni - Zorleni and the brook, at the vegetable garden, there were numerous other potsherds dated to the 3rd 4th centuries (Ibidem, LXXV.21-22., p. 285).

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Aspecte paleodemografice specifice unor populaii din secolul al IV-lea de pe actualul teritoriu al Judeului Vaslui
Simalcsik Robert Simalcsik Angela

Introducere Lucrarea reprezint un studiu comparativ de ansamblu, att din punct de vedere paleodemografic ct i paleoantropologic, asupra unor populaii aparinnd culturii Sntana de Mure, care au trit pe teritoriul unor localiti din zona actualului jude Vaslui, n secolul al IV-lea i la nceputul secolului al V-lea p.Hr. Spturile sistematice executate n necropolele sau aezrile menionate au scos la iveal un bogat material arheologic, antropologic, paleozoologic, de o deosebit importan n elucidarea problemelor legate de evoluia cultural, social, economic i biologic a populaiilor care au trit pe actualul teritoriu al judeului Vaslui n secolele IV-V p.Hr. Menionm c rezultatele paleoantropologice i demografice provin din studii anterioare, ntreprinse de specialitii n domeniu i publicate: Georgeta Miu, Vasile Palade i Cezarina Blteanu pentru Bogdneti, Flciu, Dan Botezatu Georgeta Miu i Vasile Palade pentru Brlad Valea Seac, Georgeta Miu i Ruxandra Alaiba pentru Banca Gar - apte case, Georgeta Miu i Mircea Mamalauc, pentru Polocin - Islaz i Pogoneti. Bogdneti, Flciu Investigaiile arheologice de la Bogdneti, Flciu (jud. Vaslui) au fost executate n intervalul 1968-1971 de V. Palade, perioad n care s-a dezvelit o mare necropol biritual, din care s-au cercetat 59 de schelete de inhumate, dar i 54 de schelete de incineraie (1971, p. 21 i urm.; Idem 1973, p. 169 i urm.,), aparinnd culturii Sntana de Mure. Cercetrile antropologice de la Bogdneti, Flciu au fost realizate de Dan Botezatu, Georgeta Miu i Cezarina Blteanu (1987-1989, p. 91 i urm). Brlad - Valea Seac Materialul deshumat sub ndrumarea arheologului Vasile Palade, n intervalul 1971-1980, din necropola biritual de la Brlad - Valea Seac (jud. Vaslui), dateaz de asemenea din perioada n discuie, din secolele IV-V p.Hr. i cuprinde 166 de morminte de inhumaie i 109 de incineraie (V. Palade 1980, p. 407 i urm.; Idem 1982, p. 181 i urm.; Idem 1983, p. 398 i urm.; Idem 1986, care au fost studiate din punct de vedere antropologic de Dan Botezatu i Georgeta Miu (D. Botezatu, G. Miu, P. Cantemir 1983, p. 17; V. Palade 1979, p. 265 i urm.; Idem 1980, p. 407 i urm.). Banca Gar - apte case n urma investigaiilor arheologice realizate la Banca Gar, punctul apte case, ntre anii 1981-1989, cu ntreruperile din anii 1984 i 1987, s-a spat o suprafa de 3400 m 2, aproximativ jumtate din vechiul areal al acesteia i s-au descoperit un numr 142 de complexe arheologice din perioade diferite, din care doar ase morminte de inhumatie, studiate de Georgeta Miu i prezentate arheologic de R. Alaiba, dintre care numai patru au fost datate perioadei dintre secolele III-IV p.Hr. Menionm i faptul c, dei n preajma acestor morminte s-au realizat ample investigaii arheologice, nu au mai fost descoperite i alte morminte. Se presupune c acestea au fcut parte, probabil, dintr-o necropol care se ntindea n zona n care s-a spat noua albie a Brladului (R. Alaiba, G. Miu, S. Stanc 2005, p. 154, 159).

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Polocin - Islaz Spturile de la Polocin, punctul Islaz, au fost realizate de Mircea Mamalauc, n cadrul cercetrilor arheologice ntreprinse de Muzeul Vasile Prvan Brlad. Din aceast necropol, de la Polocin - Izlaz, pn n prezent s-au investigat 49 de schelete sau resturi scheletice, din care 33 de nhumaie i 16 de incineraie, toate fiind studiate din punct de vedere antropologic de ctre Georgeta Miu (~, B. Lupacu 2007, p. 37 i urm.). Pogoneti - La Movil Investigaiile arheologice realizate pe raza actualului sat Pogoneti, punctul La Movila (jud. Vaslui), au fost realizate tot de ctre Mircea Mamalauc i au dus la scoaterea la iveal a 26 de schelete de nhumaie, la fel studiate din punct de vedere antropologic de ctre Georgeta Miu (~, B. Lupacu 2007, p. 37 i urm.). Menionm c n ultimele dou puncte cercetrile arheologice mai continu. Toate aceste materiale antropologice au fost analizate aprofundndu-se n paralel i investigarea lor antropologic, care a completat concluziile arheologice i istorice. Astfel, n colaborare strns cu istoricii, arheologii i paleofaunitii, paleoantropologii au putut aduce o important contribuie la unele din problemele referitoare la populaiile care au trit pe teritoriul actual al Moldovei. Studiile publicate n revistele de specialitate ne-au dat posibilitatea centralizrii unor date demografice i a comparrii lor. Materialul i metodele de lucru Toate materialele osteologice, provenite din mormintele de inhumaie i incineraie, din aezrile menionate au fost studiate pe morminte, individual, dar i populaional i paleodemografic. S-a recurs la determinarea sexului i vrstei la deces a fiecrui schelet n parte sau chiar rest de schelet, urmndu-se n acest scop metodele i tehnicile recomandate n urma discuiilor purtate la edinele de lucru ale antropologilor de la Praga (1973) i de la Sarospatak (1978). Pe baza acestor determinri au fost calculate valorile mortalitii, constituite tabele de distribuie a subiecilor dup vrst i sex. Caracterizrile individuale ale fiecrui schelet din seriile studiate au permis conturarea particularitilor populaionale ale acestora (D. Botezatu, G. Miu, P. Cantemir 1983, p. 24-26; D. Botezatu, G. Miu, C. Blteanu 1987-1989, p. 92-93; G. Miu, B. Lupacu 2007, p. 44-45). Menionm i faptul c, n ceea ce privete resturile de schelete incinerate de la Polocin Islaz (jud. Vaslui), minuios analizate de ctre Georgeta Miu, pentru care s-a precizat doar vrsta i sexul, datele au fost folosite, alturi de cele ale scheletelor de nhumaie, la aprecierea mortalitii pe sexe i vrste a grupului populaional de la Polocin - Islaz (Ibidem 2007, p. 37-45). De asemenea, precizm i faptul c, scheletele de nhumaie de la Bogdneti, Flciu, din totalul acestora de 166, doar 138 s-au pretat studiului antropologic populaional, determinrii sexului i vrstei, celelalte fiind ntr-o precar stare de conservare (D. Botezatu, G. Miu, C. Blteanu 1987-1989, p. 91-93). Mormintele de la Banca Gar - apte case Pe teritoriul satului Banca Gara, n zona cercetat de arheologi din punctul apte case (jud. Vaslui), dup cum am menionat anterior, au fost descoperite doar ase morminte de nhumaie, dintre care dou datate ntre secolele X-XIII, alte trei morminte au fost datate n secolele III-IV (de tip Sntana de Mure) i un singur mormnt a fost considerat ca aparinnd perioadei bronzului timpuriu. Georgeta Miu a realizat o analiz detaliat a fiecrui schelet n parte, att din punct de vedere arheologic, ct i paleoantropologic, din care au rezultat informaii importante asupra vieii economico-sociale i spirituale a comunitilor ce au trit n silitea investigat. Dat fiind numrul

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foarte mic de indivizi, nu s-a putut realiza o analiz de ordin paleodemografic (vezi G. Miu n R. Alaiba, ~, S. Stanc 2005, 159). Totui, vom recurge la o descriere sumar a acestora:

mormntul de nhumaie nr. 3, datat n secolul al IV-lea p.Hr., a aparinut unui schelet feminin de vrst matur (40 - 45 ani), iar ca tip antropologic corespunde cu predominan tipului mediteranoid, cu influene slabe nordoide (Ibidem, p. 158); mormntul de nhumaie nr. 4, datat de asemenea n secolul al IV-lea p.Hr., aparinea unui copil cu vrsta de cca. 6-7 ani (infans I determinat dup dentiie, prezena molarului de 6 ani alturi de dentiia de lapte a permis autorului s precizeze vrsta), de sex probabil feminin, conform inventarului funerar (Ibidem, p. 157); mormntul de nhumaie nr. 5, din secolele III-IV p.Hr., aparine unei femei tinere de cca. 18-20 de ani, iar ca diagnoz tipologic se ncadreaz, pe un fond mediteranoid n amestec cu elemente protoeuropoide sau pe un fond protomediteranoid (Ibidem, p. 156-157); mormntul de nhumaie nr. 6, datat n bronzul timpuriu; aparine unui individ de sex masculin, tnr, cu vrsta cuprins ntre 30-35 de ani. Din analiza scheletului, foarte fragmentat i deteriorat, autorul a concluzionat cu oarecare rezerve c acesta poate fi ncadrat ca tip antropologic - tipului protoeuropoid (Ibidem, p. 154-155).

Aspecte paleodemografice Pentru subiecii ce provin din mormintele de nhumaie, graie faptului c acetia s-au pretat unei determinri mai exacte a vrstei i sexului, autorii au putut analiza mai muli parametri demografici, printre care: structura pe sexe i vrste a subiecilor, coeficientul de supravieuire, sperana de via, vrsta medie la deces. Necropola de la Bogdneti Dup cum rezult din tabelul nr. 1, n care am nscris procentele mortalitii pe sexe i vrste nregistrate pentru cele patru grupuri de populaii din secolul al IV-lea, de pe raza judeului Vaslui, s-a constatat o mortalitate ridicat a populaiei: sub 20 de ani la Bogdneti, n mod special a copiilor sub 14 ani (22,03%), urmai de adolesceni (10,17%). Astfel, categoria populaiei 0 - 20 ani nsumeaz o pondere a mortalitii de 32,20% din totalul populaiei de la Bogdneti. Mortalitatea cea mai ridicat ns se puncteaz la vrsta matur, cu un procent de peste jumtate din populaie (50,85%), categoriile aduli i subiecii trecui de 60 ani fiind mai rar ntlnite (5,08% i respectiv 6,77%). Din punctul de vedere al repartiiei pe sexe, raportul brbai / femei este destul de echilibrat, n sensul c din numrul total de 37 subieci trecui de vrsta de 20 de ani (al cror sex a putut fi determinat), 51,35% sunt brbai i 48,65% femei. n tabelul nr. 2 am nscris vrsta medie la deces pentru cele patru grupuri de populaii din secolul al IV-lea, descoperite pe raza judeului Vaslui. Din acesta rezult c vrsta medie la deces la populaia de la Bogdneti (0 - x ani) este de 31 ani i 6 luni, ceea ce denot o durat medie de via scurt. Vrsta medie la deces, calculat separat pe sexe, la segmentul de vrst de 20 - x ani, nu difer prea mult, n sensul c diferena ntre cele dou sexe este de ordinul ctorva luni i anume, 42 ani i 2 luni la brbai i 42 ani i 8 luni la femei. Din punctul de vedere al tipului antropologic, masivitatea moderat a scheletului postcranian la sexul masculin i gracilitatea la cel feminin, dar i o serie de caracteristici craniofaciale, analizate n detaliu de ctre autori, duc la concluzia c n populaia de la Bogdneti se difereniaz dou tipuri antropologice principale: mediteranoid i protoeuropoid, acestea avnd ponderi aproximativ apropiate ca valoare (D. Botezatu, G. Miu, C. Blteanu 1987-1989, p. 91-93). S-au semnalat ns i alte tipuri de caractere, cum ar fi cele nordoide (n special la scheletele de sex feminin), dar i elemente dinaroide, est-europoide sau alpinoide, acestea deinnd ponderi sensibil mai mici comparativ cu cele dou tipuri antropologice principale, mai sus menionate (Ibidem).

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Necropola de la Brlad - Valea Seac n necropola de la Brlad - Valea Seac autorii au constatat prezena unui mare numr de schelete de copii, categoriile infans I i infans II nsumnd un procent crescut i anume, de 30,30%. Dac nsumm categoriile infans I, infans II cu cea juvenis (14-19 ani), obinem un total de 32,56% de subieci care nu au atins vrsta adult, de unde conchidem c 67,44% din populaia de la Brlad - Valea Seac este reprezentat din subieci care au depit vrsta de 20 de ani. Astfel, dup cum rezult din tabelul nr. 1, 16,16% reprezint categoria adulilor, 47,72% au decedat n plin maturitate i 3,03% au trecut de vrsta de 60 de ani. Important de menionat ar fi diferena dintre cele dou sexe n ceea ce privete mortalitatea la vrsta matur (30-60 ani), valori care evideniaz net superioritatea sexului masculin (30,30%) fa de cel feminin (17,42%). Repartiia pe sexe a celor 89 de subieci trecui de 20 de ani ne arat, de altfel, un raport de 55,11% brbai i 44,89% femei. Vrsta medie la deces la Brlad - Valea Seac (tabel nr. 2), calculat pentru ntreaga populaie (0 - x ani) este de 27 ani i 5 luni. n ceea ce privete subiecii care au depit vrsta de 20 de ani, vrsta medie la deces este de 39 ani i 6 luni la sexul masculin i 36 ani i 7 luni la cel feminin. Autorul explic aceast diferen prin numrul mare de femei decedate la vrsta adult (20 - 30 ani), aproape dublu n comparaie cu cel al brbailor aduli (D. Botezatu, G. Miu, P. Cantemir 1983, p. 17). Din punctul de vedere al tipului antropologic, populaia de la Brlad - Valea Seac indic dou componente tipologice bine exprimate n cadrul acestei populaii, aceea mediteranoid i aceea nordoid, prima fiind mai bine reprezentat n rndul femeilor, n timp ce a doua mai bine n rndul brbailor. Alturi de aceste dou componente majoritare se menioneaz i caractere protoeuropoide i o component format din dinarici i alpini. Marea majoritate a subiecilor prezint caractere mediteranoide i protoeuropoide atenuate, asociate cu unele elemente nordoide (n special la brbai). Necropola de la Polocin - Islaz Cimitirul de la Polocin punctul Islaz este unul biritual, n care predomin semnificativ mormintele de nhumaie (70,83%) fa de cele de incineraie (29,16%). Majoritatea mormintelor de nhumaie aparin copiilor (0-14 ani). Pentru tabloul demografic autorul a luat n consideraie att indivizii nhumai, ct i cei incinerai (G. Miu, B. Lupacu 2007, p. 37-45). Repartiia subiecilor n funcie de vrst i sex (tabel nr. 1) evideniaz o mortalitate crescut n rndul copiilor sub 14 ani (infans I i infans II), de 53,05%. Dac lum n calcul i adolescenii, rata mortalitii atinge valoarea de 63,25%, ceea ce arat c mai mult de jumtate din populaia de la Polocin - Islaz a decedat nainte de a atinge vrsta adult. Dac ne referim la grupul subiecilor trecui de 20 de ani (adultus, maturus i senilis), majoritatea deceselor este data de categoria maturilor (24,48%), categoria de vrst adult nregistreaz o pondere a mortalitii de 24,48%, n timp ce subiecii trecui de 60 de ani lipsesc. Durata medie de via a grupului populaional de la Polocin - Islaz (tabel nr. 2) este de 20 ani i 9 luni pentru ntreaga populaie (0 x ani), iar pentru subiecii care au depit vrsta de 20 de ani, separat pe sexe, aceasta este de 41 ani i 7 luni la brbai i de 36 ani i 1 lun la femei. Din analiza scheletelor din punct de vedere al tipului antropologic, autorul a dedus predominana tipului mediteranoid n cazul scheletelor mai complete sau de elemente ale tipului mediteranoid n cazul scheletelor mai slab conservate (G. Miu, B. Lupacu 2007, p. 37-45). Astfel, corobornd toate datele avute la dispoziie, s-a ajuns la concluzia c populaia din aezarea Polocin - Islaz prezint o puternic component mediteranoid, alturi de alte cteva elemente tipologice secundare (alpinoid, dinaroid, nordoid i cteva elemente protoeuropoide ntlnite la cteva schelete).

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Necropola de la Pogoneti Din punct de vedere al mortalitii pe sexe i vrste, la Pogoneti s-au semnalat numai 2 copii decedai, subieci ce se ncadreaz ca vrst n categoria infans I (tabel nr. 1) i care ofer un procent de 7,69%. mpreun cu adolescenii (doar un singur subiect), rata mortalitii pentru subiecii care nu au atins vrsta adult se ridic la 11,53% (G. Miu, B. Lupacu 2007, p. 37-45). Procentul mortalitii n grupul maturilor la Pogoneti este de 61,53%, adic mai mult de jumtate din totalul populaiei. n ceea ce privete grupul adulilor, mortalitatea este de 19,23%, cu meniunea c n cazul acestei categorii de vrst, diferena dintre cele dou sexe este semnificativ i anume, femeile dau un procent al mortalitii de 15,38%, n timp ce brbaii o valoare de doar 3,84%. n ceea ce privete grupul subiecilor trecui de 60 de ani, ponderea acestora n distribuia mortalitii pe vrste este de doar 7,69%. Durata medie de via (tabel nr. 2), pentru ntreaga serie (0 - x ani) de la Pogoneti, este destul de ridicat, de 38 ani i 7 luni. Pentru etapa de vrst 20 - x ani, durata medie de via este mai mare la brbai dect la femei, respectiv 46 ani 6 luni la primii i 39 ani 5 luni la cele de-al doilea. Din punct de vedere tipologic, la seria de la Pogoneti autorul conchide predominana componentei nordoide, alturi de care se regsesc elemente mediteranoide, dianaroide, lipsesc ns cele alpinoide. Tabel nr. 1 Procentele mortalitii pe sexe i vrste nregistrate pentru unele grupuri de populaii de secol IV de pe raza judeului Vaslui
Necropola Cemetery Polocin - Islaz Total Pogoneti Total Brlad - Valea Seac Total Bogdneti Total Sex gender B F 49 B F 26 B F 132 B F 56 infans I + infans juvenis adultus maturus senilis II (0-14 (14-19 (20-30 ani/year (30-60 ani/year (60-x ani/year ani/year old) ani/year old) old) old) old) N 26 26 2 2 40 40 13 13 % 53,05 53,05 7,69 7,69 30,30 30,30 22,03 22,03 N 2 3 5 1 1 1 2 3 6 6 % 4,08 6,12 10,20 3,84 3,84 0,75 1,51 2,26 N 3 3 6 1 4 5 8 14 22 % 6,12 6,12 12,24 3,84 15,38 19,23 6,06 10,60 16,16 5,08 5,08 N 7 5 12 9 7 16 40 23 63 18 12 30 % 14,28 10,20 24,48 34,61 26,92 61,53 30,30 17,42 47,72 30,51 20,34 50,85 N 2 2 4 4 1 3 4 % 7,69 7,69 3,03 3,03 1,69 5,08 6,77

10,17 3 10,17 3

Pentru a pune n eviden mai bine o serie de parametri demografici ai celor patru populaii din aceiai perioad istoric (D. Botezatu, C. Fedorovici 1973, p. 11-13), i vom compara, constatnd c n linii generale comportamentul lor demografic este destul de uniform, cu unele excepii.

Aspecte paleodemografice sec. IV / Palaeodemographic aspects 4th century Tabel nr. 2 Vrsta media la deces pentru unele grupuri de populaii de secol IV de pe raza judeului Vaslui
0 - x ani/ year old 31 ani/years 6 luni/months 27 ani/years 5 luni/months 20 ani/years 9 luni/months 38 ani/years 7 luni/months Brbai/Men (20 - x ani / year old) 42 ani/years 2 luni/months 39 ani/years 6 luni/months 41 ani/years 7 luni/months 46 ani/years 6 luni/months

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Necropola Cemetery Bogdneti, Flciu Brlad - Valea Seac Polocin - Islaz PogonetiM ovil La

Femei/Women (20 - x ani / year old) 42 ani/year 8 luni/months 36 ani/years 7 luni/months 36 ani/years 1 luni/months 39 ani/years 5 luni/months

Dac privim comparativ, din punctul de vedere al mortalitii, cele patru populaii care provin din necropolele descoperite pe raza judeului Vaslui, constatm c la Polocin Islaz se nregistreaz cel mai mare procent al mortalitii copiilor (53,05%) i cea mai mic durat medie de via (20 ani i 9 luni). Pe sexe, pentru populaia 20 - x ani, longevitatea acestor patru grupuri de populaii este destul de apropiat, cu valori cuprinse ntre 39,6 ani i 46,6 ani la seriile masculine i ntre 36,1 ani i 42,8 ani la seriile feminine. Datele prezentate n tabelul nr. 1 pentru cele patru aezri populaionale, n privina mortalitii pe sexe i vrste, ne arat n primul rnd un procent de mortalitate oarecum ridicat n rndul copiilor mari i mici. Dac facem o comparaie a mortalitii infantile ntre populaiile din aceiai perioad istoric de pe teritoriul judeului Vaslui (Bogdneti, Brlad - Valea Seac, Polocin - Islaz i Pogoneti), constatm c valorile difer destul de mult. Astfel, valoarea cea mai mic a mortalitii infantile este nregistrat de Georgeta Miu la Pogoneti (7,69%), iar cea mai mare valoare a fost semnalat, dup cum am menionat anterior, la populaia de la Polocin - Islaz (53,05%), de ctre acelai autor. De altfel, comparativ cu alte serii osteologice din zona judeului Vaslui, la Polocin - Islaz se nregistreaz att cel mai mare procent al mortalitii infantile, ct i cea mai mic durat medie de via. Trebuie menionat i faptul c, o mare parte din aceste ponderi ale mortalitii infantile, la toate cele patru populaii, se datoreaz decesurilor nregistrate la copiii mici de 0 - 7 ani (infans I), adic la acei indivizi care nc nu aveau posibilitatea s se adapteze la unele condiii de via precare din secolele IV-V p.Hr. i ca o dovad a acestui fenomen, este i procentul relativ mai redus al mortalitii copiilor de vrsta a doua (infans II), copii care trecuser cu bine fenomenul de adaptabilitate bio-ecologic. Mortalitatea categoriei de 14-19 ani (juvenis) ne arat procente apropiate la populaiile de la Polocin - Islaz i Bogdneti (de cca. 10%), n ordine descresctoare situndu-se populaia de la Pogoneti (3,84%), urmat de cea de la Brlad - Valea Seac, cu o valoare a mortalitii adolescenilor de doar 2,26%. Interesant de subliniat ar fi diferena dintre valorile celor dou sexe la categoria 20-30 ani i anume un procent mult mai mare de decese la femeile adulte fa de brbaii de aceeai vrst, situaie semnalat la trei din cele patru populaii i anume, Bogdneti, Brlad - Valea Seac i la Pogoneti. Mortalitatea aproape tripl n rndul femeilor fa de brbai la vrsta adult este explicat de autori printr-un factor de risc mai mare la primele n perioada de maxim fecunditate, cnd decesele n timpul naterilor i dup natere erau mai numeroase, din lipsa unei asistene medicale adecvate i prompte. La populaia matur, n toate cele patru categorii, procentajul cel mai mare de decese se nregistreaz la brbai, diferena cea mai mare ntre cele dou sexe fiind nregistrat la Brlad Valea Seac (30,30% pentru sexul masculin fa de 17,42% la sexul feminin). Subliniem c cel mai mare procent al mortalitii n grupul maturilor este semnalat la Pogoneti (61,53%), valoare care este mai mult dect dubl fa de aceea calculat pentru populaia de la Polocin - Islaz (24,48%),

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ns depete i valorile celorlalte dou populaii (Brlad - Valea Seac - 47,72% i Bogdneti 50,85%). Structura pe sexe i vrste, conform cu decesele nregistrate la populaiile de la Polocin Islaz, Pogoneti, Brlad - Valea Seac i Bogdneti, este asemntoare n linii mari cu aceea a altor populaii din secolele IV-V p.Hr., n special cu seriile de la Mihleni, Miorcani, Hneti, Barcea. ntr-adevr, i aici vom constata c mortalitatea n cadrul primei categorii de vrst a copiilor (infans I) este mai ridicat dect aceea a copiilor mai mari (infans II), de asemenea la grupul subiecilor aduli se nregistreaz ntotdeauna procente mai sczute de decese la brbai fa de femei, cauzele fiind deja mai sus explicate. Privind comparativ vrstele medii la deces la cele patru populaii analizate, pentru segmentul 0 - x ani, constatm c valoarea cea mai sczut este nregistrat la populaia de la Polocin - Islaz, aceasta prezint o durat medie de via de doar 20 ani i 9 luni pentru ntreaga populaie. Cea mai prelungit vrst medie la deces pentru segmentul 0 - x ani a fost nregistrat la populaia de la Pogoneti, de 38 ani i 7 luni, valoare semnificativ mai mare comparativ cu celelalte populaii, longevitate ce este determinat, conform autorului, de frecvena redus a mortalitii copiilor, dar i de procentul crescut al mortalitii maturilor (G. Miu, B. Lupacu 2007, p. 37-45). n ceea ce privete aezrile de la Brlad - Valea Seac i Bogdneti, acestea prezint valori destul de apropiate ale duratei medii de via, 27,5 ani i respectiv 31,6 ani. Pentru etapa de vrst 20 - x ani, de asemenea, populaia de la Pogoneti deine valorile cele mai ridicate ale vrstei medii la deces (46,6 ani), dar numai pentru sexul masculin. n ceea ce privete seriile feminine, durata medie de via cu valoarea maxim este nregistrat la femeile de la Bogdneti (42,8 ani).

Palaeodemographic aspects specific to some 4th century populaces on the present territory of Vaslui county
Introduction The paper presents a general comparative study both paleodemographically, and paleoanthropologically, on populaces belonging to the Sntana de Mure culture, that lived of the 4th century and beginning of the 5th century AD on the territory of localities which are nowadays part of Vaslui County. The systematic excavations carried out in the specified cemeteries or sites brought to light a particularly important archaeological, anthropological, paleozoological material connected to the cultural, social, economical and biological evolution, of the populaces that lived on the territory of the present Vaslui county during the 4th5th centuries AD. Mention should be made that the paleoanthropological and demographic results have been obtained in previous studies, carried out and published by specialists in the field: Georgeta Miu, Vasile Palade and Cezarina Blteanu for Bogdneti, Flciu; Dan Botezatu, Georgeta Miu and Vasile Palade for Brlad - Valea Seac; Georgeta Miu and Ruxandra Alaiba for Banca Gar apte case; Georgeta Miu and Mircea Mamalauc, for Polocin - Islaz and Pogoneti - La Movil. Bogdneti, Flciu The archaeological investigations carried out at Bogdneti, Flciu (Vaslui county) were carried out during the interval 1968-1971 by V. Palade, period when a large two-rite cemetery was discovered, out of which 59 inhumed skeletons and 54 incinerated skeletons were researched (1971, p. 21 sq.; Idem 1973, p. 169 sq.,), belonging to Sntana de Mure culture. The archaeological researches of Bogdneti, Flciu were carried out by D. Botezatu, G. Miu and C. Blteanu (1987-1989, p. 91 sq.).

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Brlad - Valea Seac The material uncovered under the coordination of archaeologist V. Palade, during the period 1971-1980, of the two-rite cemetery of Brlad - Valea Seac (Vaslui county), is also dated to the period under discussion, that is the 4rd5th centuries AD and includes 166 inhumation tombs and 109 incineration tombs (V. Palade 1980, p. 407 sq.; Idem 1982, p. 181 sq.; Idem 1983, p. 398 sq.; Idem 1986, which were anthropologically studied by D. Botezatu and Georgeta Miu (D. Botezatu, G. Miu, P. Cantemir 1983, p. 17; V. Palade 1979, p. 265 sq.; Idem 1980, p. 407 sq.). Banca Gar - apte case Following the archeological investigations carried out at Banca Gar, point apte case, between 1981-1989, with the interruptions of 1984 and 1987, the total surface excavated summed up to 3400 m2, approximately half of the old surface thereof, and this allowed the identification of 142 archaeological features dated to different periods, out of which only six were inhumation graves, studied by G. Miu and archeologically described by R. Alaiba, and out of the above six, only four were dated to the period of the 3rd4th centuries AD and only one grave was considered as belonging to the period of the early Bronze Age. Mention should be made also of the fact that although around such graves wide archaeological investigations was carried out; no other graves were further found. It is supposed that these might have been part of a cemetery spread in the area in which the new bed of Brlad River was arranged (R. Alaiba, G. Miu, S. Stanc 2005, p. 154, 159). Polocin - Islaz The excavations of Polocin, point Islaz, were made by Mircea Mamalauc, within the archaeological researches carried out by the Vasile Prvan Museum of Brlad. In this cemetery, of Polocin - Izlaz, there have been found so far 49 skeletons or bony remains, out of which 33 inhumed and 16 incinerated, all these being anthropologically studied by G. Miu (~, B. Lupacu 2007, p. 37 sq.). Pogoneti - La Movil The archeological investigations carried out on the territory of the present village of Pogoneti, point La Movila (Vaslui county), were also carried out by Mircea Mamalauc and led to the identification of 26 inhumation skeletons, which were, in their turn, anthropologically studied by G. Miu (~, B. Lupacu 2007, p. 37 sq.). Mention should be made that in the last two points the archaeological researches are still in progress. All these anthropological materials were analyzed, advancing at the same time with the anthropological investigation thereof, which completed the archaeological and historical conclusions. Thus, in tight collaboration with the historians, archeologists and palaeofauna specialists, paleoanthropologists brought important contributions to the study of some of the problems concerning the populaces in which they lived, on the territory of the nowadays Moldavia. The studies published in the specialized magazines gave us the possibility of centralizing some of the demographic data and comparing them. The material and the working methods All osteological material resulting from inhumation and incineration graves from the specified sites were studied according to the graves, individually, but also populace ally and paleodemographically. We determined the gender and age at the time of death of each skeleton and even for remains of skeletons, following in this regard the methods and techniques recommended as a result of working sessions held by anthropologists in Prague (1973) and Sarospatak (1978). On the basis of such determinations there were calculated values of the mortality, and were created the distribution tables of individuals according to age and gender. The individual characterizations of each skeleton in the studied series allowed us to outline the populaceal particularities thereof (D.

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Botezatu, G. Miu, P. Cantemir 1983, p. 24-26; D. Botezatu, G. Miu, C. Blteanu 1987-1989, p. 9293; G. Miu, B. Lupacu 2007, p. 44-45). Mention should be made of the fact that with regards to the incinerated skeleton remains of Polocin - Islaz (Vaslui county), minutely analyzed by Georgeta Miu, and for which only the age and gender were pointed out, such data were used, together with those referring to the inhumation skeletons, for assessing the mortality according to genders and ages of the populaceal group of Polocin - Islaz (Ibidem 2007, p. 37-45). We should also specify that in the case of the inhumation skeletons of Bogdneti, Flciu, out of their total of 166, only 138 were adequate for the anthropologic populaceal study and the determination of gender and age, the other ones being in a too poor state of preservation (D. Botezatu, G. Miu, C. Blteanu 1987-1989, p. 91-93). Graves of Banca Gar On the territory of the village Banca Gara, in the area investigated by archaeologists at the point apte case (Vaslui county), as specified above, there were found only six inhumation graves, out of which two dated to the 3rd4th centuries (of Sntana de Mure type) and only one grave was considered as belonging to the period of the early Bronze Age. G. Miu made a detailed analysis of each particular skeleton, both archaeologically and paleoanthropologically, leading to important information concerning the socio-economical and spiritual life of the communities that lived in the investigated hamlet. Given the very small number of individuals, no paleodemographic analysis was possible (G. Miu in R. Alaiba, ~, S. Stanc 2005, 159). Still, below follows a short description thereof: The inhumation grave no. 3, dated to the 4th century AD, belonged to an adult womans skeleton (40 - 45 year old), and as anthropological type it mainly corresponds to the Mediterranoid type, with slight Nordoid influences (Ibidem, p. 158); The inhumation grave no. 4, also dated to the 4th century AD, belonged to an about 6-7 year old child (infans I determined on the basis of the dentition, presence of the 6 year molar as well as the deciduous teeth allowed the author to asses the age), of probably female gender according to the funeral inventory (Ibidem, p. 157); The inhumation grave no. 5, dated to the 3rd4th centuries, belonged to a young woman of about 18-20, and as typological diagnosis it is included within a Mediterranoid background, mixed with Protoeuropoid elements or a Protomediterranoid background (Ibidem, p. 156157); The inhumation grave no. 6, dated to the early Bronze Age, belonged to a young male individual, about 30-35 year old at the time of death. The analysis of the very fragmented and deteriorated skeleton allowed the author to conclude with some reserves that this might anthropologically belong to the Protoeuropoid type (Ibidem, p. 154-155). Palaeodemographic aspects In the case of the subjects found in the inhumation graves, as they were adequate for a more precise determination of age and gender, the authors could analyze several demographic parameters, among which mention should be made of: the subjects gender and age structure, survival coefficient, life duration, average decease age. Cemetery of Bogdneti, Flciu As shown in table no. 1, which includes the percentages of mortality according to genders and ages as recorded for the four groups of populaces of the 4th century, throughout Vaslui county, a high mortality of the populace was noticed: under 20 year old at Bogdneti, especially children under 14 (22,03%), followed by teenagers (10,17%). Thus, the category of the 0 - 20 year old populace shows a percentage of mortality of 32,20% out of the total of the populace of Bogdneti.

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Yet, the highest mortality is recorded at the adult age, with a percentage of more than half of the populace (50,85%), the categories adults and more than 60 year old being rather rarely identified (5,08% and respectively 6,77%). From the point of view of the gender distribution, the relationship men/women is rather balanced, meaning that out of the total number of 37 subjects of more than 20 year old (whose gender could be determined), 51,35% are male and 48,65% female. Table no. 2 contains the average age at the time of death for the four groups of populaces of th the 4 century, discovered within Vaslui County. From this, it results that the average age at the time of death as recorded by the populace of Bogdneti (0 - x year old) is of 31 year and 6 month old, which indicates rather short average life duration. The average age at the time of death, calculated separately according to the genders, for the age segment 20 - x year old, is not too different, meaning that the difference between the two genders is of several months, that is 42 years and 2 months for men and 42 years and 8 months for women. As for the anthropological type, the moderate massiveness of the postcranial skeleton of the male gender and the graciousness of the female one, as well as a series of cranial facial features, that the authors analyzed in details, lead to the conclusion that within the populace of Bogdneti two main anthropological types are being differentiated: Mediterranoid and Protoeuropoid, with rather similar percentages (D. Botezatu, G. Miu, C. Blteanu 1987-1989, p. 91-93). Other morphological types were also observed, such as the Nordoid ones (especially in the case of the female skeletons), but also Dinaroid, East-Europoid or Alpinoid elements, these holding considerably lower percentages in comparison to those of the two main anthropological types specified above (Ibidem). Cemetery of Brlad - Valea Seac In the case of the cemetery of Brlad - Valea Seac authors noticed the presence of a large number of childrens skeletons, categories infans I and infans II summing up a large percentage, more precisely of 30,30%. If we put together the categories infans I, infans II and juvenis (14-19 year old), we obtain a total percentage of 32,56% representing subjects that did not reach the adult age, and consequently we assume that 67,44% of the populace of Brlad - Valea Seac is represented by subjects that exceeded the age of 20. Thus, as shown in table no. 1, 16,16% is represented by the category of adults, 47,72% deceased in full adulthood and 3,03% exceeded the age of 60 year old. It is important to point out the difference between the two sexes regarding the mortality at adulthood (30-60 year old), values that clearly indicate the superiority of the male gender (30,30%) in comparison to the female one (17,42%). The distribution according to gender of the 89 subjects of more than 20 year old shows actually that 55,11% were men and 44,89% women. The average age at the time of death in the site of Brlad - Valea Seac (table no. 2), calculated for the whole populace (0 - x year old) is of 27 years and 5 months. Regarding the subjects that exceeded the age of 20 year old, the average age at the time of death is 39 years and 6 months in the case of male subjects and 36 years and 7 months in the case of female subjects. The author explains this difference by the large number of women decease at the adult age (20 - 30 year old), almost double in comparison to the one of adult male beings (D. Botezatu, G. Miu, P. Cantemir 1983, p. 17). Anthropologically, the populace of Brlad - Valea Seac indicates two typological components well expressed within this populace, the Mediterranoid and the Nordoid ones respectively, the former being better represented among women while the latter is better acknowledged among men. Apart from these two components forming the majority, there are also mentioned Protoeuropoid individuals and a component formed of Dinaric and Alpine types. The large majorities of the subjects show Mediterranoid and attenuated Protoeuropoid features, in association with the Nordoid elements (especially in the case of men).

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Cemetery of Polocin - Islaz The cemetery of Polocin point Islaz is a two-rite graveyard, within which the inhumation tombs are significantly prevalent (70,83%) in comparison to the incineration ones (29,16%). Most of the inhumation graves belong to children (0-14 year old). For the demographic table, the author took into account both inhumed individuals and incinerated ones (G. Miu, B. Lupacu 2007, p. 3745). The distribution of the subjects according to age and gender (table no. 1) points out an increased mortality among children under 14 (infans I and infans II), of 53,05%. If we take into account also the teenagers, the mortality rate reaches 63,25%, which shows that more than half of the populace of Polocin - Islaz deceased before reaching adulthood. If we are to consider the group of subjects more than 20 year old (adultus, maturus and senilis), most of the deceases are situated in the maturus category (24,48%), while the adultus category records a 24,48% mortality, and the more than 60 year old are completely absent. The average life duration of the populaceal group of Polocin - Islaz (table no. 2) is of 20 years and 9 months, for the whole populace (0 - x year old), and for the subjects of more than 20 year old, separately, according to genders, this is of 41 years and 7 months for men and 36 years and 1 month for women. From the skeleton analysis from the point of view of the anthropological type, the author understood the prevalence of the Mediterranoid type in the case of the more complete skeletons or of elements of the Mediterranoid type in the case of the poorly preserved skeletons (G. Miu, B. Lupacu 2007, p. 37-45). Thus, corroborating all available data, we reached the conclusion that the populace of the settlement of Polocin - Islaz shows a strong Mediterranoide component, together with few other secondary typological elements (Alpinoid, Dinaroid, Nordoid and few Protoeuropoid elements encountered in the case of several skeletons). Cemetery of Pogoneti - La Movil From the point of view of the mortality expressed according to the gender and age distribution, at Pogoneti - La Movil there were pointed out only 2 deceased children, subjects that belong to the category infans I (table no. 1) and which provide the percentage of 7,69%. Together with the teenagers (only one subject), the mortality rate for the subjects that did not reach adulthood is of 11,53% (G. Miu, B. Lupacu 2007, p. 37-45). The percentage of mortality within the maturus group of Pogoneti - La Movil is 61,53%, that is more than half of the total of the populace. Regarding the adultus group, the mortality is of 19,23%, with the specification that in the case of this age category the difference between the two genders is considerable, that is women are characterized by a mortality percentage of 15,38%, while men are characterized only by 3,84%. Regarding the subjects of more than 60 year old, their percentage within the distribution of the mortality is of only 7,69%. The average life duration (table no. 2), for the whole series (0 - x year old) of Pogoneti La Movil, is rather high, of 38 years and 7 months. For the age interval 20 - x year old, the average life duration is higher in the case of men in comparison with women, respectively 46 years and 6 months in the former case and 39 years and 5 months in the latter. Typologically, regarding the series of Pogoneti - La Movil the author observes the prevalence of the Nordoide component, but also the presence of Mediterranoid, Dinaroid elements while the Alpinoid ones are absent. In order to better point out a series of demographic parameters of the four populaces of the same historical period (D. Botezatu, C. Fedorovici 1973, p. 11-13), we have compared them, and noticed that in general lines their behavior is rather uniform, with some exceptions. Considering things comparatively, from the mortality point of view, the four populaces resulting from the cemeteries identified within Vaslui county, we notice that the site of Polocin Islaz is characterized by the highest childrens mortality percentage (53,05%) and the shortest life duration (20 years and 9 months). According to genders, for the populace of 20 - x year old, the

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longevity of the four groups of populaces is rather similar, with values contained between 39,6 years and 46,6 years for the male series and between 36,1 years and 42,8 years for the female series. Table no. 1. Percentages of mortality according to genders and ages recorded for groups of 4th century populaces within Vaslui county. Table no. 2. Average decease age for some groups of 4 th century populaces within Vaslui county. The data presented in table no. 1 for the four populaceal sites, concerning mortality according to gender and age, show first of all a rather high mortality percentage among young and not so young children. Comparing the infantile mortality between the populaces of the same historical period within Vaslui county (Bogdneti, Flciu, Brlad - Valea Seac, Polocin - Islaz i Pogoneti - La Movil), we notice that values are rather different. Thus, the smallest infantile mortality value was recorded by Georgeta Miu at Pogoneti - La Movil (7,69%), and the highest one was pointed out, as shown above, within the populace of Polocin - Islaz (53,05%), by the same author. In fact, in comparison with other osteological series within the area of Vaslui County, at Polocin - Islaz there were recorded both the highest percentage of infantile mortality and the shortest average life duration. Mention should be made also of the fact that a large part of such percentages of infantile mortality in the case of all four populaces is due to deceases registered among very young children of 0 - 7 year old (infans I), that is those individuals that did not have the possibility to adapt to certain precarious life conditions of the 4th5th centuries AD. A proof of such phenomenon is the relatively low percentage of the second age childrens mortality (infans II), that is children who had passed the test of bio-ecological adaptability. The mortality of the category 14-19 year old (juvenis) shows similar percentages in the case of the populaces of Polocin - Islaz and Bogdneti, Flciu (of about. 10%), in descending order there following the populace of Pogoneti - La Movil (3,84%), and then the one of Brlad - Valea Seac, with a value of teenager mortality of only 2,26%. It is interesting to point out the difference between the values of the two genders for the category of the 20-30 year old and this is a much higher percentage of adult womens deceases in comparison to the men of the same age, situation pointed out in the case of three out of the four populaces, that is Bogdneti, Brlad - Valea Seac and Pogoneti - La Movil. The almost threefold womens mortality in comparison to the one of men at adulthood is explained by the authors by a higher risk factor in the case of women while living their maximal fecundity period, when deceases while giving birth or immediately after were more numerous, due to the obvious lack of adequate and prompt medical care. In the case of the populace in the maturus category, in the cases of all four populaces the highest percentage of deceases is recorded by men, the highest difference between the two genders being pointed out at Brlad - Valea Seac (30,30% for male gender in comparison to 17,42% for the female one). We would like to stress that the highest mortality percentage within the maturus category was observed at Pogoneti - La Movil (61,53%), value which is more than double in comparison to the one calculated for the populace of Polocin - Islaz (24,48%), but it exceeds also the values of the other populaces (Brlad - Valea Seac - 47,72% i Bogdneti - 50,85%). The structure according to gender and age, taking into account the deceases recorded within the populaces of Polocin - Islaz, Pogoneti - La Movil, Brlad - Valea Seac and Bogdneti, is in general lines similar to the one of other populaces of the 4th5th centuries AD, especially with the series of Mihleni, Miorcani, Hneti, Barcea. Indeed, we do observed in these sites too that the mortality within the first age category among children (infans I) is higher than in the case of not so young children (infans II), also in the case of the adult subjects, there are always low percentages

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of death in the case of men if compared to those of women, the causes thereof being already explained above. Comparatively considering the average decease ages of the four analyzed populaces for the segment 0 - x year old, we observe that the lowermost value was recorded by the populace of Polocin - Islaz, this showing an average life duration of only 20 years and 9 months for the whole populace. The longest average decease age for the segment 0 - x year old was recorded at the populace of Pogoneti - La Movil, of 38 years and 7 months, value significantly higher if compared to the other populaces, their longevity being determined, according to the author, to by the low frequency of children's mortality, but also by the low percentage of the adults mortality (G. Miu, B. Lupacu 2007, p. 37-45). Regarding the sites of Brlad - Valea Seac and Bogdneti, these show rather close values of the average life duration thereof, that is of 27,5 years and 31,6 years respectively. For the age category of the 20 - x year old, the populace of Pogoneti - La Movil holds once again the highest value of the average decease age (46,6 year old), but only for the male gender. Regarding the female series, the maximal value of the average life duration is acknowledged for the women of Bogdneti (42,8 year old).

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Cercetrile arheologice de la Valea Mare - La Doroftei, secolele II-III i VII-VIII, judeul Vaslui
Ruxandra Alaiba

nc de la mijlocul secolului XX, Podiul Central Moldovenesc, una din formaiunile geografice din cadrul Podiului Brladului, a fost amplu investigat prin cercetri de suprafa n zona strbtut de Valea Brladului Superior, de profesorii de la Facultatea de Istorie din Iai, Mircea Petrescu-Dmbovia, Emilian Bold i Marin Dinu (1955). n 1970, cercetrile au fost amplificate i publicate n primul repertoriu arheologic al Moldovei (N. Zaharia, M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Zaharia, 1970, p. 99-122). Totui, numrul staiunilor investigate prin spturi arheologice pe aceast vale a fost mic n raport cu numrul punctelor semnalate prin periegheze. i pentru faptul c, n unele dintre aceste staiuni aflate pe Valea Brladului Superior, au fost realizate lucrri de hidroamelioraie care au dezvelit o parte din complexele unor aezri, ncepnd cu anul 1981, am organizat cercetri arheologice n acest areal geografic, n comuna Dumeti, mai nti n staiunea cucutenian i din secolul al IV-lea de la Dumeti - ntre praie, mrginit de praiele Suhule i Hodorani (R. Alaiba 2007), apoi i pe pantele altor ape locale, precum n punctul La Doroftei, din satul Valea Mare, com. Dumeti, jud. Vaslui. Ultimul s-a realizat sub coordonarea profesorului Dan Gh. Teodor, cruia, pentru sprijinul acordat, i mulumim i pe aceast cale. Satul Valea Mare, din punct de vedere geografic, se ncadreaz n microzona Depresiunii Brladului Superior, subunitate situat n partea de sud a Podiului Central Moldovenesc i n jumtatea nordic a Podiului Brladului. Din punct de vedere geomorfologic, satul Valea Mare, n care s-au realizat cercetri arheologice, se caracterizeaz printr-un relief format din coline sculpturale, unele mpdurite masiv, cu altitudini de 300 m, unde predomin cernoziomurile puternic levigate i un climat continental cu un regim pluviometric de 480-580 mm pe an, cu temperatura medie de 90C. Valea Brladului traverseaz limita de vest a satului (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, p. 314, fig. 42). Cercetrile de suprafa realizate n perimetrul satului au dus la descoperirea, la 500 m est de acesta, a unor locuiri caracteristice secolelor II-III p.Hr., urme cu cenu i oase calcinate carpice, precum i resturi de locuire caracteristice secolului al IV-lea (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Bold i Marin Dinu 1970, p. 21; G. Coman 1980, XXVII.7., p. 125). n apropiere de aceste descoperiri, n marginea de nord-est a satului, s-au semnalat vestigii arheologice specifice pentru secolele X-XI, un cosor de fier pentru viticultur, dar i o cni cu toart i burlui, modelat din past fin, dens, ars crmiziu (Ibidem, fig. 151/7-8, 10; Idem 1971, p. 81; D. Gh. Teodor 1970, p. 114; Idem, 1973, p. 225, fig. 1/5; Idem, 1975, fig. 4/8). Spturile arheologice din satul Valea Mare, punctul La Doroftei, s-au realizat n anii 19871988, pentru cunoaterea specificului aezrilor din primul mileniu. Complexele arheologice tiate de drum i de priaul menionat au fost investigate dup efectuarea mai multor cercetri de suprafa n zon. Staiunea se ntinde n partea de est a satului pe aproximativ 1 km, de la mai puin de 300 m de ultimele case, pn la aproximativ 100 m de marginea pdurii. n momentul realizrii investigaiilor arheologice era traversat de drumul forestier i de priaul a crui albie a fost regularizat cu cteva decenii n urm. Acestea au distrus o parte din aezare.

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Fig. 1. Valea Mare - La Doroftei. Plan i profil, groapa nr. 1, sec. II-III; locuina parial adncit nr. 1, gropile nr. 2-3, sec. VII-VIII. Plan and section, pit no. 1, 2nd3rd centuries AD; partly sunken dwelling no. 1, pits no. 2-3, 7th8th centuries.

Pentru o ncadrare cronologic mai exact a descoperirilor de aici s-a nceput cercetarea staiunii prin trasarea unei seciuni pe stnga priaului. Aceasta a dus la dezvelirea unei locuine, distruse n parte, cu inventar specific pentru secolele VII-VIII. De asemenea, alte dou seciuni s-au realizat pe pantele line dinspre nord. Prima, cu lungimea de 11,5 m i limea de 1,5 m, avea orientarea aproximativ est-vest. A doua, trasat mai aproape de drum, are o lungime de 15 m i o lime de 1,5 m (fig. 1). Stratigrafia geologic a solului se prezint n general uniform i se coreleaz n mare cu depunerile de locuire uman. Astfel, ntre 0 - 0,35 m este un cernoziom puternic levigat, un sol brun-negricios cu structur grunoas mic i mare. n el s-au descoperit puine materiale arheologice deranjate de lucrrile agricole, caracteristice secolelor XVII-XVIII, dar i pentru secolele VII-VIII. De la - 0,35 m la - 0,65 m solul are o culoare brun-castanie. n acest strat s-au descoperit alte depuneri specifice pentru primul mileniu al erei noastre. ntre aproximativ 0,35 - 0,50 m, se afl urmele locuirii din secolele VII-VIII, din care s-au dezvelit dou locuine parial adncite, una mai bine conservat, alta distrus de lucrrile de mbuntiri funciare. ntre 0,50 - 0,65 m se afl aezarea datat ntre secolele II-III p.Hr, din care pn n prezent s-a dezvelit doar o groap de provizii, nr. 1. Urmeaz un strat glbui, slab rocat, lutos i altul glbui-cenuiu

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de loess, ce prezint numeroase pete albe de CaCO3 i care depete adncimea pn la care s-a spat, de - 1,80 m. Aezarea dacilor liberi carpi, din secolele II-III p.Hr. Prin adncirea primei seciuni, ntre M 7,50 i 9,10, s-a tiat aproape central o groap cu inventar caracteristic pentru aceast perioad. Groapa nr. 1, de form aproximativ tronconic, spat n ntregime, cu o deschidere n partea superioar uor oval cu diametrele de 1,10 i 1,65 m, se adncete pn la 1,55 m fa de nivelul actual de clcare i pn la 0,93 m fa de nivelul iniial de clcare. Diametrul maxim al bazei este mai mare, de 1,85 m. Groapa pstreaz uoare urme de ardere intenionat la baz. Era o groap de provizii, cu baza ars i pereii finisai ngrijit, cu o capacitate de nmagazinare medie. Astfel de gropi se ntlnesc i n aezrile din secolele II-III. Amenajarea unor gropi de provizii atest practicarea agriculturii i formarea unor rezerve de hran. Ulterior a devenit o groap menajer. Inventarul acesteia a fost mai ales ceramic. S-au recuperat pri de la diferite vase, cni, probabil patru, o strachin, dou boluri, o toart de la o oal i alte fragmente. Tot aici se aflau i cteva buci de chirpici, care proveneau de la pereii locuinelor (fig. 2/13).

Fig. 2. Valea Mare - La Doroftei. Ceramica lucrat la roat. Ceramic fragments made with the potters wheel.

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Fig. 3. Valea Mare - La Doroftei. Ceramica modelat la mn 1, 4-12. Piese perforate din lut 2-3. Hand-made pottery 1, 4-12. Perforated items made of clay 2-3.

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Fig. 4. Valea Mare - La Doroftei. 1 Greutate; 2, 5-6 rondele, 3, 7-9 gresii finisate. 1 Weight; 2, 5-6 round disks, 3, 7-9 finished whetstones.

Menionm i dou obiecte din metal, dou piese de bronz, o penset (fig. 2/2) i un alt mic fragment (fig. 2/1). Penseta, face parte din tipul ntlnit relativ des n aezrile acestei perioade. O penset lucrat din bronz a fost descoperit la Mtsaru (Gh. Bichir 1984, p. 58-59, pl. LVII/6-7), n locuina - L1, nivel III/1 i datat n secolul al II p.Hr. Tot aici n nivelul III/2 s-a descoperit un exemplar de fier, datat de autor n secolul al III-lea (Ibidem).

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Din ceramica fin, pstrat fragmentar, se pot detaa dou cni (fig. 2/4-5), probabil erau i fragmente de la altele dou (fig. 2/6, 9), o strachin (fig. 2/7) i dou castronae (fig. 2/11-12). Una dintre toartele desenate provine de la un vas de dimensiuni mai mari (fig. 2/15). Borcanele modelate la mn aveau profilul alungit, buza uor nclinat exterior i baza nalt (fig. 3/4, 8). Forme apropiate se gsesc la Drgeti, n locul denumit Pe Izlaz - Sub Silite (D. Gh. Teodor, G. Coman 1983, p. 456, fig. 5/6-8). Aezarea datat n secolele VII-VIII p.Hr. Prin cercetarea staiunii de la Valea Mare, se aduce n discuie o nou aezare deschis, situat pe pantele line i nsorite din apropierea unui mic pria local, specific pentru secolele VII-VIII. Din ea s-au dezvelit, n campania din 1988, urmele a dou locuine uor adncite n pmnt i dou gropi aflate n apropierea primei locuine.

Fig. 5. Valea Mare - La Doroftei. Ceramica modelat la mn 1, 4-12. Hand-made pottery 1, 4-12.

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Locuina nr. 1, a fost construit pe panta lin din dreapta priaului, nivelat n prealabil, cu orientarea laturilor relativ mai lungi est-vest. Forma locuinei este patrulater cu dimensiunile de 16,80 m2 (3,90 m x 4,30 m). Fa de nivelul de clcare din vechime se adncete cu 0,55 m. n colurile apropiate cuptorului s-au pstrat urme de la pari. n colul de sud-est avea un cuptor construit din piatr de ru i din gresie local, cu vatra uor oval ( = 0,90 x 097 m), format dintro lipitur groas de lut, ars puternic la suprafa i prevzut cu bolt semicircular. n interiorul ei se mai aflau cteva unelte, ustensile i fragmente ceramice care proveneau de la cel puin 35 de vase, 15 vase modelate la mn, oale de diferite dimensiuni, nou tipsii i 11 vase modelate cu roata nceat.

Fig. 6. Valea Mare - La Doroftei. Tipsii cu marginea puin ridicat 1-9. Round trays with slightly raised border 1-9.

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Fig. 7. Valea Mare - La Doroftei. Ceramica lucrat cu roata olarului. Ceramic ware made with the potters wheel.

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Locuina nr. 2, cum s-a precizat deja, era distrus parial de lucrrile de mbuntiri funciare. Din ea s-a pstrat o mic parte din cuptorul pietrar i fragmente ceramice specifice pentru aceast perioad, cu analogii n staiunile acestei perioade, ntre care locuinele patrulatere de la Brui, Neam (V. Spinei, D. Monah 1970, p. 373 i urm.), Poiana, Dulceti (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 99 i urm.). Gropile nr. 1 i 2. Prima, de form tronconic, era situat n partea de nord vest a locuinei bine conservate, L1, i avea o deschidere aproximativ circular ( = 0,90 x 097 m) cu o nlime de 0,75 m. A doua, situat n partea de sud-est a aceleiai locuine, era de dimensiuni mici ( = 0,85 m; h = 47 m). Puinele fragmente ceramice atipice le dateaz n aceast perioad. Unelte, ustensile Inventarul acesteia este format din cteva cute din gresie cenuie i maronie (fig. 4/3, 7-9), un fragment de la o rni (fig. 4/1), probabil dou jumti de fusaiole (fig. 3/2; 4/2), modelate mai neglijent i o pies de lut, cilindric, de asemenea pstrat fragmentar (fig. 3/3). Ceramica Ceramica reprezint ns cea mai mare parte a inventarului. S-a realizat probabil n locuin i s-a ars n cuptor, din past frmntat incomplet, cu pereii i bazele mult ngroate. Predomin ceramica modelat la mn (fig. 5-6), ceramica modelat la roat fiind mai puin numeroas (fig. 7). Ambele au n past cioburi pisate, microprundiuri, cele mai ngrijit modelate i nisip. Vasele lucrate la mn provin mai ales de la oalele - borcan cu marginea arcuit exterior, corp alungit i baza masiv. Ceramica modelat la mn Avea la exterior neregulariti iar interior urme de degete sau de la unealta de lemn folosit pentru netezit. A fost ars neuniform i incomplet, fapt pentru care pereii prezint numeroase cracluri, chiar fisuri (fig. 3-6). n cadrul ceramicii modelate cu mna s-au difereniat puine forme, castroane, tipsii, dar mai ales borcanele de dimensiuni mici i medii. Castron cu profil n S, dat de buza puternic evazat, gtul marcat i corpul bombat, cu gura larg i pereii scunzi (fig. 5/2). Aceste forme simple prezente i la Biceni - Silite (I. Ioni, V. Spinei 1972, p. 307-323) sau Poiana, Neam, au fost considerate a fi de tradiie La Tne (D. Gh Teodor 1978, p. 82). Borcane frecvent cu dimensiuni mijlocii i mici, cu buza rsfrnt n afar i rotunjit, gtul marcat, corpul uor alungit i baza ngroat. Dou au buza evazat ornamentat cu alveole, prevzut interior cu o nuire pentru capac (fig. 5/6, 8). La cteva vase mai mici se remarc ngustarea gtului i corpul destul de bombat. Multe dintre borcane au pe buz crestturi sau mici alveole (fig. 5/1, 3, 6-9, 11), ornament specific pentru secolele VII-VIII. De cele mai multe ori prezentau urme de ardere secundar, n urma preparrii mncrii pe vatr. Forme apropiate se cunosc la Dodeti, Hlincea, Lozna, Suceava - Drumul Naional (D. Gh. Teodor 1978, p. 81). Tipsiile tigile scunde, erau de mrimi variabile, dar cu marginile exterioare drepte sau profilate i baza circular ngroat. Prile de la cele nou exemplare au fost modelate diferit: cu marginea dreapt (fig. 6/1, 3, 9; = 32-33, 24 cm), primele dou prezint sub buz o nuire; cu marginea rotunjit spre baz (fig. 6/4-8; = 19, 26, 28 cm ); cu marginea nclinat oblic (fig. 6/2, 8; = 20, 28 cm). n toate cele trei cazuri s-au pstrat doar fragmente de tipsii, unele prevzute pe buz cu alveole sau crestturi. Analogii se gsesc n staiunea de la Drgeti - Pe Izlaz - Sub Silite (D. Gh. Teodor, Gh. Coman, R. Alaiba 1979, p. 285 i urm.; Ibidem 1980, p. 466). Ceramica modelat la roata cu turaie nceat n aceast ultim categorie difereniat n raport cu tehnica folosit, vasele s-au modelat mai ngrijit, dintr-o past mai bine frmntat (fig. 2-5, 7-8, 10-11), dar, de multe ori cu pereii i baza tot ngroate (fig. 7/1, 6, 9; = 14,2; 14,5 i 18 cm), pentru a le da rezisten. Alte dou vase, de dimensiuni mai mici, au marginea mai puternic arcuit exterior sau uor evazat, dar tiat drept

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(fig. 7/7, 11; = 12; 8,5 cm). Ceramica s-a lucrat dintr-o past ce avea ca degresant nisip i amot. Preponderente au fost fragmentele ornamentate cu linii orizontale sau n val, aproximativ paralele, din care trei au pereii mai groi. Pe umrul unui vas linia vlurit este tiat de scurte linii oblice distanate. Materialul ceramic lucrat cu roata sau la mn prezint analogii cu formele de recipiente descoperite pentru aceeai perioad la Hlincea, Spinoasa sau Biceni - Silite, jud. Iai, Dodeti, Epureni, Flciu, Bogdneti, jud. Vaslui, cu mai multe niveluri de locuire (D. Gh. Teodor 1978, p. 75 i urm.). Forme asemntoare se ntlnesc n staiunile datate n aceeai perioad, tot n Podiul Central Moldovenesc, la Drgeti - Pe izlaz - Sub Silite (D. Gh. Teodor, G. Coman, R. Alaiba 1980, p. 466). Consideraii finale Aezrile deschise, aduse n discuie doar prin cteva complexe, amplasate n apropierea unui pria, descoperite la Valea Mare - La Doroftei, una din secolele II-III i alta din secolele VII-VIII, precum majoritatea celor cunoscute, se ncadreaz n tipurile de locuire larg rspndite n aceste perioade i n restul teritoriului dintre Carpai i Prut. Prin cercetarea staiunii de la Valea Mare - La Doroftei, se discut cu deosebire aezarea specific pentru secolele VII-VIII, din care s-au investigat, n campania din 1988, dou locuine uor adncite n pmnt i dou gropi. Piesele de inventar descoperite atest practicarea agriculturii i creterea vitelor, ca ocupaii ale acestor comuniti. Cu profesorul D. Gh. Teodor, am realizat cteva mici sondaje i n preajma acestei staiuni, pentru a verifica posibilitatea existenei n apropiere a necropolei, dar ele nu au dus la descoperirea i a altor complexe arheologice. Situaia stratigrafic i cronologic stabilit pentru aceast staiune, cu dou niveluri de locuire diferite, datate unul n prima i altul n a doua jumtate a primului mileniu, face ca cele dou aezri s prezinte un interes aparte (M. Alexianu, Al. Coma 1993, p. 205), ele oferind posibilitatea unei bune cunoateri a specificului acestor perioade, nederanjate de alte locuiri din secolele imediat ulterioare.

Archaeological researches at Valea Mare - La Doroftei, Vaslui county: 2nd3rd century and 7th8th century finds
Already at mid 20th century, the Central Moldavian Plateau, one of the geographic formations within the Brlad Plateau, was widely investigated by surface researches carried out in the area crossed by the Upper Brlad Valley, undertaken by professors of the Faculty of History in Iai, Mircea Petrescu-Dmbovia, Emilian Bold and Marin Dinu (1955). In 1970, the researches were amplified and published in the first archaeological repertory of Moldavia (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia, 1970, p. 99-122). Still, the number of sites investigated by archaeological excavations along this valley was too small in comparison to the number of points identified in the surface researches. Also due to the fact that in some of these settlements on the Upper Brlad Valley there were carried out hydro-amelioration works that uncovered some of the complexes belonging to these settlements, starting with 1981, we organized archaeological researches in this geographic area, in the Dumeti commune, first in the Cucutenian settlement and in the 4th century settlement of Dumeti - ntre praie, limited by rivulets Suhule and Hodorani (R. Alaiba 2007), then on the slopes of other local waters, such as those in the point La Doroftei, in the Valea Mare village, Dumeti commune, Vaslui county. The latter of these researches was carried out under the coordination of professor Dan Gh. Teodor, to whom we address our thanks for his support. Geographically, the Valea Mare village is limited in the microzone of the Upper Brlad Depression, subunit situated in the southern side of the Central Moldavian Plateau, and in the

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northern half of the Brlad Plateau. Geomorphologically, the Valea Mare village, where the archaeological researches were carried out, is characterized by a relief formed of sculptural hills, some of which heavily forested, about 300 m high, where the strongly leached chernozems and a continental climate with a raining regime of 480-580 mm per year, with an average temperature of 90C. Brlad valley crosses the western limit of the village (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, p. 314, fig. 42). The surface researches carried out in the village led to the identification of places specific to nd the 2 3rd centuries AD 500 m east of the village. These places showed traces of ash and calcinated carpal bones, as wells habitation remains specific to the 4 th century (M. PetrescuDmbovia, Em. Bold and Marin Dinu 1970, p. 21; G. Coman 1980, XXVII.7., p. 125). Near these finds, to the northeast limit of the village, there were pointed out archaeological vestiges specific to the 10rd11th centuries, an iron pruning knife for viticulture, and also a small cup with ear and spigot, shaped out of brick red thick fine paste (Ibidem, fig. 151/7-8, 10; Idem 1971, p. 81; D. Gh. Teodor 1970, p. 114; Idem, 1973, p. 225, fig. 1/5; Idem, 1975, fig. 4/8). The archaeological excavations of the Valea Mare village, point La Doroftei, were carried out in 1987-1988, and were focused on the specificity of the 1st millennium settlements. The archaeological complexes crossed by the road and the rivulet mentioned above were investigated after several surface researches were carried out in the area. The settlement spreads in the eastern side of the village over approximately 1 km, from less than 300 m from the last houses, until approximately 100 m from the limit of the forest. When the archaeological excavations were carried out, it was crossed by a forest access way and a rivulet whose bed was regularized several decades ago. As such, they destroyed part of the settlement. In order to be able to provide a most precise chronology of the discoveries down there, the research of the settlement started by creating a trench to the left of the rivulet. This allowed the uncovering of a dwelling, partly destroyed, whose inventory was specific for the 7th8th centuries. Two other trenches were also created on the slow slopes to the north. The first one, 11.5 m long and 1.5 m wide, was approximately east-west oriented. The second, created closer to the access way, was 15 m long and 1.5 m wide (fig. 1). The geological stratigraphy of the soil was rather uniform and in general lines it was correlated to the deposits resulting from the human inhabitance. Thus, between 0 0.35 m there is a strongly leached chernozem, a brown-blackish soil with small and large grainy structure. Within it, there were discovered few archaeological materials disturbed by the agricultural works, specific to the 17rd18th centuries, and also to the 7rd8th centuries. Between - 0.35 m and - 0.65 m the soil is nut-brown. In this layer there were found other deposits specific to the 1st millennium AD. Between 0.35 0.50 m approximately, there are the traces of the 7rd8th century inhabitance, out of which two partly sunken dwellings were uncovered. One of them was better preserved, the other was destroyed considerably by the works of land rehabilitation. Between 0.50 0.65 m there is the settlement dated to the 2 nd3rd centuries AD, out of which only one food storage pit (pit no.1) has been uncovered so far. There follows a yellowish soil, slightly reddish, clayish and another one yellowish grayish, of loess, which shows numerous white stains of CaCO3 and which exceeds the digging excavation, of 1.80 m. The settlement of the free Dacians Carpians, of the 2nd3rd centuries A.D. By deepening the first trench, between M 7.50 and 9.10, there was almost centrally dug out a pit that contained an inventory specific for this period. Pit no. 1, of approximately conical shape, fully excavated, with a slightly oval opening in the upper part with the diameters of 1.10 and 1.65 m, deepens down to 1.55 m from the current treading level and to 0.93 m from the initial treading level. The maximal diameter of the base is larger, of 1.85 m. The pit shows vague traces of firing on purpose at its base. It was a food storage pit, with fired base and carefully finished walls, with an average storage capacity. Such pits were also found in the 2nd3rd century settlements. The existence of food

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storage pits testifies on the practice of agriculture and of creating food reserves. Later one, it was turned into a domestic pit. The inventory thereof contained mainly ceramic items. There were recovered parts of various vessels, mugs, probably four, a dish, two bowls, an ear from a pot and other shards. It was also there that there were found several pieces of adobe, resulting from the walls of the dwellings (fig. 2/13). Mention should also be made of two metal items, made of bronze, one of which was a set of tweezers (fig. 2/2) and another small fragment (fig. 2/1). The tweezers belonged to the type relatively frequently encountered in the sites of this period. Bronze tweezers were also found in the settlement of Mtsaru (Gh. Bichir 1984, p. 58-59, pl. LVII/6-7), in dwelling L1, level III/1 dated to the 2nd century AD. It was also there in level III/2 that there were found iron tweezers, dated by the author of the excavations to the 3rd century (Ibidem). Out of the fine ceramic ware, preserved as fragments, two mugs are to be pointed out (fig. 2/4-5). There probably were fragments from two other mugs (fig. 2/6, 9), a dish (fig. 2/7) and two small bowls (fig. 2/11-12). One of the drawn ears resulted from a large vessel (fig. 2/15). The handmade jars showed an elongated profile, the rim slightly turned to the outside and a high base (fig. 3/4, 8). Similar shapes were found at Drgeti, in the point named Pe Izlaz - Sub Silite (D. Gh. Teodor, G. Coman 1983, p. 456, fig. 5/6-8). The settlement dated to the 7th8th centuries AD. The research of the settlement of Valea Mare allows the discussion of a new open settlement, situated on the slow and sunny slopes near a small local rivulet, specific to the 7rd8th centuries. In the 1988 campaign, it was there that there were found the traces of two slightly sunken dwellings and two pits situated near the first dwelling. Dwelling no. 1 was built on the slow slope to the right of the rivulet, leveled before hand, the relatively longer sides being east-west oriented. The shape of the dwelling is quadrilateral with the dimensions of 16.80 sq m (3.90 m x 4.30 m). In comparison to the old treading level, it deepens 0.55 m. The corners near the oven show traces of posts. In the southeast corner there was a kiln made of river stones and local gritstone, with a slightly oval hearth ( = 0.90 x 0.97 m), made of thick clay daubing, with strongly fired surface and with a half-circular vault. Inside it, there were several tools, implements and potsherds resulting from at least 35 vessels, 15 hand-made vessels, pots of various sizes, nine trays and 11 vessels made with the slow wheel. Dwelling no. 2, as already specified, was partly destroyed by the land amelioration works. Only a small part of the kiln made of stones and potsherds specific for this period were preserved out of this dwelling, Analogies were found in the settlement of Brui, Neam, witht quadrilateral dwellings (V. Spinei, D. Monah 1970, p. 373 and the foll.), Poiana, Dulceti (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 99 and the foll.). Pits no. 1 and 2. The former, of conical shape, was situated in the northwest side of the better preserved dwelling, L1, and had an approximately circular opening ( = 0.90 x 0.97 m) with the height of 0.75 m. The latter, situated in the southeast side of the same dwelling, was small ( = 0.85 m; h = 0.47 m). Few atypical potsherds date these pits to this period. Tools, implements Its inventory contained several whetstones made of grayish and brownish gritstone (fig. 4/3, 7-9), a fragment of a quern (fig. 4/1), probably two halves of spindle whorls (fig. 3/2; 4/2), more carelessly shaped and a cylindrical clay item, also preserved as fragments (fig. 3/3). The ceramic ware The ceramic ware represents most of the inventory. It was probably made inside the dwelling and fired in the kiln, the paste being incompletely kneaded, and the walls and bases considerably thickened. The hand-shaped ceramic items are prevalent (fig. 5-6), the wheel-made pottery being less numerous (fig. 7). The paste in both cases contains smashed shards, small gravels, and in the case of the most carefully shaped items also sand. The hand-made ceramic

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fragments result mainly from jar pots with outwards curved edge, elongated body and massive base. Hand-shaped pottery These items showed irregularities on the exterior and traces of fingers or from the wooden polishing implement on the interior. They were non-uniformly and incompletely fired, reason why the walls show numerous superficial cracks and even fissures (fig. 3-6). Within the hand-made pottery, few shapes have been identified, that is bowls, round trays and especially small and average jars. S-profiled bowl, with strongly widened rim, outlined neck and rounded body, with wide mouth and short walls (fig. 5/2). These simple shapes were also found at Biceni - Silite (I. Ioni, V. Spinei 1972, p. 307-323) or Poiana, Neam, and were considered of La Tne tradition (D. Gh. Teodor 1978, p. 82). The jars frequently of small and average sizes, with outer turned and rounded rim, outline neck, elongated body and thickened base. Two of them have the flared rim ornamented with alveoli, and inside showing a groove for the lid (fig. 5/6, 8). Several smaller vessels show a narrowed neck and a rather rounded body. Many of the jars have on the rim notches or small alveoli (fig. 5/1, 3, 6-9, 11), an ornament specific for the 7rd8th centuries. In most cases, they showed traces of secondary firing, as a result of the preparation of food on the hearth. Similar shapes were found at Dodeti, Hlincea, Lozna, Suceava - Drumul Naional (D. Gh. Teodor 1978, p. 81). The round trays the short pans showed variable sizes, but with straight or profiled outer margins and thickened circular base. The parties of the nine items were shaped differently: with straight border (fig. 6/1, 3, 9; = 32-33, 24 cm), the first two show under the rim a grooving; with rounded border toward the base (fig. 6/4-8; = 19, 26, 28 cm ); with obliquely bent border (fig. 6/2, 8; = 20, 28 cm). In all the three cases only fragments were preserved, some of which were showing on the rim alveoli or notches. Analogies were found in the settlement of Drgeti - Pe izlaz (D. Gh. Teodor, Gh. Coman, R. Alaiba 1979, p. 285 and the foll.; Ibidem 1980, p. 466). The pottery made with the slow wheel This last category, differentiated according to the applied technique, contains vessels that were more carefully shaped, out of a better kneaded paste (fig. 2-5, 7-8, 10-11), but frequently with walls and base still thickened (fig. 7/1, 6, 9; = 14.2; 14.5 and 18 cm), in order to make them more resistant. Two other vessels, of small size, have the edge more arched outwards, or slightly flared, but straightly cut (fig. 7/7, 11; = 12; 8,5 cm). The ceramic ware was made of a paste that contained sand and grog as degreasing elements. Most prevalent were the fragments ornamented with approximately parallel horizontal or wavy lines, out of which three show thicker walls. On the shoulder of a vessel the wavy line is crossed by short oblique distanced dashes. The hand-made and the wheel-made ceramic items show analogies with the shapes of vessels discovered at Hlincea, Spinoasa or Biceni - Silite, Iai county Dodeti, Epureni, Flciu, Bogdneti, Vaslui county, with several habitation levels and dated to the same period (D. Gh. Teodor 1978, p. 75 and foll.). Similar shapes are also found in the settlements dated to the same period from the Central Moldavian Plateau, at Drgeti - Pe Izlaz (D. Gh. Teodor, G. Coman, R. Alaiba 1980, p. 466). Final remarks The open settlements discussed in these pages represent only few complexes, situated near a rivulet, discovered at Valea Mare - La Doroftei, one dated to the 2rd3th centuries and the other to the 7rd8th centuries. Like most known settlements, they belong to the types of inhabitance widely spread in these periods also for the rest of the territory between the Carpathians and the Prut. The research of the settlement of Valea Mare - La Doroftei allowed mainly the discussion of the 7rd8th century habitation, out of which during the 1988 campaign, there were investigated two slightly sunken dwellings and two pits. The inventory items confirm the practice of agriculture and animal husbandry, as occupations of these communities.

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Together with professor D. Gh. Teodor, we made several test excavations near this settlement, in order to check the possibility of existence in the neighborhood of a necropolis, but they did not result into the identification of other archaeological features. The stratigraphic and chronological situation established for this settlement, with two different habitation levels, dated one in the first half and the other in the second half of the first millennium, makes these two habitations particularly interesting (M. Alexianu, Al. Coma 1993, p. 205), as they allow a better knowledge of the specificity of this periods, undisturbed by other habitations dated to the immediately following centuries.

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PARTEA II (PART II)

STAIUNEA BANCA GAR - APTE CASE THE BANCA GAR - APTE CASE SETTLEMENT

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Descoperiri din perioada Hallstattian de la Banca Gar - apte case


Oleg Leviki

Nivelul de locuire din epoca hallstattian, n aezarea de la Banca Gar - apte case, dup cum arat complexele i materialele arheologice recuperate este reprezentat de vestigiile unei locuine de suprafa i de fragmente de ceramic atestate sporadic n straturile de sptur. Vestigiile locuinei de suprafa, conturate la adncimea de - 0,70 m de la nivelul actual de clcare, ocup un perimetru de aproximativ 2,50x3,50 m (fig. 1) i reprezint o aglomeraie format din buci de chirpici, destul de mari, arse parial, ce aveau pe o parte amprente adnci lsate de nuiele, crengi sau urme de trestie i un strat cu mult cenu care acoper podeaua bttorit. n interiorul ei erau fragmente mrunte de lipituri de la o vatr fixat direct pe pmnt, creia nu i s-a reconstituit forma. Prezena printre fragmentele ceramice din locuin a unor cioburi de la vase diferite, uor lustruite decorate cu caneluri orizontale, n unele cazuri asociate cu caneluri nguste arcuite n ghirlande (fig. 2/2-4) presupune apartenena acesteia la complexul hallstattian timpuriu cu ceramic canelat de tip Chiinu Corlteni. n acelai timp, atestarea n stratul de cultur a aezrii i a unui fragment ornamentat cu motive incizate (fig. 2/6), precum i a altuia cu decor imprimat (fig. 2/5), caracteristice deja celuilalt complex hallstattian timpuriu cu ceramic incizat (grupul Tmoani) i cu ceramic imprimat (grupul Cozia), fac aceast ncadrare cultural-cronologic mai puin cert. Stadiul actual de cercetare a culturilor i grupurilor culturale hallstattiene timpurii din spaiul est-carpatic, pentru materialele de la Banca Gar - apte case, permit urmtoarele constatri. Locuinele de suprafa de tipul celei atestate la Banca Gar - apte case sunt caracteristice cu precdere pentru cultura Corlteni Chiinu, din partea vestic a arealului, aflat n centrul i nordul Moldovei. Aici, prezena locuinelor s-a dedus, n general, pornind de la existena unor aglomeraii de chirpici ars i cenu, precum i a vetrelor deschise (A. Lszl 1994, p. 107). Pentru grupul Tmoani s-a presupus folosirea colibelor simple, construite la suprafaa solului, pe un schelet din plante peste care se aplica un strat superficial de lut (A. Lszl 1986, p. 66), iar referitor la grupul Cozia sunt cunoscute doar locuinele adncite n sol (A. Lszl 1972, p. 208-209). Astfel, construcia de la Banca Gar - apte case ar putea fi atribuit cu mai mult certitudine grupului Corlteni. n acelai timp, informaiile cu privire la construciile de locuire ale comunitilor hallstattiene timpurii din aria pruto-nistrean, unde locuinele de suprafa - cu toate variantele locale erau mai bine conservate -, inclusiv complexele de tip Saharna Solonceni (O. Leviki 1994b, p. 162, 169, 180), ne ndeamn la o mai mare pruden. Referitor la fragmentul de ceramic ornamentat cu caneluri orizontale, inclusiv i fragmentul ornamentat pe ambele pri n exterior cu caneluri orizontale sub care este plasat un motiv n ghirland din caneluri mai nguste iar pe partea interioar numai cu motivul ghirlandei, putem afirma c ambele provin de la strchini tronconice larg deschise, una din formele definitorii culturii Chiinu Corlteni (O. Leviki 1994, p. 89-94; A. Lszl 1994, p. 113-114). Totodat, prezena motivului ghirlandei sau a stelei pe ambele suprafee ale strchinii, n aria Chiinu Corlteni, este atestat foarte rar precum n aezarea de la Lucaeuca, pe ambele suprafee asociindu-se cu benzi de caneluri orizontale (O. Leviki 1994, fig. 16/14), mai frecvent acest ornament fiind cunoscut doar pe una din suprafeele vasului interioar -, n aezrile de la

Descoperiri din perioada Hallstattian / The Hallstatt Discoveries

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Negreti (O. Leviki 1994, fig. 23/6), Chiinu (Ibidem, fig. 13/5), Petrueni (Ibidem, fig. 36/2) sau pe aceea exterioar Costeti VII (Ibidem, fig. 28/19), Slobozia Mgurii (Ibidem, fig. 46/10), posibil Trpeti - Rpa lui Bodai (Ibidem, fig. 32/7) i Trueti - uguieta (Ibidem, fig. 18/9).

Fig. 1. Banca Gar - apte case. Locuire Hallstatt, cpl. 24. Plan i profil. Housing Hallstatt, cpl. 24. Plan et profile.

Tot ceramicii de uz comun a culturii Chiinu Corlteni, pot fi specifice i dou fragmente de vase aflate n umplutura gropilor nr. 1 i 2, atribuite nivelului getic de locuire din aezare ambele provenind de la recipiente de tip borcan cu pereii drepi n partea superioar i marginea tiat drept, unul prevzut sub margine cu mnere-suporturi masive i al-doilea cu tortieurechiue, amplasate similar (fig. 2/1, 7), care au analogii directe n complexele ceramice din aezrile Chiinu, Lucaeuca, Zicana, Mndreti (O. Leviki 1994, fig. 14/1; 17/7; 21/12, 14; 25/14, 18) i respectiv Chiinu, Zicana, Mndreti, Costeti, Ivancea, Petruha (Ibidem, 14/13; 15/4-5, 11; 22/6; 25/9; 29/11; 34/11; 40/2). Oala de dimensiuni mici, avnd corpul uor rotunjit n partea median, gtul scurt i marginea subiat, evazat, ornamentat pe umr cu un bru alveolat dispus orizontal, aflat n aglomeraia nr. 1 (fig. 2/8), cu unele rezerve, de asemenea ar putea fi atribuit complexului ceramic Chiinu Corlteni, deosebirea dintre ele constnd n faptul c pe ultimele, elementele decorului au fost amplasate mai jos de marginea vasului (O. Leviki 1994, fig. 29/6; 37/5; C. Iconomu 2002, fig. 7/1, 4, 6; C. Iconomu, O. L. ovan 1997, fig. 2/4; 4/4).

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Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

Fig. 2. Banca Gar - apte case. Fragmente ceramice, 1-4, 7-8 cultura Chiinu Corlteni, 5 grupul Cozia, 6 grupul Tmoani. Hallstatt 1-8. Ceramic fragments, 1-4, 7-8 Chiinu Corlteni culture, 5 Cozia group, 6 Tmoani group. Hallstatt period 1-8.

Decorul dintr-o band orizontal format din linii oblice scurte, amplasat pe umrul vaselor de mari proporii, piriforme, reprezint o caracteristic pentru grupurile est-carpatice ale complexului Tmoani Holercani Balta (O. Leviki 1994a, pl. 17), iar benzile orizontale din amprente scurte dispuse oblic, singure sau n asociere cu alte motive ornamentale, au fost specifice pentru cultura Cozia Saharna (O. Leviki 1994b, p. 181, fig. 7). Aezarea de la Banca Gar - apte case, dup amplasarea geografic la limita de vest a Dealurilor Flciului i la limita de est a Colinelor Tutovei, era situat la periferia de sud-est, mai puin dens populat de comunitile grupului Corlteni, ulterior ncadrat n aria grupului Cozia (A. Lszl 1994, Harta 3). Mai mult, n aceast regiune, n perioada de existen a culturii Corlteni Chiinu, spre nord de valea rului Prut se extind i unele comuniti ale grupului Tmoani, ale cror vestigii sunt atestate mult mai la nord de Banca, la Brdiceti - Dealul Beschiei, jud. Iai (C. Iconomu 2002, p. 99). Astfel, prezena n aezarea de la Banca Gar - apte case, a ceramicii caracteristice acestor formaiuni culturale, prezint o situaie mai mult dect fireasc.

Descoperiri din perioada Hallstattian / The Hallstatt Discoveries

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The Hallstatt Discoveries at Banca Gar - apte case Settlement


The habitation level of the Hallstatt age, in the settlement of Banca Gar - apte case, as indicated by the archaeological complexes and materials recuperated therein is represented by the vestiges of a surface dwelling and potsherds sporadically confirmed in the excavation layers. The vestiges of the surface dwelling, identified at the depth of 0,70 m from the current treading level, covers a perimeter of about 85,7 sq m (2,50x3,50 m) (fig. 1) and represents an agglomeration consisting in rather large partly fired pieces of adobe, showing deep impressions lefts by twigs, branches or traces of reed and a layer containing plenty of ash covering the trodden floor. Inside it, there were small fragments of daub from a hearth embedded directly on the ground, whose shape could mot be identified. The presence among the potsherds found inside the dwelling of shards resulting from different vessels, slightly polished decorated with horizontal grooves, in some cases associated with narrow arched grooves forming garlands (fig. 2/2-4) involves its inclusion into the early Hallstatt complex with grooved ceramic ware of the Chiinu Corlteni type. At the same time, the confirmation in the culture layer of the settlement of a fragment ceramic ornamented with incised motifs, and of another one with impressed ornaments (fig. 2/1, 7), specific to the other early Hallstatt complex with incised (Tmoani group, fig. 2/6) and impressed (Cozia group, fig. 2/5) ceramic ware, somehow make this cultural chronological inclusion rather doubtful. The current phase of research of early Hallstatt cultures and cultural groups in the eastCarpathian space, in the case of the materials of Banca Gar - apte case, allow the following remarks. The surface dwellings such as the one acknowledged in Banca Gar - apte case are characteristic especially to the Corlteni Chiinu culture, in the western part of the area, situated in the center and north of Moldavia. There, the presence of the dwellings was generally assumed starting from the existence of agglomeration of burned adobe and ash, as well as of open hearths (A. Lszl 1994, p. 107). In the case of the Tmoani group, there was assumed the usage of simple huts, built above the ground level, on a vegetal structure covered with a superficial layer of clay (A. Lszl 1986, p. 66), while in the case of the Cozia group, only sunken dwellings have been acknowledged (A. Lszl 1972, p. 208-209). Thus, the construction of Banca Gar - apte case could be assigned more definitely to the Corlteni group. At the same time, the information concerning the dwelling constructions of the early Hallstatt communities in the Prut Dniester area, where the surface dwellings with all locale variants were better preserved including the complexes of the Saharna Solonceni type (O. Leviki 1994b, p. 162, 169, 180), makes us more careful. Regarding the potsherd ornamented with horizontal grooves, and also the fragment with ornaments on both faces on the exterior with horizontal grooves under which there was a garland motif made of narrower grooves, and on the interior only with the garland motif, we can state that both are remains of wide open conical dishes, one of the defining shapes of the Chiinu Corlteni culture (O. Leviki 1994, p. 89-94; A. Lszl 1994, p. 113-114). At the same time, the presence of the garland motif or of the star on both sides of the dish, in the Chiinu Corlteni area, is very rarely acknowledged such is the case of the settlement of Lucaeuca, on both surfaces being associated with stripes of horizontal grooves (O. Leviki 1994, fig. 16/14), there ornament being more frequently known only on one side of the surfaces of the vessel the interior one -, in the settlements of Negreti (O. Leviki 1994, fig. 23/6), Chiinu (Ibidem, fig. 13/5), Petrueni (Ibidem, fig. 36/2) or on the exterior one at Costeti VII (Ibidem, fig. 28/19), Slobozia Mgurii (Ibidem, fig. 46/10), possibly Trpeti - Rpa lui Bodai (Ibidem, fig. 32/7) and Trueti uguieta (Ibidem, fig. 18/9).

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Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

It is also in the category of common usage ceramic ware of the Chiinu Corleteni culture that can be included two potsherds found in the fillign of pits 1 and 2, assigned to the Getic habitation level of the settlement both being remains of jar-like vessels with straight walls in the upper par and straightly cut rim, one with massive handles supports under the rim and the other with small handles ears, placed in a similar position (fig. 2/1, 7), showing direct analogies in the ceramic complexes of the settlements of Chiinu, Lucaeuca, Zicana, Mndreti (O. Leviki 1994, fig. 14/1; 17/7; 21/12, 14; 25/14, 18) and respectively Chiinu, Zicana, Mndreti, Costeti, Ivancea, Petruha (Ibidem, 14/13; 15/4-5, 11; 22/6; 25/9; 29/11; 34/11; 40/2). The small pot, with slightly rounded body, in the median part, short neck and narrowed flared rim, ornamented on the shoulder with a alveoli belt horizontally placed, found in agglomeration no. 1 (fig. 2/8), could be also assigned with certain reserves to the ceramic complex Chiinu Corlteni, the difference between them being the fact that on the last ones the ornamental elements were placed below the rim of the vessels (O. Leviki 1994, fig. 29/6; 37/5; C. Iconomu 2002, fig. 7/1, 4, 6; C. Iconomu, O. L. ovan 1997, fig. 2/4; 4/4). The ornamentation consisting in a horizontal stripe formed of short oblique lines, placed on the shoulder of the large pear-shaped vessels, is a characteristic of the east-Carpathian groups of the Tmoani Holercani Balta complex (O. Leviki 1994a, pl. 17), and the horizontal stripes in the short impressions obliquely arranged, alone or associated with other ornamental motifs, were specific for the Cozia Saharna culture (O. Leviki 1994b, p. 181, fig. 7). The settlement of Banca Gar - apte case, according to the geographic location, at the western limit of the Flciu Hills and at the eastern limit of Tutova Hills, was situated at the southeast periphery, less populated by the communities of the Corlteni group, later included in the area of the Cozia group (A. Lszl 1994, Map 3). Moreover, in this region, during the period of existence of the Corlteni Chiinu culture, north of the valley of Prut River, there expanded also certain communities of the Tmoani group, whose vestiges are acknowledged north of Banca, at Brdiceti - Dealul Beschiei, Iai county (C. Iconomu 2002, p. 99). Thus, the presence in the settlement of Banca Gar - apte case, of the ceramic ware specific to these cultural groups, is a natural situation.

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Capacitai i funcionaliti ale ceramicii descoperite n aezarea din secolele III-IV de la Gara Banca - apte case
Vasile V. Alaiba Lucrarea i propune cunoaterea, asistat de calculator, fr a folosi un limbaj prea specific informaticienilor, a capacitilor recipientelor mai bine conservate, descoperite prin cercetri arheologice n staiunea Banca Gar, punctul apte case, pentru perioada datat ntre secolele III IV (V. V. Alaiba 2008, p. 252-254). S-a urmat astfel o direcie de cercetare relativ recent, n efortul generalizat astzi de a folosi calculele matematice i n alte domenii - n cazul nostru arheologia -, folosind un limbaj specific informaticienilor, care uureaz accesul la cunotine, cu riscul de a nu fi acceptate n totalitate. Noi am realizat deja, stabilirea capacitilor unor forme ceramice descoperite prin cercetri arheologice i pentru alte aezri, cu deosebire ale culturii Cucuteni. Pentru perioada secolelor II-IV, pn n prezent, am reuit s obinem date privind capacitile recipientelor descoperite pe antierul Podul Iloaiei - esul Trgului, din Cmpia Moldovei. Cercetrile de acest fel, n ultimul timp, au fost realizate de cei interesai n obinerea unor date numerice, cu deosebire ns de arheologi. Ele au luat o amploare mai mare n ultimul timp, nu numai la noi, dar i n rile vecine. S amintim doar existena n Anglia a unui centru interesat de analize ale inventarului arheologic cu ajutorul calculatorului. Unul din congresele acestuia a avut loc la Iai Informatics Applied in Archaeology, n anul 1996 sau Simpozionului Internaional de Arheometrie, care a avut loc la Budapesta, n 1998. Un astfel de demers, pentru msurarea capacitilor gropilor de provizii, un studiu geometric al gropilor de bucate , a realizat Corneliu N. Mateescu, mpreun cu Sylviu Comnescu (1972, p. 357 i urm.), bazat pe mprirea gropii n mai multe forme geometrice msurabile. Astfel s-a msurat o groap medieval de bucate descoperit la Vdastra (C. N. Mateescu 1971, p. 463 i urm.), situat n partea de nord-est a spturii i care s-a adncit peste o alta aparinnd ns comunitii eneolitice Vdastra II de aici. Groapa medieval avea o capacitate de nmagazinare de circa 4000 kg gru. Ceramica aflat n groap dateaz descoperirea n a doua jumtate a secolului al XIV-lea, iar groapa aparinea foarte probabil, dup autori, unui bordei din aceeai perioad, aflat puin mai la sud (C. N. Mateescu, S. Comnescu 1962, p. 190; Ibidem, 1971, p. 418-420). mpreun cu tirile istorice, cum a subliniat autorul, descoperirea a adus noi informaii cu privire la prezena i bogia cerealelor (Ibidem, p. 191). Spturile arheologice au scos la lumin numeroase alte complexe sau materiale pentru a cror cunoatere se pot folosi i aceste modaliti de investigare matematic i pentru formele ntregi i pentru cele fragmentare. ntre ele un loc aparte ocup ceramica, care se poate aprecia i dimensional, n raport cu tipurile de vase. Cu deosebire n secolele IV-V, informaiile legate de coninutul i capacitatea unor diferite forme de vase, de obicei amforele folosite pentru transportul produselor lichide, au fost marcate cu inscripii realizate cu vopsea roie sau au fost adncite n past nainte de ardere sau pur i simplu zgriate dup ce vasul era gata (A. Rdulescu, 1975, p. 693 i urm). Noi am lucrat de mai bine de un deceniu pe diverse complexe ceramice pstrate fragmentar (V. V. Alaiba 2008, p. 252-254), vezi i calculele matematice realizate pentru cteva recipiente cucuteniene de la Deleti - Cetuia, a cror form s-a reconstituit prin desen (R. Alaiba, T. Marin 2002-2003, p. 40 i urm., fig. 5/2, 6; 8/1-5; 11/1-2; 12/1-2; 13), dar i pentru alte aezri n care

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Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

ceramica era fragmentar. Este acelai Sistem Compas, definit n mai multe studii de Eugen S. Teodor (1996; Idem, 1998a, p. 21-49 i 1998b, p. 239-275; Idem 2000, p. 623-625). Teoretic, msurarea formelor ceramice s-a bazat pe cunoaterea ctorva parametri, nlimea, ades parial restul vasului deducndu-se, diametrele buzei, gtului i bazei, arcuirea dinspre buz sau baz, arcuirile corpului. Msurtorile s-au fcut pentru interioarele vaselor, excluzndu-se astfel diferenele de grosime ale pereilor. Desigur, aceste calcule s-au realizat cu ajutorul calculatorului. n legtur cu ceramica de la Banca Gar - apte case, ale crei forme i dimensiuni s-au reconstituit, n parte, prin desen, se pot aduce cteva observaii generale. Prin aceste msurtori, cteva vase au fost discutate i din punctul de vedere al capacitii lor. n cele ce urmeaz ne vom opri la ceramica descoperit la Banca Gar, punctul apte case, aezarea din secolele III-V p.Hr. Majoritatea ceramicii descoperite n campaniile de cercetri arheologice nu s-a conservat bine (R. Alaiba 2007, p. 18 i urm.), s-a pstrat fragmentar i datorit locuirilor ulterioare. n raport cu suprafaa spat materialul ceramic a fost prea puin ntregibil. Din inventarul descoperit - aproximativ 1334 de vase pstrate n majoritate fragmentar, conform calculelor realizate pentru fiecare din cele 71 de complexe din secolele III-VI, un atelier de olrie, locuine construite la suprafaa solului sau adncite, gropi, vetre sau alte aglomerri de materiale, ntreg era doar un vas iar altele, aproximativ 30 de vase se pot restaura cu uurin. n principiu, pentru acestea s-a urmrit o analiz volumetric. Aa cum indic termenul, s-a cutat s se stabileasc volumul, msurarea capacitii vasului pe baze metrice. Vasele descoperite n aezare, dup modul de realizare, se nscriu n dou mari grupuri, a ceramicii lucrate cu mna i a celei lucrate la roat. I. Categoria ceramicii modelate la mn Ceramica s-a modelat din past frmntat incomplet, amestecat cu nisip, cioburi sfrmate, mici pietricele. Arderea, de cele mai multe ori semi-reductoare, nu a fost complet, vasele au frecvent o culoare brun-cafenie cu pete cenuii sau crmizii i un aspect sfrmicios, de aspect poros. Nici unul un a fost ntreg, cu excepia cuilor i a capacului. n ceea ce privete formele semnalate pentru ceramica modelat la mna se disting: ceti sau cui, cni, castroane i tipsii, dar mai ales prile de la vase borcan oale. n total, din spturile realizate, la Banca Gar - apte case, pn n prezent provin pri de la 144 vase fragmentare modelate la mn = 7 sec. III + 75 sec. III-IV + 20 sec. IV + 28+3 sec. IV-V + 11 sec. V-VI = 75+20+28+3+11. n total s-au detaat 108 vase (4 sec. III + 52 sec. III-IV + 15 sec. IV + 28+3 sec. IV-V + 6 sec. V-VI): 4 sec. III: 1 castron i 3 oale; 52 sec. III-IV: 1 vas miniatural, 9 cui, 1 capac, 1 taler, 1 castrona, 12 castroane, plus 2 cu profil n S probabil tot de la castroane, 1 borcan, 22 oale, 2 ovoidale; 15 sec. IV: 1 can, 1 bol, 5 castroane, 8 oale; 28+3 sec. IV-V: 1f vas miniatural, 2 cui, 3 castroane, 17 oale, 1 vas de provizii, 6 sec. V-VI, 1 castron, 5 oale. Pentru cui s-a considerat c aveau o capacitate cuprins ntre 0,1 l 0,2 l (fig. 1/15, 18-19, 21-22.

Capacitai i funcionaliti ale ceramicii / Capacities and functionalities of the ceramic

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Gara Banca - apte case. Msurarea capacitii vaselor. Ceramica modelat la mn. / Measurement of the capacity of vessels. Hand-made ceramic ware.
Fig. 1. 14 L11, cpl. 72, sec. III-IV; 3, 11 A4-5, cpl. 60-61; 4 L4, cpl. 26; 5, 10 G16, cpl. 114; 6 G1, cpl. 19; 12 L9, cpl. 51; 13 L6, cpl. 35; 16 G18, cpl. 119, sec. IV; 7 L1, cpl. 14; 15 L4 cpl. 36; 1, 8 G4, cpl. 79, sec. IV-V; 2, 9 G2, cpl. 120, sec. V-VI.

Fig. 2. 23 pass.; 31 G5 cpl. 121, sec. III; 4, 6, 19, 24, 26, 30 G7 cpl. 106; 2, 7, 18, 25 G2 cpl. 32; 3, 9, 11, 27-28 L4, cpl. 33; 5, 14, 22 L4, cpl. 33; 8, 10, 29 L3 cpl. 78; 12 Lad3 cpl. 78; 13 L2 cpl. 31; 17 L1, cpl. 12a; 33 L2, cpl. 17; 20 G4 cpl. 74; 21 G1 cpl. 13, sec. III-IV; 8, 32 G14, cpl. 116, sec. IV; 1 G4 cpl. 79; 10 cpl. 114, G5; 16 L4 cpl. 36, sec. IVV; 15 A1 cpl. 86, sec. VI.

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Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites Numrul vaselor n funcie de tipurile reconstituite:
Sec. III, din cele 38 forme stabilite pe complexe, modelate la mn erau 7 (2 G1 cpl. 21 + 1 G2 cpl. 113 + 4 G3 cpl. 121), dintre care s-a detaat doar, 1 castron i 3 oale. l Sec. III-IV din cele 221 forme pe complexe, modelate la mn erau 75 (5 Lsp1, cpl. 12a + 3 Lsp2 cpl. 17 + 1 Lsp3 cpl. 29 + 16 Lsp4 cpl. 33 + 1 Lsp6 cpl. 72 + 1 Lad1 cpl. 10 + 3L2 cpl. 31 + 10Lad3 cpl. 78 + 1G1 cpl. 13 + 13 G2 cpl. 32+ 1G4 cpl. 74 + 20G7 cpl. 106), din care s-a stabilit funcionalitatea: 1m vas miniatural, 9m cui, 1 capac, 1m taler, 1 castrona, 12 castroane, 1 borcan, 22 oale, 2 ovoidale, 2m cu profil n S. l Sec. IV din cele 210 forme pe complexe, modelate la mn erau 20 (1 Lsp1 cpl. 1 + 1 Lad2 cpl. 91 + 2 G2 cpl. 19 + 1 G6 cpl. 49 + 1 G10 cpl. 80+ 4 G11 cpl. 92 + 1 G14 cpl. 115 + 2 G15 cpl. 116 + 1 G16 cpl. 119 + 2 A1 cpl. 21a + 2 A3 cpl. 60 + 2A4 cpl. 61), din care s-a detaat, 1 can, 1 bol, 5 castroane, 8 oale. l Sec. IV-V, forme pe tipuri 248 forme, 28+3 sec. IV-V (2 Lsp1 cpl. 14 + 2 Lsp2 cpl. 26 + 1 Lsp3 cpl. 35 + 5 Lsp4 cpl. 36 + 5 Lsp5 cpl. 51 + 3 Lad1 cpl. 4 + 2 G1 cpl. 24a + 1 G2 cpl. 26a + 1 G4 cpl. 79 + 5 G5 cpl. 114 + 1 A1 cpl. 42), din care s-au detaat: 2 cui, 3 castroane, 17 oale, 1 vas de provizii. S-a stabilit capacitatea de 0,9 l, pentru oala din locuina de suprafa nr. 2, cpl. 26, secolele IV-V (fig. 1/4). l Sec. V-VI forme pe complexe 14 (4 G1 cpl. 95+ 2 G2 cpl. 120 + 5 A1 cpl. 86), 12 forme modelate la mn, din care s-au stabilit c erau, 1 castron, cpl. 120 i 5 oale, 4 cpl. 86, 1 cpl. 120.
l

Fig. 3. Gara Banca - apte case. Fragmente ceramice: past fin, 4, 22 Lad2 cpl. 91, sec. IV; neagr-cenuie, 1, 3 cuptor A, cpl. 65; 11 G4 cpl. 79, sec. IV-V; past zgrunuroas, 8 cupt. G1 cpl. 65; 19 A1 cpl. 21a, sec. IV; 20 G4 cpl. 24a, sec. IV-V; puin zgrunuroas, 24 A7 cpl. 73, sec. III-IV; 5 G3, cpl. 33a; 7, 9, 15 G2 cpl. 19, a doua zgr.; 23 Lsp. 3 cpl. 30; 21 G3 cpl. 33a; 17 Lad2 cpl. 91; 22 L2 cpl. 91, sec. IV; 2, 12 Lsp4 cpl. 36; 10, 13-14 Lsp5, cpl. 51; fin, 6 G12 cpl. 114; 16, 18 cpl. 65; 25 G5 cpl. 114, sec. IV-V. Fragmentary ceramics: fine paste, 4, 22 Lad2 cpl. 91, 4th century; black-grayish, 1, 3 kiln A cpl. 65; 11 G4 cpl. 79, 4rd 5th centuries; slightly paste, 8 cupt.G1 cpl. 65; 19 A1 cpl. 21a, 4th century; 20 G4 cpl. 24a, 4rd5th centuries; slightly coarse paste, 24 A7 cpl. 73, 3rd4th centuries; 5 G3, cpl. 33a; 7, 9, 15 G2 cpl. 19, two coarse; 23 Lsp.3 cpl. 30; 21 G3 cpl. 33a; 17 Lad2 cpl. 91; 22 L2 cpl. 91, 4th century; 2, 12 Lsp4 cpl. 36; 10, 13-14 Lsp5, cpl. 51; last fine, 6 G12 cpl. 114; 16, 18 cpl. 65; 25 G5 cpl. 114, 4rd5th centuries.

Capacitai i funcionaliti ale ceramicii / Capacities and functionalities of the ceramic Castron - Tureen. Tabel I / Table I
Nr. sg./Fig. 3/3, atelierul de olrie / The potters workshop Fig. 100/2, sec. IV-V.Corp nscris - scribed body 1 2 Corp circumscris - circumscribed body 1 2 V olum aproximativ - approximate volume h (cm) 1.70 5.4 8.8 3.4 5.4 8.8 R1 (cm) 7.30 15.8 15.8 16 16.6 16.6 R2 (cm) 3.20 14.6 6.4 7.8 16 7.8 V (litri) 0.15 0.98 1.28 0.4 1.12 1.52 1.4

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Fig. 4. Gara Banca - apte case. Past fin cenuie, 8-9, 13 L2 cpl. 17, sec. III-IV; 6 L2 cpl. 14; 18 L4 cpl. 36; 14 L1 cpl. 1; 15 L3 cpl. 30; 16 L2 cpl. 15; 25 G6 cpl. 49; 5 A3 cpl. 60; 19, 23 G10 cpl. 80; 20 pass.; 22 G19 cpl. 120; 26 G6 cpl. 49; 27 L1, cpl. 77; 28 A4 cpl. 61, sec. IV; 1, 24 A2, cpl. 43, 17 atelier de olrie, cpl. 65, 2-4 cupt. A, 7, 10 cupt. B; 11-12 L2 cpl. 27; L4 cpl. 36, sec. IV-V. Grayish fine paste, 8-9, 13 L2 cpl. 17, 3rd4th centuries; 6 L2 cpl. 14; 18, 25 L4 cpl. 36; 14 L1 cpl. 1; 15 L3 cpl. 30; 16 L2 cpl. 15; 25 G6 cpl. 49; 5 A3 cpl. 60; 19, 23 G10 cpl. 80; 20 pass.; 22 G19 cpl. 120; 26 G6 cpl. 49; 27 L1, cpl. 77; 28 A4 cpl. 61, 4th century; 1, 24 A2, cpl. 43, 17 potters workshop, cpl. 65, 2-4 kiln A, 7, 10 kiln B; 11-12 L2 cpl. 27; L4 cpl. 36, 4rd5th centuries.

Categoria ceramicii lucrate la roata olarului I-II. Ceramica din past zgrunuroas, din aceast past s-au modelat 104 vase pstrate toate fragmentar, 4 sec. III-IV, 62 sec. IV, 23+12 sec. IV-V i 3 V-VI i din past puin zgrunuroas 221 vase: 25 sec. III + 62 sec. III-IV + 64 sec. IV + 51+18 sec. IV-V + 1 sec. V-VI = 25+62+64+ 51+18 +1.

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Fig. 5. Gara Banca - apte case. Past fin angobat rou, 4 G5 cpl. 121, sec. III; roie 1, 5 Lsp3, cpl. 29, 6 Lsp2 cpl. 17; 11 Lad2 cpl. 31; 3 G2 cpl. 32; neagr 18 Lad1 cpl. 10; glbuie 7 Lad3 cpl. 78; 9-10 G8 cpl. 106; cenuie 20 A1, cpl. 70; 21 A2 cpl. 73, sec. IIIIV; 12 G2 cpl. 18; 14 Lsp5 cpl. 51; neagr 13 G9 cpl. 71; 2 pass, sec. IV; 16 Lsp4 cpl. 36; 8 G4 cpl. 79; 19 fin negricioas, G12 cpl. 114; 23 Lsp3, cpl. 35, sec. IV-V; zgrunuroas 25-26 G9 cpl. 71; 17, 24 Lad1 cpl. 77, sec. IV; 22 G4, cpl. 79, sec. IV-V; 15 G2 cpl. 120, sec. V. Fine paste covered with red slip, 4 G5 cpl. 121, 3th century; redish 1, 5 Lsp3, cpl. 29, 6 Lsp2 cpl. 17; 11 Lad2 cpl. 31; 3 G2 cpl. 32; blackish 18 Lad1 cpl. 10; yellowish 7 Lad3 cpl. 78; 9-10 G8 cpl. 106; grayish 20 A1, cpl. 70; 21 A2 cpl. 73, 3rd4th centuries; 12 G2 cpl. 18; 14 Lsp5 cpl. 51; blackish 13 G9 cpl. 71; 2 pass, 4th century; 16 Lsp4 cpl. 36; 8 G4 cpl. 79; 19 blackish, G12 cpl. 114; 23 Lsp3, cpl. 35, 4rd5th centuries; slightly coarse 25-26 G9 cpl. 71; 17, 24 Lad.1 cpl. 77, 4th century; 22G4, cpl.79,4rd5th centuries; 15 G2 cpl. 120, 5th century.

III. Ceramica din past fin 701 vase:41 sec. III + 188 sec. III-IV + 210 sec. IV + 169 + 90 sec. IV-V + 3 sec. V-VI = 41+188+210+169+ 90+3. Castronul din past fin descoperit n apropierea primului cuptor A, de dimensiuni mici, are doar 1,4 l, conform calculelor din tab. 1 (fig. 3/3). Ne-am oprit asupra unui mic vas, de 0,01 l, din secolul al IV-lea (fig. 4/22, Lad2 cpl. 91) i a trei castroane din cuptorul A, din atelierul de olrie, cpl. 65, cu capacitatea de 2,90 l (fig. 4/3), altul de 1,13 l (fig. 4/4), descoperit n G2, cpl. 120, sec. V i unul cu umrul unghiular, mai uor de calculat, cu o capacitate de 3,90 l (fig. 4/17), din sec. IV-V. Micul castrona, de 0,5 l, din locuina de suprafa nr. 3, cpl. 30 (fig. 4/15), sec. IV-lea, s-a modelat din past fin. De dimensiuni mici este i castronul descoperit n locuina uor adncit nr. 3, cpl. 78 (fig. 5/7).

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Fig. 4/22, Lad2 cpl. 91, fig. 138/2 Corp nscris - scribed body

Pahar / Beaker. Tabel II / Table II

Nr. sg. 1 2 1 2

Corp circumscris - circumscribed body V olum aproximativ - approximate volume

h (cm) 1.70 1.00 2.70 1.70 1.00 2.70

R1 (cm) 0.70 2.00 2.00 0.80 2.10 2.10

R2 (cm) 1.60 0.70 1.60 1.70 0.80 1.70

V (litri) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01

Fig. 4/3, atelierul de olrie, sec. IV-V Corp nscris - scribed body

Castron / Tureen. Tabel III / Table III


Nr. sg. 1 2 1 2

Corp circumscris - circumscribed body V olum aproximativ - approximate volume

h (cm) 6.00 2.50 8.50 6.00 2.50 8.50

R1 (cm) 12.00 10.80 10.80 13.00 11.80 11.80

R2 (cm) 6.50 12.00 6.50 7.50 13.00 7.50

V (litri) 1.66 1.02 2.68 2.03 1.21 3.24 2.96

Fig. 4/4, G2, cpl. 120, sec. V Corp nscris - scribed body

Castron / Tureen. Tabel IV/ Table IV


Nr. sg. 1 2 1 2

Corp circumscris - circumscribed body Volum aproximativ - approximate volume

h (cm) 3.50 2.40 5.90 3.50 2.40 5.90

R1 (cm) 9.30 9.30 9.30 9.70 10.00 10.00

R2 (cm) 2.30 9.30 2.30 2.70 9.70 2.70

V (litri) 0.41 0.65 1.07 0.47 0.73 1.20 1.13

Fig. 4/17, atelierul de olrie, fig. 99/4, sec. IV-V Corp nscris - scribed body Corp circumscris - circumscribed body V olum aproximativ - approximate volume

Castron / Tureen. Tabel V / Table V

Nr. sg. 1 2 1 2

h (cm) 3.5 7.20 10.70 3.50 7.20 10.70

R1 (cm) 10.50 13.50 13.50 10.60 13.60 13.60

R2 (cm) 4.00 10.50 4.00 4.10 10.60 4.10

V (litri) 0.62 3.27 3.89 0.63 3.33 3.96 3.93

Fig. 4/15, Lsp3, cpl. 30 Corp nscris - scribed body

Castron / Tureen. Tabel VI / Table VI


Nr. sg. 1 2 1 2

Corp circumscris - circumscribed body V olum aproximativ - approximate volume

h (cm) 2.90 3.60 6.50 2.90 3.60 6.50

R1 (cm) 3.00 6.30 6.30 3.70 6.60 6.60

R2 (cm) 5.80 3.00 5.80 6.50 3.70 6.50

V (litri 0.18 0.25 0.44 0.24 0.31 0.55 0.49

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Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites Capacities and functionalities of the ceramic ware discovered in the settlement of Banca Gar- apte case

The work aims at the computer-aided knowledge, without using a too IT specific vocabulary, of the capacities of the better preserved recipients, discovered in the rural settlement dated to the period between second half of the 3rd century beginning of the 5th century, of Banca Gar, point apte case. Moreover, a relatively recent research direction was followed, that is the general practice of using the mathematical calculations in other fields of knowledge - in our case the archeology, facing the risk of not being accepted, making use of an IT-specific vocabulary, which facilitates the access to such information. The determination of the capacities of some of the ceramic shapes discovered by means of archaeological excavations was already carried out for some sites, especially for settlements belonging to the Cucuteni culture. For the period of the 2nd 4th centuries, we have managed so far to obtain data concerning the capacities of the vessels discovered in the site of Podul Iloaiei - esul Trgului, within the Moldavian Plain. Such researches have become more and more popular. We should only refer in this context to the existence in England of a centre interested in the computer-aided analyses of the archeological inventory. One of the congress of such centre took place in Iai Informatics Applied in Archaeology, in 1996 while the International Archeometry Symposium took place in Budapest, in 1998. Such an approach, aimed at measuring the capacity of the provision pits, a geometrical study of the food pits was carried out by Corneliu N. Mateescu, together with Sylviu Comnescu (1972, p. 357 sq.), based on the splitting of the pit in several measurable forms. This is how there was investigated a medieval provision pit discovered in Vdastra, with a storage capacity of about 4000 kg wheat. The provision pits, situated to the northeast of the excavation, and which was placed on top of a previous pit, belonging to the Vdastra II community down there. The ceramic ware situated in the pit dated the discovery to the second half of the 14 th century and according to the authors of the discovery the pit most probably belonged to a hut dated to the same period, which was situated slightly southwards (C. N. Mateescu 1962, p. 190). As pointed out by the author, together with the historical information, the discovery brought about new information concerning the presence and richness of the cereals (Ibidem, p. 191). Numerous other features brought to light by means of archeological excavations can be also investigated by other mathematical methods and modalities. Among these, the ceramic ware has a special place. We shall focus below on the ceramic ware discovered at Banca Gar - apte case, in the settlement dated to the 3rd5th centuries AD. The Ceramic Ware of Gara Banca - apte case Most of the ceramic ware discovered at Banca Gar, during the archeological campaigns carried out in the point apte case, has not been well preserved, resulting mostly potsherds situation which was also caused by the later habitations. In comparison to the excavated surface, the ceramic material allowed only to a too little extent its reconstruction. From within the discovered inventory, only one pot was entire, other 30 pots allowed their reconstruction, while the remaining pots whose number would be of up to 1600, in accordance with the calculations given by the ceramic inventories for each feature, were only fragmentary. As a principle, the volumetric analysis was applied only to the pots that could be reconstructed. As indicated by the name of such analysis, our aim was to determine the volume, measure the capacity of the vessel using metrical basis. Given the approximate vale of the capacities, we tried to correlated them to their functionality. The method applied is relatively simple and carried out in two phases, whose data were cumulated in the end.

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The first was based on the possibility of dividing approximately any shape of vessel in one or more truncated cones. The choice of this geometric shape was based on the fact that most of the vessels are the result of the rotation activity and their calculation is easily carried out. The second phase was based on the usage of two approximation bodies one inscribed and the other circumscribed, in order to be able to approximate as correctly as possible the capacity of the pot for each pot segment. Thus a volumetric approximation was achieved by adding or extracting in relation to the real capacity of the pot. The approximation bodies have the property of adding and of extracting, respectively, from the contour of the vessel and therefore from its capacity as well. Taking into account this fact and creating in a computerized table, the arithmetic average of the two bodies, there results an average volume which approximates that vessel segment. In the end, summing up the partial average volumes of each segment composing a vessel, there was obtained the approximate final capacity thereof. As common knowledge shows, most of the amphora discovered in the sites east of the Carpathians, during the first half of the first millennium had certain capacities although only rarely did they preserve the sign of the checking, reason why, for this type of pots, finding out their capacities is not a problem any more. On the contrary, the volume of the fine or daily ceramic ware used in the rural sites was discussed in most cases generally, appreciatively, and such pots are referred to as food vessels, large vessels, average size vessels, small vessels and miniature ones. Concerning the ceramic ware of Banca Gar - apte case, whose shapes and dimensions were partly reconstructed by drawing, several general remarks should be stressed upon. Most of such vessels were made by means of the potters wheel using a local paste containing sand in various quantities. By such measurements, several pots were also discussed from the point of view of their capacity as well. Clay was used to shape pots of various sizes, with multiple symmetries, with thickened or flared rims under different angles or T-shaped, with the profile of the body streamlined or rounded and almost always with a ring-like base. The pots discovered in the settlement, according to their manner of achievement, are split in two main groups, more precisely the one of the hand-made ceramic ware and the one of the wheelshaped ceramic ware. The range of pot shapes and within these the range of variants, are rather limited. They may include several types: beakers, large and small mugs of various sizes, large bowls, some of them with three lateral handles, dishes, pots, food storage ware, amphorae or lids. For a small dish with profiled wall, the capacity of 0,94 l was determined, and 0,7 l (see table I-II, fig. 1) and for a small bowl the capacity of 2,7 l (tab. II, fig. 2). Also, the small cups have capacities between 0,2 - 0,3 l. They were found in pit no. 5, feat. 32, dated to the 3rd century, in surface dwelling no. 1, feat. 12a, in pits nos. 1, 7, 10, feat. 13, 74, 107 and in the heap of materials no. 3, feat. 86, dated to the 3rd4th centuries, as well as in surface dwellings nos. 7, 9, feat. 36, 51 or pit no. 18, feat. 119, dated to the 4th century (fig. 1).

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Restaurarea i conservarea materialului ceramic


Ileana - Ildiko Zahariade Laboratorul de conservare-restaurare, din cadrul Muzeului Judeean tefan cel Mare Vaslui, s-a nfiinat n anul 1975, i a funcionat, de la nceput, n ncperile aflate la demisolul noii i modernei construcii amplasate n centrul municipiului Vaslui. Prin tradiie, restaurarea s-a structurat pe patru diviziuni de specializare pentru urmtoarele categorii de obiecte: ceramic, metal, lemn i textile. n acest sens, pentru a putea interveni, laboratorul are n dotare echipament i materiale specifice. n acest laborator, n care, dup cum s-a vzut, se execut lucrri de specialitate pe o mare diversitate de materiale, s-au prelucrat i piesele descoperite n spturile realizate n judeul Vaslui. ntre acestea un loc aparte a avut i conservarea i restaurarea materialelor descoperite prin cercetrile arheologice ntreprinse n satul Banca Gar, punctul apte case, descoperite n cele ase sectoare investigate (A-F). Att pentru ceramica de tradiie eneolitic, dar i pentru ceramica din epoca bronzului, din perioada hallstattian sau din primul mileniu, s-au obinut date cantitative. Pentru prima jumtate a primului mileniu, s-a restaurat i conservat ceramica uzual lucrat cu mna, ceramica zgrunuroas i puin zgrunuroas, fin modelat la roat sau de import, prile de amfore sau vase de sticl. n paralel s-au restaurat i conservat i uneltele, ustensilele casnice i de uz gospodresc, precum cuite de fier, topoare, uneltele de lut, os, silex, din gresie sau diferitele piese lucrate pe galei, accesorii pentru veminte, catarame, fibule, obiecte de toalet, oglinzi cu tamga i piepteni de os sau podoabe, mrgele, pandantivi, lnioare de bronz, pri de la materialele folosite pentru construcia locuinelor, resturi de faun. O parte din piese pot fi vzute n expoziia permanent aflat la etajul Muzeului Judeean tefan cel Mare - Vaslui. n prezent, activitile de conservare i restaurare constituie un domeniu inseparabil de alte activitii muzeistice, dar i una din cile de ptrundere ale noului, sub aspectul ultimelor cercetri ale tiinei i tehnicii, ale prelucrrii informaiei pe calculator. Colectivul este format din specialiti, restauratorul Pntea Cristian lucrnd aici nc de la nfiinarea laboratorului. Ei au urmat o serie de cursuri teoretice i sunt atestai pe post. De-a lungul anilor, pregtirea teoretic a fost completat de o experien practic bogat, ei intervenind pe o diversitate de obiecte. Dup splarea i marcarea n laboratorul de restaurare din Muzeul Judeean tefan cel Mare - Vaslui, sub directa supraveghere a colegilor de la laborator, restauratori, conservatori, Cornel Hobincu, Cristian Pntea i Constantin Aghion, de arheolog R. Alaiba, cu ajutorul permanent al supraveghetorilor, materialele descoperite s-au ordonat pentru fiecare complex n funcie de numrul recipientelor, dup care au fost desenate de Georgeta Vrnceanu. Majoritatea obiectelor ceramice sunt aduse fragmentar sau cu unele amputri. Restaurarea lor presupune curiri mecanice, chimice, asamblri cu ajutorul unor adezivi, completri ale zonelor lacunare, atunci cnd obiectele sau numrul de fragmente nu stabilesc aspectul morfologic complet i integrarea cromatic, evitndu-se stridena, astfel nct s fie decelabil intervenia la o analiz nepretenioas. De cele mai multe ori dintr-un vas s-a conservat o parte, mai rar mai multe. Astfel, analiza lor s-a realizat urmrind numrul de recipiente, nu pe cel al fragmentelor ceramice. Pentru categoriile stabilite s-a descris separat fiecare vas din cadrul ceramicii modelate la mn, ct i a celei lucrate cu roata, puin zgrunuroase sau zgrunuroase, ceramic fin, inclusiv de import, precum i prile de la amfore sau de la vasele de sticl. La executarea lucrrilor de restaurare s-au

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folosit mijloacele tehnice i soluiile tradiionale. Cnd aceste mijloace au fost ineficiente din punct de vedere tehnic, restauratorii i conservatorii au apelat la materiale noi de completare. n toate cazurile s-au folosit materiale i substane reversibile, care nu afecteaz starea obiectului, substratul lui original. De asemenea, la obiectul la care restaurarea risc s devin ipotetic, se prefer conservarea lor ca atare. Aceast etap de ordonare a ceramicii a permis realizarea unei diferenieri n primul rnd n raport de tehnic, apoi i una dup funcionalitatea vaselor n: recipiente pentru servit mncarea, pentru gtit sau pentru pstrarea rezervelor. Prin activitatea de restaurare a materialelor arheologice descoperite n complexele de la Banca Gar, punctul apte case, s-a mbogit patrimoniul muzeal, s-au realizat studii ale materialului arheologic conservat i restaurat - publicate n reviste de specialitate din ar i strintate, s-a prezentat staiunea la sesiunile tiinifice de profil. De asemenea, s-au experimentat tehnici noi de restaurare, s-au fcut teste i experimente asupra unor rini pentru asamblarea fragmentelor ceramice i nlocuirea poliacetatului de vinil sau ca material nou de completare n restaurarea ceramicii i nlocuirea ipsosului. Pin structura complex a activitii sale, precum i prin arealul extins pe care l deservete, laboratorul de conservare i restaurare a Patrimoniului Cultural Vaslui se situeaz n categoria laboratoarelor permanent angajate n restaurarea i conservarea descoperirilor arheologice. Datorita competentei i recunoaterii activitii n domeniu, la Vaslui au fost conservate-restaurate importantele piese aflate n coleciile instituiei. n 2008, cercetrile realizate pentru staiunea Banca Gar - apte case, s-au prezentat la simpozionul legat de probleme de restaurare din cadrul Complexului Muzeal Naional Moldova, Iai, pentru volumul cruia s-a dat spre publicare lucrarea, Reconstituirea atelierului de olrie din aezarea Banca Gar - apte case, secolele IV-V.

Restoration and Conservation of the pottery


The conservation - restoration laboratory within the Stephen the Great County Museum of Vaslui was founded in 1975, and has operated since the beginning in the space at the half basement of the new and modern construction in the center of the city of Vaslui. Traditionally, restoration works have been structured on four categories of specialization for the following types of objects: ceramic ware, metal, wood and textiles. In this regard, in order to be able to carry out the interventions, the laboratory is also equipped with specific materials. In this laboratory, where specialized works are carried out on a wide variety of materials, there were also treated the items discovered within the excavations carried out in Vaslui county. Among these, a special place is the one of the conservation and restoration of materials discovered by archaeological excavations in the village Banca Gar, point apte case, identified in the seven investigated sectors (A-F). Quantitative data were obtained both for the ceramic ware of Eneolithic tradition and for the ceramic ware of the Bronze Age, of the Hallstatt or the one of the first millennium. For the first half of the first millennium, there were restored and conserved hand-made ceramic items, or wheel made ceramic items of coarse and less coarse paste, or imported ceramic items, parts of amphorae and glass vessels. In parallel, there were also restored and conserved tools, domestic implements, as well as iron knives, axes, tools made of clay, bone, flint and sandstone and the various items made on pebble, accessories for vestments, buckles, fibulae, jewelry items, mirrors with tamgha and bone combs or jewels, beads, pendants, bronze necklaces, parts of materials used for the construction of dwellings, fauna remains. Part of the items can be seen in the permanent exhibition at the upper floor of Stephen the Great County Museum of Vaslui. At present, the conservation restoration activities are a field

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inseparable from other museum activities, and also one of the ways of penetration of the novelty, under the aspect of the latest researches of science and technique, of computer-assisted data processing. The team includes specialists, one of them being restorer Pntea Cristian who has worked here ever since the foundation of the laboratory. They attended a series of theoretical courses and have been confirmed as specialists on these positions. In time, the theoretical preparation was completed by a rich practical experience, the above professionals being able to carry out their interventions on a wide range of objects. After the discovered materials are washed and marked in the restoration laboratory of Stephen the Great County Museum of Vaslui, under the direct supervision of the colleagues working in the laboratory, restorers, conservators, Cornel Hobincu and Cristian Pntea, archeologist R. Alaiba, with the permanent help of the museum attendants, they are arranged for each complex pending on the number of recipients. Most of the ceramic items are found in fragmentary conditions or with some amputations. Their restoration involves mechanical cleaning, chemical cleaning, assemblage by means of adhesives, filling the lacunae, when the items or the number of fragments do not determine the morphologic aspect and the chromatic integration, avoiding vivid colors, so that the intervention can be easily identified. Most of the times, one or more rarely several parts of a vessel have been preserved. Thus, their analysis was done pending on the number of recipients, not the one of the ceramic fragments. For the determined categories there was described separately each vessel within the hand-made ceramic ware, and also within the wheel made ceramic ware of coarse or less coarse paste, of fine paste, including imported items, such as parts of amphorae or of glass vessels. The traditional technical means and solutions were applied in carrying out the restoration works. When these proved to be technically inefficient, the restorers and conservators appealed to new materials. In all cases, reversible substances and materials were applied so to avoid affecting the condition of the item and its original substratum. Also, in the case of the items where restoration risks to be hypothetical, its conservation as such is preferred. This phase of ordering the ceramic ware allowed to differentiate according to the technique first of all, and then according to the functionality of the vessels, as follows: recipients for serving food, for cooking or for storing food reserves. The activity of restoration of archaeological materials discovered in the complexes of Banca Gar, point apte case, allowed the enlargement of the museum heritage, the study of the conserved and restored archaeological material and the publication thereof in specialized magazines in Romania and abroad or the presentation of the site within specialized scientific sessions. New restoration techniques were also experimented, as tests and experiments were done on resins used for assembling potsherd in order to replace the vinyl poly-acetate, or used as a new filling material in the restoration of ceramic ware, replacing the gypsum plaster. By the complex structure of its activity, as well as by the wide area it covers, the cultural heritage conservation restoration laboratory of Vaslui belongs to the category of laboratories permanently involved in the restoration and conservation of the archaeological finds. Due to the competence and recognition of the activity in the field, in Vaslui there were conserved restored important items that belong to the collections of the institution.

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Staiunea Banca Gar - apte case, secolele III-IV Locul acesteia ntre descoperirile din Podiul Brladului
Ruxandra Alaiba ntre staiunile cercetate arheologic n ultimele decenii ale secolului trecut, n spaiul dintre Carpai i Prut se afl i Banca Gar - apte case, situat n Podiul Brladului, la vest de Dealurile Flciului, spre trecerea acestora la o alt subunitate geografic, Colinele Tutovei. Din cercetrile ntreprinse aici, ntr-un prim volum ne-am oprit la descoperirile preistorice i a celor datate mai ales n prima parte a mileniului I, din a doua jumtate a secolului al III-lea, pn n secolul al VIlea p.Hr. n aceast ndelungat perioad s-au ncadrat 84 de complexe, din cele 144 cercetate. Dintre ele, 74 de complexe au dus la dezvelirea unei pri din modesta aezare rural format aici n secolul al III-lea, care i-a continuat existena i n secolele urmtoare. Din aceasta s-au dezvelit 17 locuine de suprafa (fig. 2) i 10 uor adncite (fig. 3), formate dintr-o singur ncpere, nclzite cu vetre simple, 33 de gropi i 10 aglomerri ceramice. Tot aici se afla cel puin un atelier de olari, unul de fierari. n staiune s-au spat i trei morminte, nr. 5 din secolul al III-lea (cpl. 66) i dou, nr. 3-4 din secolul al IV-lea (cpl. 20, 76).
17 Locuine de suprafa: 6 sec. III-IV + 5 sec. IV + 5 sec. IV-V;
TOTAL COMPLEXE

10 Locuine uor adncite: 1 sec. III + 3 sec. III-IV + 2 sec. IV + 3 sec. IV-V; 33 Gropi: 7 sec. III-IV + 16 sec. IV + 5 sec. IV-V + 2 sec. V-VI; 10 Aglomerri de materiale: 2 sec. III-IV + 5 sec. IV + 2 sec. IVV + 1 sec. V-VI; 1 Atelier de olrie, sec. IV-V; 3 Morminte, 1 din sec. III, 2 sec. IV. TOTAL COMPLEXE 74

Locuine de suprafa 17 Locuine uor adncite 10 Gropi 33 Aglomerare de materiale10 Atelier de olrie 1 Morminte 3 0 20 40 60 80

ow 2

Analiza specificului staiunii a pornit de la modul de amplasare a aezrii, cu plcuri de case nirate n lungul vii i de la tipurile de locuine adncite sau construite pe sol, frecvena i durata lor, mai puin de la necropol n mare parte distrus prin adncirea noii albii a Brladului. Caracterul modest al inventarului arheologic din aceast silite, descoperit n locuinele de suprafa sau uor adncite, n ateliere, gropi sau n aglomerrile de materiale de pe nivelul antic, const mai ales din fragmente ceramice i mai puine obiecte de lut, metal, sticl, os, corn. Rar s-au surprins urme de ceramic ars secundar sau buci de chirpici ari rou nchis, ca urmare a unei distrugeri intenionate a construciilor prin incendiere, ceea ce ne face s presupunem o prsire intenionat a locuinelor. Inventarul s-a pstrat fragmentar i din cauza suprapunerii aezrii de locuiri ulterioare, mai sporadice pentru secolele VI-VII i mai numeroase pentru secolele VIII-IX (fig. 4-5). Pentru compararea staiunii de la Banca Gar - apte case cu alte staiuni, cu deosebire din sudul Moldovei, i pentru stabilirea unor apropieri cu specificul acesteia, am urmrit cteva din vechile aezri rurale, daco-carpice sau daco-romane, din secolele II-III i de dup 271, cu schimbrile date de prsirea provinciei Dacia, datate n secolele III/IV-V/VI. O caracteristic

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comun a lor este aceea c, n fiecare dintre ele s-au semnalat suprapuneri stratigrafice, aezrile din secolele II-III, erau suprapuse de cele din secolul al IV-lea, uneori continund i n cel urmtor, pentru ca pe aceleai vetre de sat sau pe vetre apropiate, acestea la rndul lor s fie urmate de unele datnd n secolele IV-V. Pentru cunoaterea specificului comunitilor care au locuit n Podiul Brladului, n genere n sudul Moldovei, perioada dintre secolele III-VI reprezint o etap important din istoria primului mileniu, cunoscut foarte puin din izvoarele scrise, dar bine documentat prin cercetarea arheologic, prin spturile sistematice sau de salvare realizate n cteva dintre numeroasele aezri i necropole semnalate prin periegheze. La fel ca i n celelalte teritorii ocupate de dacii liberi, n primele secole de dup retragerea aurelian, aezrile din sudul Moldovei, n acord cu zonele geografice nvecinate, au cunoscut aceeai evoluie, prin ptrunderea n secolele III-IV, a unor grupuri de sarmai i a dominaiei neamurilor germanice. Valea Brladului, dup ce traverseaz Podiul Central Moldovenesc, traseaz la limita de sud-vest a Podiului Brladului, marginea de vest a Dealurilor Flciului i de sud a Dealurilor Tutovei, dup care taie o parte din Cmpia Romn unde se i realizeaz confluena ei cu Siretul. Ultima limit sudic a Podiului Moldovei o marcheaz Dunrea. n Podiul Brladului, traversat aproape n ntregime de bazinul hidrografic cu acelai nume, care-i d coeziune prin integrarea mai multor subuniti, se contureaz cteva principale microzone geografice cu specificul lor: Podiul Central Moldovenesc, Colinele Tutovei, Dealurile i Cmpia Flciului, continuate spre sud cu Podiul Covurluiului i Cmpia Tecuciului sau a Brladului Inferior. Relieful subunitilor de ordinul trei, ale Podiului Brladului, care se prezint n genere sub forma unor dealuri sau platouri cu spinarea larg boltit de culmi separate de vi largi, dar adnci, cu diferene de nivel de pn la 200 m (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, p. 313-314), constituie diviziunile geografice n care i-au amplasat vetrele de sat, comunitile steti ale acestei perioade. Astfel, n Platourile Tansa - Repedea avem staiunile de la Tcuta - Dealul Miclea, n Platourile Dolheti - Buneti, n comuna Arsura, pe Cetuia Mogoeti s-au semnalat i urmele unor locuiri din secolul al IV-lea, ca i la est de sat n punctul Cumpeni, la vest n punctul Poiana sau Ruptura, n partea de nord-vest a vetrei satului i la sud-est de sat n interfluviul format de prul Ruginoasa cu o raven (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 310; G. Coman 1980, p. 51-52, III.2, 4, 6-7, 11). n aceeai comun, n satul Mihail Koglniceanu s-au menionat i alte aezri, la sud-est de sat, pe stnga prul oprleni i pe drumul spre Drnceni, pe malul prului Barahoi iar n satul Phneti, la est / sud-est de sat, pe Dealul Henciu (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 336-337; G. Coman 1980, p. 53, III.16-17, 21-23). n Depresiunea Brladului Superior se cunoate necropola carpic i aezarea Sntana de Mure de la Dumetii Vechi - La est de sat, de asemenea aezarea din secolele III-IV din punctul La Troi, din Capul Dealului Crucii, staiunea dinspre Confluena Brladului cu prul Gureanca, din punctul La Jitnie, situat la poalele Dealului Izvorului iar la Dumetii Noi, punctul Valea Hodorani, cu fragmente ceramice lucrate la mn, asociate cu ceramic roman (M. PetrescuDmbovia, D. Marin, Em. Bold 1958, p. 21; G. Coman 1980, p. 124-125, XXVII.1-2, 7). ntr-un numr important de staiuni s-au realizat cercetri de un colectiv coordonat de Dan Gh. Teodor, mpreun cu R. Alaiba i Ghenu Coman, unele de mai mare amploare precum cele de la Drgeti - Pe Izlaz (~, G. Coman, R. Alaiba 1979, p. 285-288), dar i altele de salvare, precum cele desfurate la Dumetii Vechi sau Negreti - La cimitir (G. Coman, R. Maxim [Alaiba] 1979, p. 333-335; Eadem 1985-1986, p. 149-169). Pentru Dealurile Racova - Stemnic, menionm cunoscuta staiune din satul Poieneti, punctul Mgura Dealul Teilor, amplu cercetat de Radu Vulpe n 1949 (~ et alii 1950, p. 41-46), iar din 1979 de un colectiv coordonat de Mircea Babe (~ et alii 1980, p. 35-44), pentru descoperirile din Dealurile Icuetilor (Faa Siretului), semnalm cunoscuta cetate de la Brad - La Stnc, situat la nord-vest de izvoarele rului Brlad, apoi, n Dealurile Comarna - Rducneni

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(Faa Prutului), aezarea de la Rducneni, La Ciread, Mitoc, n Vatra satului, pe Dealul Beleaga I, Grdina lui Marcoci, Brigada silvic i un cuptor de ars oale n satul Isaiia - Satu Nou (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, LXI.1.A.I.L-M., 3.A., p. 334). n extremitatea sud-estic unde se afl Depresiunea Huilor cu altitudini mai reduse de 140-150 m, n primul rnd se cunosc staiunile geto-dacice din secolele IV-II a.Hr., cercetate de Silvia Teodor i Violeta V. Bazarciuc (S. Teodor 1983-1984, p. 155 i urm., D. Gh. Teodor 1983-1984, p. 155 i urm.). n Colinele Tutovei dintre Siret, Racova i Brlad, cu aspectul unui triunghi alungit pn spre Nicoreti, cu subunitile de ordinul trei cu aspectul unor nlimi ce coboar lin de la nord la sud i care cuprind n nord-vest Colinele nalte, cu altitudini medii de peste 450 m i Colinele joase n sud-est, sub 200 m, se cunosc mai bine aezrile din secolul al IV-lea de la vest de satul Silitea, com. Iana, de pe dreapta Studineului (G. Coman 1980, p. 157, XXXVI.4), respectiv din satul, centru de comun, Alexandru Vlahu, punctul Capul Dealului (Ibidem, p. 48, II.2), precum i descoperirile din satele componente acesteia, Ibneti - n marginea de vest a satului, n apropierea confluenei a dou priae (Ibidem, p. 49, II.3) sau Mnzai - Interfluviu, n marginea sud-vestic a satului (Ibidem p. 50, II.5). De asemenea, necropola de la Obreni - Dealul Corului, investigat n 1968 de Ion Mitrea, din care s-au dezvelit apte morminte de inhumaie (1969, p. 219-232) i aezarea de la Grdina CAP, aflat la 400 m nord-est de necropol (G. Coman 1980, p. 274, LXXI.13, fig. 136/1-8; 141/10-11; 142/13-14). n subunitile de ordinul trei ale Dealurilor Flciului, situate ntre Valea Lohanului, Brladului, Cmpia Flciului i Podiul Covurluiului (V. Bcuanu et alii, p. 297), se pot meniona alte importante aezri arheologice. n Dealurile Dobrina - Olteneti, staiunile de la Ttrni i Olteneti, n Dealurile Vinderei - Mluteni, punctele de la Sipeni, Igeti - Scndureni sau Lupeti Fntna Mare i n Platourile Albetilor, aezarea de la Albeti - La est de sat. De aici menionm cercetrile arheologice sistematice realizate de Dan Gh. Teodor, Ruxandra Alaiba i Ghenu Coman, de la Gura Idrici - La Coere (G. Coman, R. Maxim 1980, p. 450-454; Eadem 1981-1982, p. 81-97; D. Gh. Teodor, R. Maxim 1983, p. 464-469) i la sud de ele, n apropiere, n zona mai joas din preajma Dealurilor Banca Grivia, staiunea de la Banca Gar - apte case. n Cmpia Flciului, denumit i depresiunea Elan - Horincea - Srata sau Cmpia colinar a Elanului (P. Jeanrenaud, A. Saraiman 1995, p. 3-4), limitat de vile Elanului i Prutului pn la Cuesta Horincea, cu un relief colinar cu altitudini medii ntre 100 - 200 m, cu platouri joase, separate de vi largi cu substrat argilos, se gsete binecunoscuta aezare de la Brlleti - Sturza, n Cmpia Horincea, aezarea de la Mluteni Leaua. Aproape nelocuit, n aceast perioad, a fost zona mai joas a Cmpiei Srata - Prut. Pentru descoperirile din com. Murgeni, Ghenu Coman a realizat un volum aparte (1973). Aici, din secolele III-IV erau staiunile de la Bbneaa, spre imobilul CFR, Iancobescu, Valea rnii, La est de Murgeni, tiubeeni, Ilioaia, iar n satul 23 August, n jurul colii Mgeana, n satul Crja de Jos, la Brsani, n jurul podului, Maa, la Leti, Pe promontoriu, La sud-vest de sat, la Sreni, n faa colii, n marginea de est, la Schineni, La Hor i n satul Vdeni, La Stn, la Gura Holob i la Casa de Ap (G. Coman 1973). De la Murgeni - Gura Bujoreni, din marginea de sud-vest a satului, din aezarea datat n sec. IV, provine i o figurin zoomorf poate un cine modelat din past fin cenuie (G. Coman 1973, p. 39, 49; idem 1980, XLIII.6., fig p. 186, fig. 144/1), care, prin analogie cu alte forme asemntoare, dar realizate din alte materiale, precum exemplarul din fier de la Ocnia, jud. Vlcea, datat n prima jumtate a sec. I p.Hr. (M. Babe 1994, p. 272-273, fig. 86), poate fi considerat a fi fost un cel de vatr. Pentru marginea de sud-est a Colinelor Tutovei, n Colinele Joase sud-estice, n apropiere de municipiul Brlad, menionm aezrile i necropolele spate de Vasile Palade, de la Brlad Valea Seac (sfritul sec. al III-lea - a doua jumtate a sec. al V-lea), unde au fost descoperite 547 de morminte de inhumaie i incineraie (V. Palade 2004, p. 85), Bogdneti - n faa casei N. Diaconu, com. Flciu (Ibidem, p. 85-162; Idem 1973, p. 169-189), o necropol biritual din care

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s-au dezvelit 156 de morminte. Totodat, menionm i cercetrile arheologice realizate n aezrile de la Zorleni, Fntnele (jud. Vaslui), unde se afla i un cuptor de olar din secolul al IV-lea (1969, p. 339-361; Idem 1987-1989, p. 53-63) sau Ghermneti, comuna Banca, unde s-a spat o fntn un pu din secolul al IV-lea p.Hr. (Idem 1978, p. 407-421). Subliniem i recentele spturi realizate de M. Mamalauc la Pogoneti - Polocin, comuna Iveti (1997, p. 147-166; Idem 2005, p. 11). ntre staiunile mai importante din zona tecucilor, menionm aezarea i necropola de la Barcea Galai. * Am aduga i cteva piese nediscutate nc pentru secolele IV-V, ceii de vatr (germ. Feuerbock, engl. Firedog, fr. Chenet). Mircea Babe i Virgil Mihilescu-Brliba, au conturat trei arii principale de utilizare a lor, celtic, thraco-dacic i germanic (1972, p. 176 i urm.). Diferitele forme de cei de vatr au servit la svrirea cultului domestic de ctre thracii norddunreni (N. Zugravu 1997, p. 134, 326) i au fost frecvent folosii de geto-daci, fapt pentru care, ulterior, Gheorghe Bichir, i-a inclus n grupa thraco-dacic, cu tipurile, thraco-scitic i thraco-dacic, n care a fost inclus i varianta carpic (1973, p. 144). Ultimele erau modelate din past amestecat cu aceeai degresani folosii pentru ceramic i ornai cu brie n relief (N. Zugravu, 1973, p. 142, pl. CLIV/5, CLV/3-4).

Fig. 1. Murgeni - Gura Bujorni, suport, cei de vatr firedog (apud, 1 Gh. Coman 1980, fig. 144/1. sec. IV; 2-3 Gr. Foit 169, fig. 8, Gh. Bichir 1973, fig. CL/1, sec. II-III).

n complexele geto-dacice astfel de piese erau prevzute la capete cu protome zoomorfe, de cai sau de berbeci (M. Babe 1994, p. 272-273), precum cele de la Rctu, Brad - La stnc sau Poiana - Cetate, Tecuci (R. Vulpe, Ecaterina Vulpe, 1933, p. 317, 319, 321, fig. 97/1, 3; 99/3; 102/11-12; 129/6; R. Vulpe et alii 1951, p. 196, fig. 18/2; 1952, p. 201, fig. 14/3-4). S reamintim datele legate de descoperirea la Silitea cheii, Suceava, n aezarea datat n secolele II-III, n umplutura focriei cuptorului al treilea de ars ceramica (tip performant cu dou camere suprapuse), probabil tot a unui cel de vatr de forma unei figurine poate un cal, dup arcuirea specific gtului, dar cu picioarele scurte, modelat nengrijit cu mna, din ceramic fin,

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roie, bine ars. Avea rupte, capul spre gur i coada (h = 4; L = 5 cm). Ceii de vatr din lut sau folosit i n epoca roman, precum cei de la Poiana - Pe Varni, Dulceti, jud. Neam. Aici, erau modelate din past amestecat cu cioburi pisate i prevzute la capete cu protome de animal, cal sau berbec. Piesa cea mai ntreag se afla pe podeaua bordeiului, B13, ceea ce a dus la presupunerea c aveau i alte utiliti (Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 142, pl. CLIV/5, CLV/3-4). Cteva gropi, tot de Pe varni, nr. 7, nr. 11, nr. 16, nr. 52, nr. 64, conineau aproape exclusiv numai fragmente de crust de vatr, buci de lipitur de la carcasa unor cuptoare, pietre de ru arse provenind de la baza vetrelor, crbuni i cenu, foarte puin ceramic. n groapa de form cilindric nr. 7 ( = 1,45 m; h = 1,90 m) s-a mai gsit i un fragment dintr-un cel de vatr iar n groapa n form de butelie, nr. 11 ( = 1,35 m; h = 1,90 m) o figurin de lut reprezentnd un animal stilizat, cu corpul bombat, avnd capul i picioarele rupte din vechime Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 136, pl. CL/1), care se apropie tot de forma ceilor de vatr (fig. 1/3). Dei, aceste piese pn n prezent nu au fost consemnate n cadrul culturii Sntana de Mure, n secolul al IV-lea s-a continuat folosirea celor de lut, precum exemplarul descoperit la Murgeni - Gura Bujoreni, punct situat n marginea de sud-vest a satului. Din aezarea datat n secolul al IV-lea, provine i o figurin zoomorf poate un cine (fig. 1/1) modelat din past fin cenuie amestecat cu aceeai degresani folosii pentru ceramic (G. Coman 1973, p. 39, 49; idem 1980, XLIII.6., p. 186, fig. 144/1), care, prin analogie cu alte forme asemntoare, dar realizate din alte materiale, precum exemplarul de fier de la Ocnia, jud. Vlcea, datat n prima jumtate a sec. I p.Hr. (M. Babe 1994, p. 272-273, fig. 86), poate fi considerat a fi fost un cel de vatr. Frecvent au fost nlocuii cu pietre de ru sau chiar cu buci de gresie local care aveau o latur prelungit n form de coarne, precum exemplarele de la Banca Gar - apte case. Cele mai evidente au fost pietrele de ru prevzute la o extremitate cu dou protome zoomorfe cu aspectul unor coarne, parial sau puternic arse, aflate pe vetrele din locuine i avnd probabil aceleai funcionaliti precum cei de lut. Aproape pe fiecare vatr din aceast aezare se gseau astfel de piese cu extremitile mai mult sau mai puin prelungite n form de coarne. Forme mai apropiate de capul unor cornute s-au gsit n complexe din secolele III-IV, ca o dovad a continurii folosirii lor. Unele erau n locuina de suprafa nr. 3, L3, cpl. 29, la sud de bucile de crust de la vatra distrus complet erau cteva pietre mari, arse parial, care nconjurau vatra, unele au fost folosite drept cei de vatr, alta s-a gsit n locuina uor adncit nr. 3, cpl. 78, aproximativ central se aflau cteva buci de crust de vatr, puine pietre arse parial, una cu dou prelungiri n form de coarne - cel de vatr. Din secolul al IV-lea n locuina de suprafa, L1 cpl. 1, n locuina uor adncit nr. 2, L2, cpl. 91, nspre sudul acesteia erau i buci de vatr, cenu, crbuni, puine pietre arse, ntre care i una cu o margine n form de coarne, folosit drept cel de vatr. Cele mai numeroase au aprut n complexele din secolele IV-V, n locuina de suprafa nr. 6, L6, cpl. 96, lng fragmentele de crust de vatr, erau i puine pietre arse, unele probabil folosite drept cei de vatr, la fel i n locuina uor adncit nr. 3, L3, cpl. 122, din secolele IV-V, pe vatra distrus n antichitate se aflau n colul de nord, pietre arse care au servit drept cei de vatr. Forme de piatr s-au descoperit n Bulgaria la Orlandovtzy, considerai de influen celtic (T. Gherasimov 1960, p. 177), dar modelai n piatr, precum grecii (Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 144). Descoperirea lor permite discutarea existenei unui cult al focului, ntrevzut i prin discutarea inventarului unor morminte de nhumaie, de ctre K. F. Smirnov (1948, p. 215) i M. I. Viazmitina (1969, p. 130 i urm.). Gheorghe Bichir a alturat practicrii acestui cult al focului, cu deosebire de ctre comunitile sarmatice i un cult al apei, pornind de la perfeciunea vaselor descoperite n morminte (Gh. Bichir 1982, p. 155). * De un interes aparte pentru interpretarea inventarelor s-au dovedit a fi cercetrile cu caracter interdisciplinar: Marin Crciumaru, Paleoetnobotanica (1997), Doina Ciobanu, Exploatarea srii n perioada marilor migraii (sec. I-XIII e.n.) n spaiul carpato-dunrean (2002), Stelian Dumistrcel, O problem de etnoarheologie: ARGEAUA DE ESUT n locuine din secolele I-X de

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pe teritoriul Romniei (1989, p. 329-359), Cuvntul romnesc autohton gresie i semnificaia magico-cultual a pietrei de ascuit n perspectiv etnoarheologic, (1990, p. 225-242), R. Maxim, Ethnoarheologie. Interferen disciplinar (1994, p. 395-411) sau lucrrile de arheozoologie, Simina Stanc, Manufacturing of red deer antlers and bones. Case-study concerning some moldavian settlements in the IV-Xth Centuries i Objects made of bones and red deer antlers found in settlements and necropoles of the IV-X Centuries in the south and east of Romania (2003; 2004). Perioada mai larg, cuprins ntre secolele II-V p.Hr., frecvent a stat n atenia cercettorilor: Gh. Bichir, n sinteza cu privire la cultura carpic, pe care o considera o form evoluat a La Tnului geto-dacic (1973), n care se simte influena roman, prin rspndirea anumitor unelte sau obiecte de podoab, prin prezena monedelor, mai rar a tezaurelor i prin larga folosire a amforelor romane, strchinilor, cnilor, dar i prin prezena necropolelor de incineraie i pstrarea nhumaiei pentru copii, Alexandru Vulpe, M. Zahariade, Geto-dacii n istoria militar a lumii antice (1987), Dan Gh. Teodor a urmrit Meteugurile la Nordul Dunrii de Jos ntre secolele IV-XI, d.Hr. (1996), Ion Ioni, Din istoria i civilizaia dacilor liberi. Dacii din spatiul est-carpatic n secolele II-IV e.n. (1982) iar n sinteza din al doilea Tratat de Istoria romnilor s-a referit la Dacii liberi din Moldova, partea III, cap. II (2001, p. 423-438), Relaiile dacilor liberi cu romanii, sarmaii i germanii, partea III, cap. IV (p. 449-466) i la Populaia local n secolul al IV-lea n regiunile extracarpatice, partea V, cap. III (p. 617-638). Ultimul autor, mpreun cu Mircea Mamalauc, au coordonat revista de la Brlad, Acta Musei Tutovensis, care gzduiete n fiecare numr studii referitoare la secolul al IV-lea, Stela au, Mircea Nicu (2010, p. 99 i urm.), Mircea Mamalauc (2010, p. 116 i urm.), Dan Lichiardopol, Bogdan Ciuperc (2010, p. 154 i urm.) sau Ion Ioni (2010, p. 191 i urm.) i Andrei Opai (2010, p. 207 i urm.). Pentru teritoriile de la Dunrea de Jos s-a analizat structura satului dobrogean, fie sintetiznd informaiile cunoscute, Alexandru Suceveanu, Viaa economic n Dobrogea roman (1977), Contribuii la cunoaterea satului dobrogean din epoca roman (2001-2002, p. 157-172), Maria Brbulescu, Viaa rural n Dobrogea roman (sec. I-III p.Hr.) (2001), V. H. Bauman, Ferma roman din Dobrogea (1983), Al. Suceveanu, Al. Barnea, La Dobroudja Romaine (1991), fie prezentnd caracteristicile unei comuniti steti, Fntnele. Contribuii la studiul vieii rurale din Dobrogea roman (1998). De asemenea, s-au adus n discuie aezrile romane dobrogene, Al. Suceveanu, Mihail Zahariade, Un nouveau vicus sur le territoire de la Doubroudja romaine (1986, p. 109120), Du nom antique de la cit Romaine tardive dIndependena (Murighiol, dp. de Tulcea) (1987, p. 87 96), M. Zahariade, Moesia Secunda, Scythia i Notitia Dignitatum (1988), M. Zahariade, Ioan C. Opri, The Roman Danubian Frontier between the 4th-6th centuries (1998). Ion S. Vinokur, s-a ocupat de zona de silvostep dintre Nistru i Nipru, cu deosebire bazinul Nistrului mijlociu, al Bugului sudic i de Volynia (1972 i 2000; recenzie 1974, p. 329) iar T. Ivanov, a analizat pentru Bulgaria problema dezvoltrii culturii materiale i a artei n oraele romane din secolele I-IV p.Hr. Am sublinia concentrarea de aezri i necropole din veacurile III-V p.Hr., n spaiul din sudul Moldovei, bine delimitat i aprat natural, dintre Siret, Brlad i Prut, care ngduie s se ntrevad existena unor formaiuni politice organizate, a unor uniuni de obti, fapt semnificativ i hotrtor pentru nelegerea societii locale. Istoriografia romneasc i a celorlalte state dunrene a consemnat constant, n importante articole, studii i lucrri de sintez, vechile aezri rurale, unele cu grad mare de polarizare, altele de mic ntindere, Gheorghe Diaconu (1965; 1968), Bucur Mitrea (1966), Maria Coma (1977, p. 215-228), H. Wolfram (1979), Ion Barnea, Octavian Iliescu (1982), J. Werner (1988, p. 241-286) sau V. Bierbrauer (1994; 1999), Radu Harhoiu (1999-2003), Andrei Opai (1996), Gh. Al. Niculescu (2003, p. 177-205), informaii din domeniul epigrafiei i numismaticii, Viorel M. Butnariu (1988, p. 131-196; Idem 1991, p. 67-107; Idem 1997, p. 59-66), Virgil Mihailescu-Brliba (2005). Totui, apariia unei noi monografii reprezint un eveniment editorial. Ele poart semntura unor cercettori recunoscui: Vasile Ursachi (1995, p. 11-21), Mircea Ignat (1999), Marius E.

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Constantinescu (1999), Vasile Palade (2004), dei, constant, au fost publicate rapoarte arheologice privind descoperirea de noi situri, Mugur Andronic (1997-1998, p. 19-75, Idem 2000-2001, p. 337341). Importanta i noutatea acestor investigaii a rezultat din specificul cercetrilor i din valoarea inventarului, mai mult sau mai puin spectaculos, I. Beilke-Voigt (1998), vase de sticl, Costel Chiriac, C. Nicolae, Gabriel Talmachi (1998, p. 139-162), Costel Chiriac (1999, p. 67-83). Menionm i publicarea textelor comentate: M. Diaconescu, Istoria literaturii dacoromane (1999), Antologie de literatura dacoromana. Texte comentate, 2003, sau noile repere documentare privind obiceiurile, viaa spiritual a acestei perioade, Silviu Sanie, Din istoria culturii si religiei geto-dacice (1999), Obiceiuri de port n aria culturii Sntana de Mure. Obiecte de podoab, amulete, accesorii de vestimentaie i toalet, coordonator Mircea Mamalauc, cu o introducere semnat de I. Ioni (2005). Importante sunt i studiile cu privire la rspndirea cretinismului n spaiul carpatodunrean: Nelu Zugravu, Geneza cretinismului popular al romnilor (1997), Erezii i schisme la Dunrea Mijlocie i de Jos n mileniul I (1999), M. Pacurariu, Istoria Bisericii Ortodoxe Romne (2000) A. Madgearu, Rolul cretinismului n formarea poporului romn, Bucureti, 2001; L. Trofin, Romanitate i cretinism la Dunrea de Jos n secolele IV-VIII (2005), sau studiile din domeniul lingvistic: L. Onu, Terminologia cretin i istoria limbii romane (2000), I. Ionescu, nceputurile cretinismului romanesc (sec. II-VII) (2003). The 3rd6th century cettlement of Banca Gar apte case. Its place among the discoveries in the Brlad Plateau Among the archaeological researches carried out throughout the space between the Carpathians and the Prut during the previous century, there is also the rural community of Banca Gara - Sapte case. There were discovered 74 complexes of this period, and out of these, in the modest rural settlement, there were uncovered 17 surface dwellings (fig. 2) and 10 slightly buried ones (fig. 3), consisting in a single room, heated with simple hearths. It was also there that existed a potters workshop, and an ironmongers workshop. In the settlement there were also excavated three tombs, no. 5 dated to the 3rd century (complex 66) and nos. 3 and 4 dated to the 4th century (complexes 20, 76). The analysis of the specific inhabitance down there started from the positioning of the settlement and from the types of dwellings, their frequency and duration, and less from the specificity of the necropolis mostly destroyed by the deepening of the new riverbed of the Brlad.
17 Surface dwellings: 6 3rd4th centuries + 5 4th century + 5 4rd 5th

centuries;
10 Slightly buried dwellings: 1 3 century + 3 3 4 centuries + 2 4 century + 3 4rd 5th centuries;
th rd th th

Graves 3 Potter's w orkshop 1 Ceramic agglomer. 10 Pits 33


Row 2

33 Pits: 3 3th century, 7 3rd4th centuries + 16 4th century + 5 4rd 5th centuries + 2 5rd6th centuries;

10 Agglomerations of ceramic materials: 2 3rd4th centuries + 5 4th Slightly buried dw elings 9 century + 2 4rd5th centuries + 1 4rd5th centuries. 1 Potters workshop, 4rd5th centuries. 3 Graves, 1 3th century, 24th century.

Surface dw elings 17

TOTAL COMPLEXES 73 0 20 40 60 80

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In order to establish similarities and analogies with the settlement Banca Gara - Sapte case, we focused on the old rural settlement of the Dacians Carpians or of the Daco - Romans, dated to the 2rd3th centuries, and also on those settlements dated to the period after the retreat of the Romans from the province Dacia, that is after 271, that is 3rd/4th5rd/6th centuries and in 7rd-9/10th centuries (fig. 4-5). In each of these settlements, there were pointed out the stratigraphic overlapping, that is 2rd3th centuries sites overlapped by 4th century ones, while on the same village cores or in neighboring village cores, these were overlapped by others of later periods, situation that raises an interrogation mark as for the connection established between them. It is an important phase in the historiography of the 1st millennium, very scarcely known from written sources, but well documented by the archaeological research of some of the numerous sites and necropolises pointed out in the plateau. The territories occupied by the free Dacians, during the first centuries after the Aurelian retreat, compared to the neighboring geographical areas, acknowledged a specific evolution by the penetration in the 3rd4th centuries of groups of Sarmatians and of the domination of the Germanic peoples (R. Alaiba 2008-2009, p. 73-74). In the Brlad Plateau, almost crossed by the homonymous hydrographic basin, which assures its cohesion by the integration of several subunits, one can trace several main geographic microzones each with its specificity: The Central Moldavian Plateau, Tutova Hills, Falciu Plain, continued to the south by the Covurlui Plateau and Tecuci Plain or the Lower Brlad Plain. The relief of the 3th degree subunits which mainly consists in hills or plateaus with widely arched platforms separated by wide yet deep valleys with differences of valleys of up to 200 m (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, p. 313-314) are the geographic subdivisions in which the rural communities of this period placed their village cores. The Brlad Valley after crossing the Moldavian Central Plateau contours at the southwest limit of the Brlad Plateau the western limit of Falciu Hills and the southern limit of Tutova Hills, and then it partly crosses the Romanian Plain until the confluence with the Siret. The last southern limit of the Moldavian Plateau is traced by the Danube. In Tutova Hills between the Siret, the Racova and the Brlad, having the aspect of an elongated triangle, up to Nicoreti, with the 3th degree subunits having the shape of heights descending slowly from north to south and which included in the northwest the High Hills, with average heights exceeding 450 m, and the Low Hills to the southeast, under 200 m, there have been acknowledged the 4th century settlements west of Silitea village, in Iana commune, on the right side of Studine brook (G. Coman, 1980, p. 157, XXXVI.4), respectively in Alexandru Vlahu village which is the centre of the commune, in the place named Capul dealului (Ibidem, p. 48, II.2) as well as the discoveries in the villages that are part of this commune, that is Ibneti - In the west end of the village, close to the confluence of two rivulets (Ibidem, p. 49 II.3) or Manzai Interfluviu, in the southwest end of the village (Ibidem, p. 50, II.5). Also the necropolis of Obreni - Dealul Coarului, investigated in 1968 by Ion Mitrea out of which seven inhumation tombs were uncovered (1969, p. 219-232) and the settlement of CAP garden situated 400 m north-east of the necropolis (G. Coman 1980 p. 274, LXXI, 13, fig 136/1-8, 141/10-11, 142/13-14). In the 3th degree subunits of Flciu Hills, situated between Lohan Valley, Brlad Valley, Flciu Plain and Covurlui Plateau (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, p. 297), one can mention other important archaeological settlements. In Dobrina - Olteneti hills, the settlement of Ttrni and Olteneti, and in Vinderei - Mluteni hills the points of Sipeni, Igeti - Scndureni or Lupeti Fntna Mare and in Albeti Plateaus the settlement of Albeti - East of the village. The team coordinated by Dan Gh. Teodor together with Ruxandra Alaiba and Ghenu Coman carried out systematic archaeological excavations at Gura Idrici - La Coere (G. Coman, R. Maxim, 1980, p. 450-454; Eadem 1981-1982, p. 81-97; D. G. Teodor, R. Maxim 1983, p. 464-469) and in the lower area, near the Banca - Grivita hills, the already mentioned settlement of Banca Gara. In Falciu Plain, also known as Elan Horincea - Srata depression or the Elan hilly plain (P. Jeanrenaud, A. Saraiman, 1995, p. 3-4), limited by Elan and Prut valleys up to Cuesta Horincea, with a hilly relied with average altitudes between 100-200 m, with low plateaus, separated by large

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valleys, with an argillaceous substratum, there is the well known settlement of Brlleti - Sturza, in Horincea Plain, the settlement of Mluteni - Leaua, while the lower area of Srata Prut Plain was almost not at all inhabited during this period. For the discoveries of the Murgeni commune, Ghenu Coman prepared a separate volume (1973). Among the 3rd4th century, there were the settlements of Bbneaa, toward the CFR building, Gura Bujoreni, Iancobescu, Valea rnii, East of Murgeni - tiubeeni, Ilioaia, and in 23 August village, Around Mgeana school, in Crja de Jos village, at Brsani, Around the bridge, Maa, at Leti, On the promontory, southwest of the village, at Sreni, in front of the school, in the east end of the village, at Schineni La Hora and in Vdeni village La Stn, la Gura Holob and at the Casa de Ap (Gh. Coman 1973). From south, we would like to point out the settlements and necropolises excavated by Vasile Palade, at Brlad - Valea Seac (end of the 3rd century 2nd half of the 5th century), where there were discovered 547 inhumation and incineration tombs (V. Palade 2004, p. 85), Bogdneti, In front of N. Diaconus house, Flciu commune (Ibidem, p. 85-162, Idem, 1973, p. 169-189), a two rite necropolis where there were uncovered 156 tombs. At the same time, mention should also be made of the archaeological researches carried out in the settlements of Zorleni - Fntnele (Vaslui county) where there was also a 4th century kiln (1969, p. 339-361, Idem, 1987-1989, p. 5363) or Ghermneti, Banca commune, where there was excavated a 4 th century AD well (Idem 1978, p. 407-421). We should also point out the recent excavations carried out by Mircea Mamalauca at Pogoneti - Polocin, Iveti commune (1997, p. 147-166, Idem 2005, p. 11). Among the more important settlement in the Tecuci area, mention should be made of the settlement and necropolis of Barcea Galai. * Firedogs. We should also discuss other items not presented so far such as the firedogs (germ. Feuerbock, engl. Firedog, fr. chenet) shaped of clay, more rarely of metals, used for sustaining firing wood on the hearth, thus reserving a space for the air flow. The firedogs were used in the domestic cult, in carrying out domestic rituals (Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 145; Idem 1984, p. 82-83; Idem 1994, p. 272-273), as shown by Nelu Zugravu, they served at the implementation of the domestic cult to the north Danubian Thracians (1997, p. 134, 326). Mircea Babe and Virgil Mihilescu-Brliba pointed out three main areas of firedog usage, that is the Celtic one, the Thracian Dacian one and the Germanic one (1972, p. 176 sq.). Later on, Gh. Bichir included in the Thracian Dacian group the Thracian Scythian type and the Thracian Dacian type, which also contains the Carpic variant (Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 144). In the Getae Daciane features, the firedogs have shapes ending in zoomorphic protomae, suggesting horses or rams (M. Babe 1994, p. 272-273), such as those of Rctu, Brad, Ocnia or Poiana, Tecuci (R. Vulpe, Ecaterina Vulpe, 1933, p. 317, 319, 321, fig. 97/1, 3, 99/3, fig. 102/1112; 129/6; R. Vulpe et alii 1951, p. 196, fig. 18/2; 1952, p. 201, fig. 14/3-4). The clay firedogs were also used during the Roman period, such as those of Poiana - Pe Varni, Dulceti, Neam county. There, the most complete item was found on the hut floor, in B13, which indicates also other usages of such items. They were shaped out of paste mixed with smashed shards and their ends were decorated with animal protomae, of horse or ram. According to their paste and ornamentation with relief belts, Gh. Bichir considered them as of Thracian Dacian origin (1973, p. 142, pl. CLIV/5, CLV/3-4). Although these firedogs have not been pointed out so far within the Sntana de Mure culture, at Banca Gar - apte case there were found items made of river pebble, showing at one end two zoomorphic protomae suggesting horns, strongly fired, on the hearths of dwellings, and having as such the same functionality as those made of clay. On almost each and every hearth of this settlement there were found such heart-shaped items, with more or less extended horn-shaped ends. Shapes reminding better the head of horned animals were those found in the 3 rd4th centuries features, in the slightly buried dwelling, DL3 cpl. 78, and also in the 4th century features, more precisely in the surface dwellings L1 cpl. 1 and the slightly buried dwelling L2 cpl. 91, or in the

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4rd5th centuries, in L6 cpl. 96, used as stands for the hearth, with domestic and cultic usages as well. Stone shapes were discovered also in Bulgaria at Orlandovtzy, and were considered as of Celtic influence (T. Gherasimov 1960, p. 177), but shaped in stone as if from the Greek (Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 144). * The wider period contained between the 2nd and 5th centuries AD was frequently the focus of the researchers attention; thus Gh. Bichir in his synthesis concerning the Carpic culture, which he considers an evolved form of the Geto-Dacian La Tne (1973), with Romanic influence indicated by the spread of certain tools or jewelry items, by the presence of coins, more rarely of treasures and by the wide usage of Roman amphorae, dishes, mugs, and also by the presence of incineration necropolises and the maintenanceof the inhumation rite for the burial of children; Alexandru Vulpe, Mihail Zahariade, Geto-dacii n istoria militar a lumii antice (1987), D. Gh. Teodor elaborated, Meteugurile la Nordul Dunrii de Jos ntre secolele IV-XI, d.Hr. (The Crafts at the North of the Lower Danube between the 4th and the 11th Centuries AD) (1996), I. Ioni, Din istoria i civilizaia dacilor liberi. Dacii din spatiul est-carpatic n secolele II-IV e.n. (1982), and in the second Tratat about Istoria romnilor, referred to the Free Dacians of Moldavia (2001, part III, chap. II, p. 423-438), The relations of the Free Dacians with the Romans, Sarmatians and Germans ( part III, chap. IV, p. 449-466) and The local population during the 4th century in the Outer Carpathian Regions (part V, chap. III, p. 617-638). For the territories on the Lower Danube, the structure of the Dobrogean village, either by synthesizing known informations, Alexandru Suceveanu, Viaa economic n Dobrogea roman (1977), Contribuii la cunoaterea satului dobrogean din epoca roman (2001-2002, p. 157-172), Maria Brbulescu, Viaa rural n Dobrogea roman (sec. I-III p.Hr.) (2001), V. H. Bauman, Ferma roman din Dobrogea (1983), Al. Suceveanu, Al. Barnea, La Dobroudja Romaine (1991), or by presenting the characteristics of a village community, Fntnele. Contribuii la studiul vieii rurale din Dobrogea roman (1998). There were also brought into discussion the roman Dobrogean settlements, Al. Suceveanu, Mihail Zahariade, Un nouveau vicus sur le territoire de la Doubroudja romaine (1986, p. 109120), Du nom antique de la cit Romaine tardive dIndependena (Murighiol, dp. de Tulcea) (1987, p. 87 96), M. Zahariade, Moesia Secunda, Scythia i Notitia Dignitatum (1988), M. Zahariade, Ioan C. Opri, The Roman Danubian Frontier between the 4th6th centuries (1998). Ion S. Vinokur focused on the forested steppe regions between the Dniester and the Dniepr, especially the basin of Middle Dniester, Southern Bug and Volynia (1972; review in 1974, p. 329) and T. Ivanov analyzed for Bulgaria the matter of the development of the material culture and art in the Roman cities during the period of the 1st 4th centuries AD. We would also like to point out the concentration of settlements and necropolises dated to the 3rd4th centuries AD throughout the southern part of Moldavia, a territory naturally well delimited and protected situated between the Siret, the Brlad and the Prut, which allows to identify the existence of organized political formations, of unions of communities, which is an important and decisive fact for the understanding of the local society. The Romanian historiography and the one of the other Danubian States constantly specified in important articles, studies and syntheses the ancient rural settlements, some of which were showing a high degree of polarization, while some others were of a small extent: Gheorghe Diaconu (1965; 1968), Bucur Mitrea (1966), Maria Coma (1977, p. 215-228), H. Wolfram (1979), Ion Barnea, Octavian Iliescu (1982), J. Werner (1988, p. 241-286) or V. Bierbrauer (1994; 1999), Andrei Opai (1996), Radu Harhoiu (1999-2003), Gheorghe Al. Niculescu (2003, p. 177-205), information in the field of epigraphy and numismatics, Viorel M. Butnariu (1988, p. 131-196; Idem 1991, p. 67-107; Idem 1997, p. 59-66), Virgil Mihailescu-Brliba (2005). Still, the publication of a new monograph represents a publishing event. They are signed by renowned researchers: Vasile Ursachi (1995, p. 11-21), Mircea Ignat (1999), Marius E. Constantinescu (1999), Vasile Palade

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(2004). Yet, there were constantly published the archaeological reports concerning the discovery of new sites, Mugur Andronic (1997-1998, p. 19-75, Idem 2000-2001, p. 337-341). The importance and novelty of these investigations resulted from the specificity of the researches and the value of the inventory, more or less spectacular, I. Beilke-Voigt (1998), glass vessels, Costel Chiriac, C. Nicolae, Gabriel Talmachi (1998, p. 139-162), Costel Chiriac (1999, p. 67-83), information in the field of epigraphy and numismatics, Virgil Mihailescu-Brliba (2005). Particularly interesting proved to be the interdisciplinary researches carried out by: Marin Crciumaru, Paleoetnobotanica (1997), Doina Ciobanu (2002), Stelian Dumistrcel (1989, p. 329359; 1990, p. 225-242), R. Maxim, Ethnoarheologie. Interferen disciplinar (1994, p. 395-411) or the archaeozoology studies of, Simina Stanc (2003, p. 109-119; 2004, p. 113-130). The studies concerning the spreading of Christianism throughout the Carpathian Danubian space are also important: Nelu Zugravu (1997; 1999), M. Pacurariu (2000), A. Madgearu (2001), L. Trofin (2005), or the studies in the linguistic field: L. Onu (2003), I. Ionescu (2003). We would also like to mention the publication of the commented texts: M. Diaconescu (1999; 2003), or the new documentary references concerning the customs, the spiritual life of this period, Silviu Sanie (1999), Obiceiuri de port n aria culturii Sntana de Mure. Obiecte de podoab, amulete, accesorii de vestimentaie i toalet, coord. Mircea Mamalauc, introd. I. Ioni (2005).

Fig. 2. Banca Gar - apte case. Locuine de suprafa, sec. III-V p.Hr. Surface dwellings with 3th5rd centuries AD.

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Fig. 3. Banca Gar - apte case. Locuine uor adncite, sec. III-V p.Hr. Slightly buried dwellings with 3th5rd centuries AD.

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Fig. 4. Banca Gar - apte case. 1-20 Locuine uor adncite, sec. VIIIX/X. 1-20 Slightly buried dwellings with 7th9rd/10th centuries.

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Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

Fig. 5. Banca Gar - apte case21-38 Slightly buried dwellings with 7th9rd/10th centuries.

133

Cuptoare de ars ceramica, n spaiul dintre Carpai i Prut, secolele III a.Hr.-V p.Hr.
Ruxandra Alaiba n prima jumtate a mileniului I, la nordul Dunrii de Jos, meteugul olriei a atins un nalt grad de dezvoltare iar larga practicare a acestuia a fost, n primul rnd, ilustrat de gama variat a ceramicii i a altor piese de lut cu utiliti diverse, dar i a materialelor de construcie. n aceast lucrare am ncercat s realizm o privire de ansamblu asupra meteugului olriei urmrind numai prezena instalaiilor de ars ceramica din spaiul cuprins ntre Carpai - Prut i curbura Carpailor, n Moldova i nord-estul Munteniei, dar am menionat i cartierul olarilor de la Pruteni, R. Moldova, din perioada secolelor III a.Hr.-V p.Hr., publicate sau n curs de cercetare, mai rar doar semnalate. Numrul lor confirm larga rspndire i cunoatere a unor tehnici i tehnologii productive. Am reuit s semnalm 41 de puncte (5+7+29), de la cel puin tot attea ateliere, aflate n stadii diferite de conservare, care au funcionat n aezrile steti investigate arheologic i de la care s-au pstrat cel puin instalaiile performante de ars ceramica, i pentru care s-au consemnat 61 de cuptoare (5+16+40), din tipul celor cu dou camere:
- secolele III a.Hr.-I p.Hr., 5 ateliere cu 5 cuptoare performante; - secolele II-III/IV p.Hr., 7+1 ateliere cu 16+4 cuptoare performante, dou ateliere aveau mai multe cuptoare, am adugat altele patru de la Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, Republica Moldova; - secolele IV-V p.Hr., 29 ateliere cu 40 de cuptoare performante, trei aveau cel puin dou astfel de cuptoare. Total: 41 ateliere = 5 sec. III a.Hr.-I p.Hr. + 7 sec. II-III/IV, p.Hr. + 29 sec. IV-V p.Hr. 61 cuptoare = 5 sec. III a.Hr.- I p.Hr. + 16 sec. II-III/IV, p.Hr. + 40 sec. IV-V p.Hr.

Dei, nu n toate staiunile cercetate sistematic s-au descoperit astfel de complexe, aceasta nu nseamn c ele nu au existat. Instalaiile de acest fel trebuie s fi fost amplasate, de cele mai multe ori, undeva spre marginea aezrilor mai ntinse sau n afara acestora n apropierea surselor de ap, pentru a se evita, astfel, izbucnirea incendiilor, n locuri n care, ades, cercetrile arheologice nu ajung. "Numai o ntmplare fericit, care nu ne-a fost nc favorabil, ar fi permis identificarea cuptoarelor de ars vasele" (V. Srbu 1996, 40), remarca cunoscutul arheolog Valeriu Srbu, n monografia consacrat davei getice de la Grditea - Popin, datat n a doua jumtate a secolului al II-lea a.Hr. primele decenii ale secolului I p.Hr. Sistemul de construcie a depins de scopul pentru care au fost amenajate, cel mai frecvent cu forme cilindrice sau uor tronconice pentru cuptoarele de ars diferitele recipiente sau alte obiecte mrunte i cu forme aproximativ paralelipipedice, cu grtarul perforat sprijinit pe arcuri formate din crmizi, pentru ars materialele de construcii. nelegerea acestor instalaii se bazeaz pe cunoaterea unor elemente tehnice, legate de modul lor de realizare i de funcionare. Construirea lor cerea mult experien, pentru ca prin funcionarea lor s se obin n timpul arderii arjei randamentul dorit, pentru a se evita ct mai mult arderile incomplete, rebuturile. Astfel, n funcie de numrul camerelor cuptoarele de ars ceramica, folosite n spaiul menionat, s-au ordonat n dou mari grupuri. Prima, a instalaiilor de ars ceramica formate dintr-o camer, vatra i bolta acesteia deschis n partea superioar, la baz prevzute cu gura de alimentare, uneori prelungit n ncperea de alimentare. A doua, a instalaiilor de ars ceramica formate din dou camere dispuse pe vertical, de cele mai multe ori cu gura de alimentare prelungit mult n ncperea din care meterul le mnuia cu pricepere, pentru realizarea unei arje

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bune. Ultimele s-au difereniat tipologic, cu deosebire, n funcie de forma de sprijinire a grtarului din focar, fie cu un picior central, fie cu un perete median. Ateliere i cuptoare performante de ars ceramica, prevzute cu dou camere suprapuse Existena unor ateliere de olrie este dat un numai de descoperirea cuptoarelor de ars ceramica, prezena uneltelor, a unor spaii pentru prelucrat argila, modelat, ornamentat i uscat, dar i prin identificarea a numeroase vase sau pri de la vasele modelate din argila aflat n preajma aezrilor. Totalitatea lor, a mijloacelor necesare pentru realizarea meteugului olriei, definesc tehnica folosit n fiecare atelier iar procesele i procedeele cunoscute de olari, deprinderile de prelucrare a argilei, dau specificul tehnologiilor folosite n atelier. Meterul olar le stpnete pe amndou, el modeleaz ceramica i tot el ncarc cu vase cuptorul i l supravegheaz n timpul arderii. n rndurile ce urmeaz vom ordona cronologic numai cuptoarele de ars ceramica, din secolele III a.Hr.-V. p.Hr., n raport cu rspndirea lor din sud-estul Muntenieni pn n nordul Moldovei, de asemenea vom preciza datarea aezrilor n care s-au descoperit realizat de arheologii care au efectuat cercetrile, trimiterea bibliografic i specificul camerei de ardere a combustibilului. 5 Secolele III a.Hr. - I p.Hr., 5 cuptoare de la 5 ateliere, 2 n focar cu pilon, 2 cu perete median, 1 neclar.
Pentru aceast perioad cercetrile arheologice publicate consemneaz cinci cuptoare, Poiana - Cetate, din sec. III a.Hr., n focar cu perete median, Tometi - neconservat bine, din sec. III-II a.Hr., iar din secolele I a.Hr.-I p.Hr., Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi, Piatra Neam - Btca Doamnei, ultimele dou n focar cu pilon central i Poiana - Silite, n focar cu perete median.

ntemeierea coloniilor greceti n nord-vestul Mrii Negre, n secolele VI-V a.Hr., a dus la formarea unor centre meteugreti n care olritul se practica prin folosirea cuptoarelor de ars ceramica cu dou camere, cu tiraj vertical. Primele cuptoare construite aveau fie grtarele susinute de un pilon central, fie au fost fixate doar pe marginea focriei. La populaia local geto-dacic de la est de Carpai, cuptoarele cu dou camere suprapuse au devenit cunoscute n a doua epoc a fierului i s-au rspndit n inuturile carpato-dunrene, n secolul al III-lea a.Hr., la Poiana - Cetate, jud. Galai i n secolele III-II a.Hr. la Tometi, jud. Iai, pentru a deveni mai numeroase n secolele I a.Hr.-I.p.Hr. Primul cuptor cercetat i cel mai vechi, care a aparinut unui atelier local, se poate considera cel de la Poiana - Cetate (Fig. 1/3), jud. Galai, din aezarea geto-dacic identificat cu Piroboridava, cu focarul desprit de un perete median format dintr-o lespede de piatr pe care se sprijinea grtarul (R. Vulpe 1950, p. 50) i probabil i cuptorul de la Tometi, jud. Iai (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, p. 406). Cuptoarele performante, din tipul celor ntlnite la Dunrea de Jos, n oraele greceti, apoi romane, la est de Carpai i n nord-estul Munteniei, au nceput s devin mai numeroase n secolele I a.Hr.-I p.Hr. Pentru aceast perioad se cunosc cteva cuptoare din tipul celor prevzute cu dou camere suprapuse, pentru care s-a stabilit forma, Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi (Fig. 1/4), jud. Vrancea, cu grtarul sprijinit pe un pilon central (V. Bobi, I. Cernat 1991, fig. 1), Piatra Neam Btca Doamnei, jud. Neam, tot un cuptor n focar cu pilon central (C. Matas, I. Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu 1961, p. 340), Poiana - Silite, jud. Neam, n focar cu perete median (Al. Vulpe, C. Preda, Gh. Bichir 2000, 334-336).

Cuptoare de ars ceramica, sec. III a.Hr.-V p.Hr. / Potters workshops, 3st BC5stAD centuries 135 Secolele II-III/IV p.Hr., 7 ateliere cu 16 cuptoare, 10 cu perete median (1+1+1+5+2), 2 cu pilon, 2 neclare, un atelier n bordei cu 2 cuptoare. Plus 4 cuptoare la Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei.
Din apte puncte s-au dezvelit: 10 cuptoare n focar cu perete median: Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, Blteni Grla Strmbu, ifeti - La Grigoreti, cinci la Cucoeni - Butnreti, dou la cheia - Silitea, plus unul neclar, precum i cel de la Vleni - La Moar i dou cuptoare cu pilon central, unul la Cucoeni - Butnreti i altul la Piatra Neam - Drmneti pe Cuejdi, adugm un atelier n bordei la Cucoeni - Butnreti - cu dou cuptoare i patru cuptoare de la Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, Republica Moldova.

Alte ateliere provin din staiunile arheologice aflate n inuturile dacilor liberi carpilor de la est de Carpai, din nord-estul Munteniei i de la Pruteni, Republica Moldova care se integreaz ariei acestei culturi, dup cum dovedesc descoperirile arheologice, datate n secolele II-III/IV, aflate n diferite stadii de conservare. n secolele II-III p.Hr s-a ncadrat cuptorul n focar cu perete median de la Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia (Fig. 1/5), iar acela cu perete median de la Blteni - Grla Strmbu, jud. Buzu, s-a datat de descoperitori n secolul al III-lea - nceputul secolului al IV-lea (M. Constantinescu 1978, 125-126, fig. 2; I. T. Dragomir 1962, fig. 2); n secolul al III-lea a fost ncadrat cuptorul cu perete median de la ifeti - La Grigoreti (Fig. 1/6), Panciu, jud. Vrancea (S. Morintz, N. Haruchi 1962, p. 521-522, fig. 2) i cuptorul cu pilon central de la Piatra Neam Drmneti pe Cuejdi (C. Matas, I. Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu, p. 345-346, fig. 5) (fig. 1/8); tot n secolele II-III s-au datat cele ase cuptoare din atelierul de olrie de la Cucoeni - Butnreti, jud. Neam, cuptorul mic i cel mare cu perete median (fig. 1/7), precum i nc trei cuptoare care aveau focria tot desprit de un perete median, de asemenea, nc un altul descoperit aici cu grtarul sprijinit pe un pilon central, dar i un atelier care funciona n bordei, prevzut cu dou cuptoare (Gh. Bichir 1973, pl. XXXII-XXXIV); atelierul de la cheia - Silitea (fig. 1/9), jud. Suceava, cu dou cuptoare n focar cu perete median, s-a datat n secolul al III-lea (Gr. Foit 1969, p. 25, fig. 2-3). Din ultima staiune un cuptor nu s-a conservat bine, iar pentru cuptorul de la Vleni - La Moar, nu cunoatem specificul (V. Ursache 1968, p. 120, fig. 5/2; I. Ioni, V. Ursachi 1988, p. 7). De asemenea, menionm cele patru cuptoare de la Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, Republica Moldova, datate n secolul al III-lea, cu probabilitate i n secolul al II-lea p.Hr. (Vl. Vornic et alii 2007, p. 38-74, pl. 14-15, 17-18, 20-21, 23; N. Telnov et alii 2002, p. 63 i urm.; 2003) (fig. 1/1013). Secolul al IV-lea i secolele IV-V/VI, 29 ateliere cu 40 de cuptoare, 14 cu pilon central, 13 n focar cu perete median, 1 i cu perete median i cu pilon, 3 cu focarul liber i 9 neclare.
Din 29 de puncte, cu 40 de cuptoare, n 10 aezri erau 14 cuptoare n focar cu pilon central (3+1+1+1+1+1+3+1+1): trei la Stoicani - Poarta arinii, Silitea - Muncelu, Zorleni - Fntnele, Srca - Pe linia ferat, Biceni - Laiu II i Silite, Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, trei la Iai - Nicolina, Trueti - Pe Cuha, Huanu - Saivan. n 11 aezri erau 13 cuptoare n focar cu perete median: Dumbrveni, Brlad Valea Seac, dou la Banca Gar - apte case, Dodeti - ipot i Clugreasca, Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, Iai - Nicolina, tefan cel Mare - Dealul Viorica, Gutina, Trueti - Pe Cuha, Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, dou la Huanu - Saivan. Un cuptor avea i pilon i perete median, cel de la Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, altul avea grtarul sprijinit pe marginea de sus a focarului, Bacu - Curtea Domneasc, la fel erau probabil i dou cuptoare de la Costia - Mnoaia. Neclare erau nou: Gherseni - Lacul Frncului, uletea - Fedeti, Berezeni - Vicoleni, Fereti, Banca - La confluena Banci, Isaiia - Satu Nou, Liteni, Ioneni - intirim, Vorniceni Pod Ibneasa.

Pentru secolul al IV-lea s-au menionat 29 de ateliere dotate cu 40 de cuptoare, unele au fost datate i la sfritul secolului al III-lea sau n secolul al V-lea. n ase aezri din cele menionate erau ateliere cu mai multe cuptoare, cu pilon central erau trei cuptoare la Stoicani - Poarta arinii

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i unul la Trueti - Pe Cuha, mpreun cu un altul cu perete median, din cele trei cuptoare de la Huanu - Saivan, dou aveau pilon central i unul perete median, cele dou cuptoare de la Banca Gar - apte case, aveau perete median, la fel i cele de la Poieneti - Dealul Teilor iar dou descoperite la Costia - Mnoaia, aveau focarul liber. Unul dintre cuptoarele menionate pentru Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, avea grtarul sprijinit pe un pilon central, n plan romboidal (Fig. 1/18). n funcie de forma focarului s-au ordonat n, 14 cuptoare cu pilon central, 13 cuptoare cu perete median, 1 cuptor n focar i cu perete median i cu stlp central i 3 cu focarul liber. 14 Cuptoare cu pilon central, n 8 aezri: 1-3 Stoicani - Poarta arinii, jud. Galai, secolele III-IV p.Hr., n focar cu pilon central (N. Bauman 1973-1974, 44, 46), 4. Zorleni - Fntnele, jud. Vaslui, cu pilon central (V. Palade 2004, p. 83-84, pl. IV), 5. Silitea - Muncelu (I. Ioni 2010, p. 191 i urm., fig. 2), 6. Srca - Pe linia ferat, jud. Iai, secolul al IV-lea - prima jumtate a secolului al V-lea, cuptor n focar cu pilon central (C. Bloiu 1975, p. 203 i urm.; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, p. 48, IV.6.F.), 7-8. Biceni - Laiu II i Biceni - Silite (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, p. 114, XX.2.L.), jud. Iai, secolele III-IV, 9. Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, jud. Iai, secolele III-IV (I. Nestor et alii 1951, 67-68; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 51, fig. 18) (fig. 1/19), 10-12. Iai - Nicolina, secolele IV-V p.Hr., prima variant A, cuprinde cuptoarele C1 i C4, de dimensiuni mari cu stlp central n focrie (Fig. 1/20), la fel cuptorul C2, de dimensiuni mult mai mici (I. Ioni 1985, p. 30-34, fig. 4, tabel 4), 13. Trueti - Pe Cuha, 14 Huanu - Saivan, jud. Botoani (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1966, p. 36). 13 Cuptoare cu perete median: 1. Dumbrveni, jud. Vrancea, cuptor n focar cu perete median (Gh. Diaconu 1977, p. 431438) (fig. 1/14), 2. Brlad - Valea Seac, n focar cu perete median (V. Palade 2004, p. 83-84, pl. IV) (fig. 1/16), 3-4. un atelier la Banca Gar - apte Case, prevzut cu dou cuptoare de ars ceramica n focar cu perete median (R. Alaiba 2007, p. 18 i urm., fig. 1-3) (fig. 1/17), 5. Dodeti ipot i Clugreasca, cuptor prevzut n focar cu perete median (D. Gh. Teodor 1996, p. 54, nota 59), 6. Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, un cuptor cu grtarul sprijinit pe un pilon central, n plan romboidal, continuat spre spatele cuptorului cu un perete i un altul descoperit n 1970 (M. Babe 1980, p. 35 i urm.) (fig. 1/18), 7. Iai - Nicolina, a doua variant B, i corespunde cuptorul C3, cu perete median - jud. Iai, 8-9. un alt cuptor cu perete median n focar era la tefan cel Mare Dealul Viorica, secolele III-IV (A. Stoia 1975, p. 301; M. Coma 1981, p. 90, nota 5; Eadem 1985, p. 171-184, nota 26), la fel la Gutina, secolul al IV-lea (N. Bauman 1973-1974, p. 44, nota 7; M. Coma 1981, p. 90), 10-11. Huanu - Saivan, dou cuptoare aveau n focar un perete median, primul cuptor era distrus aproape n ntregime (M. Marcu, N. Ungureanu 1989, p. 223 i urm.), 12. Trueti - Pe Cuha, secolele III-IV, cuptorul nr. 1, face parte din tipul celor prevzute cu dou camere, n focrie cu stlp central iar cuptorul nr. 2, avea perete median (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia et alii 1955, p. 174), 13. Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei (fig. 1/22), secolul al IV-lea, cuptor cu perete median n focar (N. i Em. Zaharia, S. Ra 1961, p. 461-471). 1 Cuptor n focar i cu perete median i cu stlp central Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, un cuptor cu grtarul sprijinit pe un pilon central, n plan romboidal, continuat spre spatele cuptorului cu un perete i un altul, menionat anterior descoperit n 1970 (Fig. 1/18). 3 Cuptoare cu focarul liber 1. Bacu - Curtea Domneasc, cuptorul avea grtarul sprijinit doar pe marginea de sus a focarului (I. Mitrea, Al. Artimon 1971, p. 228, fig. 6) (Fig. 1/16), 2. Costia - Mnoaia, jud. Neam,

Cuptoare de ars ceramica, sec. III a.Hr.-V p.Hr. / Potters workshops, 3st BC5stAD centuries 137 de la sfritul secolului al IV-lea i prima jumtate a secolului al V-lea (D. Gh Teodor, V. Cpitanu, I. Mitrea 1968, 238-239; Al. Vulpe, D. Gh. Teodor, Eugen Nicolae 1994, p. 362-363). 9 Neclare au fost cuptoarele doar semnalate sau distruse 1. Gherseni - Lacul Frncului, un cuptor distrus i altul necercetat, 2-4. trei cuptoare fr precizarea formei au fost semnalate la uletea - Fedeti, Berezeni - Vicoleni i Fereti, prin cercetrile de suprafa realizate de Ghenu Coman (G. Coman 1980, VIII.5.; IV.1., 55-56 i LXVII.1., 259), 5. Banca - La confluena Banci; 6. Isaiia - Satu Nou, jud. Iai, secolele III-IV p.Hr., neclar (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, 338, LXI.3), 7. Liteni, jud. Suceava, 8. Ioneni intirim, jud. Botoani, secolul al IV-lea, neclar, 9. Vorniceni - Pod Ibneasa, jud. Botoani, semnalare Maria Diaconescu. Cteva consideraii Pe teritoriul Moldovei, la Curbura Carpailor i la Pruteni, ntre cercetrile arheologice cu privire la secolele III a.Hr. - V p.Hr., se regsesc mai multe astfel de complexe, n stadii diferite de conservare: - secolele III a.Hr. - I p.Hr, semnalm 5 ateliere, n care s-au conservat 5 cuptoare de ars ceramica: 2 n focar cu perete median, 2 cu pilon central iar 1 era neclar; - pentru secolele II-III/IV, p.Hr., 7 ateliere cu 16 cuptoare, 10 cu perete median (1+1+1+5+2), 2 cu pilon, 2 neclare, un atelier n bordei cu 2 cuptoare i 4 cuptoare la Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei. - pentru secolul al IV-lea i secolele IV-V/VI, 29 de ateliere cu 40 de cuptoare, 16 prevzute n focar cu perete median, 12 n focar cu picior central, 3 cu focarul liber i 9 neclare. n total erau 41 de ateliere, avem n vedere c n nou erau mai multe cuptoare, opt la Cucoeni - Butnreti, trei la Stoicani - Poarta arinii, trei la cheia - Silitea, dou la Banca Gar apte case, dou la Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, patru la Iai - Nicolina, dou la Trueti - Pe Cuha, trei la Huanu - Saivan, dou la Costia i patru la Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei. Din ele provin 61 de cuptoare, 17 n focar cu pilon central, 25 n focar cu perete median, unul sprijinit pe un pilon central i pe un perete, trei cu grtarul sprijinit doar pe marginea de sus a focarului i 15 cuptoare neclare ca sistem de construcie (17+25+1+3+15). Dup specificul construciei camerei de ardere a vaselor s-au ordonat n trei gupe, n focar cu pilon central, cu perete median sau cu focarul liber. Separat s-a discutat cuptorul de la Poieneti - Mgura Dealul Teilor, iar n final s-au menionat cuptoarele neclare. 17 Cuptoare n focar cu pilon central tip A 13 aezri prevzute cu ateliere de olrie (2+2+9), cu 17 cuptoare (2+2+13), repartizate astfel pe secole: l 2 secolele I a.Hr. - I p.Hr., cu dou cuptoare: Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi, Piatra Neam - Btca Doamnei; l 2 secolele II-III p.Hr (nceput de sec. IV), cu dou cuptoare: Cucoeni - Butnreti, Piatra Neam Drmneti pe Cuejdi;
l

9 secolul al IV-lea (unele s-au datat i la sfrit de secol. III sau la nceput de secol V), nou ateliere cu 13
cuptoare: 3 Stoicani - Poarta arinii, Zorleni - Fntnele, Srca - Pe linia ferat, Biceni - Laiu II i Silite, Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, 3 Iai - Nicolina, Trueti - Pe Cuha, Huanu - Saivan.

l l

25 Cuptoare n focar cu perete median tip B 18 ateliere (2+5+11), cu 25 de cuptoare (2+10+13), repartizate astfel pe secole: 2 secolele I a.Hr. - I p.Hr., dou ateliere: Poiana - Cetate i Poiana - Silite; 5 secolele II-III p.Hr (nceput de IV), cinci ateliere, cu zece cuptoare: Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, Blteni Grla Strmbu, ifeti - La Grigoreti, 5 Cucoeni - Butnreti, 2 cheia - Silitea;

138
l

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites


11 secolul al IV-lea (sfrit de sec. III sau sec. V), 11 ateliere cu 13 cuptoare: Dumbrveni, Brlad - Valea Seac, 2 Banca Gar - apte case, Dodeti - ipot i Clugreasca, Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, Iai - Nicolina, tefan cel Mare - Dealul Viorica, Gutina, Trueti - Pe Cuha, Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, 2 Huanu Saivan.

Cum s-a precizat erau 8 ateliere cu mai multe cuptoare, fie n focar cu perete median, fie n focar cu pilon central: Stoicani, Galai, Cucoeni - Butnreti, Banca gar - apte case, Poieneti Dealul Teilor, Iai - Nicolina, Trueti - Pe Cuha, Huanu - Saivan and cheia - Silitea. 1 Cuptor cu grtarul sprijinit pe un pilon central continuat cu un perete tip A-B
l

1 secolul al IV-lea: Poieneti - Dealul Teilor.

3 Cuptoare cu grtarul sprijinit doar pe marginea de sus a focarului: dou ateliere cu trei cuptoare tip C:
l

3 secolul al IV-lea: Bacu - Curtea Domneasc, probabil i dou la Costia - Mnoaia.

15 Cuptoare neclare ca sistem de construcie, 15 cuptoare distruse n mare parte sau necercetate:
l l l

1 secolele I a.Hr. - I p.Hr.: unul la Tometi; 4 secolele II-III, p.Hr, Vleni - La Moar, 2 Cucoeni - Butnreti, cheia - Silitea; 10 secolul al IV-lea, sfrit de sec. III/ nceput de sec. V, Gherseni - Lacul Frncului, uletea - Fedeti, Berezeni - Vicoleni, Fereti, Banca - La confluena prului Banca, Isaiia - Satu Nou, Liteni, Ioneni intirim, Huanu - Saivan, Vorniceni - Pod Ibneasa.

Total ateliere 43 [ 49 (13+18+1+2+15)- 6 au cuptoare de ambele tipuri]. Total cuptoare = 61 (17 pilon n focrie + 25 perete median + 1 pilon i perete +3 simple + 15 neclare). Ceramica ars oxidant apare de la sfritul secolului III, nceputul secolului II p.Hr. (H. Daicoviciu 1968, p. 171). La est de Carpai formele de vase din past frmntat ngrijit i ars n cuptoare performante, foarte rar roie-crmizie, cu diferite nuane sau cu angob roie-brun, apar frecvent n secolul al II-lea i n prima jumtate a secolului al III-lea, dar ncep s dispar treptat n a doua jumtate a secolului al III-lea i nceputul secolului al IV-lea. Locul culorii roii este luat de culoarea alb murdar, dar mai ales de culoarea cenuie, care, n a doua jumtate a secolului al IVlea, pentru ceramica local, devine aproape general (M. Davidescu 1980, p. 122). Din secolul al IV-lea o pondere tot mai mare capt ceramica modelat din past zgrunuroas, din argil cu incluziuni diferite, nisip cu bobul mare, mici pietricele. Aceasta se producea n toate atelierele nord dunrene (Ibidem). n perioada post roman cuptoarele cu dou camere suprapuse continu s fie folosite (O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 69 i urm.). Aezrile menionate, caracterizate prin producia de ceramic, dup cum o dovedesc atelierele sau cuptoarele prezente de obicei la marginea sau periferia perimetrului locuit, descoperite n cuprinsul lor, au fost dup I. H. Crian centre economice cu o anumit importan n zon (1967, p. 112). De asemenea, pentru Nicolae Dunre satele agricolepastorale, n care s-au descoperit ateliere de olari prevzute cu cel puin dou cuptoare pot fi considerate, conform analogiilor etnografice, sate n care olritul cunoate un interes zonal sau un interes interinutal, iar cele care au menionat doar un cuptor, drept sate n care olritul se practica pentru a acoperi necesarul comunitii. Subliniem i faptul c, puine dintre ele, cu deosebire atelierele descoperite n Dobrogea, trebuie s fi fost centre specializate n meteuguri de interes mai larg (1967, p. 539).

Cuptoare de ars ceramica, sec. III a.Hr.-V p.Hr. / Potters workshops, 3st BC5stAD centuries 139

In order to know more about the world of the potters of the first half of the 1st millennium and to provide a more convincing image of the pottery of the period, almost the whole body of information was used, including publications, surveys and fortuitous discoveries, explorations and systematic excavations, information regarding the technology and methods of pottery production in the first half of the 1st millennium, in the area between the Carpathians and River Prut. The systematic analysis of this type of archeological complexes and the pottery of the period forms the basic information for our research. The presence of a central pillar or median wall in the fireplace, for sustaining the perforated grill, indicates certain differences as for how these functioned. In the first case a better circulation of the heat was provided and all vessels were equally heated while the whole structure was not very resistant. The latter case provided a better stability of the perforated plate on which the vessels were arranged, but the circulation of the air was not so uniform. The median wall separated the fireplace in two chambers with slightly unequal dimensions and it often had different openings so to allow the circulation of the heated air and the same temperature within the firing chamber. The repeated use of the kiln resulted in the petrification and vitrification throughout a 18-22 cm width, of the central pillar or median wall and of the peripheral ones and the red baking of the walls throughout a 12-16 cm.

General considerations

We mentioned only four installations for firing ceramic ware with one kiln, that is those of the 2nd3rd centuries AD, of Vleni - La Moar, of the 3rd century of Blteni - Grla Strmbu, of the 3rd4th centuries AD, of Cavadineti - Rpa Glodului, of the 4th century of Voetin - La curte and of the 4th5th centuries AD, of Iai - Nicolina. 41 potters workshops, 61 kilns
17 Kilns with a central pillar in the fireplace type A 13 potters workshops (2+2+9), with 17 kilns (2+2+13):
l

2 1st century BC1st century AD, 2 potters workshops: Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi, Piatra Neam - Btca
Doamnei;

l l

2 2rd3th centuries AD (4th): Cucoeni - Butnreti, Piatra Neam - Drmneti pe Cuejdi; 9 (3)4rd5th centuries AD, 9 potters workshops:nou with 13 kilns: 3 Stoicani - Poarta arinii, Zorleni Fntnele, Srca - Pe linia ferat, Biceni - Laiu II and Silite, Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, 3 Iai Nicolina, Trueti - Pe Cuha, Huanu Saivan.

25 Kilns with a median wall in the fireplace type B


l l

18 potters workshops (2+5+11), with 25 kilns (2+10+13):

2 1st century BC1st century AD, 2 potters workshops: Poiana - Cetate and Poiana - Silite; 5 2rd3th centuries AD (4th), 5 potters workshops with 10 kilns: Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, Blteni - Grla

Strmbu, ifeti - La Grigoreti, 5 Cucoeni - Butnreti, 2 cheia - Silitea; 11 (3)4rd5h centuries AD, 11 potters workshops with 13 kilns: Dumbrveni, Brlad - Valea Seac, 2 Banca Gar - apte case, Dodeti - ipot and Clugreasca, Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, Iai - Nicolina, tefan cel Mare - Dealul Viorica, Gutina, Trueti - Pe Cuha, Botoani - Dealul Crmidrie, 2 Huanu - Saivan. IVth century AD: Poieneti - Dealul Teilor.

1 Kilns with a central pillar in the fireplace and a median wall type A-B

8 The potters workshopstype of them kilns a central pillar in the fireplace and a median wall: Stoicani, Galai, Cucoeni - Butnreti, Banca gar - apte case, Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, Iai - Nicolina, Trueti - Pe Cuha, Huanu - Saivan and cheia - Silitea, one indistinctly potters workshops. 2 Kilns with perforated plate sustained of the fireplace, yet not directly on the latter, but on a step especially designed for such type C:
l

2 4th century AD: 2 potters workshops with 3 kilns, Bacu - Curtea Domneasc, and 2 Costia - Mnoaia.

140
l l

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites


Indistinctly, 15 potters workshops:

1 1st century BC 1st century AD: 1 potters workshops with 1 kiln, with Tometi; 3 2rd3th, centuries p.Hr, 3 potters workshops with 3 kilns Vleni - La Moar, 2 Cucoeni - Butnreti, cheia - Silitea; l 11 (3)4 rd5th centuries AD: 11 potters workshops with 11 kilns, Gherseni - Lacul Frncului, uletea Fedeti, Berezeni - Vicoleni, Fereti, Banca - La confluena prului Banca, Isaiia - Satu Nou, Liteni, Ioneni - intirim, Huanu - Saivan, Vorniceni - Pod Ibneasa. -----------------------------------------------

Total potters workshops : 41 [ 49 (13+18+1+2+15) - 8 of them kilns]. Total kilns = 61. The highly efficient kilns with a central pillar were more numerous, that is 41 such kilns. The kilns with a central pillar in the fireplace type A. the earliest case was dated to the 3th century BC, two kilns being pointed out, those of Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi and Piatra Neam Btca Doamnei, two others for the period of the 2nd3rd centuries identified in Drmneti pe Cuejdi, Cucoeni - Butnreti, C4, and for the period of the 3rd4th centuries elven kilns were identified in ten localities as follows Stoicani - Poarta arinii, Zorleni - Fntnele, Srca - Pe linia ferat, C1-2, Biceni - Laiu II, Biceni - Silite, Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, tefan cel Mare - Dealul Viorica, Gutina, Trueti - Pe Cuha, Iai - Nicolina, C3. The kilns with a medial wall in the fireplace type B. One kiln of the this is the kiln of Poiana - Cetate, for the period of the 3rd century BC, 3rd century BC was pointed out at Poiana Silite and 2 cheia - Silitea, kilns of the 2rd3th centuries were identified in four localities, as follows, Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, Blteni - Grla Strmbu, ifeti - La Grigoreti, Cucoeni Butnreti, C1-3 and from the 3rd4th centuries there were identified nine kilns in six points, that is in Dumbrveni, Brlad - Valea Seac, Banca - La confluena prului Banca, 2 Banca Gar apte case, C1-2, Dodeti - ipot and Clugreasca, Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, Trueti - Pe Cuha, C1-2 and Iai - Nicolina, 4th5th centuries AD, with three kilns C1-2 and C4, tefan cel Mare Dealul Viorica, Gutina, Trueti - Pe Cuha, Botoani - Dealul Crmidrie, 2 Huanu - Saivan. Kilns with open fireplace type C, such as the kiln of Bacu - Curtea Domneasc. Within the transition variants from type A to type B, Poieneti - Dealul Teilor and from type A to type C, the kiln Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi, dated to 1st century BC - 1st centruri AD is suggestive, although all the installations of this type had the perforated plate sustained by the unprepared walls of the fireplace.
Fig. 1. Cuptoare de ars ceramica cu o camer/Installations for firing ceramic ware with one kiln: 1 Voetin La curte, sec. IV/4th century; 2 Iai - Nicolina, sec. V-VI/5rd6th centuries. Ateliere de olrie i cuptoare de ars ceramica cu dou camere/Workshops and pottery firing kilns with two overlapped chambers, BC : 3 Poiana - Cetate, sec. III a.Hr./3th century BC; 4 Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi; 5 Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia; 6 ifeti - La Grigoreti; 7 Cucoeni - Butnreti; 8 Piatra Neam - Drmneti pe Cuejdi; 9 cheia - Silitea, 10-13 Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, secolele II-III/2rd3th centuries; 14 Dumbrveni; 15 Silitea - Muncelu; 16 Brlad - Valea Seac; 17 Banca Gar - apte case; 18 Poieneti - Dealul Teilor; 19 Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare; 20 Iai - Nicolina; 21 Bacu - Curtea Domneasc; 22 Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, sec. IVV/4rd5th centuries (apud 1 A. Paragin, V. Bobi 1983, fig. 15; 2, 15, 20 I. Ioni 1985, fig. 2B; 4; 2010, fig. 2; 3, 19 Gh. Iordache 1996, fig. 18 i 10/II; 4 V. Bobi, I. Cerrnat 1991, fig. 1; 5 M. Constantinescu 1978, fig. 2; 6 S. Morintz, N. Haruchi 1962, fig. 1; 7 C. Matas, I. Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu 1961, fig. 4; 8 Gh. Bichir 1973a, pl. XXXIII; 9 Gr. Foit 1969, fig. 2-3; 10-13 Vl. Vornic et alii 2007, pl. 14-15, 17-18, 2021, 23; 14, 18 M. Coma 1981, fig. 1; 1985, fig. 4; 16 V. Palade 2004, pl. VI; 17 R. Alaiba 2007, fig. 1-3; 21 I. Mitrea, Al. Artimon 1971, fig. 6; 22 N. Zaharia, Em. Zaharia, S. Ra 1961, p. 464, fig. 4).

Cuptoare de ars ceramica, sec. III a.Hr.-V p.Hr. / Potters workshops, 3st BC5stAD centuries 141

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Cuptoare de ars ceramica, sec. III a.Hr.-V p.Hr. / Potters workshops, 3st BC5stAD centuries 143
Fig.2. 1 Bucureti - Celu Nou, jud. Ilfov, secolele II-I a.Hr., cuptor geto-dacic; 2 Turnu Severin - Ostrovul imian, sec. I p.Hr.; 3 Rduleti. Cuptor de ars oale geto-dacic, sec. II-III p.Hr.; 4 Tibiscum; 5 Sucidava Celeiu, sec. II-III; 6 Buridava - Ocnia, sec. III; 7 Slveni - Castrul roman, sec. II-III; 8 Bumbeti - Jiu, sec. III; 9 Bucureti Crngai; 10 Adunaii Copceni - Porcrie; 11 Mironeti - Giurgiu; 12 Turnu Severin Drobeta, sec. IV-V; 14 Ostrovul Banului (apud 1 V. Leahu 1963, fig. 19-20); 2 D. Berciu 1939, reconstituire M. Coma 1985, fig. 2; 3 M. Coma, reconst.1985, fig. 3; 4 D. Benea et alii 1980, fig. 5; 5 O. Toropu, C. Ttulea 1987, fig. 29; 6 Gh. I. Petre 1968, fig. 1, 6; 7 D. Tudor 1968, fig. 5; 8 E. Bujor 1973, fig. 2; 9 Vl. Zirra, M. Tudor 1954, fig. 2-6; 10-11 V. Barbu 1999-2000, fig. 1-2, 10-14); 12-13 M. Davidescu 1980).

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Abrevieri
ActaMM ActaMT ALMKV Apulum ArhMold Arta i Arheologia AUIai BAR BerRGK Bibliotheca Memoriae Antiquitatis CercetIst Carpica CercetIst Dacia = Acta Moldaviae Meridionalis. Muzeul judeean tefan cel Mare, Vaslui. = Acta Musei Tutovensis, Anuarul muzeului Vasile Prvan Brlad. = Anuarul Liceului M. Koglniceanu - Vaslui. = Apulum. Acta Musei Apulensis, Alba - Iulia. = Arheologia Moldovei. Institutul de (Istorie i) Arheologie (A. D. Xenopol), Iai. = Arta i Arheologia, Iai. = Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al. I. Cuza, Iai. = British Archaeological Reports. International Series, Oxford. = Deutsches Archologisches Instituut. Bericht der Rmish Germanische Kommission, Frankfurt am Main.

= Bibliotheca Memoriae Antiquitatis, Piatra Neam. = Cercetri istorice, seria nou, Iai. = Carpica. Muzeul Judeean de Istorie i Art Iulian Antonescu, Bacu. = Cercetri istorice. Complexul Naional Muzeal Moldova, Iai. = Dacia. Recherches et dcouvertes archologiques en Roumanie, Bucarest, I-XII (1924-1947). Dacia, NS = Dacia, Nouvelle Srie, Revue darchologie et dhistoire anciene, Bucarest (1957-). Danubius = Danubius. Istorie. Muzeul Regional de Istorie Galai. Drevnejie obnosti = Drevnejie obnosti, Kiinev. Hierasus = Hierasus. Muzeul Judeean Botoani. EAIVR = EAIVR, Enciclopedia Arheologiei i Istoriei Vechi a Romniei, vol. I-III, 1994, 1996, 2000. KZNM = Kurgany v zonah novostroek Moldavii, Kiinev. Materiale = Materiale i cercetri arheologice, Bucureti. MemAntiq = Memoria Antiquitatis, Acta Musei Petrodavensis, Complexul Muzeal Judeean Neam, Piatra Neam. Pontica = Pontica. Muzeul de Istorie Naional i Arheologie, Constana. Revista arheologic = Revista arheologic, Chiinu. REF = Revista de etnografie i folclor, Institutul de etnografie i folclor, Bucureti. SAA = Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica, Seminarul de Istorie Antic i Arheologie al Universitii Al. I. Cuza Iai. SCIV(A) = Studii i cercetri de istorie veche (i arheologie), Institutul de Arheologie Vasile Prvan, Bucureti. SC-Iai = Studii i cercetri tiinifice, Iai. SCA = Studii i cercetri antropologice, Bucureti. SNECMI = Spaiul nord-est carpatic n mileniul ntunecat, coord. Victor Spinei, Editura Universitii Alexandru Ioan Cuza Iai. SymThr = Symposia Thracologica, Institutul Romn de Tracologie, Bucureti. Thraco-Dacica = Thraco-Dacica. Institutul Romn de Tracologie, Bucureti. Thracian World = The Thracian World at the Crossroads of Civilisations. Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress of Thracology (Constana - Mangalia Tulcea, mai 1996), Bucureti. Valahia = Anales D'Universit Targoviste, section d'Archologie et d'Histoire. VDI = Vestnik drevnei istorii, Moscova-Leningrad. Vrancea. Studii i Comunicri = Vrancea. Studii i Comunicri. L = lungime; l = lime; h = nlime; = diametru; L1 = locuin; Gr. = groap; Cpl. = complex

145

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Silvia Teodor 1983-1984 Cu privire la relaiile dintre geii est-carpatici i lumea greco-macedonian, ActaMM, V-VI, p. 155-168. Dan Gh. Teodor, Viorel Cpitanu, Ion Mitrea 1968 Cercetrile arheologice de la Mnoaia-Costia i contibuia lor la cunoaterea culturii materale locale din sec. V-VI din Modova, Carpica, I, p. 233-247. Octavian Toropu, Corneliu Ttulea 1987 Sucidava Celei, Monumente i Muzee, Editura Sport Turism. L. Trofin 2005 Romanitate si crestinism la Dunarea de Jos in secolele IV-VIII, Bucureti. Dumitru Tudor 1968 Oltenia roman3; 1978 Oltenia roman4, Bucureti. Victor Tufescu 1940 Fundamentul Podiului Moldovenesc, Bul.Soc.Rom.Geogr., LIX, Bucureti. Vasile Ursachi 1995 Zargidava. Cetatea dacic de la Brad, Bucureti. Ion S. Vinokur 2000 ernijahivs'ka kul'tyra: vitoki i dolija, Ukraina. M. I. Viazmitina 1969 Drevnie Frakijcy v severnom Priernomorye, Moskva, p. 119-134. Nicolai Telnov, Vlad Vornic, Valeriu Bubulici, S. Kurciatov 2002 Descoperiri arheologice din aezarea dacior liberi de la Pruteni, Tyragetia XI, p. 63-75. Nicolai Telnov, Vlad Vornic, Valeriu Bubulici, S. Kurciatov 2003 Ceramica din aezarea dacior liberi de la Pruteni, Tyragetia XII, p. 63-79. Vlad Vornic, Nicolae Telnov, Valeriu Bubulici, Larisa Ciobanu = Vl. Vornic et alii Eugen Nicolae redactare 2007 Pruteni un centru de olrie dacic din epoca roman. Biblioteca de Arheologie I, Chiinu. Alxandru Vulpe, Constantin Preda, Gheorghe Bichir 2000 Poiana - Silite, Dulceti, EAIVR, p. 334-336. Alexandru Vulpe, Dan Gh. Teodor, Eugen Nicolae 1994 Costia, EAIVR, p. 362-363. Alexandru Vulpe, Mihail Zahariade 1987 Geto-dacii n istoria militar a lumii antice, Bucureti. Radu Vulpe, Ecaterina Vulpe 1933 Les Fouilles de Poiana, Dacia, III-IV, 1927-1932, p. 253-351. R. Vulpe, A. Buhoiu, C. Cihodaru, C. Florea, A. Niu, E. Vulpe = R. Vulpe et alii 1950 Evoluia aezrilor omeneti din societatea primitiv i sclavagist de la Poieneti - Vaslui, SCIV, t. I, nr. 1, p. 41-46. R. Vulpe, I. Casan, C. Cihodaru, S. Constantinescu, G. Florescu, M. Grigorau, P. Radu = R. Vulpe et alii 1950 Evoluia aezrilor omeneti n Moldova de Jos. Raport sumar asupra activitii antierului arheologic Poiana- Tecuci, SCIV, t. 1, nr. 1, p. 47-52. Radu Vulpe, Ecaterina Vulpe, A. Niu, preot C. Matas, C. Cihodaru, C. Clinescu, V. Balan, t. Kiss, Ecaterina Negrui, R. Petre, t. tefnescu = R. Vulpe et alii 1951 Raport preliminar asupra activitii antierului arheologic Poiana - Tecuci 1950, SCIV, t. 2, nr. 1, p. 177-216. R. Vulpe et alii 1952 antierul Poiana, SCIV, t. 2, nr. 3, p. 191-230. R. Vulpe, S. Teodor 2003 Piroboridava, Bucureti, p. 32. J. Werner 1988 Daneny und Brangstrup. Untersuchungen zur ernjachov-Kultur zwischen Sereth und Dnestr und zu den 'Reichtumszentren' auf Fnen, Bonner Jahrbcher 188, p. 241-286.

154

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites

Nicolae Zaharia 1955 Recunoateri arheologice executate de colectivul Muzeului de Antichiti din Iai, n anul 1953, n cuprinsul Moldovei, SCIV, 6, 1-2, p. 287-295. 1955a Cercetrile de suprafa efectuate n Moldova n cursul anului 1954, SCIV, t. 6, nr. 3-4, p. 897-912. Nicolae Zaharia, Mircea Petrescu-Dmbovia, Emilia Zaharia 1956 Cercetri arheologice n oraul Iai i mprejurimi, SCIai, VII, 2, p. 21-42. 1970 Aezri din Moldova. De la paleolitic pn n secolul al XVIII-lea, Editura Academiei RSR, Bucureti. Nicolae Zaharia, Emilia Zaharia, Vasile Palade 1962 Sondajul din necropola de la nceputul epocii migraiilor de la Pietri, Materiale, VIII, p. 591598. 1961 Sondajul arheologic de la Botoani Dealul Crmidriei, Materiale, VII, p. 461-471. Mihail Zahariade 1988 Moesia Secunda, Scythia i Notitia Dignitatum, Bucureti. Mihail Zahariade, Ioan C. Opri 1998 STUDIA DANUBIANA, I, The Roman Danubian Frontier between the 4rd-6th centuries (The Second International Limes Symposium, Halmyris, August 1996), Romanian Institute of Thracology, Bucharest. Mihail Zahariade, Crian Mueeanu, Costel Chiriac 1981 Noi descoperiri epigrafice pe limesul Dunrii de Jos, Pontica, 14, p. 255 -261. Vlad Zirra, Margareta Tudor 1954 antierul arheologic Bucureti (Crngai), Studii i referate privind istoria Romniei, I, p. 312-315. Nelu Zugravu 1997 Geneza cretinismului popular al romnilor, Biblioteca Institutului de Tracologie, Bucureti. 1999 Erezii i schisme la Dunarea Mijlocie i de Jos n mileniul I, Iai. H. Wolfram 1979 Geschichte der Goten. Von den Anfngen bis zur Mitte des sechsten Jahrhunderts. Entwurf einer historischen Ethnographie, Mnchen.

155

Indice de nume
A Ruxandra Alaiba [Maxim], p. 1, 3-6, 8, 10-11, 14, 17, 3839, 56-57, 74, 76, 80-82, 87, 95-96, 99, 106-108, 116, 118-121, 126, 133, 136, 140, 145, 147, 152153. Vasile V. Alaiba, p. 1, 4, 6, 9, 11, 107, 145. Marius Alexianu, p. 96, 100, 145. Alexandrina Alexandrescu, p. 150. Alexandru Andronic, p. 46, 54, 64, 73, 146. Mugur Andronic, p. 124, 128, 146. Alexandru Artimon, p. 136, 140, 150. B Mircea Babe, p. 120-123, 127, 136, 147. Viorica Balan, p. 153. Florentina Banu, 46, 54, 64, 73, 146. Nicolae Barbu, p. 146. Vasile Barbu 143, 146. Alexandru Barnea, p. 124, 128, 152. Ion Barnea, p. 124, 128, 146. Ionel Bauman 132-133, 146. Victor H. Bauman, p. 124, 128, 132, 146. Vasile Bcuanu, p. 14-16, 87, 97, 120-121, 126, 146. Cezarina Blteanu, p. 74-76, 80-83, 146. I. Beilke-Voigt, p. 124, 128, 146. D. Benea, p. 143, 146. D. Berciu, p. 143, 146. Gheorghe Bichir, p. 39, 46, 51, 56, 64, 70, 91, 95, 98, 122124, 127-128, 134-135, 140, 146, 153, 155. V. Bierbrauer, p. 124, 128, 146. Ctlina Bloiu, p. 132, 146. Victor Bobi, p. 131, 135, 147. Emilian Bold, p. 40, 43-46, 49-50, 52-54, 57, 60-61, 63-64, 67-73, 87, 96-97, 120, 151. Dan Botezatu, p. 8, 11, 74-77, 79, 81-85, 147. Valeriu Bubulici, p. 157. A. Buhoiu, p. 153. E. Bujor, p. 143, 147. Viorel M. Butnariu, p.124, 128, 147. C Petre Cantemir, p. 74-75, 77, 81-83, 147. C. Clinescu, p. 154. Viorel Cpitanu, p. 137, 153. Marin Crciumaru, p. 123, 129, 147. Ion Cernat, p. 131, 135, 147. Costel Chiriac, p. 124, 128-129, 146, 157. Dumitru Chiriac, p. 146. Vasile Chirica, p. 4-5, 7-8, 10, 17-37, 48, 66, 121, 134, 136, 147. Constantin Cihodaru, p. 45-46, 50-51, 53, 62 64, 68-69, 70, 72, 147, 154. Doina Ciobanu, p. 123, 129, 147. Larisa Ciobanu, p. 154. Elvira Ciocea, p. 19, 29, 147. Bogdan Ciuperc, p. 150. Ghenu Coman, p. 7-8, 10, 38-73, 87, 92, 95-99, 120-123, 126-127, 137, 146-148, 153. Sylviu Comnescu, p. 107, 114, 150. Alexandra Coma, p. 96, 100, 138. Maria Coma, p. 124, 128, 136, 140, 143, 147-148. Marius E. Constantinescu, p. 124, 128, 135, 140, 148, 154. S. Constantinescu, p. 154. Ion Horaiu Crian, p. 138, 149. D M. Davidescu, p. 138, 143, 148. Maria Diaconescu, p. 125, 129, 137, 148. Gheorghe Diaconu, p. 124, 128, 136, 148. Marin Dinu, p. 40, 43-46, 49-50, 52-54, 57, 60-61, 6364, 67-73, 87, 96-97, 152. Ion T. Dragomir, p. 132, 148. St. Dumistrcel, p. 123, 129, 148. F C. Fedorovici, p. 78, 84, 147. C. Florea, p. 154. Grigore Foit, p. 122, 135, 140, 148. G Gheorghe Gherghe, p. 8, 10, 39-40, 50-51, 56-57, 145, 148. T. Gherasimov, p. 123, 128, 148. Ion Glodariu, p. 47, 65, 148. H Radu Harhoiu, p. 124, 128, 148. N. Haruchi, p. 135, 140, 150. Cornel Hobincu, p. 9, 11, 116, 118. I Constantin Iconomu, p. 103-104, 106, 149. Mircea Ignat, p. 124, 128, 149. Octavian Iliescu, p. 124, 128, 146. I. Ionescu, p. 125, 129, 149. Ion Ioni, p. 8, 11, 19, 29, 46, 49-51, 53-54, 64, 67-69, 72-73, 95, 99, 124-125, 128-129, 135-136, 140, 146, 149-150. Gheorghe Iordache, p. 136, 140, 149. T. Ivanov, p. 124, 128, 149. J P. Jeanrenaud, p. 14-15, 121, 126, 149. K tefan Kiss, p. 147, 154. Serghiei Kurciatov, p. 157. L Attila Lszl, p. 102, 104-106, 149. V. Leahu, p. 143, 149. Oleg Leviki, p. 4, 6, 9, 11, 102-106, 149. Dan Lichiardopol, p. 150. Bogdan Lupacu, p. 75, 77-78, 80-82, 84, 86, 150. M Gheorghe Macovei, p. 17, 27. A. Madgearu, p. 125, 129, 150.

156

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites


Simina Stanc, p. 74, 76, 80-81, 124, 129, 145, 152. Adriana Stoia, p. 136, 152. Alexandru Suceveanu, p. 124, 128, 152-153. Zoltan Szkly, p. 151. Nicolae enchea, p. 14-15, 153. Liviu ovan, p. 103, 106, 149. tefan tefnescu, p. 154. T Gabriel Talmachi, p. 125, 129, 147. Marcel Tanasachi, p. 4-5, 7-8, 10, 17-37, 48, 66, 121, 134, 136, 147. Corneliu Ttulea, p. 143, 153. Nicolae Telnov, p. 143, 157. Dan Gh. Teodor, p. 8, 11, 51, 87, 92, 95-100, 120-121, 124, 126, 128, 136-137, 153, 154. Eugen S. Teodor, p. 107, 153. Silvia Teodor, p. 121, 153-154. Octavian Toropu, p. 143, 153. L. Trofin, p. 125, 129, 154. Victor Tufescu, p. 14-15, 154. Dumitru Tudor, p. 143, 154. Margareta Tudor, p. 143, 155. U Alexandru Ungureanu, p. 146. Napoleon Ungureanu, p. 136, 150. Vasile Ursachi, p. 124, 129, 135, 149, 153. V M. I. Viazmitina, p. 123, 153. Ion S. Vinokur, p. 124, 128, 153. Vlad Vornic, p. 135, 140, 154. Alexandru Vulpe, p. 124, 128, 134, 137, 154. Ecaterina Vulpe, p. 42, 44-46, 50, 53, 57, 62-64, 69, 72, 122, 127, 154. Radu Vulpe, p. 40, 44-46, 50, 53, 57, 62-64, 68-69, 72, 120, 122, 127, 134, 137, 147, 154. W J. Werner, p. 124, 128, 154. H. Wolfram, p. 124, 128, 155. Z Emilia Zaharia, p. 7, 10, 17-30, 32-35, 37-73, 87, 96, 120, 124, 128, 136, 140, 151, 154-155. Nicolae Zaharia, p. 7, 10, 17-30, 32-35, 37-73, 87, 96, 120, 124, 128, 136, 140, 154-155. Ileana - Ildiko Zahariade, p. 9, 11, 116. Mihail Zahariade, p. 1-8, 14, 38, 124, 128, 153, 154-155. Ileana Zamoteanu, p. 134-135, 140, 150. Mihai Zamoteanu, p. 134-135, 140, 150. Vl. Zirra, p. 143, 155. Nelu Zugravu, p. 122, 125, 127, 129, 155.

Nicolae Maftei, p. 42, 59-60, 152. Mircea Mamalauc, p. 8, 11, 74-75, 80-81, 122, 125, 129, 150. Mioara Marcu, p. 136, 150. Tamilia Marin, p. 107, 145. Constantin Martiniuc, p. 14-15, 150. Constantin Matas, p. 134, 135, 140, 150, 154. Corneliu N. Mateescu, p. 53, 72, 107, 114, 150. V. Mihilescu, p. 14-15, 150. Virgil Mihailescu-Brliba, p. 122, 127, 147. Nicolae Mirioiu, p. 151, 147. Bucur Mitrea, p. 48, 66, 124, 128, 150. Ion Mitrea, p. 46, 53, 64, 72, 121, 126, 136-137, 140, 150, 153. Georgeta Miu, p. 8, 11, 74-77-86, 145, 147, 150. Dan Monah, p. 95, 98, 153. S. Morintz, p. 132, 140, 150. C. Mueeanu, p. 154. N Ecaterina Negrui, p. 154. Ion Nestor, p. 23, 33, 136, 150, 151. C. Nicolae, p. 124, 129, 147. Eugen Nicolae, p. 137, 154. Gheorghe Al. Niculescu, p. 124, 128, 151. Anton Niu, p. 154, 151. O Luciana Onu, p. 125, 129, 151. Andrei Opai, p. 124, 128, 151. Ioan C. Opri, p. 124, 128, 155. P M. Pacurariu, p. 125, 129, 151. Vasile Palade, p. 8, 11, 39, 41, 44, 46, 49, 54, 56, 58, 62, 64, 68, 70, 73-74, 80-81, 121, 124, 127-129, 136, 140, 151, 155. Maria Pantazic, p. 146. Anton Paragin, p. 140. Cristian Pntea, p. 9, 11, 116, 118. Gheorghe I. Petre, p. 152. Mircea Petrescu-Dmbovia, p. 7, 10, 17-30, 32-33, 35, 3773, 87, 96-97, 120, 136, 145, 151-152, 154. Dorin Popescu, p. 46, 64, 152. Emilian Popescu, p. 50, 68, 152. Eugenia Popuoi, p. 151. Constantin Preda, p. 134, 150, 154. R Gheorghe Radu, p. 42, 59-60, 152. S. Ra, p. 136, 140, 154. Marin Rotaru, p. 8, 10, 39-40, 51, 56-57, 70, 148. Aurel Rusu, p. 21, 25, 31, 35-36, 152. Silviu Sanie, p. 18, 28, 125, 129, 152. eiva Sanie, p. 18, 28, 152. A. Saraiman, p. 14-15, 121, 126, 149. Angela Simalcsik, p. 4-5, 8, 10, 74. Robert Simalcsik, p. 4-5, 8, 10, 74. K. F. Smirnov, p. 123, 152. Victor Spinei, p. 95, 98-99, 137, 142, 153.

157

Indice geografic
A Albeti, com. Deleti, Vs., - pe platou/on the plateau, p. 43, 60. Albeti, com., Vs., ape/waters, Idrici cu/with Idriciul Sec, Albeti, p. 17, 27, 38, 43, 60, Crasna, Brlad, - n Deal, Moeni, n jurul cantonului silvic/In the area of the forest administrative quarters, p. 38, 55, Platourile Albeti, p. 121, 126. Albeti-Goeti, com. Breti, Is, Sud-sud-est de Albeti/South-southeast of Albeti, p. 17, 27. Alexandru Vlahu, fost/former Pleeti, com., Vs., ape/ waters, Socilor Valley with Leurda, Ibana, Simila, - Capul Dealului, p. 38, 55, 121, 126. Alexeti - Tarlaua Movil, p. 21, 31. Al. I. Cuza, p. 20, 30, com. Breti, Is., ape/waters: Siret, iganca, - arina de Jos, Pe Holm, Lutrie, p. 17, 27. Adunaii Copceni Porcrie, p. 143. Armeni, Vs., - Promontoriul interfluvial/Interfluvial mound, La sud de sat/South the village, p. 42, 59. Armoaia, Vs., - La Loturi, p. 50, 68-69. Arsura, com., Vs., waters: oprleni, Barahoi, Ttarului, Ruginosu, - Cetuia Mogoeti, Cumpeni, Poiana, Via lui oncu, n faa cldirii noi a colii/In front of the new school building, Interfluviu/Interfluvium, Lng iaz/Near the pond, p. 38, 44, 55, 61, 120. 23 August, p. 121, 127, Vs., - n jurul colii Mgeana/In the area of Mgeana school, p. 48, 66, 121, 127. Avrmeti, Vs. - tiubeeni, Lungaa, Captul unui bot de deal, p. 53, 72. B Bacu, jud./county, p. 14-15, ora/city, 46, 64. Bacu - Curtea Domneasc, p. 135-136, 138-139, 140. Bahlui, valea/valley, p. 14-15, 19-22, 25-26, 29-31, 3637. Banca, com., Vs., ape/waters: Brld, Horoiata, Petrioara, Banca, Ghermneti, - n vatra satului/In the village core, Pe valea Bncii/Bncii valley, La vest de sat/West of the village, p. 8, 10, 14, 41, 58. Banca Gar, - Sediul SMA/SMA quarters, Pe un grind/On a mound, p. 8, 10-11, 41, 58, 76, - apte case, p. 6, 8-9, 11-12, 39, 56, 74-75, 80-82, 101-108, 114119, 123, 125, 129-132, 135-140, - La confluena Banci, p. 133, 135-137. Barboi, ap/waters, Vs., - Rari, p. 46, 63. Barcea, necropola/necropolis, p. 80, 85, 122, 127. Barahoi, pru/brook, p. 38-39, 43-44, 56, 61, 120. Bcani, com., Vs., ape/waters: Simila, Ibana, Bogdana, Pietrosu, p. 40, 57. Bceti, 45, 52, 61, 63, 71, com., Vs., ape/waters: Brlad, - Capul Dealului, Aanei Vasile, p. 40, 57. Biceni - Laiu II i/and Silite, p. 133-134, 135-137, 139140; Biceni - Silite, 95-96, 99. Bleti, Vs. - Coada Silitii, p. 43, 60. Blteni, com., Vs., ape/waters: Brlad, Stemnic-Buda, p. 40, 57. Blteni - Grla Strmbu, p. 135, 138-140, 157. Blai, ap/water, p. 69, 51, Vs. - n Deal/On the hill, Dealul Rziei/Rziei hill, p. 52, 70. Bcu - Pe Beci, Dealul Holciu II, Doschina, p. 21, 31. Brlad, munic., p. 41, 42, 50, 54, 59, 62, 73, 75, 81, 121, 124, ape/waters: Brlad, Simila, - Casa de ap/ The Water Tower, Valea rnii/rnii Valley, Podul Palerma/Palerma Bridge, La sud de Podul Palerma/south of Palerma Bridge, La Confluen/Confluence, p. 41, 58. Brlad, ru/river, p. 8-9, 11-12, 14-15, 38-44, 46, 48-53, 55-61, 63, 66-67, 69-74, 81, 87, 96, 120-121, 124126, 128. Brlad - Valea Seac, p. 8, 11, 39-40, 56-57, 74, 77-81, 83, 85-86, 121, 127-128, 135-136, 138-140. Brlleti, Vs., - Stania, p. 44, 61-62; Sturza, p. 121, 126. Brnova, com. Breti, Is., p. 14-15, 17, 27, apa/water, iganului, p. 28. Brzeti, Vs., - Ludeasca, p. 51, 69. Bereasa, Vs.,- Dealul Zarea Rcanilor/Zarea Rcanilor hill, p. 42, 59-60. Berezeni, com., Vs., ape/waters: Prut, Muata, Bozasca, Srata - Pe stnga unui pria/to the left of a brook, Troienai, Vicoleni, p. 135, 137-138, 140. Pe terasa dreapt a Prutului/on the right terrace of River Prut, Muata, p. 40, 57. Blgeti, com., Vs., ape/waters: Elan cu/with Srata, Sreni, Creana, Licov, Valea Oanei, Sipeni, Zbancului,- Interfluviu/Interfluvium, n marginea de est a satului/In the east end of the village, Rpa Frasinului, La Colonel, Marginea de sud-est/The southeast end, Pe mijlocul satului/In the middle of the village, Iazul lui Stoian/Stoians pond, Scndureni, p. 41, 58. Blgeti, ap/water, p. 41, 58. Bleca, Vs., - n marginea vestic, n vatra estic, p. 46, 64. Bodeti, Is., - Tarlaua Bodeti, p. 23-24, 34. Bogdana, fost/former erbneti, com., Vs., ape/waters: Bogdana, p. 57-59, 40-42, cu/with Plopoasa, Similioara, Suceveni-Horgeti, - La stejar, n faa satului/In front of the village, p. 41, 58. Bogdana-Voloseni, Vs. - est de sat/east of the village, p. 51, 69. Bogdneti, com. Horleti, Is., - Vlcele, p. 20, 31, Rpa Pascului, Dealul Silite, Curtur, p. 21-22, 31. Bogdneti, com. Vs., ape/waters: Horoiata-Valea Seac, Bogdneti, - n vatra satului/in the village core, Corlteti, Mnstirea, p. 43-44, La nord de sat/north of the village, interfluviu/interfluvium, terasa joas, Complexul de porcine/Porcine farmyard, p. 41, 58-59. Bogdneti - Flciu, Vs., necropola/necropolis, p. 44-45, 62 i/and p. 8, 11, 74-80, 82-83, 85-86, 96, 99, 121, 127. Bogdnia, com., Vs., ape/waters: Bogdana i/an Bogdnia, - Interfluviu/Interfluvium, p. 42, 59. Boroseti, Is. - Dealul Borosetilor/Boroseti Hill, p. 2324, 34. Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, jud. Bt., p. 135-140.

158

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites


114. Cmpia Romn / Romanian Plain, p. 120, 126. Cmpia Siretului Inferior / Plain of the Lower Siret, p. 7, 10. Cmpia Tecuciului sau a Brladului Inferior, p. 120, 126. Crja, Vs., - Crja de Jos, Brsani, n jurul podului/In the area of the bridge, Maa i/and Brsana, p. 48, 66, 121, 127. Cercu, fost/former, Zane, Is., - La intirim, p. 17, 27. Chilioaia, p. 23, 34, Is., - Silitea, p. 19-20, 30. Chirceti, Vs., fost/former Rui, Vs. - Dumbrav, La Velni, Coasta Vii Seci, Chirceti Vale, fost/former Prieni, Corcodu, p. 47, 65-66. Chiinu, R. Moldova, cultura/culture Chiinu Corlteni p. 103, 106. Cioca-Boca, Is., - Cimitir, Tarlaua Cioate/Cioate Lot, Trboi, Cpoteti, Drgueni-rinc, Silite, Uria pru/brook, p. 25, 35-36. Ciohorni - Grdina C.A.P., p. 22, 32-33. Ciorteti com. Breti, Is., ape/waters: Ciorteti, Crasna, erbeti, Vaslui, p. 18, 28. Ciurbeti, Is., - Dealul Brca II, La Prisac, p. 21-22, 32. Ciurea, com. Breti, p. 22, 33, Is,. ape/waters: Ciurea, Roa, Nicolina, Rpa, Fntna de pe Podi, La Chihan, Picioru Grani, Dealul Lunca, p. 18, 28. Codieti, com., Vs., ape/waters: Dobrov, Rediu, Lunca i/and Vasluiul, - La sud-est de sat/Southeast of the village, Interfluviul, p. 42, 59. Codreni, Vs., - Tlhreti, p. 50, 69. Colinele Tutovei, Colinele nalte i Joase / High and Low Hills, p. 9, 11, 14-15, 38, 104, 119-121, 126. Comarna, com. Breti, Is., ape/waters: Comarna cu/with Broteni, Tamarca, p. 18, 29. Comornia, Is., - Pe gsc I-II, Cirete, Peste iaz, Cantonul silvic/Forest administration, p. 19-20, 30. complex hallstattian timpuriu cu ceramic canelat Chiinu Corlteni / the early Hallstatt complex and impressed ceramic Chiinu Corlteni, p. 102-103, 105-106. complex hallstattian timpuriu cu ceramic imprimat, grupul Cozia, p. 102 / the early Hallstatt complex and impressed ceramic, Cozia group; cultura / culture Cozia Saharna, p. 105, grup /group Cozia / Cozia, p. 104-106. complex hallstattian timpuriu cu ceramic incizat, grup Tmoani / the early Hallstatt complex with incised ceramic, Tmoani group, p. 9, 11, 102, 104-106. complex Tmoani Holercani Balta, p. 104 / Tmoani Holercani Balta complex, p. 106. complex Saharna Solonceni / Saharna Solonceni complex, p. 102, 104-106. Copceana, Vs. - pe dreapta prului/On the right of the brook, n marginea de sud-vest/In the southwest, p. 44-45, 62. Corlteni Chiinu cultura / culture, p. 9, 11, 102-106; tip / type Chiinu Corlteni, p. 102 / 105; Corlteni grup / group, p. 102, 104-105. Corneti - La nord-est de sat/To the northeast of the

Botoani, jud., p. 136-137. Boeti, com., p. 47, 65, Vs., ape/waters: Gugul, Blgeti, - Vatr/the village core, p. 42, 59. Bozasca, pru/brook, Vs., p. 41-42, 57-58. Bozia, com. Flciu, pru/brook,Vs. - La Gura Boziei, p. 44-45, 62. Bozia Nou (n/in Berezeni), Vs., p. 40, 57. Brad - La Stnc, p. 120, 122, 127. Brdiceti, Is., - La odaie, Sub margini, Salcmii lui Moraru - La Ulm, p. 19, 29. Brdiceti, Is. - Dealul Beschiei, aezare - grup Tmoani, p. 104, 106. Breti - Silite, com. Breti, Is., ape/waters: elaru, Albeti Cinca, - Silite, p. 17, 27. Brui, Neam, p. 95, 98. Brteti, Is., - ntre Chicerea, Valea Prului, p. 24, 35. Brtuleni, Is., - Dealul Holm, La rp, La rp, Dealul Brtuleni, p. 21-22, 32. Brodoc, Vs., La vadurile rului/at the river fords, Dincolo de calea ferat/beyond the railway line, p. 52, 71. Broteni, apa/water, p. 18, 28, 46, Vs., - n marginea nord-estic, p. 46, 64. Bucureti - Celu Nou, p. 143 Bucureti - Crngai, p. 143. Buda, apa/water, p. 40, 43, 57, 60; 49, 68, Buda cu/with Fundul Negrea; Vs., - n vatra nordic, n marginea nordic/In the northern village core, The northern end, p. 41, 58-59. Budapesta, p. 107, 114. Budu-Cantemir, Vs., - Pe dreapta prului/To the right of the brook, p. 51, 69. Bugul sudic, p. 124, 128. Buhieti, p. 44, 54, 61, 73, Vs., - Gara Buhieti, Dealul Bleti/Bleti hill, p. 53, 72. Bulboaca, Vs. - n jurul haltei/Around the railway station, p. 43, 60. Bulgaria, p. 123-124, 128. Bumbeti - Jiu, p. 143. Buneti-Avereti, com., Vs., ape/waters: Crasna with Cetuia, Hruca, - Promontoriu interfluvial/ Interfluvial mound, La sud de sat/Habitation south the village, p. 42, 59. Buridava - Ocnia, p. 143. Bursuci, Vs., - Crmidrie, p. 44, 61-62. Butea, com. Breti, Is., ape/waters: Siret, Roia, Dochia, Gogea, - Neagului Hill, Gureana Hill Dealul Neagului, Dealul Gureana, Coasta Doljetilor, p. 18, 28. Butucria, Vs., - Childeti, p. 54, 73. Buzu, jud., p. 132. C Carpai, p. 96, 99, 115, 119, 133-135, 137-138, Nordici / northern Carpathians, p. 7, 10. Cueti, Is., - Muncelu Tutu, La Gostat, Nisiprie, p. 25, 35-36. Cmpia -Dealurile- Podiul Covurlui / Plain and Covurlui Plateau, p. 120-121, 126. Cmpia Moldovei / Moldavian Plain, p. 7, 10, 14-15, 107,

159
village, Tarlaua ferm/The Farmyard lot, Vatra Satului I/The Village core I, Boaghea, p. 20-21, lac/pond Iezreni, p. 21-22, 32. Corni-Albeti, Vs., - Valea Velniei / Velniei Valley, p. 38, 55. Coroieti de Sus, com., Vs., ape/waters: Horasca, Dumbrava, Pereschivu Mic, - n marginea sudic/In the southern end, p. 42, 59. Costeti, com. Vs., ape/waters: Chicani, Brlad, - n vatra satului/In the village core, n preajma podului, n bucla format de Brlad/In the angle formed by Brlad road, p. 42, 59. Costeti VII, R. Moldova, cultura / culture Chiinu Corlteni p. 103, 105-106. Costia, p. 134. Costia Mnoaia, p. 135-13. Costuleni, p. 18, 24, 29, 35, com. Breti, Is., ape/waters: Costuleni, Jijia, Comarna-Covasna, Bohotin springs, p. 19, 29. Cozia, ap/water, p. 23, 34,- La Nisiprie,Voloaca Mic din esul Branitei/Voloaca Mic Hill in Branitei Plain, p. 19, 29. Cozmeti, com. Breti, Is., ape/waters: Mona with Monioara, p. 19, 29. Cozmeti, com. Deleti, Vs., - Grama, Pe mal/On the river bank, p. 43, 60. Crasna, ap/water, p. 18-19, 28-29, 38, 42, 48-49, 51-52, 55, 59, 66-67, 70, Vs., p. 42, 48-49, 67, - n unghiul Brladului, La grdina de zarzavat, p. 38, 55. Creana, Vs., pru/brook, p. 41, 58. Cristeti, Is., ape/waters Roia, Dochia, Gogea, LacurileIzvoare, Dealurile Neagului, Gureana, Izvoare p. 17-18, 29. Creeti, com., Vs., ape/waters: Lohan, Recea, - n vatra satului/In the village core, n spatele grii/ Behind the railway station, p. 42, 59. Criveti, Is., - La Hrtop, Spre Budi, Rpa de la ipot, La nord-nord de sat/North - northeast of the village, Valea Cireului/Cireului Valley, p. 24, 35. Cucoeni - Butnreti, jud. Neam, p. 135, 137-140. Cucuteni, cultura / culture, p. 87, 96, 107, 114. Cuesta Horincea, p. 121, 126, Cmpia, p. 121, 127. Cuesta, Coasta Iailor, p. 14-15. Cuesta Racovei, p. 14-15. Culoarul Prutului / Prut Corridor, p. 7, 10. Curteni, Vs., - Rpa Negroaiei, La Odaie, p. 49, 67. D Dacia, provincia roman/Roman provinces, p. 79, 119, 126. Daga, Is., com. Breti, Is., ape/brooks Mnstirca, Grboveu, p. 27, 37. Danca, Is., - Marginea de nord a satului/The north end of the village, Vatra Satului I, p. 21-22, 32. Dneti, com., Vs., ape/waters: Luncii, Feretilor, Rchia, - n livad/In the orchard, La nord de sat/north of the village, Iazul Buragi-Buragi Pond, ipotul lui Mantu, La Tufari, Zltreti, p. 42, 59. Dealul Alba / Alba Hill, p. 45, 63. Dealurile Banca Grivia, p. 121, 126. Dealurile Comarna Rducneni, Faa Prutului/Comarna Hill Rducneni, Front of Prut, p. 17, 27. Dealurile Flciului/Flciu Hills, Dealurile i Cmpia Flciului/Flciu Hills and Plain, p. 9, 11, 14-15, 38, 55, 104, 106, 119-121, 126. Dealurile Icuetilor, Faa Siretului / Icueti Hill, Front of Siret, p. 17, 27, 120. Dealurile Racova Stemnic / Racova Stemnic Hills, p. 17, 27. 1 Decembrie, Vs., - n partea de nord-vest/the northwest side of the village, p. 39, 56. Deleni, com., Vs., ape/waters: Brlad, Ghilahoi, Delenii de Jos, fost/former Mrgineni, - Avrmeti, p. 43, 60. Deleni, com. Hoceni, Vs., - Talaba, p. 46, 63-64. Deleti, com., Vs., ape/waters: Buda, Fstca, Valea Munteanului, Valea lui Coni, Albeti, Stemnic, Hrova, Ruginoasa, - Valea perilor/Perilor Valley, Valea lui Coni/Coni Valley, p. 43, 60 i/and Deleti - Cetuia, p. 107. Depresiunea Valea Brladului Superior / Upper Brlad Depression, p. 17, 27, 87, 96-97, 120. Depresiunea Hui / Hui Depression, p. 10, 17, 27, 121. Depresiunea Hui Elan Horincea - Srata sau Cmpia colinar a Elanului, p. 7, 10, 121, 126. Depresiunea Voineti Brnova, p. 14-15. Dimitrie Cantemir, fost/former Hurdugi, com., Vs., ape/waters: Grumezoaia, Cla, - La coal/At the school, In the north end of the village/n marginea de nord, p. 43, 60. Dealurile Dobrina Olteneti / Dobrina Olteneti Hills, p. 121, 126. Dealurile Vinderei Mluteni, p. 121, 126. Dobrov, com. Breti, Is., ape/waters Dobrov, cu/with Pietrosu, Poiana Lung, Humria; - Tarlaua Jitria, Mnstirea Dobrov, Tarlaua Latia, Tarlaua Velnia, p. 19, 29. Docneasa, Vs. - Docneasa, p. 53, 72. Dodeti, Vs. - ipot i/and Clugreasca, halta CFR Dodeti/railway station of Dodeti, p. 133-134, 136-137, La nord de sat/north of the village, La grdina, p. 39, 53-56, 72, 95-96, 99. Dolheti, com., Breti, Is., ape/waters: Crasna, Cetuia, - Podul peste Crasna, p. 19, 29. Dorocani, Is., - Dealul Viilor I-II/Viilor Hill I-II, n vatra nou a satului/the new village core, Dealul Iugani/Iugani Hill, Dealul Viilor II, p. 23, 33-34. Dragomireti, com., Vs., ape/waters: Tutova, Semenea, Popetiul, Lipova, - Nastac, intirim, p. 43, 61. Drgeti, Vs., Pe Izlaz - Sub Silite, p. 17, 52, 70-71, 9596, 98-99, 120. Drgueni, Is., - rinc, Silite, p. 25, 35-36. Drslv - Hui vale, p. 14, Drslv - Hui Valley, p. 15. Drnceni, com., 39, 56, 120, Vs., ape/waters: Ruginoasa, Barahoi, p. 43, 61. Duda-Epureni, com., Vs., ape/waters: Prul lui Ivan, Recea Valea Grecului, p. 44, 61.

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Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites


Dumbrveni, Crceneanca, - Capul Plopilor, n arin la vale, p. 45, 63. Ghergheti, com., Vs., ape/waters: Studine, - n sudul vetrei/in the area of the village core, on both sides of Studine brook, p. 45, 63. Gherseni - Lacul Frncului, p. 133, 135-136. Ghermneti, p. 40, pru/brook, p. 41, 58, com. Banca, Vs. - n jurul bisericii/Around the church, p. 39, 56. Ghermneti, p. 57, com. Drnceni, Vs., Peste drum de coal/In front of the school, Obria prului Barahoi/The spring of Barahoi brook, Pe Dop, pe malul estic, p. 43-44, 61. Giurcani, Vs., - Grozeti, La Budi sau/or Via Lupe, Argeaua, Berbeceni, p. 45, 62. Giurgeti, Vs., - n Dumbrav/In the clearing, p. 51-52, 70. Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, jud. Iai, p. 133134,136-137. Glodenii Gndului, Suhatul Glodenilor, p. 26, 37. Goeti, com. Lungani, Is., p. 17, 19, 27, ap/water: p. 21, 31. Gorban, Is., ape/waters: Prut, Bohotin, MonaMonioara, Gorban, p. 21, 31, - Cantonul Silvic/Forest Administration, p. 20, 30. Grajduri, com. Breti, Is., p. 27, 37. Grieti, Is., - Iazu Mucului, p. 26, 37. Grivia, com., Vs., ape/waters: Brlad, Trestiana, Gruzoaia, Jrv; La confluena/At the confluence, Spre sud/To the south, p. 46, 63. Grozeti, com. Breti, Is., p. 27, 37. Gugeti, Vs., - Bocana, p. 44, 61. Gura Bohotin, - Vatra satului / Village core, p. 20, 31. Gura Idrici, Vs. - Ciunta, Stna lui Zlatan, La Coer, p. 53, 71. Gutina, p. 132-135. Grumezoaia, Vs. - n marginea nordic/In the north end, p. 45, 61. Guiei, Vs. - n vatra de sud-vest/in the southwest village core, Pe dreapta prului Cla/on the right bank of Cla brook, p. 45, 61. Gutina, p. 133-134, 136-137. H Hallstatt timpuriu, perioada / early Hallstatt, period, p. 6, 9, 11, 102-105, 116-117. Hluceti, com. Breti, Is., rul/river Siret, - Rpa lui Costache, La atelier, Cnepite - Luca, Rotunda, La Bulgrie, Lutrie, p. 20, 30. Hneti, necropola/necropolis, p. 80, 85. Hrpeti, Is., - Gropul Morii, p. 23, 33-34. Hndreti, Is., p. 14-15, - Zgia II, p. 23, 33. Hrova, ape/waters, p. 47, 64, Vs. - Vrtegu, Movil, p. 43, 60. Heleteni, com. Breti, Is., ape/water, Siret, Bahlui, Vatania, Boscoteni, igncilor, Dup Fntn; Staia de pompare, Tarlaua I.A.S. Ruginoasa, Dealul Cotoc, Bra, tefan Ciubotaru, p. 20, 3031. Hilia, Is., - Dealul Hiliei, La Iaz, Podiul Hilia / Hiliei

Dulceti, Neam county. Dumbrava, Is., ape/waters, p. 42, 59, - Baba Nicula, p. 18, 28. Dumbrveni, Grceni, Vs., - Hrisob, Dealului Chican, p. 45-46, 63. Dumbrveni, jud. Vrancea, p. 135-136, 138-140. Dumasca, Vs., - Izvorul lui Rzlog, Valea Negruului, p. 51, 70. Dumeti, Is., p. 23-24, 34-35, ape/waters: Osnzana, Bahlui, Csua Mare - Lanurile Cogenilor/ Cogenilor Fields, Valea Osnzei/Osnzei Valley, Panta nord-vestic a Dealului Cogeasca/The north western slope of Cogeasca Hill, Vatra satului/The village core, Malul Iazului, p. 19-20, 30. Dumeti, p. 89, 98, 120, com., Vs., ape/waters: Brlad, Hodorani, Gureanca; La est de sat / east of the village, La Troi, La Jitnie, p. 44, 61, 120; - ntre praie, p. 87, 96. Dumetii Vechi, Vs. - Spre linia ferat, p. 44, 61, 120. Dumitretii Glii, Is, - Tarlaua Cimitir, Tarlaua Rachi I-II, p. 24, 34-35. Dunrea - de Jos/Lower Danube, p. 7, 9, 12, 120, 124125, 134. E Elan, ru/water, Vs., p. 41, 45, 48, 58, 62-63, 66, 121, 126. Emil Racovi, fost/former urneti, Vs., - in the west village core/n vatra de vest, p. 42, 59-60. Epureni, Duda-Epureni, Vs., - Bena, p. 44, 61-62, 96, 99. Epureni, com. Vs., ape/waters: Florena, Rpa Galben, Moaca, Brlleti, - La Velni, La Rpa Galben, La confluena prului Moaca/ Confluence point of Moaca brook, oldneti, p. 44, 61-62; aezare Corlteni-Chiinu, p. 103, 106. F Flciu, com., Vs., ape/waters: Prut, Belciugu, Bozia, Copceanca cu Marcu, - Casa de Ap/Water tower, p. 44-45, 62. Fedeti, Vs., - Spre coala veche/Toward the old school, Cetuie, p. 51, 70. Fereti, Vs., ape/waters, p. 42, 52, 59, 71, - Marginea sudic/the south end, p. 52, 71; cuptoare, p. 135, 137-138, 140. Floreti, Vs., - Gdeasa, p. 50, 68. Frasin, Is., p. 21, 31, pru/brook. Frenciugi, p. 21, 31, Vs., - n Cier, La Pode, Vatra Satului/the Village core, p. 25, 35. G Galai, jud., p. 122, 127, 134, 136, 138-139. Gara Roieti, Vs., - La stn, Bucla din dreapta rului/ right loop of River, p. 50-51, 69. Ggeti, com., Vs., ape/waters: Jiglia, Holob, Elan Urdeti, Colub, p. 45, 62-63. Grbeti, Is., - ntre Grle/between brooks, Murgoaiei i/and Humriei, p. 26, 36. Grceni, com., Vs., ape/waters: Racova - Racovia,

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Hill, Hilia Plateau, p. 19, 29. Hlincea, p. 95-96, 99, Is., - Movila lui tefan Vod, p. 18, 28. Hoceni, com., Vs., ape/waters: Barboi cu/with Valea Seac, Bujorul, p. 46, 63-64. Hodorani, pru/brook, p. 44, 61, 87, 96, 120. Holob, ap/ brook, Vs. p. 45, 48-49, 62-63, 67. Horleti, com., Is.,ape/water Horleti, Voineti, Blc, Prul Mare,-Coere II, Viioara, Movila, p. 2021, 31. Horga, Vs. - n centru/in the centre, n vatra de sud-est, p. 44, 61-62. Horinceni, com. Berezeni, Vs., p. 40, 57. Horoiata, pru/brook, Vs., p. 39-41, 56-58. Horpaz, - Dealul Ctmnoaei (Valea Ursului/Ursului Valley)/Ctmnoaei Hill (Ursului Valley), Dealul Nucului /Nucului Hill, p. 21-22, 32. Hui, p. 14-15, 70, 126, ora/city, p. 46, 64. Huanu - Saivan, p. p. 135-140. I Iana, p. 121, 126, com., Vs., ape/waters, Studine, - La vest de sat, west of the village, p. 46, 64. Iai, jud/county p. 7-8, 10, 14-15, 17, 27, 96, 99, 104; mun./city, p. 14-15, 22-24, 26, 32, 34-35, 37, 77, 107, 114, 117, jud. Iai, p. 134, 136. Iai - Nicolina, p. 135-140. Ibneti, Vs., - n marginea de vest a satului/To the west endvillage, p. 38, 55, 121, 126. Igeti, Vs., - Scndureni, marginea de sud-est, Pe mijlocul satului, Iazul lui Stoia, p. 41, 58, 121, 126. Ilfov, p. 143. Ioneni - intirim, jud. Bt., p. 135-140. Ipatele, com. Breti, Is., ape/waters: Stavnic, Durduc, valea Popii/Valley, arin, Petreti, Pe Brlan, p. 21, 31. Isaiia - Satu Nou, jud. Iai, p. 23, 34, 121, 135, 138, 140. Ivancea, R. Moldova, cultura / culture Chiinu Corlteni, p. 103, 106. Ivneti, com., Vs., ape/waters, Racova, Coeti, Tulburea, Broteni, Vs. - Cimeaua lazului, Movila Tbcaru, Ursoaia, Gologofta, n marginea sudic, p. 46, 64. Iveti, p.122,127, com.,Vs.,ape/waters, Tutova, Bisericii, - Ciuciuru lui Ivan, n partea de vest/in the west side, p. 46, 64. Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, jud. Buzu, p. 135-136, 138140. J Jiglia, ap/brook, p. 45, 53, 62-63, 72, Vs., - La nordest/Northeast, Moara Juvar/Juvar Mill, La Pod, p. 51, 70. Jigoreni, ap/brook, p. 26, 37, Is., Cuibul Hultanului, Jigoranca, Grindul Piersicrie, Candachia, p. 25, 36. Jijia, p. 19, 23, 26, 29, 34, 36-37. L Laza, p. 43, 60, com., Vs., ape/waters, Hrova, p. 47, 64. Leti, Vs., - Pe promontoriu/On the promontory, La sud-vest de sat/Southwest of the village, p. 48, 6667, 121, 127. Leoti, Vs., - Dealului Berbeceni, p. 51-52, 70. Lipov, p. 41,58, com.,Vs., ape/waters: Lipov, p. 47, 65, Chioc, Cpuneni, Corbu,- Jitrie, Coada iazului, p. 47, 65. Licov, pru/brook, Vs., p. 41, 47-48, 58, 65-66. Liteni, jud. Suceava, p. 135, 137-138, 140. Lohan, vale/valley, p. 14-15, 42-46, 49, 59, 64, 67, 121, 126. Lozna, p. 95, 99. Lucaeuca, R. Moldova, cultura / culture Chiinu Corlteni, p. 102-103, 105-106. Lunca, Vs., - La obria vii/at the spring of the valley, pe dreapta Studineului/on the right bank of Studine, p. 45, 63. Lunca, ap/brook, p. 42, 59. Lunca Banului, com., Vs., ru/river, Prut, p. 47, 65. Lunca Cetuii, - Zane, p. 18, 28, Valea Luncii, p. 28. Lunca Rate - Vatra satului/the village core II, p. 23-24, 34. Lungani, p. 17, 27, com. Breti, Is., ape/water: Sineti, Goeti cu/with Crbunia, - Dup biseric, La ipot, p. 21, 31. Lupeti, Vs. - Fntna Mare, Pe dreapta confluenei/to the right of the confluence, n spatele morii/behind the mill, Marginea de sud-est/in the southeast end, p. 47, 65, 121, 126. M Marea Neagr / Black Sea, p. 7, 9. Mdrjac, com. Breti, Is., p. 27, 37. Mtsaru, p. 91, 98. Mluteni, com., Vs., ape/waters: Horincea, Leaua, Recea, Zoieana, Licov, the village brook, - La intrarea estic/at the east entrance, Grdinrie, Leaua, p. 47, 65, 121, 126. Mnstirea, Vs., p. 41, 59, - La sud de sat/south of the village, Pe stnga Licovului/to the left of Licov, p. 47, 65. Mnjeti, - Budi - Corn, p. 22, 33. Mndreti, R. Moldova, cultura / culture Chiinu Corlteni, p. 103, 106. Mnzai, Vs., - Marginea de sud-vest/Southwest end, p. 38, 55; Mnzai - Interfluviu, p. 121. Mnzteti, Vs., - Marginea estic/the east end, p. 47, 65. Micleti, com., Vs., ape/waters: Racul, Fundtura, Fundtura, p. 47, 65. Micleti, Banca, Vs., -La obria vii Vlcioaia/ Vlcioaia valley, p. 39-40, 56-57. Mihail Koglniceanu, p.120, Vs., - Lng Iaz/Near the pond, La sud-est de sat, Southeast of the village, p. 38-39, 55-56. Mihleni, necropola/necropolis, p. 80, 85. Miorcani, necropola/necropolis, p. 80, 85. Mirceti, p. 20, 30, - Silite, p. 51, 70. Mironeasa, p. 25, 36, com. Breti, Is., ape/water: Ursia, cu/with Brusturei, - Cotul Lanului - Pe Moie, p. 21, 32.

162

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites


Olteneti, com., Vs., ape/waters: Lohan, Turchii, Crasna, - n spatele grii/Behind the railway station, p. 49, 67, 121, 126. Orlandovtzy, Bulgaria, p. 123, 127. Osoi, Is., p. 21, 31, - Terasa Prutului, Marginea de sudest a satului, Tarlaua Mare, Vatra satului I, Ferma zootehnic nr. 1, Puntea Tincului, Vadul Bobului, p. 18-19, 28-29. Ostrovul Banului, p. 143. Oeti, com. Vs., ape/waters: Buda, Fundul Negrea; - La sud de sat/South of the village, p. 49, 68. Oeleni, com. Breti, Is., ape/waters Arinoasa, Coasta Agudului, Mare, Maxineti; Beizadea I-II, Alburia - Fntna lui Calistru, Maxineti, p. 23, 33. Oeleni, Vs. - interfluviu, Lng coal/Near the school, p. 46, 63-64. P Panciu, p. 132. Parpania, Vs., - n nord-est/in the north-east, Dealul Chetru/Chetru hill, p. 49, 67. Pdureni, fos/former Crligai, com. Vs., ape/waters: Srata cu Prul Mare, - n vatra satului/In the village core, n vatra de nord-vest/In the northwest village core, p. 49, 68. Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi, p. 134, 136, 138-140. Pueti - Biserica veche I i II / Old Church I and II, p. 19-20, 30. Phna, Vs., - Capul Dealului, p. 49, 67. Phneti, Vs., - Pe panta medie a Dealului Henciu/On the middle slope of Henciu Hill, La est-sud-est de sa/East-southeast of the village p. 38-39, 55-56, 120. Perieni, com., Vs., ape/waters: Tutova, Prul Crng, Rocani Valley, - Pe stnga oselei spre Pogana/On the left side of the road to Pogana, p. 49, 68. Perioada de tranziie de la eneolitic la bronz - bronz timpuriu/Eneolithic to Bronze Age Transition Period - Early Bronze Age, p. 9-11, 75-76, 81-82, 116-117. Perioada de trecere la evul mediu, p. 7, Period of Transition to the Middle Ages, p. 10. Petruha, R. Moldova, cultura / culture Chiinu Corlteni p. 103, 106. Petrueni, R. Moldova, cultura / culture Chiinu Corlteni p. 103, 105. Piatra Neam - Btca Doamnei, p. 134, 137, 139-140. Piatra Neam - Drmneti pe Cuejdi, p. 135, 137, 139140. Pietrosu, pru, brook, p. 19, 26, 30, 38, 42, 59. Piroboridava, p. 134. Platourile Dolheti Buneti / Dolheti Buneti Plateaus, p. 17, 27, 120. Platourile Tansa Repedea / Tansa Repedea Plateaus, p. 17, 27, 120. Plopoasa, ap/water, p. 41, 58, Vs., - Moman, p. 52, 7071. Podiul, Masivul, Brlad / Brlad Plateau, p. 5, 7-8, 1011, 13-15, 38, 55, 87, 96, 119-120, 125-126.

Mironeti Giurgiu, p. 143. Miroslava, com. Breti, Is., ape/waters, sud de/ south of Bahlui, cu/with Valea Ursului, Boaghea, Ezreni, Mare, Corne-Locii/brooks, - La Bulgrii, Dealul Miroslava II, Ferma Miroslava - Dealul Hurpuz, p. 21, 32. Mirosloveti, com. Breti, Is, ape/River Moldova, Ciohoreanca / Valley, - Dealul Boului, p. 22, 33. Moesia Inferior, provincie roman/Roman provinces, p. 7, 10. Mogoeti, p. 14-15, com. Breti, Is., ape/brook, Prloagele, - Dealul intirim, Pe Grui, Dealul Bului, Dealul anta, Fntna lui Onu (Oni), p. 22, 33. Mogoeti Siret, com. Breti, Is, pru/brook Gropi; Dealul Morii - Izvoare/Morii Hill - Izvoare, Dealul anta, Dealul Budului, Fntna lui Onu (Oni), p. 23, 33. Moldova / Moldavia: p. 7-12, 14-15, 22, 75, 81, 87, 96, 119-120, 102, 105, 124, 128. Mona, Is., p. 27, 37, ap/water, p. 19-20, 29-30. Movileni, p. 24, 25. Muncelu de Sus, - La ipot, anul Anticar, Pe groap, anul Anticar, La ipot, Pe groap sau La Gropi, p. 23, 33. Munteni de Jos, com., Vs., ape/waters: Brlad, Crasna, p. 48, 66. Murgeni, com., Vs., p. 2, 44, 54, 62, 73, 121-123, 127, ape/waters: Oia, Elanul-Ursoaia, Srata, Bujorni, Leaua, Licov, - Bbneaa, spre imobilul CFR/Towards the CFR building, Gura Bujoreni, Iancobescu, Valea Trnii/Trnii Valley, La est de Murgeni/east of Murgeni, tiubeeni, Ilioaia, p. 48, 66. Muzeul Judeean tefan cel Mare Vaslui / tefan cel Mare History Museum of Vaslui county, p. 9, 11, 116-118. Muzeul Vasile Prvan Brlad / Vasile Prvan Museum of Brlad, p. 75, 81. N Neam, jud./county, p. 14-15, 23, 33, 95, 98-99, 123, 127, 135-136. Negreti, ora/town, p. 25-26, 36-37, 44, 52-53, 61, 7172, Vs., ape/waters: Brlad, Stavnic, - ignie, Velna, La lutrie, Pe arin, p. 49, 67; La cimitir, p. 120. Negreti, R. Moldova, cultura / culture Chiinu Corlteni, p. 103, 105. Nicolina, ap/waters, p. 17-18, 27-28, 33, es / meadow, p. 22, 32. Nistru, mijlociu: Dniester, p. 7, 9-10, 105, 124, 128. Nipru, p. 124, 128. O Obreni, Vs., - Lingurari, Dealul Corului/Corului hill, Grdina CAP/at the CAP garden, p. 53, 72, 121, 126. Obrijeni, Is., p. 24, 35. Ocnia, jud. Vlcea, p. 121, 123, 127.

163
Podiul Central Moldovenesc-Masiv/Central Moldavian Plateau, p. 5, 7, 10, 14-17, 27, 38, 87, 96, 99, 107, 114, 120, 126. Podiul Moldovei / Moldavian Plateau, p. 14-15, 27, 120, 126. Podiul Sarmatic / Sarmatic Plateau, p. 14-15. Podiul Sucevei / Plateau of Suceava, p. 7, 10. Podolenii de Jos - Sub Voloac, p. 19, 29. Podul Iloaiei - esul Trgului, p. 107, 114. Podu Pietri, Vs., - Hrtop, terasa inferioar, p. 49-50, 68. Pogana, com., Vs., ape/waters: Tutova cu/with Crjoani, Lutria, p. 49-50, 68. Pogoneti, - n jurul fostelor grajduri/in the area of the former stables, La Punte, n marginea de vest/In the west end, La nord-nord-est/To the northnortheast, p. 46, 64; necropol, p. 8-11, 74-75, 7881, 84-86, 122, 127. Poiana, Is, - La Prlita, p. 24, 34-35. Poiana Mnstirii, Is - Lanul Hambarul/Hambarul Hill, p. 26, 36. Poiana Morii, com. Costuleni, Is. - Stna Veche, p. 19, 29. Poiana - Pe Varni, Dulceti, p. 95, 98-99, 123, 127. Poiana - Cetate, Tecuci, p. 122, 127, 134, 137, 139-140. Poiana - Silite, jud. Neam, p. 134, 137, 139-140. Poieneti, com., Vs., ape/waters: Simila, Racova, Mgura Dealul Teilor, p. 120, 135-140, ipotul lui Stan, p. 50, 68. Polocin, Vs. - Islaz, p. 8, 10-11, 76. Popeni, com. Ggeti, Vs. - Pe dreapta Elanului/on the right bank of Elan, La est de sat/east of the village, p. 45, 62. Popeni, Vs., - Ghenetii Vechi, Spre coala general/ toward the school, Promontoriu/on the romontory, p. 54, 73. Popeti, com., 20, 24, 30, 35, Is. ape/waters: Sineti, Iugani, Hlpetii, Dudu, p. 23, 33. Popeti, Micleti, Vs. - Pe botul dealului/On the hill crest, p. 47, 65-66. Popeti, Dragomireti, Vs., ape/waters, - Nastac, intirim, p. 43, 61. Pota-Elan, Vs. - Salcmii lui Huiu/Huius acacias, p. 5354, 72-73. Priscani, com. Breti, Is., p. 27, 37. Prut ru/river, p. 7, 9-10, 12, 14-18, 20, 26, 28, 30, 36, 40, 44, 47, 51-52, 57, 62, 65, 69, 71, 96, 99, 104-106, 119, 121, 124-126, 128, 135. Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, R. Moldova, p. 133, 135, 137, 140. Puieti, com., Vs., ape/waters: Tutova, Iezerul, Cociuba, Fulgul, p. 50, 68. Pungeti, p. 45, 63, Vs., ape/waters: Racova cu/with Speia, Lipova, - n jurul priaului/In the brook area, Dealul Btrna/Btrna Hill, Dealului Recea/Recea Hill, p. 50, 68. R Rateul Cuzei, Vs., - Halta CFR/Railway station, p. 50, 69. Rctu, jud. Bacu, p. 122, 127. Rducneni, com. Breti, Is., ape/waters: Jijia, Bohotin, Cozia, Pgubaul, Corbului, Bazga - La Ciread, Mitoc, Vatra satului/The village core, Dealul Beleaga I/Beleaga hill I, Grdina lui Marcoci/Marcocis garden, Brigada silvic/The forest administration, p. 23, 34, 120-121. Rdueti, Vs., - Hrboanca, La nord de coal/North of the school, p. 43, 60. Rzboieni, Is., - Tarlaua Dubu/Dubu Lot, p. 26, 37. Rnceni, Vs., - n partea sudic a vetrei/Remains of vessels, p. 40-41, 57-58. Rnzeti, Vs., - Pe promontoriu, Pe terasa joas/On the low terrace, La Gura Mihlceni, p. 44-45, 62. Rebricea, com., Vs., ape/waters: Rebricea, p. 23-24, 3435, 53, 72, Bolai, Rateul Cuzei, - n spatele colii/behind the school, n marginea estic/In the east end, p. 50, 69. Recea, Vs., deal, p. 21-22, iaz, p. 24, 31-32, 34, apa, p. 42, 44, 46-47, 51, 59, 61, 64-65, 70, vale/valley, p. 44, 61, 66. R. Moldova, p. 133, 135. Roman, ora, Vs., p. 44, 61. Roieti, com., Vs., waters: Idrici, Brlad, Ciunta, coal/School..., p. 50, 69. Ruginoasa, p. 14-15 aua / Saddle, pru/brook, p. 43, 60-61, 120. S Sagna Stnia, p. 14-15. Sasova, Vs., - n jurul izvoarelor/In the area of the springs, p. 50, 69. Satu Nou, cheia, p. 21, 31, 53, 57, 72, Vs., - esul lui tefan, Promoroace - Sud, Bobeic, p. 25, 35-36. Satu Nou, Schitu Duca, La sud-est de sat/southeast of the village, p. 24, 34-35. Slcioara, Vs., - n apropierea podului/near the bridge, p. 39-40, 56-57. Srata, ap/brook, p. 40-41, 48, 57-58, 66, pod/mill, p. 40, 57, cu/with Prul Mare, p. 49, 68, Fereti, p. 52, 71, cmpia/valley Srata Prut, p. 121, 126. Sreni, ap/brooks, 41, 58, Vs., - n faa colii/in front of the school, n marginea de est/in the east end, p. 48, 66-67, 121, 127. Sntana de Mure Cerneahov, complex cultural: p. 7, 8, 10, 43, 60, 74-75, 80, 82, 120, 123. Srbi, Vs., - Satul Nou, n partea de sud-vest/in the southwest side, p. 39-40, 56-57. Srca - Pe linia ferat, jud. Iai, p. 135-136, 137, 139140. Scnteia, com. Breti, Is., ape/waters: Rebricea, Rebricea Seac, Ruca, Din sus de Moraru, Vatra satului I/the village core I, p. 23-24, 34. Schineni, p. 47, 65, Vs., - La Hor, p. 48-49, 66-67, 121, 127. Schitu Duca, com. Breti, Is., p. 8, - Prlita, p. 8, 24, 3435. Scopoeni, Is., Dealul Checului, La Coere, p. 20-21, 31. Secuia, Vs., - n marginea de vest/in the west end, p. 48, 66.

164

Cunoaterea vechilor aezri rurale / The knowledge ancient rural sites


uletea, com., Vs., p. 40, 57, ape/waters: uletea, Glodu Valley, - ipote, Spre sud de ipote/southwards or ipote, p. 51, 70. uletea - Fedeti, p. 135, 137-138, 140. Tanacu, com., Vs., ape/waters: Vaslui, Burghiriul, Jitari, esul iganilor, n zona nordic/in the north area, n jurul colii generale/around the school, p. 51, 70. Tansa, com. Breti, Is., ape/waters: Tansa, Gureni, Jigoreni, Glodeni, - Dealul Suhuleului/ Suhule Hill, p. 25, 36. Tcuta, com., Vs., ape/waters: Valea Larg, Recea, - La Saivane, p. 51, 70. Ttrni, com., Vs., ape/waters: Crasna, - Magazinului stesc/the village shop, p. 52, 70, 121, 126. Trgu Frumos, sat, p. 8, necropol, p. 17, 24, 28, 35. Trpeti, Bt., - Rpa lui Bodai, p. 103, 105. Trzii, Vs. - n vatr/in the village core, p. 49, 67. Tecuci, p. 122, 127. Tibiscum, p. 143. Todireti, com., Vs., ape/waters: Brlad, acov, Vlnicelul, - Spre coala general/towards the school, n vatr/in the village core, Sediul IAS/the IAS quarters, Marginea de nord-nord-est/in the north-northeast end, La Canton, p. 52, 70-71. Tometi, p. 14-15, com. Breti, Is., ape/waters: Jijiei n Bahlui, Chicera, p. 26, 36, 134, 138, 140. Toporti, Vs., - Borcutul Toportilor, n jurul grajdurilor/in the area of the stables, p. 50, 68-69. Trestiana, Vs., - La marginea pdurii/at the forest end, p. 46, 63. Trohan, Vs., - Est i sud-est/The east and southeast, Pe stnga Racovei/On the left bank of Racova, p. 4546, 63. Trueti - uguieta, p. 103, 105. Trueti - Pe Cuha, p. 135-140. Tungujei - Silitea Marginii, Gorgana, Velnia, p. 26, 37. Tupilai, Vs., - n centru/in the centre, in the bridge area/n jurul podului, p. 45, 62-63. Tunseti, Vs., - La Moar, p. 42, 59. Turnu Severin - Ostrovul imian, p. 143. Turnu Severin - Drobeta, p. 143. Tutova, com., Vs., ape/waters, p. 43, 46-47, 49-50, 53, 61, 64, 68, 72, Brlad, Hobana, p. 52, 71. ibana, com. Breti, Is., ape acov, ibana, Veja, Armii, - Dup Vie, p. 26, 36. ibneti, p. 26-36, com. Breti, Is., ape/waters: acov, Jigoranca, Glodeni, Gureanca, Durceasca, prul/brooks Armii; Pe deal la Brnzei, La Sud de sat/south the village, aezare la Ciriteii Mari, p. 8, necropola, p. 26, 37. ibnetii Buhlii, Vs., - n jurul colii/Around the school, Pe botul dealului/On the hill crest, p. 40, 57. ifu, Vs., - Scripneti, p. 39-40, 56. ifeti - La Grigoreti, p. 135, 138-140. iganca, pru/brook, iganului valea/valley, p. 17, 27. ucani, Vs., p. 48, 67, - n jurul colii/in the area of the school, La nvtorul Cruceanu/at school teacher

Silitea, com. Iana, pe Studine, Vs. - La vest de sat, p. 46, 64, 121, 126. Silitea, Todireti, Vs., - Corlate, p. 52, 70-71. Silitea cheii, Suceava, p. 122. Sineti, com., Is., p. 14-15, 24, 35, ape/waters: Sineti, p. 21, 23, 31, 33, acov, Mndroaia, Gmboasa; Coasta Mrgineanu, Balta la Cosndache, p. 24, 35. Sipeni, p. 41, 58, Vs., - n dreapta ipotelor/To the right of ipotele, Pe cursul inferior/On the lower river course, Rpa Frasinului, La Colonel, p. 41, 58, 121, 126. Siret ru/river, p. 7, 9-10, 12, 14-15, 17-18, 20, 24, 27-28, 30-31, 35, 120-121, 124, 126, 128. Slveni - Castrul roman, p. 143. Slobozia Mgurii, R. Moldova, cultura / culture Chiinu Corlteni, p. 103, 105. Soleti, com., Vs., ape/waters: Vaslui, Blai, p. 51, 69. Stnileti, com., Vs., ape/waters: Prut, - La est de sat/east of the village, p. 51, 69. Stnca - Marginea de sud-est a satului, La nord de sat, n es/The southeast end of and North of the village, p. 19, 29. Stoicani - Poarta arinii, p. 133-134, 136-137. Stoieti, Vs., - n punctul Rdule/Rdule point, pe dealul Rduleti/Rduelti hill, n vatra satului/in the village core, p. 39-40, 56-57. Stolniceni-Prjescu, com. Breti, Is., ape/crossed by River Siret, Mnstirea, Prului, La trei Deci, Ftna lui Tanasache, p. 24, 35. Strmtura Mitoc, Vs., - la circa 2 km nord/2 km north, Scripneti, p. 40, 56. Strunga, p. 14-15, com. Breti, Is., ape/waters: Mihaili, Cireului Frceni, Strunga, Bahna, - Dealul Drmoxa/ Drmoxa Hill, Calda, p. 24, 35. Stuhule, Vs. - n jurul podului//Around the bridge, p. 4041, 57-58. Suceava - Drumul Naional, p. 95. 99, 122. Suceava, jud., p. 132-133. Sucidava Celeiu, p. 143. Suhule, Is., - Dealul Suhuleului/Suhule Hill, p. 25-26, 36, 87, 96. cheia, Is., com. Al. I. Cuza - La Izvoare, p. 17, 27. cheia, Is., p. 31-32, 36, ape/waters: Stavnic, cu/with Izvoru Mare, Humria, Vicneasa, Rebricei, Gunoasa, Valea Rea, - Cierul lui Ignat, Floreti, Muncelu, p. 25, 35-36. cheia - Silite, p. 135, 137-140. erbeti - Fundtura I i II, p. 18, 28. erboteti, Vs., - Marginea de sud-est/southeast end of the village, p. 51, 69. Silitea - Muncelu, p. 132, 135-136, 140. oprleni, Vs., ap/water, p. 38-39, 55-56, 120, - Pe interfluviu/interfluvium, p. 43-44, 61. tefan cel Mare, com., Vs., ape/waters: Brlad, - n jurul izvoarelor/in the area of the springs, p. 51, 69. tefan cel Mare - Dealul Viorica, p. 135-136, 138-139, 140.

165
Cruceanu, p. 47, 65. uora, com. Breti, Is., ape/waters: Prut River, Jijia River; - La ru, Confluena Jijia-Bahlui I-III, p. 26, 37. U Unceti, Vs., pru/brook, - La Pot, p. 54, 73. Uricani, Is., - Dealul Cimitirului, p. 21-22, 32. Urdeti, pru/brook, p. 45, 62, Vs. - Pelmean, p. 53, 72. Urlai, Vs., - Siliteni, p. 43, 60- 61. Ursoaia, Vs., pru/brook, p. 48, 66. V Valea Grecului, Vs. - pe panta estic a vii/On the east side of the valley, p. 44, 61. Valea Lupului, Vs. - n marginea nord-estic/in the northeastern side, p. 45, 63. Valea Mare, ape/waters, p. 5, 8, 11, Vs., - La Doroftei, p. 87-94, 96-99. Valea Morii / Morii Valley, p. 14-15. Valea Plopii, Vs. - Pe botul dealului/ on the hill crest, p. 52, 70-71. Valea Rea, ap/water, p. 25, 35. Valea Seac, ap/water, p. 41, 46, 58, 63. Valea Ursului, Is., ap/water, - La nord de sat/North of the village, p. 21-22, 32-33 Vaslui, jud./county, p. 5-8, 10-11, 14-15, 19, 28, 30, 43, 57, 78, 80-87, 89, 8, 101, 118. Vaslui, mun./city, 9, 11, 14-15, 19, 25, 30, 36, 50, 53-54, 68, 71, 73, 118-120, 133, ape/wtters: Racova, Vaslui, p. 18, 44, 53, 55, 61, 71-73, Brlad, Terasa din faa spitalului/The terrace in front of the hospital, n faa fabricii de mobil/In front of the furniture factory, n faa statuii/In front of the statue, Drghici, Pe stnga vechiului curs, p. 54, 73. Vdastra, Vdastra II, comunitatea/community p. 107, 114. Vdeni, Vs. - La Stn, Gura Holob, Casa de Ap/Water Tower, p. 48-49, p. 66-67, 121, 127. Vleni, com. ibneti, Is., - Silitea, p. 27, 38-39. Vleni, com., Vs., ape/waters, Vasluiul-Srata Feretilor, p. 52, 71. Vleni, fost/former chiopeni, com. Pdureni, Vs., Grne, p. 49, 68. Vleni - La Moar, jud. Vs., p. 132, 134-136. Vetrioaia, com., Vs., ape/waters: Prut, - cheia, La Stni, La ipot, Pojorni, n jurul grdinilor/in the area of the gardens, La Cram, p. 52-53, 71. Viioara, p. 40, 57, com.,Vs., ape/waters: Brlad, Dodeti, Jiglia, - La Holban, spre coal/toward the school, p. 53, 72. Viltoteti, Vs. - Vatra de sud-est/the southeast village core, p. 53, 72. Vinderei, com., Vs., ape/waters: Jrav, - Docneasa, p. 53, 72. Vineeti, Vs., - La confluena vii Turchii/at the confluence of Turchii valley, Pe stnga Crasnei/on the left side of Crasna, p. 49, 67-68. Vladia, Vs. - La vest de sat/west of the village, p. 43, 61. Vldiceni, Is., - Schitul Vldiceni, p. 26, 36. Voetin - La curte, p. 136-137. Volintireti, Is., - Marginea de nord a satului, Movila lui tefan cel Mare, The northern end of the village, p. 17, 27. Voineti, p. 14-15, com. Breti, Is., ape/waters: Voineti, p. 20, 22, 26, 31, 33, 37, Stavnic cu/with Stvnicel, - Pe Chiclui, Grla Pdurarului, p. 26, 37. Voineti, com., Vs., ape/waters: Tutova, prul Bulbuceni, Mrului, Iezerul, p. 53, 72. Vocoteti, Is., - La vest de coal, La vest de coal, p. 26-27, 37. Volynia, p. 124, 128. Vorniceni - Pod Ibneasa, jud. Botoani, p. 133-136. Vrancea, jud., p. 135, 137-138, 140. Vultureti, com., Vs., ape/waters: Rebricea, Brladul, Marginea de sud/south end, Prelungirea dealului/the hill extension, p. 53, 72. Vutcani, com., Vs., ape/waters: Vutcani, - Pe stnga prului/On the left side of the brook, n jurul bisericii/Around the church, La Movili, p. 53-54, 72-73. Z Zicana, R. Moldova, cultura / culture Chiinu Corlteni p. 103, 106. Zpodeni, com., Vs., ape/waters: Telejna, Brlad, Unceti, - n marginea de sud-vest/In the southwest end, Capul Dealului The hill crest, p. 54, 73. Zeletin, ru/rivers p. 14-15. Zorleni, com., Vs., ape/waters: Brlad, Zorleni, p. 54, 73, Simila, - Ferma Fntnele/Fntnele farmyard, p. 122, 127, La Plopi, Pe dreapta prului/on the right of the brook, n aval/downstream, Pe terasa joasa/On the low terrace, p. 54, 73. Zorleni - Fntnele, jud. Vs., p. 122, 135-137, 139-140.