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NDRUMAR PENTRU NVAREA LIMBII ENGLEZE

PREFA

Prezentul ndrumar trateaz punctele eseniale ale gramaticii limbii engleze, fiind un ghid, un manual indispensabil celor care-i propun s studieze limba englez. n acelai timp, este important de precizat c nu este dect un ajutor n pregtirea dumneavoastr pentru nvarea limbii engleze.

A B R E VI E R I

Vb. S Aux. P.T. Wh. P.P. ll e.g. obj.


N. D.

Ac. G.

= verb; = subiect; = auxiliar; = Past Tense; = where (unde); who ( cine); = forma a treia a verbului de conjugat; = will; shall; = exemplu; = obiect; = Nominativ; = Dativ; = Acuzativ; = Genitiv;

CUPRINS GRAMATIC
1.VERBUL..9 -10;
a) b) c) d) e)

Definiie; Clasificare; Sensul lexical al verbelor; Funcia sintactic a verbelor; Vocabular;

2.SUBSTANTIVUL.....11- 18;
a) b)

c) d) e)

Definiie; Nr. substantivelor - Substantive individuale; - Substantive unice; - Substantive colective; Diferene de sens determinate de schimbarea numrului ; Genul substantivelor; Vocabular;

3. TIMPUL19;
a) b) c)

Definiie; Analiza timpului; Sistemul de timpuri al limbii engleze;

4. PREZENTUL SIMPLU............................................20-23;
a) b)

c) d)

Definiie; Forma: - afirmativ; - negativ; - interogativ; ntrebuinare; Vocabular;

5.PREZENTUL CONTINUU..........................................24-26; a) Formare; b) ntrebuinare;

c) Cazuri particulare (verbe care folosite la timpul Prezent Continuu au alt neles) ; d) Exerciii; RECAPITULARE27-34; 6. IMPERATIVUL..35-36;
a) b)

Persoana a II a singular- ntrebuinare; Persoana I plural- ntrebuinare;

7.TIMPUL TRECUT SIMPLU37-40;


a) Definiie; b) Form; c) ntrebuinare; d) Traducerea Timpului

Trecut Simplu;

8. TIMPUL TRECUT CONTINUU .41-44;


a) Formare; b)ntrebuinare; c) Exerciii;

9. TIMPUL PREZENT PERFECT45-47;


a) b) c)

Definiie; ntrebuiare ; Vocabular ;

10.TIMPUL PREZENT PERFECT CONTINUU48-52 ;


a) b) c) d)

Form; ntrebuinare; Exerciii; Vocabular;

11. TIMP - MAI MULT CA PERFECTUL53-54;


a) b) c) d)

Definiie ; Alctuire ; ntrebuinare ; Vocabular ;

12.TIMP MAI MULT CA PERFECTUL CONTINUU55-59 ;


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a) b) c) d) e)

Definiie ; ntrebuinare ; For/Since/Ago ; Exerciii; Vocabular ;

13.VERBELE MODALE60-69;
a) b) c) d)

Formare; Verbele modale( must- to have to,can- to be able to, may, need, will, would, shall, ought to); Vocabular; Exerciii;

14. VIITORUL SIMPLU 70-72;


a) b) c)

Definiie; Form; ntrebuinare;

15. VIITORUL CONTINUU73-76;


a) b)

ntrebuinare; Vocabular;

16. DIATEZA PASIV I ACTIV77-81; Alctuire; Reguli; c) Exerciii; d) Vocabular;


a) b)

17.ARTICOLUL82-92;
a) b) c) d) e) d)

Definiie; Form; Poziie; Exerciii; Vocabular, Exerciii;

18.PERSOANA I NUMRUL 93; d) Definiie; 19.ADJECTIVUL94-109;


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a) b)

Definiie; Adjectivul nehotrt; - Definiie; - Form; - ntrebuinare; Exerciii; Vocabular; Comparativul; Vocabular; Superlativul ;

c) d) e) f) g)

20. NUMERALUL.110-118; Definiie; Numeralul cardinal: - Forma numeralului cardinal; - ntrebuinare; c) Numeralul ordinal : - Definiie; - Form; - ntrebuinare; d)Numeralul multiplicativ; e) Numeralul adverbial; f) Exerciii;
a) b)

21. PRONUMELE119-123;
a) b) c) d) e)

Definiie; Pronumele personal; Pronumele reflexiv; Pronume posesiv; Pronume interogativ;

22. PROPOZIIA CONDIIONAL IF124-125; 23.CORECTAREA EXERCIIILOR126-135; 24. LEXIC..136-147; 25. ANEXE140-159 26. VERBELE NEREGULATE TABEL..159-164

G R A M A T I C

VERBUL THE VERB


a)

Definiie:

Verbul este partea de vorbire care :


exprim aciuni, procese sau stri; are categorii gramaticale de persoan i numr comune cu alte pri de vorbire i categoriile specifice de timp, mod, aspect i diatez; ndeplinete funcia sintactic de predicat;

b) Clasificare Verbele pot fi clasificate din punct de vedere al structurii morfologice sau din punct de vedere al sensului lexical al funciei. Din punct de vedere al structurii morfologice, verbele pot fi clasificate n:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

verbe simple : stay; rest; verbe compuse: spotlight; verbe cu particul adverbial: put on, put off, put away; verbe cu prepoziie obligatorie: wait for, listen to; locuiuni verbale: take care off;

c) Sensul lexical al verbelor Verbele n limba englez se mpart n: verbe cu sens lexical plin, numite de obicei verbe noionale; b) verbe cu sens lexical redus, care sunt folosite mai mult cu funcii gramaticale. n clasa verbelor cu sens lexical redus intr verbele copulative, verbele auxiliare i verbele modale.
a) d) -

Funcia sintactic a verbelor: verbele cu sens lexical plin sunt predicative, adic pot forma singure
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predicatul unei propoziii; - verbele cu sens lexical redus sunt nepredicative, au nevoie de o complinire (verb noional, nume predictiv) pentru a deveni predicate; Verbele cu sens lexical redus se mpart n:
a.

verbe copulative be i appear, seem, look, turn, become, get, grow, remain,to stay etc. eg.: He seems tired. Pare obosit.

to be = a fi; to seem = a prea; a da impresia; to look = a privi; to turn = a ntoarce, a nvrti; - to become = a deveni; - to get = a obine;a dobndi; - to grow = a crete; - to remain = a rmne;a sta, a continua; - to stay = a sta;
-

b. verbe auxilaire - be/ have/shall-should, will-would, may-might, can-could,do); c.verbe modale sau semiauxiliare can/could, must, have to, may/ might, shall/should /will /would, ought to, etc verbe care arat atitudinea vorbitorului fa de enun: necesitate: You must return before nightfall. Trebuie s te ntorci nainte de cderea nopii.

posibilitate: It might rain tomorrow. S-ar putea s plou mine.

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SUBSTANTIVUL -THE NOUN


a)

Definiie

Substantivul denumete obiecte ( fiine, lucruri, noiuni abstracte). El are un neles deplin sau de sine stttor). Din punct de vedere morfologic, mpreun cu un determinant, el este o parte de vorbire principal (alturi de verb). Substantivul are numr:

a child copil; children copii;

gen:

man brbat; woman- femeie; the boy biatul; the boys al biatului;

caz:

b)Numrul substantivelor Number of Nouns 1. SUBSTANTIVELE INDIVIDUALE INDIVIDUAL NOUNS


o

Substantivele individuale au att numr de singular ct i numr

plural. Cu foarte puine excepii, forma de plural a substantivelor individuale difer de cea a singularului:
-

cele mai multe substantive individuale fac pluralul n s : books (cri); caps (epci); locks(zvoare);
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eg.: book ( carte) cap (apc) lock(zvor)

mouth(gur) mouths(guri); rose(trandafir) roses (trandafiri); badge(semn, nsemn) badges(semne);


-

substantivele n ch-sh-(s)s,- x sau zz fac pluralul n es: peaches(piersici); bushes (tufe); glasses(pahare); boxes(cutii);

eg.: peach (piersic) bush(tuf) glass(pahar) box(cutie)


-

substantivele n y precedat de o consoan formeaz pluralul prin transformarea lui-y n i i adugarea terminaiei es. eg.: fly( musc) city(ora)
-

flies (mute); cities(orae);

substantivele n f i fe primesc terminaia (e)s cu transformarea lui f n v: leaves (frunze); wolves(lupi); lives(viei);

eg.: leaf( frunz) wolf(lup) life(via)

Excepii
-

roof (acoperi) handkerchief(batist) wharf(chei)

roofs (acoperiuri); handkerchiefs(batiste); wharf (chei);/wharves;

substantivele terminate n o precedat de o consoan primesc es,-oes: - tomatoes( roii); - potatoes(cartofi);

eg.: tomato(roie) potato(cartof)

Excepie fac cteva substantive de origine italian:

eg.:
-

piano(pian) pianos(piane).
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Pluralele neregulate (pstrate din engleza veche):


child (copil) man (om,brbat) woman (femeie) goose (gsc) mouse (oarece) tooth (dinte) ox (bou) die (zar) foot (picior)

- children; - men; - women; - geese; - mice; - teeth; - oxen; - dice; - feet;

Substantivele compuse exprimate n scris printr-un singur cuvnt formeaz pluralul n conformitate cu regulile generale: eg.: schoolboy(colar) cameraman(fotograf) schoolboys; cameramen;

!!!!Atunci cnd un substantiv compus este exprimat n scris prin dou sau mai multe cuvinte (legate sau nu prin liniu de unire) cuvntul (substantivul) de baz , cel care are sensul cel mai general, primete semnul pluralului: eg.: brother-in-law (cumnat) passer-by(trector) brothers-in law; passers-by;

Dac prima parte a unui substantiv compus este exprimat prin cuvintele man sau woman, ambele substantive componente primesc semnul pluralului: eg.: man-servant men- servants;

Dac nici unul din elementele componente ale unui substantiv compus nu este substantiv, pluralul se formeaz prin adugarea unui- s la ultimul cuvnt: eg.: forget-me -not (nu m uita) - forget-me-nots;

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O varietate a substantivelor individuale o constituie aa- numitele substantive individuale-defective DEFECTIVE INDIVIDUAL NOUNS. Ele nu au dect o form de plural, dar se pot numra prin asociere cu un numerativ: eg. : a pair of a suit of o pereche; un costum de ;

n aceast categorie sunt cuprinse:


a)

unele denumiri de instrumente i unelte: compas (a pair(s)of compasses-un compas, dou compasuri; binoclu (three pair(s) of binoculars; ochelari; foarfece;

- compasses
-

binoculars glasses scissors

b)unele denumiri de articole vestimentare:


-

trousers riding breeches clothes

- pantaloni; - pantaloni de cltorie; -haine (a suit of clothes- un costum de haine);

Substantivele individual-defective se acord cu verbul la plural;

2.

SUBSTANTIVE UNICE -

UNIQUE NOUNS

Substantivele unice nu sunt privite ca fcnd parte dintr-o clas de obiecte i, n consecin , nu pot fi pluralizate, nici generalizate:
-

the sun the earth the moon the north the south

soarele; pmntul; luna; nordul; sudul;


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the east the west nature paradise hell

estul; vestul; natura; paradisul; iadul;

Sunt unice substantivele nume de materie, care nu au dect form de singular i nu se pot numra: sugar - steel - maize - chicken - water
-

zahr; oel; porumb; pui, carne de pui; ap;

Unele substantive se pot folosi la i la plural, fie pentru a indica varieti: - steel oeluri, varieti de oel; - salts sruri; fie pentru a se sublinia cantitatea, extinderea,etc.: - snows zpezi; - waters ape; 3)SUBSTANTIVE COLECTIVE COLECTIVE NOUNS

Substantivele colective propriu-zise, dei au form de singular, exprim ideea de plural, vorbitorul accentund nu noiunea respectiv n ntregul ei , ci elementele omogene alctuitoare (fiine, exclusiv oameni). Formal, aceasta reiese din folosirea verbului la plural :
-

crew family government team mankind public audience people

- echipaj; - familie; - guvern; - echip; - omenire; - public; - audien, public, spectatori; - popor;
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eg.: the crew were on the deck echipajul era pe punte; ->.. numai forma de plural al verbului l transform ntr-un substantiv colectiv; Substantivele pluralitii (Nouns of Multitude) Substantivele pluralitii sunt tot substantive colective, ns se deosebesc de cele propriu-zise prin aceea c se folosesc cu verbul i determinanii exclusiv la plural:
-

people folk horse cattle

- oameni, lume; - oameni, lume; - cavalerie; - vite;

eg.: there were many people there era mult lume acolo; Substantivele individuale ale pluralitii( Individual Nouns of Multitude) pot fi folosite fie ca substantive individuale, fie ca substantive ale pluralitii:
-

fish truot deer sheep head pair

- pete, peti; - pstrv, pstrvi; - cprioar, cprioare(cerb - cerbi); - oaie,oi; - cap, capete (de vite); - pereche, perechi;

4) DIFERENE DE SENS DETERMINATE DE SCHIMBAREA NUMRULUI


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(Differences in Meaning Determined by Change of Number)

! Exist substantive din limba englez care i schimb sensul n funcie de numrul gramatical. singular
lunar);

plural

advice - sfat, pova; advices tiri, informaii; apartment(amer.) apartament (ntr-un bloc); apartments (Anglia)- locuin( cu chirie ash scrum; cloth- stof, material ; colour- culoare, nuan; compass busol; custom obicei, datin; facility uurin, facilitate; glass sticl, oglind, pahar, telescop,
barometru;

ashes cenu; clothes- stofe, materiale /haine; colours culoare, nuane ; drapel, steag; compasses compas, busole; customs-obiceiuri, datini/vam, taxe vamale; facilities- nlesniri , condiii favorabile,
echipament, aparatur, nlesniri, confort;

glasses- varieti de sticl, oglinzi, pahare,


telescoape, barometre, ochelari, binoclu;

moral- moral(a unei povestiri); number-numr;

morals morale, moravuri, moralitate/moral; number numere,versuri;

c) GENUL SUBSTANTIVELOR - Gender of Nouns


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Ca i n limba romn, n englez exist trei genuri ( masculin, feminin i neutru), ns ele nu se refer la aceleai categorii de obiecte. Sunt de genul masculin (Masculine Gender) i, n consecin, se nlocuiesc prin pronumele personal he, substantive care denumesc fiine de sex masculin: persoane, animale mari sau importante:

man-(brbat), he-wolf (lup),elephant(elefant);

Sunt de genul feminin (Feminine Gender) i, n consecin, se nlocuiesc prin pronumele personal she, substantive care denumesc fiine de sex feminin: persoane, animale mari sau importante: - woman - femeie; - girl - fat; - girl-friend - prieten; she-wolf (lupoaic); Tot de genul feminin sunt i substantivele: ship (vas, corabie), car(main).Train (tren) i plane (avion) sunt adesea tratate ca feminine. Formal, substantivele de genul feminin se deosebesc de cele masculine :
a)

prin folosirea unor cuvinte diferite : sister sor; brother- frate; aunt mtu; uncle unchi; prin folosirea n compunere a cuvintelor : woman - femeie (man = brbat); female -femeie (male = brbat); prin folosirea sufixului ess: tigress tigroaic; tiger tigru; actress actri; actor actor; princess- prines; prince prin;

b)

c)

Sunt de genul neutru (Neuter Gender) i n consecin, se nlocuiesc prin pronumele personal it, substantivele care denumesc obiecte nensufleite: - chair scaun, idea- idee, stick b.

TIMPUL - TENSE
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Categoria gramatical a timpului , categorie specific verbelor, se refer la ordinea evenimentelor n timp, aa cum este perceput aceasta de vorbitor n momentul vorbirii. Momentul n care are loc aciunea este momentul prezent(now). Fa de acest moment care constituie axa de referin a prezentului, unele evenimente sunt: a) anterioare, cnd ele au loc nainte de momentul vorbirii; b) posterioare fa de momentul vorbirii( evenimentele fiind anticipate de vorbitor depoarece vor avea loc dup dup momentul vorbirii); c) simultane cu momentul vorbirii ( avnd loc n acelai timp); n analiza timpului, trebuie luate n consideraie trei elemente: a) momentul vorbirii; b) momentul (svririi ) aciunii; c) axa sau momentul de referin. Momentul vorbirii = momentul n care enunul este pronunat de vorbitor; Momentul aciunii = momentul n care a avut loc aciunea sau starea: now, then, tomorrow; Momentul de referin reprezint axa pe care se plaseaz vorbitorul n perceperea evenimentului: axa prezentului, axa trecutului, axa viitorului; n funcie de cele trei elemente momentul vorbirii, momentul aciunii i momentul de referin limba englez cunoate urmtorul sistem de timpuri: - pe axa prezentului: Present, Present Perfect, Future; - pe axa trecutului:Past Tense, Past Perfect, Future in the Past; - pe axa viitorului:Future, Future Perfect;

PREZENT TENSE SIMPLE


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TIMPUL PREZENT SIMPLU


1)Definiie Prezentul Simplu desemneaz un eveniment (o aciune sau stare) care se ntmpl simultan cu momentul vorbirii (prezentul instantaneu) sau care include momentul vorbirii ( prezentul generic i habitual).

2)Form Din punct de vedere al formei, prezentul simplu este identic cu infinitivul, la toate persoanele singular i plural, cu excepia persoanei a III a singular, care adaug (-e)s :

FORMA AFIRMATIV : S + V (+ Obj.)

eg: I play tennis. Joc tenis. * Nu uitai s adugai < - s > la persoana a treia singular; * Atenie la modificarea ortografic n <- es> pentru verbele care se termin n:
-

o;-y;-s;-x;-z;-sh;-ch; - tch; -ss;


= = = = = = = (El) merge; (El) car (duce); (El) traverseaz; (El) se relaxeaz; (El) bzie ; (Ea) (se) spal ; (El) privete ;

eg : He goes He carries He crosses He relaxes He buzzes She washes He watches

* Verbele terminate n y precedate de consoan, schimb -y n i i adaug es :


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eg. : I try he tries; Eu ncerc el ncearc; FORMA NEGATIV : S + DO /DOES NOT (dont ; doesn t) + V eg. : I don t play tennis. Nu joc tenis.

FORMA INTEROGATIV

( Wh-) + Aux + S + V + Obj. ? eg. : Do you play tennis ? Joci tenis ? Where do you play tennis ? Unde joci tenis ?

3). NTREBUINAREA PREZENTULUI SIMPLU Prezentul simplu are mai multe ntrebuinri : - obinuina sau frecvena unei aciuni : eg. : I play tennis every day. Joc tenis n fiecare zi. He goes to Scotland once a month. El se duce n Scoia o dat pe lun . - un adevr general i permanent; eg .: The sun rises in the East. Soarele rsare n est.
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prezentul instantaneu (se ntlnete n comentarii, demonstraii, exclamaii): Zidane receives the ball, runs forward and scores. Zidane prinde mingea, alearg i marcheaz.( comentariu).

eg:

Prezentul Simplu cu valoare de viitor este ntrebuinat i n propoziii subordonate : a) de timp, introduse de : when, as soon as, once, after, before : eg. : We will leave as soon as he arrives. Vom pleca de ndat ce va sosi el. I will tell him when I feel like him. i voi spune cnd am s simt la fel ca el. b) condiionale, introduse de: if, unless, provided, in case : eg.: If Monday I have a free day Ill go to the market. Dac luni sunt liber m voi duce la pia. c) expresia viitorului pentru subiectele inanimate ( fr via ), cu referire la o propoziie temporal precizat: eg. : The train leaves at 5 p.m. Trenul pleac la ora 5 dup-amiaz. - pentru exprimarea datei : eg.: Tomorrow is Saturday. Mine este smbt. d)pentru redarea unor aciuni planificate, unor aranjamente pentru viitor, conform unui program stabilit: (mai ales cu verbe de micare):
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eg.: We leave from Bucharest at seven. Plecm din Bucureti la ora apte. - prezentul simplu cu valoare de trecut : a) n naraiuni, pentru nviorarea povestirii: eg.: One day, the girl goes to the woods.There she finds a buried treasure.
ntr-o zi, fata s-a dus n pdure .Acolo ea a gsit o comoar ngropat.

New words :
-

to go to carry to cross to watch to try to wash as soon as to arrive to fell to like train to leave to tell treasure liber()

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

a merge; a cra; a traversa; a privi; a ncerca; a spla; de ndat ce; a sosi; a simi; a plcea; tren; a pleca; a spune; comoar; liber;

PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS PREZENTUL CONTINUU


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1)

Formare - prezentul continuu se formeaz din verbul be la prezent i participiul prezent ( forma n ing) a verbului de conjugat;

FORMA AFIRMATIV : S + BE (la prezentul simplu ) + V- ing ;

eg. :

He is playing tennis . El joac tenis. FORMA NEGATIV :

S + BE + NOT + V-ing ; eg.: He is not playing tennis . El nu joac tenis. FORMA INTEROGATIV What is he playing ? Ce joac ? Prezentul continuu este utilizat pentru a exprima:
-

aciune n desfurare n momentul vorbirii: Peter is smoking before T.V. Peter fumeaz n faa T.V. ca opoziie a prezentului simplu, pentru a arta c o situaie este temporal, excepional i care se afl n derulare;
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eg.:

eg. :

Bob is playing tennis this year .(El nu a jucat pn-n prezent ). Bob joac tenis n acest an. I usually drink tea but today Im drinking coffee. De obicei beau ceai dar astzi beau o cafea (n acest moment).
-

pentru a exprima o aciune viitoare planificat din prezent:

eg.: We are living tomorrow. Plecm mine. John is leaving in an hour. John pleac ntr-o or.
-

unele verbe nu pot avea forma BE +V-ing, fiind n general verbe de percepie (senzorial), de judecat, de stare; I want to come with you. Vreau s vin cu tine. I like her because she is very bright. mi place de ea (O plac) pentru c este foarte inteligent.

eg.:

New Words
- to play - tennis - what - while - to smoke - before - to wash up - to do - hour - very - bright - to drink - year - usually - coffee = a (se ) juca; = tennis; = ce ?; = n timp ce; = a fuma; = nainte, n faa; = a spla; = a face; = or; = foarte; = inteligent() , strlucitor ( oare); = a bea; = an; = de obicei; = cafea;
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- to leave - to come - to want - because

= a pleca, a prsi; = a veni; = a dori; = pentru c

PREZENTUL RECAPITULARE

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PREZENTUL SIMPLU FORMARE :


Forma afirmativ

S +V(s)

I work as a policeman .
Lucrez ca poliist.

She wants to be a soldier.


Ea vrea s fie soldat. They play football every Sunday. Ei joac fotbal n fiecare duminic. Forma negativ

S+ You dont speak German. DO/DOES+Not Nu vorbeti limba german. +V He doesnt understand English.
El nu nelege limba englez.

Forma interogativ

(WH-) +DO/DOES + S +V ?

Do you need something ?


Ai nevoie de ceva ?

How does it work ?


Cum funcioneaz ?

Verbele terminate n: - o, - s, -x, -z,-sh, -tch,-ss,-ch primesc ES la persoana a III- a singular; eg.: He/She/ it goes, crosses, relaxes, washes ...... He misses her/ He washes his hands. Verbele care se termin ntr-o consoan urmatde Y l transform pe y n i i adaug es. eg. : worry-worries He worries too much. Se ngrijoreaz prea mult. cry- cries
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The baby cries every night. Copilul plnge n fiecare noapte. NTREBUINARE :
-

obinuin /frecven: We usually go out at the week-end. De obicei ieim n week-end (la sfrit de sptmn ).

eg. :

adevr general caracteristic permanent : The sun rises in the East. Soarele rsare la est. I speak four languages. Vorbesc patru limbi strine.

eg.:

Fr implicarea interlocutorului : n exemplele precedente, prezentul simplu nu a descris aciuni care se deruleaz n momentul prezent, sub ochii interlocutorilor:
-

Aciuni prezente : reportaje, comentariu sportiv, succesiunea rapid a aciunilor; Prezent n naraie : rar n limba englez; Orar, progrmri (fr viitor) - stil formal ;

eg. : The train leaves at five . Trenul pleac la ora 5. New words :
to work policeman - soldier - football
-

= a lucra, a munci; = poliist; = soldat; = fotbal;


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Sunday to speak German to understand - English - to need - something - to rise


-

= duminic; = a vorbi; = german; = a nelege; = engleza; = a avea nevoie; = ceva; = a rsri;

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PRESENT CONTINUOUS
Prezentul continuu FORMARE :
S+ BE(present) + V-ING S +BE + NOT V-ING We are working now. Lucrm acum.

Forma afirmativ

Forma negativ Forma interogativ

You are not behaving correctly. Nu te compori corect. The boss isnt going home. eful nu pleac acas. (WH-) BE+ S+ What is she looking at ? La ce se uit? V-ING

NTREBUINARE :
-

aciune n derulare ( present < progresiv>) . Lucy is having breakfast. Lucy i ia micul dejun.

eg.:
o o -

implicarea interlocutorului :
o o

You are wasting your time ! i pierzi timpul !

intenie, proiect (fr viitor):


o o

I m leaving tomorrow. Plec mine.

n general, prezentul continuu, exprim o aciune ce se desfoar n momentul vorbirii:


30

o Listen! She is singing in the bathroom! o Ascult! Ea cnt n baie! - aceast ntrebuinare este marcat de obicei de adverbe de timp ca: now (acum), right moment (n acest moment), at this moment ( n momentul de fa);
-

cu verbe de activitate non-durativ, o aciune repetat n momentul vorbirii:

o She is knocking on the door. o Ea bate la u.

Cazuri particulare : care folosite la Present Continous au alt neles : - ing ;


-

verbe de percepie involuntare :


eg.:

to hear to see

a auzi; a vedea;

Im seeing a doctor today. I see you. M duc la doctor astzi. Te vd. - verbele cu sens apropiat :

to look to listen

- a vedea; - a asculta;

eg.: Can you see that bird in the tree ? Poi vedea pasrea aceea din copac ? Verbele cu sens apropiat, primesc ing :
31

to look to listen

= a privi; = a asculta;

eg. : Yes, Im looking at it . Da, m uit la ea.

Verbele precum : to feel = a simi; to taste = a gusta; to smell = a mirosi; pot primi terminaia ing;

eg.: Im tasting the cake. (Present Continous) The cake tastes delicious.(Present Simple)

ATENIE!!! Att prezentul continuu ct i cel simplu exprim o aciune

viitoare conform unui plan sau aranjament cnd sunt folosite cu verbe de micare ca go, leave, arrive, come,etc. Deosebirea este urmtoarea: We are leaving tonight. Plecm disear.(Acesta este planul nostru
personal).

We live tonight. Plecm disear. (Acesta este programul oficial,


stabilit al excursiei).

32

EXERCIS ES Choose the right form of the present tense :


( Alegei forma corect a timpului prezent)

1.

a) Every Sunday he (go) to London to visit his parents. b) They (have) dinner with their neighbours. c) I (drive) to town every morning. d) He (walk) to school this morning . e) The Millers (live) in Bristol. f) The child (run) across the street. g) Bob (read) a book by the fireplace. h) She often (come) to see me on Tuesdays. 2. Choose the right form of the present tense: (Alegei forma corect a timpului prezent) : Look, the guests ( arrive). Lucy (wear) a new dress.She (spend) a lot on clothes.She (go) to a wedding next month.It (be) a pity the wind (blow) a lot of Birmingham.Who (come) now ? It (be) old Fred. He (talk) to Lucy. You (know) that Fred (leave) for China tomorrow.His plane (leave) at 6 p.m.I like Fred because he always ( say) funny things!I (be) sorry that he (leave) and I will be glad when he (come back).
3.

Translate into English : (Traducei n limba englez): a. Fred se odihnete pentru c este obosit. b. De obicei ei i petrec vacanele la Roma. c. Vaca pate pe ima n aceast diminea. d. El repet deseori aceleai lucruri. e. Toi copiii fac zgomot. f. Ce este zgomotul acesta ?Fata vecinului, cnt la pian . g. Ce faci duminica, n general ? h. Rmnei n salon ! Copiii i beau ceaiul n buctrie! i. Ascult! Lucy iar rde de Fred. j. Vrei s-l vedei pe tatl meu ? Citete n grdin. k. Se uit la T.V. n fiecare zi de la 7 la 8 .
33

Cinele vecinului latr. Ce se ntmpl ? m.Englezii nu mannc multe legume. n. James nu este acolo. Joac tenis cu Lucy. o. Pisica toarce pe covor.
l.

New words : -

to purr to visit London parents to drive morning to run to see to wear wedding pity wind to blow guest to arrive to come plane glad funny to come back to rest usually

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

a toarce; a vizita; Londra; prini ; a conduce un autovehicul; diminea; a alerga; a vedea; a purta; nunt; pcat, necaz; vnt; a bate; musafir; a sosi; a sosi, a veni; avion; mulumit(); caraghioas(); a se ntoarce; a se odihni; de obicei;

34

IMPERATIVUL

1.Persoana a II-a singular


a)

Fr subiect, fr marc de timp Be quiet ! Potolete-te ! Sit down ! Stai jos ! Make yourself at home ! Simte-te ca acas !( F-te lejer ! ) .

eg.:

b)

Negaie : Formare DO NOT + V Dont be stupid ! Nu fi prost ! Dont cry! Nu plnge!

eg.:

c)

Imperativul de politee, - emfatic -, pentru (o) invitaie de a face ceva; Do be careful ! Fii atent! i mai mult dect att, fii foarte atent! Do come in ! Intr! Dar intr, te rog.

eg.:

2)

PRIMA PERSOAN LA PLURAL

Let us ! Lets ! eg.: Lets go ! S mergem !


35

Now, let us pray ! Acum, s ne rugm ! New words : - to make


- home - stupid - to cry - careful - to come in - to go - to pray = a face ; = cas ; = prost (proast); = a plnge; = atent(); = a intra; = a merge; = a (se ) ruga;

36

PAST TENSE TIMPUL TRECUT SIMPLU

! Past Tense englezesc este o form verbal simpl, asemntoare cu perfectul simplu din limba romn.

eg.:

She went to school at nine oclock in the morning. Ea a plecat la coal la ora 9 dimineaa.

Definiie : Past Tense, aspectul simplu, desemneaz un eveniment definit care a avut loc pe axa trecutului (evenimentul este amintit n momentul prezent). Form: verbele regulate formeaz Past Tense prin adugarea terminaiei (e)d la forma de infinitiv; - marca timpului Past Tense este, la verbele neregulate forma a doua a verbului de conjugat;
-

ntrebuinare
-

se refer la un lucru trecut, de mult definit, terminat ; timpul naraiunii, succesiunea aciunilor n trecut ; la forma negativ i la forma interogativ, verbul auxiliar este cel care poart marca timpului i a negaiei;

37

Afirmativ

V-ED
(verbe regulate+ed)

I looked for a guy in grey. He carried a gun. They stopped him at the frontier. They caught a mass murderer. They dealt with the enemy forces.

Form neregulat
- forma neregulata II-a

Interogativ Negaie

S did not + V
(+obj)

You did not stop him. He didnt carry a gun. They didnt catch him.

(Wh-) did S + V Where did you find him ?


(+obj) ? Did they catch him ?

S+ was not
(+adj) BE

He wasnt happy./They werent here. Who was in the kitchen ?

(WH - ) was S
( + obj)

Past Tense simplu este folosit pentru a exprima: o aciune svrit i ncheiat ntr-un moment trecut:
-

momentul n care a avut loc aciunea este de obicei menionat prin adverbe de timp ca : an hour ago ( cu o or n urm), yesterday( ieri), three days ago (cu trei zile n urm) last week (sptmna trecut), last month ( luna trecut), last year ( anul trecut), last night( noaptea trecut), last evening (seara trecut), in 1990 (n 1990);

Despre acest moment se pot cere informaii prin ntrebri ncepnd cu: When ? What time? How long ago?

38

eg.: When did you call on her? Cnd ai trecut pe la ea? La ce or ai trecut pe la ea? I called on her yesterday. Am trecut pe la ea ieri.

aciunea este svrit i ncheiat ntr-un moment trecut, chiar dac acesta nu este menionat,el putnd fi dedus din context;

eg.: I met her on the market. M-am ntlnit cu ea la pia. aciunea este svrit i ncheiat ntr-un anume moment trecut care este precizat ca rezultat al unui rspuns la Present Perfect.

eg.: Have you read this book? Ai citit aceast carte? Yes, I read it. Da, am citit-o.

aciune repetat n trecut, care se traduce de obicei prin imperfect n limba romn:

eg.: I often sat in the front of my house, looking at the passers-by. Obinuiam adesea, s stau n faa casei mele, privind trectorii.

cu valoare de prezent, pentru a exprima o rugminte politicoas prin verbe ca wish, wonder, like, intend:

eg.: I wonder if you could lend me your dictionary. M ntrebam dac ai putea s-mi mprumutai dicionarul dumneavoastr.

Traducerea lui Past Tense n limba romn, Past Tense: - n propoziiile principale sau independente:
1.

perfect compus (de obicei la persoana I i a II-a):


39

eg.: I lost my umbrella a few days ago. Mi-am pierdut umbrela acum cteva zile. i perfect simplu (aproape exclusiv la persoana a III- plural), cnd Past Tense exprim o aciune : eg.: He said goodbye and left. Spuse la revedere i plec. imperfect, cnd Past Tense exprim o aciune repetat n trecut, de obicei nsoit de adverbe de frecven:
2.

eg.: She often left her English textbook at home. Deseori i uita manualul de englez acas. n propoziii subordonate, prin :
a)

prezent, n vorbirea indirect (dup un verb trecut);

eg.: He told me he was ill. Mi-a spus c este bolnav. b) viitor, n propoziiile temporale,cnd verbul din principal este la un timp trecut; He said he would bring me the book when he came to my place. Mi-a spus c-mi va aduce cartea cnd m va vizita.

40

PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS TRECUTUL CONTINUU

a)Formare Aff.: S + WAS/WERE/V-ING N: S + WAS/WERE NOT+V-ing I : WAS/WERE+S+Ving? eg.: I was reading.( Citeam). Was your brother watching T.V.? (Se uita fratele tu la T.V.?) No, he wasnt.( Nu, nu se uita).

b)ntrebuinare

o aciune n curs de derulare (desfurare) la un moment dat din trecut; progresiv aciune n curs, simplu fapt nou care are loc i care vine uneori s ntrerup aciunea aflat deja n desfurare ( o aciune durativ, ntrerupt de o aciune non-durativ, momentan) ; She was walking in a desert street. Se plimba pe o strad pustie. Suddenly she heard a footstep. Deodat a auzit pai. When I arrived, he was repairing his car. Cnd am sosit, el i repara maina.

eg.:

PAST TENSE SIMPLE - aciunea s-a terminat n totalitate;

41

PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS


-

aciunea este n desfurare la un moment dat din trecut; It was getting dark. Se ntuneca. Viitor n trecut ( poate exprima i o aciune viitoare, planificat ntrun moment trecut, fiind subneleas nendeplinirea ei ). He told met that he was taking an exam in June . Mi-a spus c avea un examen n iunie.

eg.:

eg.:

New words :
- to read - brother - to walk - suddenly - to arrive - car - street - dark - to tell - to take - exam - June = a citi; = frate; = a (se) plimba; = deodat; = a sosi; = main; = strad; = ntuneric; = a spune; = a lua; = examen; = iunie;

42

EXERCIII 1. Punei verbele din parantez la timpul potrivit: a.When I (meet) her, she (go) to the shops. b.When I (call) him he (tell) me he (paint) the door. c.As I (come) to her a policeman (stop) me. d.While I (dig) in the garden it (begin) to rain. e.When they (leave) we (work) in the kitchen. f. I (sleep) very well when the dog (wake) me up. g.What (you/do) when I (ring) the doorbell? h.The sun (shine) when we (get up). i. He (try) to open the door when he suddenly (remember) he had no key. 2. Traducei n limba englez: Casa era foarte mare. Cnd am sunat la u, proprietara planta flori. Era o femeie frumoas.I-am vorbit. Ea ne-a spus c nu mai suporta pasrile care cntau n grdin. A mai adugat c, atunci cnd soul ei va iei la pensie, vor cltori mult. Am fost impresionai de aceast femeie plcut care vorbea cu accent strin. tia multe lucruri iar noi am ascultat-o cu atenie. Ctre sfritul conversaiei noastre, am neles c se afla pe punctul de a pleca la Londra, a doua zi diminea, dar noi tiam c ea se va ntoarce imediat ce copiii ei aveau nevoie de ea cci era o mam afectuoas. 3. Completai propoziiile folosind Past Tense Simple sau Past Tense Continuous Yesterday I (go) to London where I (buy) a few things that I (need). The sun (shine) and the birds (sing) when we (arrive) at Hyde Park Corner. Lots of people (sit) on benches and (look) at what (go on) on the streets.We (see) many foreigners. A young man who (say) he (be) from Sydney (give) a speech. He (make) people laugh with his Australian jokes. Finally he (decide) to leave and (say) he would come back as soon as he (find) a $ 5 note to buy his lunch. The jokes (amuse) and old man who (give) him a handfull
43

of coins. The young Australian (be) pleased with the money and he (thank ) the old man heartly. New words
- to amuse - old - to meet - shop - to call - to paint - door - while - garden - to begin - rain - kitchen - very well - dog - to wake up - to ring - doorbell - sun - lunch - to laugh - joke - to decide - to find - to shine - to open - to remember - key - yesterday - thing - bird - to sing - young - man - speech = a amuza; = btrn; = a ntlni; = magazin; = a chema; = a vopsi; = u; = n timp ce; = grdini; = a ncepe; = ploaie; = buctrie; = foarte bine; = cine; = a trezi; = a suna; = sonerie; = soare; = prnz; = a rde; = glum; = a decide; = a gsi; = a strluci; = a deschide; = a aminti(a-i aduce aminte ); = cheie; = ieri; = lucru; = pasre; = a cnta; = tnr(); = brbat; = cuvntare;

44

PRESENT PERFECT PERFECTUL PREZENT

HAVE + forma a treia a verbului de conjugat


a)Definiie Present Perfect desemneaz un eveniment vzut din perspectiva axei prezentului, anterior momentului vorbirii, dar a crui anterioritate nu este fixat, avnd un caracter nedefinit.
-

accentul este pus pe rezultatul actual al unei aciuni desfurate n trecut; momentul exact unde aceast aciune s-a desfurat conteaz mai puin;

Present Perfect -ntrebuinare folosirea timpului P.P. este asociat cu adverbe care exprim o perioad de timp deschis, neterminat:(this year, this century..); eg.:I have been to the market this week. Am fost la pia n aceast sptmn.

uneori folosit cu valoare de Past Tense, pentru a exprima o aciune svrit n trecut i terminat recent sau chiar naintea momentului vorbirii; eg.: She has eaten. A mncat.

este folosit atunci cnd evenimentele au avut loc n trecut, dar autorii sau efectele evenimentelor mai exist i n prezent;

45

este folosit pentru a exprima o aciune nceput n trecut i care continu i n momentul vorbirii: lungimea perioadei de timp : FOR ( for a long time,for three days); nceputul perioadei de timp : SINCE( since yesterday, since 1976). I went to Canada in 1992. Am fost n Canada n 1992. (accentul este pus pe moment ). I ve been to Canada. Am fost n Canada. Am fost deja plecat.(Nu se precizez momentul). ntrebuinare real,
adevrat Aciunea trecut trebuie s fac bilanul n momentul n care vorbim. Ive done my exercice.(Bilan : le-a fcut!). Mi-am fcut exerciiile! He s gone this morning.( Bilan: nu mai este acolo). A plecat n dimineaa asta. Aciunea trecut trebuie s trag o concluzie . I ve seen that film. Am vzut filmul acela. Ive heard she s been to Australia. Am auzit c (ea) a fost n Australia.

eg .:

Formare

HAVE + PP (forma a III- a a


verbului ) rezultat, bilan)

mental

S + HAVE NOT + forma a IIIa a vb. de conj. (-ed vb.regulate) (Wh-) have/has+S + forma a lll-a a vb.

She hasnt come back yet. Nu s-a ntors nc. Where has he gone ? Unde a plecat ?

46

Hes gone to the hairdressers. Este plecat la coafor. Hes been to the hairdressers . A fost la coafor.

New words : - to do
- exercise - yet - film - this - morning - to come back = a face ; = exerciiu; = nc; = film; = acesta; aceasta; = dimineaa; = a (se ntoarce);

47

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS PERFECTUL PREZENT CONTINUU HAVE BEEN + V-ING

a)Form Present Perfect Continous este alctuit din forma de Present Perfect a verbului be urmat de paricipiul prezent (-ing) al verbului de conjugat. Aceast form verbal exprim :
1.

o aciune nceput ntr-un moment trecut care continu i n prezent i poate i n viitor: They have been playing tennis for half an hour. Ei joac tenis de o jumtate de or.

eg.:

2.

o aciune repetat frecvent, ntr-o perioad de timp care se ntinde din trecut pn n prezent: I have been working of this composition for three hours. Lucrez la aceast compunere de trei ore.

eg.:

3.

o aciune trecut, ncheiat recent, care este cauza unui efect simit n prezent. Why are your hands so dirty? I have been repairing my car. De ce ai minile att de murdare? Mi-am reparat maina.

eg.:

48

FORMARE

NTREBUINARE
Aciunea ncepe n trecut i continu i n prezent. Implicarea puternic a interlocutorului - are valoarea peiorativ. Ive been waiting for ages ! Atept de ani de zile ! Ive been working on this file since the morning! Lucrez la acest fiier de diminea. They havent been working on it for long. N-am mai lucrat la el de mult timp. How long has he been working on it? De ct timp lucreaz la el?

HAVE +BEEN +V-ING

S+ have not + been + v-ing


(Wh-) have+ S +been + Vb- ING

49

EXERCIII 1.Punei verbele din parantez la Present Perfect Simple : a.He (not pay) the telephone bill. b.I (buy) a few oranges. c.She (not finish) her homework yet. d.John (cut) the grass ? e.Someone (steal) Marys car! f.They (repair) the road. g.(You/see ) my keys anywhere ? h.We (not hear) from him lately. 2.Punei verbele din parantez la timpul corect : a) I dont know where Amy is.(you/see ) her ? b) When I (get) home last night, I (be) very tired and I (go) straight to bed. c) Your car looks very clean.(you/wash ) it ? d) George (not be) very well last week. e) Mrs. Clark (work) in a bank for 15 years. Then he gave it up. f) Molly lives in Dublin. She (live) there all her life. g) (You/go) to the cinema last night ? Yes,but it (be) a mistake. The film (be) awful. h) My grandfather (die) 30 years ago. I (never meet) him. i) I dont know Carols husband. I (never meet) him. j) -Is your father at home ? - No, Im afraid he (go ) out. k) When exactly (go out) ? About ten minutes ago. l) -Where do you live ? In Boston . m) How long (you/live) there ? Five years. n) Where (you/live) before that ? In Chicago. o) And how long (you/live) in Chicago ? -Two years .

50

3.Punei verbele la timpul potrivit :

a. It (not rain) this week. b.The weather (be) cold recently. c. It (be) cold last week. d. I (not read) a newspaper yesterday. e. Ann (earn) a lot of money this year. f. She (not earn) so much last year. g.(You/have) a holiday recently ? 4. Punei verbele din parantez la timpul corect : a. My neighbours (just buy) a new VCR. b. We (never be) in Switzerland. c. Peter and I (go) to the cinema last night. d. Patricia (start) practicing tennis last month. e. We (leave) home at 9.00 and (get) there by 11.30. f. She (not finish) her homework yet. g. The Simpons (live) here since January. h. I (wait) for a few minutes. i. Last year Jim (break) his leg. j. They (arrive) at 10.00 this morning. 5.Alege rspunsul corect : 1) We (a /have met /b/met/ c/have been meeting) John s parents last week. 2) I (a/ started b/ have started /c/starting ) playing football two years ago. 3) He (a/hasnt been having b/hasnt had /c /didnt have ) a cooked breakfast for ages. 4) (a/Did you lock /b/Where you locking /c/ Have you locked) the door before leaving the house ? 5) They (a/have stopped b/ stopped /c /having stopped ) working at 5 p.m. 6) Peter (a/has just come b/just came c/was just coming ) back from Italy. He looks great. 7) What (a/have you done b/have you been doing /c/did you do ) last night? 8) They (a /never were b/ have never been c/were never being ) abroad because they can afford it.
51

Mr. Jenkins (a/was arriving /b/has arrived /c/ arrived) at 9 oclock. 10)Yesterday morning we (a/ have got up/b/ got up/ having got up ) very early.
9)

New words :
- to pay - bill - telephone - homework - to cut - grass - to steal - to repair - road - lately - to know - last night - clean - to clean - bank - life - mistake - awful - to die - husband - to be afraid - in - how long? - to cook - great - early = a plti ; = factur ; = telefon; = tem; = a tia; = iarb; = a fura; = a repara; = strad; = n ultimul timp; = a ti; = noaptea trecut; = curat(); = a cura; = banc; = via; = greeal; = groaznic(); = a muri; = so; = a-i fi fric; = n; = de ct timp ? = a gti; = grozav; = devreme;

52

PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE MAI MULT CA PERFECTUL


1)

Definiie :
-

este un timp folosit cnd vorbitorul se plaseaz psihologic pe o ax a trecutului, pentru a desemna un eveniment trecut, care este amintit n momentul vorbirii :

2)

Alctuire :

*Past Perfect Simple : HAD + FORMA a III- a a vb.de conjugat ; - se formeaz din forma de Past Tense a verbului have + participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat:
eg.:

*Past Perfect Continuous ( n ing) : HAD BEEN +V ING;


3)

ntrebuinare :

Past Perfect descrie o stare /o aciune :


a)

o aciune trecut, ncheiat naintea altei aciuni trecute :

eg. : They had eaten all the food when I arrived. Mncaser toat mncarea cnd am sosit.
b)

o aciune trecut, vrit ntr-o perioad de timp anterioar unei alte aciuni trecute, dar ajungnd pn la aceasta :

(!) cu complinirile adverbiale SINCE + DAT ; FOR + DURAT ;


53

eg.: The child had been born for two days when he arrived. Copilul se nscuse de dou zile cnd sosise el.
c)

o aciune trecut, ncheiat naintea altei aciuni trecute : They had just received his letter when I arrived. Tocmai primiser scrisoarea lui cnd am sosit. New words :

eg. :

- all

= tot (toat); - food =mncare; - month = lun; - letter = scrisoare; - three = trei; - to receive =a primi; - to arrive = a sosi;

54

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS MAI MULT CA PERFECTUL CONTINUU

a)Definiie
-

Past Perfect Continuous se formeaz din verbul BE la mai- mult-ca perfect i din participiul n ing al verbului de conjugat.

El are aceleai valori ca i Present Perfect Continuu, momentul de referin fiind ns axa trecutului. Aceast form verbal exprim:

aciune trecut, nceput naintea altei aciuni trecute i continu pn la ea: I had been waiting for my friend since two oclock when he finally arrived. l ateptam pe prietenul meu de la ora 2 cnd n sfrit, a sosit. o aciune trecut nceput naintea unui moment sau a unei aciuni trecute, continund pn n acel moment sau pn la acea aciune i poate i dup aceea: They had been playing piano all morning. Ei cntaser la pian toat dimineaa.

eg.:

eg.:

o aciune repetat frecvent ntr-o perioad de timp trecut, anterioar unui moment sau unei aciuni de asemenea trecute:

55

FOR /SINCE /AGO FOR /SINCE - folosim n general FOR i SINCE n sensul de < de cnd > cu Present Perfect; Folosim For pentru durat : For 2 hours /----------------------- 2 hours ago now (cu dou ore n urm) eg.: Sally s been working here
for 6 months. Sally lucreaz aici de 6 luni . I havent seen Tom for three days. Nu l-am vzut pe Tom de 3 zile.

Folosim SINCE cu un punct de plecare precis: SINCE 8 OCLOCK /-------------------------- 8 oclock now

eg.: Sallys been working here since April. Sally lucreaz aici din luna aprilie. I havent seen Tom since Monday. Nu l-am vzut pe Tom de luni.

FOR two hours twenty minutes five days six months a week fifty years a long time 8 oclock Monday 12 May April

SINCE 1977 Christmas lunchtime they were at school

Cnd FOR este la Past Tense, are sensul de timp de; eg .: He lived in London for 2 years. A locuit n Londra timp de 2 ani.

56

AGO Ago + marcator de timp = exista, era, se afla; I went to Canada two years ago. Am fost n Canada acum doi ani (cu doi ani n urm). She found a job four hours ago. i-a gsit o slujb acum 4 ore( cu patru ore n urm).

New words
- Monday - clock - long time - day - Chirstmas - six - April - May - school - minute - twenty - to find - four - job - Canada = luni ; = ceas; = mult timp; = zi; = Crciun; = ase; = aprilie; = mai; = coal; = minut; = 20 ; = a gsi; = 4; = slujb; = Canada;

57

EXERCIII
1.Transformai frazele urmtoare urmnd exemplul urmtor :

eg.: She last called me at 2 oclock = She hasnt called me since 2 oclock. (Ultima dat m-a sunat la ora 2 = Nu m-a sunat de la ora 2.) a.He last read a newspaper last week. b.We last received a letter from them on June 6 th. c.John last came here at the beginning of the month. d.Bob last caught a fish when we arrived. e.They last visited London in 1982. f. I last rode a bike when I was a boy. g.She last had lunch at a restaurant in March. h.We last drank beer at the beginning of the week. 2.Transformai frazele urmtoare urmnd exemplul urmtor : eg. : We started walking 2 hours ago ; weare still walking = We have been walking for 2 hours. (Am nceput s ne plimbm acum dou ore = nc ne plimbm. Ne plimbm de dou ore.) a.John started sleeping at 10 ; hes still sleeping ; b.I started waiting three hours ago; Im still waiting. c. He started working for us in 1980; hes still working for us. d.We started living in Bristol 5 years ago ; were still living there. e.She started fishing one hours ago ; shes still fishing. f.The girls started playing chess at 4 ; theyre still playing. g.The sun started shining a fortnight ago ; its still shining. h. Bill started reading that book at the beginning of the afternoon ; he s still reading it.

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New words : - newspaper - week - last - to receive - fish - to wait - to ride - bike - restaurant - March - beer - beginning - chess - book - afternoon - girl - fortnight - there = ziar ; = sptmn; = ultimul (a), trecut (); = a primi; = pete; = a atepta; = a clri, a merge; = biciclet; = restaurant; = martie; = bere; = nceput; = ah; = carte; = dup-amiaz; = fat; = dou sptmni;14 zile; = acolo;

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VERBELE MODALE

a)Formare :
-

niciodat sla persoana a treia singular; se conjug fr DO ; sunt urmate de infinitiv fr to ;

MUST : Verbul modal must are doar o singur form. Este nlocuit , la formele lips , prin verbul to have to- care ns, spre deosebire de el, implic o necesitate izvort din mprejurimi.Absena necesitii se red prin neednt.
1)

obligaie :

You must go now. Trebuie s pleci acum. You mustnt talk to your sister like that. Nu trebuie s-i vorbeti surorii tale pe un asemenea ton.
2)

indic o probabilitate cu caracter aproape de certitudine: probabil,de bun seam, trebuie(n construcii afirmative):

She must be very clever. Trebuie s fie foarte inteligent. He must feel very lonely now. Trebuie s se simt foarte singur acum. MUST NOT : interdicie - (MUSTNT ) = nu trebuie ; ECHIVALENT cu TO HAVE TO - Must : obligaia impus de ctre vorbitor; - To have to : exprim obligaia impus din exterior; DAR Dont have to = absena obligaiei;
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CAN : 1.capacitatea subiectului ( fizic i intelectual ): I can swim (Pot s not ). I can speak English . (Pot s vorbesc lb. enlez).

2.posibilitatea ( 90%) ; Accidents can happen. (Accidentele se pot produce ). 3.pentru a cere permisiunea, cerere , rugminte politicoas : (Ca o alternativ a lui MAY n exprimarea familiar). Can I go to the city ? Pot pleca la ora? Of course you can. Desigur ( c poi).

4.verbe de percepie I can see you. ( te vd). ! CAN urmat de un verb de percepie senzorial (ex.: see ) corespunde aspectului continuu al verbului respectiv. CANNOT /CANT
-

imposibilitate ( contrariul lui must );

It cant be true. Nu poate fi adevrat. interdicie : You cant behave like that ! Nu te poi comporta astfel !
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ECHIVALENT : TO BE ABLE TO ( a fi n stare de, a fi capabil s /de .) (la timpul trecut I was able to swim. Eram n stare s not. We were able to swim. I m able to swim ( sunt n stare s not).

COULD 1. nuan de ndoial (30%): That could be true. Asta poate fi adevrat. 2. capacitatea trecutului: - folosim COULD pentru o capacitate permanent (a putea s-l fac, ceea ce include faptul c aciunea nu se realizeaz forat ) i WAS ABLE TO pentru o aciune precis. 3.condiie: He could help us if he werent so busy. Putea s ne ajute dac nu era att de ocupat. 4.a cere un serviciu politicos : Could you please open the window ? Poi s deschizi fereastra ? MAY 1) permisiunea( i cerere) : You may leave (i dau voie s pleci ) = Poi pleca.
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to be allowed to = a i se da voie, a i se permite; 2) ipotez : She may change her mind.( Ea poate s-i schimbe prerea). MIGHT: - incertitudine (20%) ; It might rain. S-ar putea s plou.

PERMISSION : CAN COULD MAY Politicos -----l---------l---------l--------- Politicos +

VALOARE IPOTETIC cant might may can must will

- Probabil -----|-------|---------|-------|------|----|-- +Probabil NEED - att verb obinuit ct i verb modal; - verbul modal se gsete n principal la formele negative i interogative; Negativ : absena necesitii; You neednt worry.
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Nu trebuie s te ngrijorezi.
-

Interogativ:sens apropiat de MUST( ateptarea unui rspuns negativ) ; Need I go to school ? Yes, you must./No, you neednt. Trebuie s merg la coal ? Da, trebuie/Nu, nu este nevoie.

WILL 1.cere un serviciu n mod politicos : Will you help me carry my suitcase ? Vrei s m ajui s car valiza? 2. intenie ferm : You will do! Vei face! 3.auxiliarul viitorului : You will succeed! Vei reui!

WOULD 1) would folosit n mod repetat caracteristic trecutului; When he was four,Tom would wake up at night. Cnd avea 4 ani, Tom se trezea noaptea. 2)auxiliarul condiionalului; If he was not that stupid, he would be such a nice guy. Dac nu era att de idiot, ar fi putut fi un baiat att de drgu.
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3) a cere un serviciu, n mod politicos; Would you please open the window ? Vrei s deschizi fereastra? SHALL 1) constrngere, regulament: eg.: You shall not kill.( Nu trebuia s ucizi). 2) angajament :
eg. : We shall overcome (Vom nvinge).

3) ntrebare politicoas, sugestie : eg.: Shall we go to the cinema tonight ? Mergem disear la cinema? 4) auxiliarul viitorului SHOULD 1) infinitivul prezent : sfat eg : You should be more careful. Ar trebui s fii mult mai atent . 2) infinitivul trecut : repro You should have been more careful. Ar fi trebuit sa fii mult mai atent. OUGHT TO = AR TREBUI
-

are o singur form; este urmat ntotdeauna de un infinitiv to;


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indic o obligaie, o datorie moral, de obicei sub form de sfat dat de ctre vorbitor : You ought to write a thank you letter. Ar trebui s scrii o scrisoare de mulumire.

eg.:

MODALE

Valoare semantic -Obligaie

Negaie -Nu -Interdicie;

Valoare epistemic -o probabilitate foarte mare(95)%)

NEGAIE -NU -fr ndoial;

Echivalent HAVE TO

MUST

CAN

-capacitate - verbe de percepie -cererea unei permisii foarte politicos; -rspuns pozitiv;

incapacitate -posibilitate - negaia foarte mare ; percepiei; - rspuns negativ;


-posibilitate (50/50)

-imposibil

- respingere;

BE ABLE TO

MAY

-cererea unei permisii foarte politicos; -rspuns -rspuns pozitiv ; negativ;

-negaie

50%; XXXX

COULD CAN-ED

- capacitate trecut;
- cererea unui serviciu n mod politicos;

-incapacitate trecut;

-posibilitate (30%)

- imposibilitate trecut;

XXXX

New words :
- now - clever - to swim - accident - to happen - city = acum ; = inteligent (); = a nota; = accident; = a se ntmpla; = ora;
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- of course - true - to behave - to help - to change - to rain - school - suitcase - night - window - cinema - careful

= desigur; = adevrat; = a se comporta; = a ajuta; = a schimba; = a ploua; = coal; = valiz; = noapte; = fereastr; = cinema; = atent();

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EXERCIII 1.nlocuii cuvintele scrise ngroat cu un verb modal : 1.You can try phoning but its possible that the car has been sold now. 2.He asked if he to would be allowed write in ballpoint pen during the exam. 3.If youve been out of the country, you obviously havent heard about the robbery. 4. Where would there be a chance of finding a flat to rent. 5. If you want to apply for a council improvement grant, it is compulsory to fill in form RC4. 6.Its important for me to come to a decision soon. Otherwise I might lose the chance. 7.Shes unlikely to have left without warning anyone. 8.I miss having a view. In my last house it was possible to see for miles on a clear day. 9. Ive forgotten to return the key of the safe.Im sure people have been looking everywhere for it. 10. Its possible that you wontt even have to show a pass to get it. 11.Do you think it would be advisable for me to book a seat in advance? 12.It was thoughtless of you not to give me a hand with the washing-up. After all, it was your friends we had for dinner, not mine ! 13.Dont bother to make out a receipt. I only throw them away. 14.Dont start worrying. Its possible that he took a later plane. New words : - to try - but - its possible - ballpoint - during - country - about - robbery - chance - to find = a ncerca ; = dar; = este posibil; = pix cu past; = n timp ce; = ar; = despre; = jaf; = ans; = a gsi;
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- flat = apartament; - to rent = a nchiria; - to apply = a aplica; - compulsory = compulsive; - to fill = a umple;a ntregi; - its important = este important; - decision = decizie; - chance = ans; - unlikely = neplcut(); - to worn = a avertiza; - clear day = zi senin; - to return = a napoia; - do you think = crezi c; - to book a seat in advance = a reine un loc; - thoughless = nepsare; - dont bother = nu te deranja; - receipt = chitan; - plane = avion;

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VIITORUL SIMPLU SHALL/WILL/FUTURE a)Definiie Viitorul Simplu desemneaz un eveniment posterior fa de momentul vorbirii. b)Form n structura viitorului simplu intr verbul auxiliar shall la persoana l singular i plural, will la persoana a II-a i a III-a singular i plural, i infinitivul scurt al verbului de conjugat: eg.: I shall go to the mountains next month. Voi merge la munte luna viitoare. We shall go to the mountains next month. Vom merge la munte luna viitoare. He will buy a car next week. Va cumpra o main sptmna viitoare. They will buy a car next week. Ei vor cumpra o main sptmna viitoare.

Forma contras a verbului este ll + infinitiv la toate persoanele: eg.: Ill go, hell go, well go, youll go, theyll go.

c) ntrebuinare Viitorul simplu este un viitor pur, indicnd doar c aciunea are loc ntrun moment viitor, mai apropiat sau adeseori mai ndeprtat, de momentul vorbirii: eg.: Ill finish the school tomorrow. He will finish the school next year.
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Viitorul simplu poate fi folosit n propoziii care exprim: WILL/LL Dorin, prezicere (prevestire)
I will play football tomorrow afternoon. Voi juca footbal mine diminea.

Refuz (dorin negativ) WONT SHALL


Will you play tennis ? No, I wont. Vei juca tenis ? Nu, ( nu voi juca).

Viitor inevitabil
I shall be 30 next month. (Voi mplini 30 de ani luna viitoare ).

Viitor previzibil, intenie BE GOING TO


- a avea de gnd, a inteniona, o intenie spontan, neprevzut Its going to rain. Va ploua (st s plou) Im going to buy a new computer. Am de gnd s cumpr un nou computer.

Viitor apropiat, intenie

BE + V-ing
BE ABOUT TO
( a fi pe punctul s)

Im watching TV tonight. M uit la T.V. disear.

Viitor iminent (imediat)


Hes in front of the door. Hes about to open it. Este n faa uii . Este pe punctual de a o deschide. -un aranjament/un ordin : The meeting is to take place in room 30. ntlnirea va avea loc n camera 30. You are to return before nightfall. V ntoarcei nainte de cderea nopii.

BE TO + infinitiv

!!! Verbele go i come nu pot fi precedate de going to. Pentru a reda ideea de viitor apropiat , ele sunt ntrebuinate la prezentul continuu: Where are we going? Unde mergem?

CA REGUL GENERAL, FOLOSIM. WILL cnd avem un viitor:


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eg.: Ill go to Spain in August. Voi pleca n Spania n luna august. BE + V ing cnd avem un timp prezent cu sens de viitor : eg.: They are leaving tomorrow. (Ei) vor pleca mine. BE GOING TO : - cnd avem verbul < a merge> dar ntr-un sens al timpului viitor : eg.: We are going to eat at the restaurant. (Avem de gnd) s mergem s mncm la restaurant.

WHEN(cnd ) You will have to speak English when you are abroad. (Va trebui s vorbeti limba englez cnd vei fi n strintate).

Decizie imediat : Ill go (viitor - Voi pleca). Promisiune : O.k., Ill think about it .(viitor). O.K., m voi gndi la asta !

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FUTURE CONTINUOUS VIITORUL CONTINUU a) ntrebuinare

Viitorul continuu exprim o aciune n desfurare ntr-un moment viitor, posterior momentului vorbirii: eg.: I shall be going to school at ten oclock in the morning, tomorrow. M voi duce la coal la ora 10 dimineaa, mine.

O aciune n desfurare n viitor ntrerupt de o aciune momentan: eg.: When he comes, I will be eating. Cnd va veni, eu voi mnca.

O aciune n desfurare n viitor, n paralel cu o alt aciune n desfurare, de asemenea n viitor: eg.: She will be drawing while I am playing the piano. Ea va desena n timp ce eu voi cnta la pian.

New words - tomorrow - to buy - computer - tonight - in front of - meeting - to take place - Spain - August - to speak - abroad - to think = mine; = a cumpra; = calculator; = disear; = n faa; = ntlnire; = a avea loc; = Spania; = august; = a vorbi; = strintate; = a gndi;a crede;
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- about

= despre; EXERCIII

1.Completai frazele urmtoare cu WILL sau BE GOING TO : a.Oh! We should have brought the umbrella.Itrain! b.I. speak to you if you apologise.Otherwise, dont even bother ! c.I am just going shopping .Could I ring you back in 15 minutes, otherwise the shopsbe closed. d.I . ring James and see if he is any better.Do you want to talk to him ? e.She try and get him to come along to the party, but I dont know if he . want to. Anyway, its not for 3 week. f.I .. go to the cinema next Monday if I have enough money. g.He . see that film at the cinema tonight. h.They ..contact you later in the year if they need your help. 2.Completai frazele urmtoare cu will sau shall. Indicai soluiile duble : Go on !Ask him ! But I know he .just say no. He not even consider it ! b) Only rubber-soled footwear . be born in the gymnasium. c) I never be able to get this machine to work properly. d) He speak to you when he gets back from Edinburgh.That s on Thursday night. e) I tell you when I get to the hotel. Dont worry! f) You listen to what I have to say whether you want or not ! g) . I open my presents now or do you want me to wait until after dinner ? h) We.. be in front of the post office at 8 oclock.Try not to be late!
a)

3.Completai frazele urmtoare cu be going to sau prezentul cu ing . What . you this weekend ? Anything special ?(do). b. Its not really worth going to Bringhton for the day.Look ! It (rain).
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Im so thirsty.I ..a cup of tea. Do you fancy one as well ? (make) ? d. Paul s just phoned. Heround to give me the film back. (come). e. I and get into University to read English.Or, at least, I would like to (try). f. They for Madrid tomorrow, so well have to settle everything today, (leave). g. I the neighbours to ask them to keep the noise down. Ill be back in a couple of minutes .(see). h. Youre not . That letter, are you ? Its not addressed to you. (open). i. .. John tonight ?If you are, could give him this CD back ? I borrowed it from him last week .(see).
c.

4. Completai frazele urmtoare punnd verbele din parantez cu o form care exprim viitor. a. I. at 5 oclock if I manage to get everything done in time.(leave). b. He you any loger.Thats the last time !(not disobey) . c. You . what I have to say, whether you like it or not ! (listen to ). d. I. lunch with Joanna today. She phoned me last week and we arranged to meet.(have). e. I a couple of weeks holiday in June. I dont know exactly when. (take). f. .. you me after 7 oclock ? I you all about it.(phone, tell). g. I the film on to a casette for you tonight, if you want me to cry. (record) h. .. youit?After all, its the manufacturer s fault and not yours !(take back). i. . you . this, if I buy it for you ? (wear). j. The train .in a couple of minutes. Hurry up! (leave).

New words - to bring - umbrella - to apologise = a aduce; = umbrela; = a cere scuze;


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- otherwise = de altfel, atlfel; - dont bother = nu te deranja; - party = petrecere; - anyway = de altfel; - enough = destul (); - money = bani; - to help = a ajuta; - to contact =a contacta, a lua legtura; - to consider = a considera; - only = doar, numai; - dont worry = nu te ngrijora; - presents = cadouri; - until = pn; - after = dup; - dinner = cina; - not to be late = nu ntrzia; - to worth = a merita; - Im thirsty = Mi-e sete! - at least = cel puin; - neighbour = vecin(); - noise = zgomot; - in a couple of minutes = n cteva minute;

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PASIVE VOICE DIATEZA PASIV

1.Alctuire S+ V+ - obj. Jim repairs the car.


Jim repar maina.

S + Be + PP + by + obj. The car is repaired by Jim.


Maina este reparat de Jim.

eg.: Dean washes my shirt every day. Dean mi spal cmaa n fiecare zi. (diateza activ ). My shirt is washed by Dean every day. Cmaa mea este splat n fiecare zi de Dean. 2.Reguli * complementul direct al propoziiei de la diateza activ devine subiectul frazei la diateza pasiv ; * subiectul propoziiei de diatez activ devine subiectul frazei la diateza pasiv ; El este introdus de <by> n limba englez, nu este obligatoriu . DIATEZA ACTIV ACTIVE VOICE
-

Verbul este la diateza activ cnd subiectul gramatical svrete aciunea, care, la verbele tranzitive, se rsfrnge asupra obiectului.
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DIATEZA PASIV
-

Verbul este la diateza pasiv cnd subiectul gramatical sufer aciunea svrit de subiect;

Pentru a conjuga un verb la diateza pasiv, folosim auxiliarul < a fi > la acelai timp i cu acelai aspect, ca cel de la diateza activ. El trebuie s fie urmat de participiul trecut al verbului . !Atenie deci totdeauna s se identifice bine timpurile verbelor la diateza activ,deoarece operai o transformare. Dac exist (se afl) un auxiliar de mod, l vom pstra.
eg :

- They have punished him. - L-au pedepsit. - He has been punished (by them). - A fost pedepsit (de ei). Remarc : pstrm Present Perfect ; Sophies mother is serving tea. Mama Sofiei servete ceaiul. - Tea is being served by Sophies mother. Ceaiul este servit de ctre mama Sofiei.
-

Remarc : pstrm aspectul progresiv adugnd < fiind> (being) ;


-

Anyone can do it.Oricine poate face. It can be done by anyone.Poate fi fcut de oricine.

Remarc : Pstrm auxiliarul modal < can>. 2.Cazuri particulare - verbele cu prepoziie :
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eg: Everyone laughed at her (diateza activ ). She was laughed at by everybody. (diateza pasiv). regul : prepoziia se aaz imediat dup verbul la diateza pasiv;

3.Exemple : Prezent simplu Bob steals the jewels. Bob fur bijuteriile. The jewels are stolen. (By Bob);
Bijuteriile sunt furate (de Bob).

Prezentul cu V-ing (Prezentul continuu ) Bob is stealing the jewels.


Bob fur bijuteriile.

The jewels are being stolen (by Bob).


Bijuteriile sunt furate (de Bob).

HAVE + PP (partea a III- a a vb.neregulate/ed vb.). Bob has stolen the jewels.
Bob a furat bijuteriile.

The jewels have been stolen.(by Bob).


Bijuteriile au fost furate (de Bob).

Trecutul ( PAST TENSE) Bob stole the jewels. Bob a furat bijuteriile. The jewels were stolen (by Bob).
Bijuteriile au fost furate (de Bob) .

PAST TENSE n ing (P.T.Continous) Bob was stealing the jewels. Bob a furat bijuteriile.
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The jewels were being stolen (by Bob).


Bijuteriile au fost furate de Bob.

HAD V3 forma a treia a verbului Bob had stolen the jewels. Bob furase bijuteriile. The jewels had been stolen. (by Bob).
Bijuteriile fuseser furate.( de Bob).

VIITOR Bob will steal the jewels. Bob va fura bijuteriile. The jewels will be stolen.(by Bob).
Bijuteriile vor fi fcute ( de Bob).

Cu auxiliarele modale : Bob may steal the jewels. Bob ar putea fura bijuteriiile. The jewels may be stolen (by Bob). Bijuteriile ar putea fi furate (de Bob). Bob may have stolen the jewels. Bob poate a furat bijuteriile. The jewels may have been stolen by (Bob). Bijuteriile poate au fost furate de (Bob).

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EXERCIII

1.Punei propoziiile urmtoare la diateza pasiv. a.Paul has just painted the garage door. b.They will serve tea in the sitting-room at five. c.Someone told met to wait for a few minutes. d.They are pulling down the house round the corner. e.They should not allow dogs on the beach. f.Is someone collecting the tickets ? g.Peter himself built that big house. h.Ann has seen you walking in the park. i. Mary was translating the letter into French. j. You must read the instructions carefully. New words : - skirt - to repair - to punish - tea - anyone - garage - beach - ticket - French = fust; = a repara; = a pedepsi; = ceai ; = oricine; = garaj; = plaj; = tichet, bilet; = francez;

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THE ARTICLE ARTICOLUL


a) Definiie Articolul este, unul dintre cele mai dificile capitole, att datorit numeroaselor sale funcii ct i implicaiilor stilistice determinate de context i, ntr-un sens mai larg, de stilurile funcionale (tiintific, poetic, de conversaie,).Importana cunoaterii modului de folosire a articolului englez nu poate s scape nimnui.Aproape fiecare substantiv din limba englez este nsoit de un articol, ntruct articolul este cel mai de seam determinant al substantivului.
b)

Formele articolului :

(Articolul nehotrt) :- The Indefinite Article articolul nehotrt se aaz naintea cuvntului pe care l determin i, datorit valorii sale semantice (un,o); A (un , o ) naintea sunetelor consonantice sau semiconsonantice; An ( un , o) naintea sunetelor vocalice ;
-

(Articolul hotrt) : - The Definite Article - funcia principal, caracteristic , a articolului hotrt, este de a arta c substantivul naintea cruia st a fost menionat n cursul discuiei, expunerii, descrierii, c ntr-un fel sau altul, este cunoscut n respectiva situaie de ctre cel cruia i se adreseaz: - articolul hotrt <the>; eg .: He is definitely the man for the job. Este cu siguran omul potrivit pentru slujb.
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Under the circumstances he could not act otherwise/n asemenea mprejurri, nu putea proceda altfel: (Articolul Zero) : The Zero Article Articolul zero, paradoxal prin denumire, nseamn, de fapt, absena unui articol exprimat (the, sau a(n) ns articolul zero ndeplinete funcii precise i nlocuirea lui poate atrage dup sine fie schimbri de neles, fie, pur i simplu, greeli de exprimare: - folosim articolul zero cu : * Un plural numrat : - sens general : I love roses. mi plac (iubesc) trandafirii. - un anume numr : I ve bought roses. Am cumprat trandafiri. - nenumrabil :

sens general -

I hate tea. Ursc ceaiul. o anumit cantitate - Id like tea and bread. mi place ceaiul i pinea;

c) -

Poziia articolului articolul nehotrt se aaz naintea cuvntului pe care l determin i, datorit valorii sale semantice (un,o); articolul precede substantivul i toate adjectivele (cu sau fr adverb) aezat naintea unui substantiv; A smart hat.
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O plrie elegant. n acelai timp <all> i <both> preced articolul hotrt ( se aaz dup acestea): They had all the fun . Ei sunt cei care s-au distrat cel mai bine. All the boys were there.Toi bieii erau acolo. Both the men (= both men ) were guilty. Amndoi (oamenii ) erau vinovai. Both the novels are on the shelf. Amndou romanele sunt pe raft. i adverbele <quite > i <rather> preced n mod normal articolul :
-

quite = complet, foarte exact ; rather = mai degrab, destul de (mult) aproape, o pies bun ; It was quite /rather a good play. Era foarte /destul de (mult) aproape o pies bun. It was quite the best play I have seen. Era cu adevrat cea mai bun pies pe care am vzut-o vreodat.

eg.:

n acelai timp <quite > i <rather>, se aeaz uneori dup articolul nehotrt precum n : eg.: That was a rather unfortunate remark to make . Era o remarc mai degrab regretabil. eg.: That would be a quite useless task. Era mai degrab o sarcin inutil, fr valoare. Adverbele <too> = de asemenea, <so > = deci, aadar, <as> = precum, preced adjectivul i articolul nehotrt. Deci avem construcia :
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TOO/SO/AS + Adjectiv + Subiect eg.: If that is not too great a favour to ask = dac nu este prea mult (o prea mare favoare) s v ntreb Never have I seen a film so boring. N-am vzut niciodat un film att de plictisitor. I have never seen as fine an actor as Oliver. N-am vzut niciodat un actor att de bun ca Olivier. De asemenea, putem gsi < such as> (un altfel, asemenea ) i <what a > = (ce ! ) She is such a fool ! Este aa o proast ! What a joke ! Ce glum ! Remarcai faptul c < SUCH> (asemeni) cu < so >, el este precedat : eg.: I have never seen such a beautiful painting . N-am mai vzut niciodat o pictur att de frumoas. I have never seen such a beautiful painting!/a painting so beautiful. N-am vzut niciodat o pictur att de frumoas. < Half > (jumtate) de asemenea, precede n mod obinuit articolul : eg.: Half the world knows about this . Jumtate din lume tie despre asta. I will be back in half an hour. (voina autorului). M voi ntoarce ntr-o jumtate de ora.

Pentru a suprima noiunea voinei cu <will > construiete de asemenea fraza : I will be back in half an hour. M voi ntoarec n jumtate de or.
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Dac <half> i substantivul formeaz un substantiv compus, articolul se plaseaz primul : eg.: Why dont you buy just a half bottle of rum ? De ce nu cumperi doar o jumtate de sticl de rom ? Comparai cu : He drank half a bottle of rum. El a but jumtate din sticla de rom .

Cteva exemple de reinut 1/-Tv-Video : To listen to the radio DAR To watch T.V. 2/ Autoriti : To talk about the President of the USA, the Queen of England. Dar President Clinton and Queen Elisabeth. 3/ Mesele i zilele sptmnii :
-

fr articol ;

To have lunch , dinner ./On Monday 4)Jocuri i sporturi :


-

fr articol;

eg.: To play football, tennis, chess DAR articolul naintea instrumentelor muzicale :

to play the guitar .


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to play the piano 5) Limbi strine i nume de ri la singular : - fr articol : I love French, English /I love French./ mi place limba francez, limba englez. mi place limba francez. DAR locuitorii, primesc articolul hotrt : eg.: I love the French; the Irish people. Iubesc francezii, irlandezii DAR numele de ri la plural sau care formeaz un element comun primesc art.hotrt The United States, the Netherlands, the Soviet Union,. 6/Profesii : - articolul nehotrt : eg.: He is a doctor. El este (un) doctor. 7/Dup prepoziiile : AS/WITHOUT :
-

articolul nehotrt :

eg.: To be without a car. A fi fr main. 8/Dup prepoziiile : AT/BY : - fr articol: At midnight, dawn, dusk/By car, boat, radio, La miezul nopii / Cu maina
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9/ Dup exclamaiile introduse de WHAT/SUCH: - articolul nehotrt : What a beautiful horse ! Ce cal frumos ! 10/ Expresii de timp : - articolul nehotrt : Once a day ! O dat pe zi ! 11/Expresii care primesc articolul hotrt : To have a cold . A avea rceal. To have a fever. A avea febr. To have a temperature. A avea temperatur. To have a headache. A avea o durere de cap. 12/Boli : - fr articole sau uneori the flu - (gripa). 13/Cursuri de ap i lanurile muntoase : - cu articolul hotrt : The Thames, the Hudson, the Himalayas, the Alps. 14)Vrfuri : - fr articol : Ben Nevis, Kilimandjaro, Mount Everest .
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15) Lacuri / insule : - nu primete articolul hotrt ( urmat de of) sau cnd sunt la plural : Lake Michigan, Easter Island, The Great Lakes, The Isle of Wight. 16)Nume de mri : - primesc articolul definit : The Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the Artic Ocean... Articolul hotrt apare n expresii: for the time being = deocamdat, pentru moment; - in the long run = pn la urm; - on the whole = n general; - at the bginning = la nceput; - in the end = la sfrit; - in the morning = dimineaa, n cursul dimineii; - by the way = apropo; - at the latest = cel mai trziu; - the day after tomorrow = poimine; - to have been through the mill= a fi trecut prin ciur i sit; - many happy returns of the day= la muli ani!
-

Articolul nehotrt apare n expresii: - to have a mind to = a-i fi poft s, a avea chef de; - to have a care = a avea grij; - to take a fancy to = a ndrgi; - for a time = un timp, o vreme; - in a nice fix(fam.) = la anaghie, la strmtoare; - once in a blue moon = din an n Pate; - not to care a rap/straw = a nu-i psa nici ct negru sub unghie; - to keep an eye on = a nu slbi din ochi/a fi cu ochii pe; - at a time = deodat,n acelai timp; - all of a sudden = brusc.

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Articolul zero n expresii: at random - in time - for good - hand in hand - at/by night - at down - at last - on end - bag and baggage - by ear - by word of mouth - in keeping with - side by side - by mistake
-

= = = = = = = = = = = = = =

la ntmplare; la timp; pentru totdeauna; mn n mn; noaptea; n zori; n cele din urm; n ir; cu cel i cu purcel; dup ureche; din gur n gur; n conformitate cu; unul lng altul; din greeal;

New words : - hat - men - guilty - quite - rather - unfortunate - useless - boring - never - painting - joke - beautiful - half - world - about - why - to buy - bottle - rum - fever = plria; = brbai; = vinovat(); = complet, foarte exact; = mai degrab,o pies bun; = regretabil(), neplcut(); = inutil(); fr valoare; = plictisitor(oare); = niciodat; = pictur; = glum; = frumos(oas); = jumtate; = lume; = despre; = de ce? = a cumpra; = sticl; = rom; = febr;
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EXERCIII 1. Punei A/AN sau THE : This morning I bought ___newspaper and ____ magazine. ____newspaper is in my bag but I dont know where I put ___ magazine. b. I saw ____accident this morning . ___car crashed into ___ tree. ____driver of ___car wasnt hurt but _____ was badly damaged. c. There are two cars parked outside : ____blue one and ____grey one . d. My friends live in ___ old house in ___small village.There is ___beautiful garden behind _____house . I would like to have _____garden like that.
a.

2/Punei articolul unde este necesar: a.Would you like apple ? b.How often do you go to dentist ? c.Could you close door, please ? d.Im sorry,I didnt mean to do that.It was mistake. e.Excuse me, where is bus station, please ? f. I ve got problem . Can you help me ? g.Im just going to post office.I wont be long. h.There were no chairs, so we had to sit on floor. i.Have you finished book I lent you ? j.My sister has just got job in bookshop in Manchester . k.We live in small flat near city centre. l.Theres small supermarket at end of street I live in.

3/Punei articolul corect : Where did you have ___lunch ? We went to ___restaurant. b. Did you have ____nice holiday ? Yes, it was ____ best holiday Ive ever had. c. Wheres ___nearest shop? There s one at ____end of this steet .
a. 91

Do you often listen top _____radio ? No. In fact I havent got ___radio. e. Would you like to travel in ____space ? Yes, Id love to go to ____moon. f. Do you go to ______cinema often? No, but I watch a lot of films on _____TV. g. It was _____nice day yesterday, wasnt it ? Yes, it was.We went for a walk by ____sea. h. What did you have for _______breakfast ?Nothing.I never eat _____breakfast. i. Can you tell me where ___room 23 is, please ? Its on ______second floor . j. We spent all our money because we stayed at _____ most expensive hotel in town. k. Why dont you stay at ____cheaper hotel ?
d.

4/Punei articolul corect : 1. I havent been to ____cinema for ages. 2. I lay down on ____ground and looked up at __ sky. 3. Margaret spends most of her free time watching ___TV. 4. ____ television was on but nobody was watching it. 5. Have you had _____dinner yet ? 6. Emma and I arrived at _____same time. 7. Youll find _____information you neeed at __top of____page 7. 8. Peru is ____country in South America ____capital is Lima. New words : - bag - driver - garden - apple - mistake - floor - cheaper - free time = geant; = ofer; = grdin; = mr; = greeal; = podea; = mai ieftin; = timp liber;
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PERSON AND NUMBER PERSOANA I NUMRUL

Spre deosebire de verbul romnesc, verbul englezesc are puini indici formali care s marcheze persoana i numrul. Singura desinen specific este s pentru persoana a III-a singular, indicativul present, adaugat la forma de infinitiv a verbelor noionale. (Verbele modale nu primesc- s). Persoana i numrul n limba englez sunt identificate de obicei cu ajutorul subiectului, mai ales cnd acesta este exprimat printrun pronume personal.

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THE ADJECTIVEADJECTIVUL
a.

Definiie

Adjectivul este partea de vorbire care exprim caracteristic unui obiect, fie ca nsuire a acestuia, fie ca precizare a lui n spaiu, timp, cantitate. El este un modificator sau un determinant al substantivului: - a good man - un om bun (modificator); - that man - omul acela (determinant); Adjectivele care exprim nsuiri ale obiectelor ( adjectivele calitative au numeroase forme specifice:
a) -

Sufixe pozitive: peaceful- panic; beautiful- frumos; stony pietros; dirty - murdar; friendly prietenos; manly brbtesc; childish copilresc, copilros; capable capabil; jealous-gelos; famous-faimos;

b)Sufixul negativ less; - useless nefolositor, inutil; - careless - neatent, nengrijit;

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INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES ADJECTIVUL NEHOTRT


a.

Definiie :

Adjectivele nehotrte determin ntr-un sens mai mult sau mai puin general sau vag obiectele exprimate de substantive n sensul siturii acestora n spaiu , alaiturii n timp, al cantitii, al numrului, al varietii. Se deosebesc mai multe categorii: Adjective nehotrte exprimnd situarea n spaiu: near- apropiat; next- urmtorul; last- ultimul; far deprtat;neighbouringvecin,nvecinat. Adjective nehotrte exprimnd situarea n timp: preceding- precedent; foregoing-anterior; former- primul, de odinioar; present- present; past trecut; future viitor; next- urmtorul, last- ultim;

Adjective nehotrte exprimnd cantitatea: much- mult(), littlepuin(), a little - ceva, nite, puin (), ctva,ctva;

Adjective nehotrte exprimnd numrul: many- muli, multe; few = puini, puine ( nu muli, nu multe); a few (puini, puine,civa,cteva; several- mai muli, mai multe; numerous- numeroi, numeroase;numberlessnenumrai, nenumrate, a number of- un numr de; a series of- o serie de.

b.

Form :

Adjectivul nehotrt este invariabil ca form i ndeplinete funcia sintactic de atribut . Un loc aparte n cadrul adjectivelor nehotrte l ocup some i any ntruct, n dese cazuri , ele se apropie de funcia articolelor, ceea ce face ca n unele gramatici s fie tratate ca echivaleni ai articolelor.

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c.

ntrebuinare:

SOME = nite, ceva, puin, puin, unii , unele,civa, cteva, vreun, vreo, o cantitate ce se ntrebuineaz n propoziii afirmative i indic existena unui numr restrns de lucruri, fiine, a unei cantiti restrnse. Este folosit cu substantive numrabile la plural i cu substantive nenumrabile la singular. ANY= vreun, vreo, nici un (ul),nici o, nici una , se ntrebuineaz n propoziii afirmative, interogative i negative;

SOME/ANY
1) Fraze afirmative SOME (n principiu, some se folosete n propoziii afirmative) : eg.: Id like some coffee. A vrea nite cafea. Cu toate acestea , el apare: - n propoziii negative, dac nelesul su este afirmativ: eg.: He never called on us without some present . Nu venea niciodat la noi fr (s aduc) un cadou;
-

n propoziiile interogative, dac ntrebarea nu se refer la some:

eg.: Why are there so many mistakes in some exercices? De ce sunt attea greeli n unele exerciii? - n propoziii interogative prin care se exprim o rugminte sau o ofert, sau n care some se refer la o parte dint-un ntreg sau dintr-o cantitate: eg.: Have you some change about you? Ai (ceva) mruni la tine?
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2)Propoziie afirmativ cu sens negativ (cu greu, niciodat , fr) ANY eg.: I hardly know any people here. Cu greu recunosc (tiu) pe cineva. He tried to make a cake without using any eggs. A ncercat s fac o prjitur fr s foloseasc nici un ou. 3)Propoziia interogativ ANY ( l nlocuiete n general pe some n propoziiile interogative ( directe i indirecte), condiionale i dubitative: eg.: Have you got any stamp ? Ai cumva nite timbre ? I doubt if he has any time now. M ndoiesc c are timp acum. 4)Propoziii interogative ntr-un sens afirmativ : eg.: Would you like some more meat ? Vrei (doreti ) mai mult carne. 5) Propoziii negative NOT ANY eg.: I have no money. N-am nici un ban. I havent got any money. N-am primit nici un ban.

- putem folosi no SOME i ANY se pot folosi ca pronume. eg.: Have you got some ? They arent any.

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A FEW, A LITTLE /FEW, LITTLE


-

a few, few + numrabile ; a little, little + nenumrabile ;

A FEW = cteva
A few minutes later. Cteva minute mai trziu. FEW = puin (plural) Few people understood. Civa oameni au neles. A LITTLE = un pic de A little sugar. Un pic de zahr. LITTLE = puin din (sg) .. The Queen has little power. Regina are puin putere. MUCH/MANY/A LOT OF MUCH + singular - Much = mult MANY + plural - many = many eg.: I havent got much time. Have you many records. Much i many se afl mai mult n propoziii interogative i negative. n propoziiile afirmative, gsim mai degrab A LOT OF; LOTS OF, PLENTY OF.
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I know a lot of Italians. In afar de too, as,so, very eg.: He drank a lot. A but mult. He drank too much. A but prea mult. EACH/EVERY Every = fiecare Each = fiecare (mai puin la modul general, fiecare separat, luat n parte ); Every workman stood up when the Queen walked in . Fiecare muncitor s-a ridicat n picioare cnd regina a intrat. She gave a signed photo to each workman . Ea a dat cte o fotografie semnat fiecrui muncitor. Alte adjective nehotrte: - either ( fiecare, oricare); - both (amndoi,ambii); - all (toi, toate); - whole(ntreg); - certain (anumit, anume); SOME, EVERY, ANY, NO se poate combina cu body, -one ,thing, where . Derivatele astfel formate urmeaz aceleai reguli.

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EXERCIII

1.Completai propoziiile cu some i any : He didnt buy .flowers. This evening Im going out withfriends of mine. <Have you seen .good films recently >? <No, I havent been to the cinema for ages>. I didnt have .money, so I had to borrow Can I have money, so I had to borrow Can I have milk in my coffee, please? I was too tired to do work. You can cash this travellers cheques at bank. Can you give me information about places of interest in the town? With the special tourist train ticket, you can travel on train you like. If there are words you dont understand, use a dictionary. 2.Completai propoziiile cu some sau any + body thing-where: 1.I was too surprised to say 2.Theres at the door.Can you go and see who it is ? 3.Does mind if I open the window ? 4.I wasnt feeling hungry, so I didnt eat 5.You must be hungry.Would you like to eat ? 6.Quick, lets go ! Theres coming and I dont want to see us. 7.Sally was upset about and refused to talk to 8.This machine is very easy to use . Can learn to use it in a very short time. 9.There was hardly on the beach.It was almost deserted. 10.Do you livenear Jim ? No, he lives in another part of the town. 11.We slept in a part because we didnt have to stay. 12.Where shall we go on holiday ?Lets go warm and sunny. 13.They stay at home all the time ? They never seem to go 14.Im going out now.If phones while Im out, can you tell me Ill be back at 11.30 ? 15.Why are you looking under the bed ?Have you lost ? 16.who saw the accident should contact the police.

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3.Punei n spaiile goale : much, many, few or little . 1. He isnt very popular. He has friends. 2. Ann is very busy these days. She has . free time. 3. Did you take photographs when you were on holiday ? 4.Im not very busy today. I havent got to do. 5.The museum was very crowded.There were too people. 6.Most of the town is modern.There are old buildings. 7.The weather has been very dry recently. Weve had .rain.

New Words - to buy - flower - to borrow - tired - ticket - to use - to understand - to say - warm - sunny = a cumpra; = floare; = a mprumuta; = obosit(); = bilet; = a folosi; = a nelege; = a spune; = cald; = nsorit;

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COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES COMPARATIVUL I SUPERLATIVUL Gradele de comparaie ale adjectivului din limba englez sunt gradul pozitiv (the Positive Degree), gradul comparativ ( the Comparative Degree) i gradul superlativ ( the Superlative Degree). Indiferent de funciile i formele lor, ele sunt ntru totul comparabile cu gradele de comparaie din limba romn. COMPARATIV DE SUPERIORITATE (the Comparative of Superiority) ADJECTIVE SCURTE Adjectiv + ER John is taller than Wiliam. John este mai nalt dect William. Kate is thiner than Nelly. Kate este mai slab dect Nelly. Adjectivele scurte au o silab. Excepii : adjectivele din dou silabe sunt scurte i se termin n Y precedat de o consoan sau de er (clever), - le (gentle, noble). Unele adjective precedate de o silab sunt considerate ca fiind lungi : dead, glad, real, cross, apt, frank, drunk, tired, pleased.

ADJECTIVE LUNGI MORE + ADJECTIV (+ THAN) John is more intelligent than William. John este mai inteligent dect William. William is stupid,John is more intelligent. William este prost, John este mai inteligent.
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2/COMPARATIV DE INFERIORITATE ( the Comparative of Inferiority) ADJECTIVELE SCURTE : NOT AS +ADJECTIV +AS eg.: James is not as tall as Sam . James nu este la fel de nalt ca Sam.

ADJECTIVE LUNGI LESS + ADJECTIV +THAN Max is less intelligent than Peter. Max este mai puin inteligent dect Peter. (este mai puin) (dect) 3.COMPARATIV DE EGALITATE ( the Comparative of Equality) AS + ADJECTIV + AS eg.: This cake is as sweet as the other one. Aceast prjitur este la fel de dulce ca cealalt ; New words : - tall - thin - intelligent - tall - sweet - cake = nalt(); = slab(); = inteligent(); = nalt(); = dulce; = prjitur;

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SUPERLATIVE SUPERLATIVUL

Adjective scurte the + ADJECTIVE +EST eg.: Hes the tallest. El este cel mai nalt. Aceleai excepii pentru comparativul de superioritate. eg.: Hes the funniest guy Ive ever met. El este cel mai caraghios biat pe care l-am cunoscut vreodat! Adjectivele lungi - the most + adjectiv = cel mai + adjectiv eg.: This is the most expensive TV set I have ever seen ! Acesta este cel mai scump TV pe care l-am vzut vreodat. - the least + adjectiv = cel mai puin+adjectiv There is the least beautiful boat Ive ever seen. Este barca cea mai puin frumoas pe care am vzut-o. Formarea comparativului i superlativului pentru adverbe este aceeai ca a adjectivului n afar de adverbele terminate n ly, vom utiliza mereu : MORE i THE MOST ;

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Excepie : early > earlier ; - devreme > mai devreme ;


-

!Adjectivul din limba englez nu se schimb dup gen, numr i caz Singurul mod de marcare formal este comparaia. Categoria gramatical a comparaiei este concretizat n limba englez ca i n limba romn -3 grade de comparaie ;
1.

gradul pozitiv

- prezena normal a unei caliti, fr a se face o comparaie ; He is tall. ( El) este nalt. - compar dou obiecte n msur egal (comparativ de egalitate ) :

eg.:

2.

gradul comparativ a)de egalitate : eg.:

He is as tall as his sister. Este la fel de nalt ca sora lui.

b)inegal (superioritate): eg.: Im younger than her. Sunt mai tnr dect ea.

c)inferioritate: eg. : This lesson is less intensive than the previous one. Aceast lecie este mai puin intens dect precedenta La comparativ, termenul comparaiei poate fi exprimat. eg.: He is more punctual than the others (sau neexprimat). (He is more punctual). El este mult mai punctual dect alii
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3.

gradul superlativ arat calitatea comparat n cel mai nalt grad, prin intermediul unei comparaii directe (superlativ relativ: She is the cleverest of all) sau fr comparaie direct (superlativ absolut); eg.: She is very clever. Este foarte inteligent.

Adjectivele formate din dou sau mai multe silabe, adjective compuse, cnd dou elemente formeaz un tot din punct de vedere al sensului, comparaia se realizeaz cu ajutorul lui MORE i THE MOST. eg.:
1. 2. 3.

careful more careful the most careful ; well-known - better -known the best known; heart-broken - more heart broken the most heart-broken ;

2/Comparativul i superlativul comparaia neregulat ;


1.GOOD/WELL 2.BAD 3.FAR 4.OLD = better = worse = further/farther = older /elder = the best ; = the worst ; = the furthest/the farthest ; = the oldest /the eldest ;

Further /Farther = distan Further : mai deprtat (distan) ; further = suplimentar, adional, n plus ; ELDER = mai n vrst ( despre membrii aceleiai familii frai i surori
opus lui younger) ;

THE ELDEST = cel mai n vrst (membrii


aceleiai familii (frai sau surori);

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EXERCIII

1.Punei adjectivele din parantez la form corect: 1. Summer is (good) season of the year . 2. In summer the days are (long) and the nights are (short) than in spring. 3. The 22 nd of June is (long) day of the year. 4. In July the days become (warm) and (warm). 5. (Many) people play football in summer. 6. Football is (popular) game in Romania. 7. I think autumn is as (beautiful) as summer. 8. The weather isnt as (warm) as in summer, but the trees are (beautiful) than in summer. 9. Winter is (bad) season of the year. It is cold and wet. 10.Some people think it is (interesting) season of the year, because they can ski, skate or play with snow.

2.Alegei forma corect a adjectivelor din parantez ; 1.From these two dresses the cheaper is ( the best, the better). 2.Since she has retired (less and less, fewer and fewer ) friends have visited her. 3.Mike and Bob are students.The former studies medicine ( the second, the latter) studies architecture. 4.Her (older, elder) sister didnt come to the party. 5.The doctor asked ( the nearest, the next ) person to come in. 3.Traducei n limba englez : 1. Ai citit ultimul roman al lui Marin Preda ? 2. El studiaz din ce n ce mai mult . 3. O cunoti pe sora lui mai mare ? 4. Rochia ta este mai modern dect a mea . 5. Care este planeta cea mai ndeprtat ?

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4.Punei adjectivele la comparativul de superioritate : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. I think the book is (interesting) the film. Their house is (big) mine. Peter has always been (good at maths) anyone. He said the cats were (intelligent) dogs. The weather cant be (bad) today ! Mr. Simpson is much (old) his wife. Her dress is (expensive) Anns. He has always told us that health was (important) money.

5.Punei la comparativele de superioritate, de inferioritate, de inegalitate sau de egalitate : a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Peter says that geography is (> hard) history. Our car is (<comfortable) Mr. Browns. I think that things are (<good) they used to be. That bus is (= late) usual! Is it true that boys are (<sensitive) girls ? Your suitcase is (< heavy) I thought it was. This food is (<good) I expected. I think that John is (= clever) his elder brother.

6.Punei la superlativul de superioritate. a. This school is (big) building in our street. b. The (tall) girl in our school is a basketball player. c. Oxford is (old) university in Britain. d. He thinks that (elegant) dresses are Diors . e. For him, being in good health is (important) thing. f. And now, here is (late) news. g. I think Sharon is (pretty) girl in town. h. That is probably (good) novel I have ever read. 7.Transformai ca n exemplul urmtor : a. Your English is getting better every day. b. I think my job is getting more interesting. c. Cars are becoming more confortable these days.
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d. Dont you think we are going slower ? e. For him, money is getting more important. f. Hes getting up earlier every morning. g. Our house is getting older. h. She opened her eyes wider every minute.

New words : - summer - spring - game - winter - ski - skate - cold - wet - snow - cheap - to dress - dress - former - to ask - next - expensive - bus - usually - heavy - to expect - health - probably = var; = primvar; = joc; = iarn; = ski; = patinaj; = rece; = ud, umed(); = zpad; = ieftin (); = a (se) mbrca; = rochie; = primul(a); = a cere, a nteba, a spune; = urmtorul(ea); = scump(); = autobuz; = de obicei; = greu, grea; = atepta; = sntate; = probabil;

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THE NUMERAL NUMERALUL


a. Definiie : - este partea de vorbire care : exprim un numr, determinarea numeric a obiectelor ( numeralul cardinal) sau ordinea obiectelor prin numrare(numeralul ordinal). NUMERALUL CARDINAL ( The Cardinal Number) - exprim numrul (one, two, three) sau determinarea numeric a obiectelor ( four books, one hundred years);
o

Forma numeralului cardinal - numeralele cardinale de la 1 la 12 n limba englez sunt urmtoarele : 1 2 3 4 5 6 - one; - two; - three; - four; - five; - six ; 7 8 9 10 11 12 - seven; - eight; - nine ; - ten ; - eleven ; - twelve;

Zero = o
-

Numeralele cardinale ntre 13-19 se formeaz cu ajutorul sufixului teen adugat la nr. 3-9 ; 17 - seventeen ; 18 - eighteen ; 19 - nineteen. - se adaug sufixul ty ; 70- seventy ;
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13 thirteen; 14 fourteen; 15 fifteen; 16 sixteen; - numele zecilor 20 twenty ;

30 405060!

thirty ; forty ; fifty ; sixty ;

80- eighty ; 90 ninety ;

n limba englez, ntre zeci i uniti se folosete liniua de unire : 68 - sixty-eight ;

! Numeralele care denumesc sute, mii sau milioane sunt legate prin and de cele care denumesc zeci i uniti : 115= a/one hundred and fifteen. ! Cnd sunt folosite la singular, numeralele hundred, thousand i million sunt ntotdeauna precedate de articolul hotrt sau de un numeral :100/a hundred books. ! Numeralele primesc terminaia s cnd sunt folosite: ca substantive : eg.:Thousands have read this book. b) cnd sunt urmate de prepoziia of :
a)

eg.: The number of young people studying in our schools amounts to hundreds of thousands. 100 300 1000 1253
o

one hundred ; three hundred ; - one thousand ; - a/one thousand two hundred and fifty-three ; ntrebuinarea numeralului cardinal :

pentru exprimarea numerelor abstracte : one, two, three, four, five sau a determinrii numerice a obiectelor : three apples, one hundred pupils . b) pentru exprimarea datei, anii se citesc : -1980 one thousand nine hundred and eighty sau nineteen hundred and eighty n stilul official ,1966-one thousand nine hundred and sixty-six;
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1980- nineteen eighty n engleza vorbit ; c) pentru indicarea numrului unui anumit obiect (pagin,lecie, capitol ,cas, autobuz, etc.). n exprimarea timpului cronologioc, n acest caz, propoziia ncepe de obicei cu pronumele it ; eg. : It is two oclock. Este ora dou. It is five oclock sharp. Este ora cinci fix.

O clock se folosete numai cu ora fix i se poate omite:


o o -

What s the time ? Five. Ce or este? Cinci.

pentru a indica fraciunile de ore pn la i jumtate se menioneaz numrul minutelor urmat de prepoziia past i de ora respectiv ; eg. : It is ten (minutes) past nine. Este ora 9 i 10 (minute). It is a quarter past three. - Este (ora) 3 i un sfert. - It is half past ten. - Este 10 i jumtate.
-

! Fraciunile ntre jumtate i ora urmtoare se redau n limba englez spunnd numrul minutelor, prepoziia to i apoi ora : eg.: It is twenty (minutes ) to six. Este ora 6 fr 20 ( de minute) . Numerele de telefon se citesc cifr cu cifr 597216 = five nine seven two one six.
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- Dac primele sau ultimile dou cifre sunt la fel, se folosete cuvntul DOUBLE ; eg.: 2238 double two three eight ; 5555 - double five double five ; nu se folosete cuvntul double dac cifrele din mijloc sunt aceleai; 3002 three oh oh one ;
-

Pentru exprimarea operaiilor de matematic :


-

2+5=7 7-3 =4

; Two plus five is/are seven . Doi plus cinci fac apte.

; Seven minus three makes four. apte minus trei fac patru. 6 x 5 = 30 ; Six multiplied by 5 is/are thirty. Base nmulit cu 5 fac treizeci. 40 : 5 = 8 ; Forty divided by 5 is/are 8.

c) pentru exprimarea vrstei : How old are you ? Ci ani ai ? I am ten years old. Am zece ani . ! n exprimarea vrstei n limba englez, se poate omite partea final : I am ten ( years old). Am zece ani.

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THE ORDINAL NUMERALS NUMERALUL ORDINAL


1. Definiie - indic ordinea n timp sau n spaiu a obiectelor sau a aciunilor : eg.: He was the first to come. The second house round the corner is mine. A fost primul care a venit. A doua cas dup col este a mea. 2. Forma numeralul cardinal, care poate fi considerat radicalul, articolul hotrt the, care precede radicalul i sufixul - th, care se adaug la radical: - 4 (four) the fourth ; 7 seven the seventh ;
-

Numeralele ordinale de la 1-3 au forme care se abat parial de la aceast regul : the first, the second, the third. Cteva numere ordinale prezint dificulti ortografice ;
-

5 - the fifth ; 8 - the eighth ; 9 - the ninth ;

12 - the twelfth ; 30 - the thirtieth ; 40 - the fortieth ;

La numeralele compuse, numai ultimul numr primete -th ; 27 the twenty seventh ; 236 the two hundred and thirty sixth ; ! Numeralele ordinale cuprinznd cuvintele hundred, thousand,million pot fi precedate numai de one, nu i de a iar articolul hotrt poate fi omis : the one hundred and thirty-second.
-

the first ;

the 1 st;
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the fourth ; - the fifth ; 6-the sixth ; 7-the seventh ; 8-the eight ; 9-the ninth ; 10 - the tenth; 11 - the eleventh; 12 - the twelfth ; 13 - the thirteenth ; 14 - the fourteenth ; 15 - fifteenth ; 16 - sixteenth ; 17 - seventeenth ; 18 - the eighteen ; 19 - the nineteenth ; 20 - the twentieth ; 21 - the twenty first ; 30 - the thirtieth ; 40 - the fortieth ; 100 - the (one) hundred ; 101 - one hundred and first ; 1.000 - the one thousandth ; 3. ntrebuinare a) n exprimarea datei :

the second ;
the third ;

the 2 nd;
the 3 rd;

the 4 th; the 5 th;

- April 25 th the 25 th of April ;


,

La exprimarea datei, numeralul ordinal poate fi aezat nainte sau dup numele lunii; Dac numeralul ordinal precede denumirea lunii, acesta este urmat de of : I was born on the 6th of April 1976. M-am nscut pe data de 6 aprilie 1976.
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Dac numeralul ordinal este aezat dup denumirea lunii, of este omis Ella was born on April (the) 6 th Ella s-a nscut pe 6 aprilie. b) pentru a indica ordinea ntr-o serie: The Second World War. Al doilea rzboi mondial.
c) pentru a exprima repetarea la intervale regulate:

- every second day - din dou n dou zile ; - every third month - din 3 n 3 luni ; (o dat la 3 luni );

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NUMERALELE MULTIPLICATIVE THE MULTIPLICATIVE NUMERALS

Numeralul multiplicativ arat proporia n care a crescut o cantitate oarecare: double- dublu;twofold- dublu, threefold-ntreit, fourfold-mptrit , fivefold- ncincit.

NUMERALELE ADVERBIALETHE ADVERBIAL NUMERALS Numeralul adverbial arat de cte ori este svrit o aciune: once-o dat , twice- de dou ori, three times de trei ori, four times- de patru ori, five times- de cinci ori, many times de multe ori.

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Exerciii

1 / Traducei n limba englez : 24 ianuarie i 1 Decembrie sunt srbtori naionale ale poporului nostru. 2) Deschidei cartea la pagina 48 i citii cap.15 nc o dat. 3) Locuiesc pe strada Spiru Haret nr.48. 4) Ci ani ai ? Am 12 ani. 5) La ora dou i jumtate iau autobuzul 331 i m duc la teatru. 6) Ct cost o pereche de pantofi ? 7) Te atept de mai mult de o jumtate de or. 8) Am format 558969 i apoi am ateptat. 9) Cred c au plecat cu trenul de 6.30. 10)n martie 1977 a avut loc un puternic cutremur.
1)

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THE PRONOUN PRONUMELE


a)

Definiie :

Pronumele reprezint o clas eterogen, care poate nlocui substantive n comunicare, desemneaz direct vorbitorul i asculttorul sau desemneaz global sau parial obiecte sau fenomene . Pronumele are categoriile gramaticale de persoan, gen, numr i caz. PRONUMELE PERSONAL (The Personal Pronoun)
-

desemneaz persoanele ce pot aprea ntr-un dialog sau nlocuiete obiectul despre care se vorbete ; n limba englez, pronumele i verbul sunt singurele pri de vorbire care au categoria gramatical a persoanei : I am a student. Sunt student. She is a policewoman. Ea este poliist.

eg.:

!!!! n limba englez, pronumele I se scrie ntotdeauna cu liter mare . Pronumele personal are categoria gramatical a genului numai la persoana a lll a singular ; He este folosit pentru a nlocui nume de persoane de sex brbtesc. She este ntrebuinat pentru nume de persoane de sex feminin. It nlocuiete nume de obiecte sau de animale. The car./She has already arrived. n limba englez pronumele pentru persoana a lll a plural (they) nu are forme distincte pentru gen, ca n limba romn.
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PRONUMELE PERSONAL - forme pentru cazul Nominativ, pentru Dativ iAcuzativ (cu excepia lui you i it): NOMINATIV: I You He She It We You They persoana I singular persoana a II a sg/pl.; pers.III a sg; pers.III a sg; pers.III a sg. persoana a I a pl; persoana a II-a pl. persoana a III a pl;

DATIV /ACUZATIV -

me ; us ; you ; him; her; it;


them;

PRONUMELE REFLEXIV
-

pronumele reflexiv nlocuiete obiectul asupra cruia se exercit aciunea verbului i care este identic cu subiectul verbului ; are categoriile gramaticale de persoan, gen, numr i caz;

Categoriile gramaticale ale pronumelui reflexiv


-

are pers.I, II-a, III-a ca i pronumele personal; are forme distincte de gen numai la persoana a III a singular;
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are terminaia -self la singular i selves la plural;

Persoana Persoana I Persoana II Persoana III masculin feminin neutru

Numrul Singular Plural myself ourselves yourself yourselves himself herself itself themselves

PRONUMELE POSESIV ( The Possessive Pronoun)


-

nlocuiete att numele obiectului posedat ct i al posesorului, are categoriile gramaticale de persoan, gen, numr i caz i poate ndeplini funciile sintactice de subiect, nume predicative, atribut , apoziie, complement.

Formele pronumelui posesiv Persoana Singular Persoana I Persoana a II a : Persoana a III a : masculine : feminin mine yours his hers theirs Numrul Plural ours

!Pronumele posesive nu determin substantive ca adjectivele posesive, ci le nlocuiesc.


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adj.posesiv pron.posesiv pron.personal

eg.: Its my coat. Este haina mea. eg.: Its mine. Este a mea. eg.: It belongs to me. mi aparine.

PRONUME INTEROGATIV
-

pronumele interogativ ine locul, n propoziiile interogative, cuvintelor ateptate ca rspuns la ntrebare ;

Pronumele interogative sunt specializate :


-

who este folosit pentru fiine ; what pentru lucruri ; which pentru fiine i lucruri ; how much pentru cantiti ; what kind of pentru caliti ;

Din punct de vedere al flexiunii, who are forme deosebite pentru fiecare caz; Who are urmtoarele forme : N. = Who ? = cine ? ; D. (to) whom =cui ?; Ac.= Whom ? Who? fam.= pe cine ? G. = Whose ? = a,a, ai,ale cui ? - who se refer numai la persoane; - whose ( se poate referi i la persoane i la lucruri); WHAT = ca pronume interogativ se refer la substantive sau nlocuitori ai acestora de orice gen; WHAT ? - se traduce n limba romn : CE ? What are you doing ? = Ce faci? CARE ? What are the films you want to watch ? = Ce (care) film vrei s-l vezi? CT ? What time is it ? = Ct este ceasul?
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WHICH ? - implic selecia dintr-un numr limitat de obiecte : Which of these books do you want ?

Expresii fixe cu valoare de adverbe :


-

at present = n prezent; as a rule = de obicei; by the way = apropo; as a matter of fact = de fapt; at once = imediat; once in a while, now an then = din cnd din cnd;

Structuri paralele :
-

arm in arm = bra la bra ; hand in hand = mn n mn ; day by day = zi de zi ; face to face = fa n fa; from dawn to dusk = din zori de zi,pn la lsarea serii, ntunericului; from morning till night = de diminea pn seara ; from beginning to end = de la nceput pn la sfrit; from right to left = de la dreapta la stnga; from east to west = de la est la vest;

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PROPOZIIA CONDIIONAL IF CLAUSE Exist trei tipuri mari de propoziii circumstaniale :


1.

O condiie real viitoare sau general, care exprim o situaie anticipat sau posibil:

- ntr-un moment viitor: Well leave tomorrow if the weather is fine. Vom pleca mine dac vremea este bun. - n general: If I make a mistake, my boss always knows it. Dac fac o greeal, eful meu ntotdeauna tie. 2. O condiie ireal prezent sau viitoare, care se refer la: - situaie imaginar, contrar unei realiti prezente: If the weather were better now, we could go for a picnic. Dac vremea ar fi mai bun, am putea face o plimbare. - o situaie improbabil ntr-un moment viitor: If I had money I would buy a car. Dac a avea bani, as cumpra o main. 3. O condiie ireal trecut, cu referire la o situaie imagina sau contrar realitii ntr-un moment trecut: If the weather had been better, I would have left last Sunday. Dac vremea ar fi fost mai bun a fi plecat duminica trecut.

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TIMPURILE FOLOSITE:

Tipul de propoziie condiional

n propoziia principal
Viitor/Prezent/Imperativ Ill go swimming. A teacher is always happy Go and buy tickets

Timpul n condiional
Prezent If th water is warm. If his pupils work hard

propoziia

If you want to see the play. Past Tense If she were on holiday Past Perfect If I had seen her yesterday.

2 3

Condiional prezent She would go on a trip Condiionalul trecut I would have spoken to Ann

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CORECTAREA EXERCIIILOR

Timpul prezent : Exercise 1 : a - goes; - b- are having; - c - drive; - d- is walking; - e - live; - f - is running; - g- is reading ; - h- comes;
-

Exercise 2 :
-

arrive; is wearing; spends; goes; is ; blows; is coming; is; is talking; know; is leaving; leaves; says; Im, leaves, comes back.

PAST TENSE 1.met/was going; 2.called/told/was painting;


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3.was coming;/stopped; 4.was digging /began/; 5.left/were working ; 6.was sleeping/woke ; 7.were you doing/rang ; 8.was shining /got up ; 9.was trying /remembered ; Exercise 2 : The house was very big.When we rang the bell, the landlady was planting flowers. She was a beautiful lady.We talked to her. She told us that she couldt stand the birds that were singing in the garden any more. She added that when her husband would retire they would travel a lot.We were impressed by this charming lady who was talking with a foreign accent. She knew many things and we listened to her very carefully.Near the end of our conversation,we learnt that she was going to London the next day,but we knew that she should be back as soon as her children needed her because she was a loving mother as well. Exercise 3: went- bought - needed- was shining- were ; singing- arrived- were sitting (were) looking ; was going on saw- said-was was givingmade-decided-said-found-amused-gavewas-thanked Present Perfect Exercise 1 1.hasnt paid ; 2.have bought ; 3.hasnt finished; 4.has John cut; 5.has stolen; 6.ve repaired ; 7.have you seen ; 8.havent heard ; Exercise 4 a.have you just bought ; b.have never been; c.went; d.started ; e.left-got ; f.hasnt finished ; g.have lived ; h.have waited;
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i.broke ; j.have arrived ; Exercise 3 : a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. It hasnt rained this week. The weather has been cold recently. It was cold last week. I didnt read a newspaper yesterday . I havent read a newspaper today. Ann hasnt earned a lot of money this year. She didnt earn so much last year. Have you had a holiday recently ?

Exercise 5 : 1.b. 2.a. 3.b. 4.c. 5.b. 6.a. 7.c 8.b 9.c 10.b SINCE/ FOR/AGO Exercise 1: a. He hasnt read a newspaper since last week. b. We havent received a letter from them since June 6 th. c. John hasnt come here since the beginning of the month. d. Bob hasnt caught a fish since we arrived. e. They havent visited London since 1982. f. I havent ridden a bike since I was a boy. g. She hasnt had lunch at a restaurant since March. h. We havent drunk a beer since the beginning of the week.
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Exercise 2: a) John has been sleeping since 10 oclock . b) I have been waiting for 3 hours. c) Hes been working for us since 1980. d) Weve been living in Bristol for 5 years. e) Shes been fishing for an hour. f) They ve been playing chess since 4 p.m. g) The sun has been shining for a fortnight. h) Bill has been reading that book since the beginning of the afternoon. MODALE Exercise 1 : 1. the car may /could have been sold ; 2. if he could write; 3. you cant have heard ; 4. where could I find ; 5. you have to fill ; 6. I must come ; 7. she cant have left; 8. I could see ; 9. people must have been looking ; 10.you might/may not even ; 11.I should book a seat ; 12.you could have given me a hand ; 13.you neednt make out a receipt; 14.he may/might/could have taken ; VIITORUL Exercice 1:
a) b) c) d)

is going to rain; shall; will; am going to ;


129

e) will; is going to; f) shall; g) will; h) will; Exercise 2: a) will will ; b) shall; c) will/shall; d) will; e) will; f) shall; g) will; h) will. Exercise 3 : are you going to do; b. is going to rain; c. am going to make; d. is coming; e. am going to try; f. are leaving; g. am going to see; h. going to open; i. are you seeing;
a.

Exercise 4 : a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. will leave wont disobey shall listen Im having Im taking will you phone Ill tell Im recording are you going to will you wear is leaving
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Articolele Exercise 1: a. b. c. d. a-a-the the an-a-a-the the the a a an-a a-the-a

Exercise 2 : a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. an apple the dentist the door a mistake the bus station a problem the post office the floor the book j. a job a bookshop; k. a small flat the city centre. Exercise 3
a. b. c.

d. e.
f.

g. h. i. j. k.

o-the o-the the-the o-o o-the the-o a-the o-o the-the the a

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Exercise 4 1.the 2.the-the 3.o 4.the 5.o 6.the 7.the-the-o 8.a-the

Adjectivul nehotrt Exercise 1 Exercise 2: 1.any; 2.some; 3.any; 4.any-some; 5.some; 6.any ; Anybody 7.any; 8.some; 9.any; 10.any 1.anything 2.somebody 3.anybody 4.anything 5.something 6.somebody- anybody 7.something-anybody 8.anybody 9.anybody 10.somewhere 11.anywhere 12.somewhere 13.anywhere 14.anybody 15.something 16.anybody 17.anybody anything

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Exercise 3 : 1.few ; 2.little 3.many ; 4.much; 5.many; 6.few; 7.little;

COMPARATIV I SUPERLATIV Exercise 1: 1. the best ; 2. longer,shorter; 3. the longest; 4. warmer,warmer; 5. most of the people; 6. the most popular; 7. as beautiful as; 8. warm, more beautiful; 9. the worst; 10.the most interesting; Exercise 2: 1.the better; 2.fewer and fewer; 3.the latter; 4.elder; 5.the next;

Exercise 3: 1.Have you read Marins Preda last novel?


133

2.He studies more and more . 3.Have you met his elder sister? 4.Which is the farthest planet? Exercise 4 : 1.more interesting than the film 2.bigger than 3.better at maths than 4.more intelligent than 5.worse than 6.older than 7.more expensive than 8.more important than Exercise 5 : a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. harder than less comfortable than not as good as as late as more sensitive than not as heavy as not as good as as clever as

Exercise 6: the biggest the tallest the oldest the most elegant the most important the latest the pretiest h. the best . Exercise 7 1.better and better
134

a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

2.more and more interesting 3.more and more comfortable 4.slower and slower 5.more and more important 6.earlier and earlier 7.older and older 8.wider and wider Numeralul The 24 th of January, and the 1 st of December are national days of our people.Open the book at page 48 and read chapter 15 again.I live at no.49, Spiru Haret street. How old are you? I am 12 (years old).At half past two Ill get on bus 331 and go to visit the exhibition. How much is a pair of shoes? I have been waiting for you for more than half an hour.I dialed double five, seven, nine, three, four and then I waited.I think they left by the 6.30 train. A terrible carthquake occured in March 1977. Adjectivul 1/the best ;2/longer ,shorter ;/3.the longest ; 4/warmer,warmer; 5/many ;6/the most popular ; 7/as beautiful as / 8 /warm,more beautiful ;/9/the worst /10/the most interesting; 2/the better /fewer and fewer /the latter /4/elder;5/the next ; 3/Have you read Marins Preda s last novel ? - he studies more and more ; - have you met his elder sister ; - your dress is more modern than mine; - which is the farthest /furthest planet;

135

LEXIC

- kill, shoot down - repeal

- abstain for - breach of trust -overwhelming exhausting - accident = accident; - tolerance = toleran; - accusation, charge = acuzaie; - accused = acuzat; - accused falsely = acuzat pe nedrept; - buy, purchase = a cumpra , a cheltui; - associate = a asocia; - team up, get together = a echipa , a se mpreuna; - discharge = disculp; - bill of indictment = acte de acuzare; - legal action = aciune legal; - bring an action against = a aciona mpotriva; - deputy = deputat, delegat; - administration = administrare , gestionare; - case = caz; - constable ,policeman = agent de poliie; - assault = a agresa , a ataca, asalt; - alibi = alibi; - lunatic,insan = nebun, alienat; - fine = amend; - amnesty, law of amnesty = iertare, legea graierii; - appeal = a apela (la), a plcea; - to arrest = a aresta; - judgement, decision = judecare,decizie; - judgement by default = judecare greit (din greeal); - district = district, zon; - bomb expert = expert n bombe -artificier; - murder = criminal; - sworn , officially designed = legat prin jurmnt; - court of assizes = curtea regal; - bomb attack = atac cu bomb ; - crowd , gathering = mulime , adunare ; - hearing, session = audien ; - post mortem examination = autopsie ;
136

= a ucide, a dobor; = a respinge, a-i displace, abroga, a anula; = a se reine de la ceva ; = abuz de ncredere; = epuizare copleitoare;

- autoritaty = autoritate ; - police force = autoritate, forta poliiei ; - confession, acknowledgement = confesiune, nelegere ; - full confession = confesiune deplin; - lawer, counsel = avocat; - assistant public prosecutor = avocat general; - solicitor = solicitant; - fighting, fight = btlie, btaie; - convinct = convingere; - gag = clu, gag / a pune clu; - ballistic = balistic; - bullet = glon; -organised crime = crim organizat; - road block = baraj rutier; - witness box = boxa martorilor; - appear as a witness = a aprea ca un martor; - legal profession = baron; - unit team, station = brigad; - (police) sergeant = (poliie) sergent; - office, desk = birou (mobil); - prison cell = celul de nchisoare; - co-defendant = co-aprtor; -co-author, join author,associate = co autor ,asociat; - penal code,criminal code = codul (penal); - superintended = comisar; - police station = comisariat; - regatory comission = comisia; - appearance = apariie; - jurisdiction, poweres = jurisdicie, putere; - accomplish = a realiza; - conspiracy, plot = conspiraie, complot; - current account = cont curent; - sentence = 1.propoziie 2.condamnare; - certified true = conform (copie); - report, notice = raport, noti; - crime scene report = proces-verbal al scenei de crim; - compel, constrain = a constrnge; - constraint = constrngere; - imprisonment = nchisoare; -ofender = aprtor; -forge,counterfeit = contrafcut; - corrupt = corupt; - coup = lovitur de stat ; - guilty = vinovat; - court = curte;
137

- court of appeal = curte de apel; - Supreme court of appeal, final court of appeal = Curtea Suprem de Apel ; - martial court = curtea marial; - custom, common law = Legea comun; - crime = crim; - criminal = criminal; - dismiss, reject = respins; - behead = decapitare; - die = a muri; - issue a warrant = ncredina un mandat; - witness for defence = martor al aprrii ; - statement = declaraie; - refuse, decline = refuz; - decree, executive order ,writ = decret; - compensation = compensaie; - clear = clar/curat; - default , non appearance = greeal, fr apariie; - defence = aprare; - pull out = a scoate; - damages = pagube; - defacement = degradare; - delay = a ntarzia, a amna; - informer = a informa; - denunciation = denunare; - offender = suprare; - crime,offence = crim; - corpus delicti = corp delict; - request, ask = cerere; - residence = domiciliu, reedin; - denial, refusal = negare, refuz; - report, inform = report, informare; - costs, expenses = costuri, cheltuieli; - report a crime, file a complaint = reportul unei crime; - give evidence, testify, report = a depune jurmnt; - member of parliament = membru al parlamentului; - member of the Congress (US) = membru congresului; - disarm = dezarma; - deny, distinct = a nega; - police raid = raidul poliiei; - withdrawal = retragere; -discharge, remove from office , dismiss; - private detective = dectectiv particular; - keep in detention = a ine n nchisoare; - trigger = trgaci; - detention under remand = detenie preventiv;
138

- rifle, burger - file - customs - customs duties - cartridge case - drug - commercial law - common law - taxation law - criminal law - civil law - be taken in - drunkenness - grade - burst,explode - telephone tapping - manpower - break in - clear up, solve - emancipate - riot - emigrant - finger print - imprison, put into jail - damage - break the law - get drunk - stake - kidnapping - investigation ,injury - investigate - investigator - jam - confirm , ratify - hostess - swindler, crook - swindle , fraud - to spy - go to court - stranhle , throttle - escape - excuse , apology - pay the penalty for - feat - explosive

= puc; = dosar; = vame; = drepturile vamei; = nzestrat; = drog; = lege commercial; = lege comun; = cod fiscal; = legea penal; = legea civil; = a fi lsat n; = beie; = ealon, treapt; = a exploda; = telefon supravegheat; = efective; = efracie; = a elucida, a rezolva; = a emancipa; = revolt, dezordine; = emigrant ; = amprent digital; = a nchide, a bga la nchisoare; = pagub; = a nclca legea; = a se mbta; = a risca; = rpire; = investigare; = a investiga; = anchetator; = ambuteiaj; = a confirma, a ratifica; = gazd; = escroc; = fraud; = a spiona; = a merge n justiie; = a strnge de gt, a sufoca ; = a scpa; = scuz; = a plti penalizare pentru ; = somaie; = exploziv;
139

- extort = a extorca; - certificate, statement,extract = certificate; - extradite,extradition = extrdare; - be on guard, on stationary duty = a fi pe faz; - bankruptcy = faliment; - alter, forge = a falsifica; - misbehaviour = greeal, delicven; - surveillance, shadowing = filaj, supraveghere; - income tax department = fisc; - in the act,red-handed = prins n fapt; - cop = poliai; - madness ,lunacy = nebunie; - duties = datorii; - coninct = condamnat (); - guarantee = garant; - watchman ,sentry, guard = gard; - bodyguard = paznic; -cutody = custodie; -patroman , policeman = poliist; - traffic patrol officer = poliist de circulaie; - guard ,warder = gardian; - Gendarme = Jandarm; - government = guvernmnt; - governor = guvernator; - free pardon , mercy = mil, clemen; - rank = ir, rnd; - grafologist = grafologist; - record office of court = gref ( de tribunal) ; - secretary of the court = grefier; - grenade = grenad; - unable to pay for it = incapabil de a plti pentru el ; - first authentic copy = prima copie autentic; - war = rzboi; - be on the watch = a fi cu ochii pe - ambush , trap = curs; - counter ,box office = tejghea /cas de bilete ; - red light,blue light, rotating lamp = girofar; - enabling of someone to do something= incapacitatea unei persoane de a face ceva; - capacitation = capacitate; - inheritance, legacy = motenire; - inherit = a moteni; - hierarchy, line of command = ierarhie,l inie de comand; - hold-up, armed robbery = jaf armat; - statesman = om de stat; - time clock = ceas;
140

- outlaw = n afara legii ; - hotel used as a call-house = hotel de trecere; - usher = a conduce, amenina; - mortgage, bond = ipotec; - identify = a identific; - identity = identitate ; - identity card = carte de identitate ; - unlawfulness, illegality = ilegalitate; - unlawful, illegitimate = ilegitim; - illicit ,illegal = illicit, illegal; - registration = nmatriculare; - immunity , privilege = imunitate ,privilegiu; - impact, touch down = impact, lovitur; - form = form; - impunity = a impune; - ascribe, put down to someone , impute = a imputa; - infit , inapt = inapt; - imprison , send to jail = nchis,trimis la nchisoare; - charge , indict = inculpat; - compensation = compensaie; - allowance = permisie; - clue = cheie, indice; - indulgence , leniency = indulgen; - infanticide = infamant, degradant; - inflict a penalty to someone = a plica o amend cuiva; - news = tiri; - infringement , offence = infraciune,ofens; - inject = a injecta; - order of the court = ordinul curii ; - offence language , insult = injurie , insult; - innocent ,not guity,blameless = innocent, nevinovat ; - plea (of forgery) = pledoarie,pretext; - insolvent = insolvabil; - detective inspector = inspector (detectiv); - institute proceeding = procedurile instanei; - still pending, still under discussion = nc n discuie ; - institution = instituie; - judicial inquiry = pedeaps judiciar ; - forbid, prohibit = interdicie; - claim, damages = pagube; - stop and check someone = a interpela; - questioning, examination of defendant = interogatoriu ; - investigation , inquiry = investigaie ; - judicial inquiry = pedeaps judiciar; - judicial = judiciar ;
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- examining magistrate = judector ; - remand a case court = rmne cazul curii ; - trial, judgement = judecat, proces; - deliver a sentence = a pronuna o sentin ; - be brought up for trial = a fi adus la judecat; - by default = din greeal ; - judge,pass sentence , try = judecat, proces; - juryman = juriu; - jurisdiction = jurisdicie ; - case law , jurisprudence = jurispruden; - dispense justice = justiie ; - go to law = a-i face dreptate; - kepi = grij; - horn , hoot = a claxona; - kleptomania = cleptomanie; - laboratory = laborator; - tear gras = lacromigene (gaze); - pass, permit = a lsa s treac; - blade = lam; - petty theft , larceny =mic furt, obiect mic; - stab,knife = cuit; - robber, thief = ho; - clear someone from a accusation = a scoate pe cineva de sub acuzaie; - lauder, money laundering = splare de bani,acuzaie; - legalize = a legaliza; -legislate = legislaie; - forensic pathologist = medic legist; - self-defence = legitim aprare; - in defence of someone else = n aprarea altcuiva; - legal owner = proprietar legal; -bequeath = a lega, a lsa prin testament; - encroach upon someones rights = a leza, a vtma; - remove the seals = a revoca /tampila ; - wad of banknotes = a face sul bacnote ; - set a prisoner free ,discharge = a elibera un prizonier; - licence = licen ; - tie someone up,bind someone hand and foot = a lega fedele; - case under dispute , dispute at law , lawsuit = litigiu; - post mortem lividity = lividitate cadaveric ; - law , act of parliament = lege, act al parlamentului ; - magistrate = magistrate; - mayor = maior; - town hall = primrie; - offender = rufctor; - dishonest, deceitful = necinstit;
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- ill-will = rea-voin; - mandate = mandat; - warrant = mandat judiciar; - warrant of arrest = mandate de arestare; - committal order = angajare; - search warrant = mandat de percheziie; - pimp = pete, coda ; - army medical officer = medic militar; - threaten = ameninat, ameninat ; - handcuffs = ctue; - handcuff = ctu; - murder = crim; - murderer = criminal; - militia = miliia; - underworld = sub pmnt;sub acoperire; - mine = min; - juvenile = juvenile, minor; - ministry = minister; - department of the public prosecutor = minister public; - Secretary of State = secretar de stat; - mission = misiune; - machine-gun = mitralier; - assault = asalt; - mortuary = morg; - sneak ,police informer , informant = spion,denuntor; - ammunitions = muniie; - transfer = transfer; - mutinity = rzmeri; - drug , narcotic = drog, nicotin; - deny = a nega; - notify = a nota; - infiltrate = infiltra ; - invalidity = invaliditate; - aim , ojective = scop, obiectiv; - to obey = a (se) supune; - peep-hole = vizor; - office ,duty = birou, datorie; - officer = ofier; - opiates = substane opiacee ( droguri); - stop payment of = oprirea plii ; - stay of execution ,caveat = a se opune executrii ; - judges order , judges ruling ,enactment = ordinul judectorului ; - order = ordin, a ordona ; - hostage = ostatec; - public indecency = indecen public;
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- appear in court = a aprea n justiie; - bullet proof vest = vest anti-glon; - parliament = Parlament,congres ; - department = department serviciu ; - liable to = posibil de ; - patrol = patrol ; - oppium poppy = opium /mac ; - penal, criminal = penal, criminal; - hanging = a atrna atrnnd ; - penitentiary = penitenciar ; - on duty = de serviciu ; - driving licence , drivers licence = permis de conducere ; - house search = percheziie ; - pickpocket = ho de buzunare ; - pedestrian , passer-by = pieton , trector ; - loot , sack = a jefui , a prda ; - shot = mpuca; - gun = puc; - sub-machine gun = pistol-mitralier; - plead = a pleda; - pleading = pledoarie; - plaintiff, complaint = plngere; - complain = a se plnge; - crime report, complaint = plngere; - stab = a njunghia; - poison = otrav; - police = poliie; - first aid = primul ajutor; - criminal investigation department = poliia judiciar; - fireman = pompier; - illegal carrying of a weapon = port illegal de arme; - police station = secie de poliie; - apply for = a se adresa; - gallows = spnzurtoare; - powder = pudr; - charge, prosecute = nvinuire; - police force headquarters = poliia din cartierul general; - losses = prejudiciu; - sampling = mostr,prob; - premeditation = premeditare; - prescription = prescriere; - supposed = a presupune; - accused of , charge with = acuzat de ; - prison jail = nchisoare; - legal procedure = procedur legal;
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- legal proceeding = acte de procedur; - administrative proceeding = procedur administrativ; - trial = process; - criminal court trial = process criminal; - police report = proces-verbal; - crown prosecutor = procurer; - prohibit, forbid = a interzice; - projectile = proiectil; - sentence = pronun o sentin; - prostitute,whore = prostituat; - prove = a demonstra; - pimping,procuring = proxenetism; - conciliation board = cale de mpcare; - punish = pedeaps; - punishable = pedepsibil (); - qualification = calitate; - headquarters = cartier general; -(just) solicit,accost = a solicita, a acosta; - police raid = raid de poliie; - ransom = rscumprare; - report = raport ; - kidnapping = rpire; - receiving and concealing stolen goods = tinuire de obiecte furate; - receiver, handler of stolen goods = tinuitor de lucruri furate; - repeat an offence , to relapse into crime = a recidiva; - recruit = a recruta; - object to witness = obiect al marturisirii; - release = a se relaxa ; - put ones revolver back = a-i pune revolverul la loc; - remorse = a se ci; - (just) call for sentence = a cere, a reclama; - cancel = a anula; - scope, competence = scop, competen; - without appeal = fr apel; - brawl = ncierare; - seizure = sechestru, confiscare; - seizure for security = msur de securitate; - size = mrime; - refer a matter to court = a sesiza tribunalul; - seal = sigiliu, pecete; - secret, secrecy =secret; - in solitary confinement = secret; - Senate = Senat; - illegal restraint = sechestrare; - oath, take an oath = jurmnt;
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- swering in - locksmith - department , agency - description - notify , serve a notice upon - solvent - warning shot - summons to appear - survey - to bribe - suspicion - pimp - parking - drugs , narcotics - crown prosecutor - vote - suicide - surrogate - safety,security - delay, stay of preecedings - suspect - disturbance , scandal - testimony, evidence - attempt - torture - translator - sue,prosecute - deal, smuggle - settle - be involved in - court of justice - pavement,sidewalk - felon, crook,gangster - to kill - uniform - emergency - ballot box - usurer - holidays - vagrancy - case, suitcase - vandalism - night watchman - (give a) fine - checking

= jurmnt; = lctu; = tribunal pentru judecare; = descriere; = semnificativ; = solvabil; = somaie; = somaie de apariie; = sondaj, supraveghere; = a plti, a tocmi; = suspiciune; = susintor; = parcare; = droguri, narcotice; = substitut; = vot; = a se sinucide; = surogat; = securitate , siguran; = amnare; = suspect; = scandal , disturbare; = eviden; = ncercare; = tortura; = traductor; = a persecute; = traffic ; = a pune o ntrebare; = a fi implicat de; = Tribunal; = trotuoar; = gangster; = a ucide; = uniform; = urgen; = urn; = cmtar; = vacane; = vagabondaj; = valiz; = vandalism; = supraveghetor de noapte; = a da o amend; = verificare;
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- vice - victim - rape - rapist - medical examination - theft - robbery - shoplifting - ballot - peeping tom - hooligan - examination and passed on

= viciu; = victim; = viol; = violator; = vizit medical; = furt, hoie; = jaf; = ho de magazine; = a vota; = voyeur; = huligan; = examinat i trecut;

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ANEXE
Writing a letter properly Scrierea unei scrisori potrivite DONT FORGET : KISS ( keep it short and simple) Nu uita : Srut ( s fie scurt i simplu) ; Your name : on the top right (Numele tu) : n partea dreapt de sus. The readers name : on the left Numele cititorului : pe partea stng The date : 8th September 2005 ( 8 septembrie 2005, etc.) Numele lunilor primesc ntotdeauna o majuscul n limba englez. FORMAL Opening salutation ( salutri sincere) Closing salutation
Dear Sirs Dear Sir, Dear Madame

INFORMAL (degajat,familiar)
Dear Mr.Sweet Dear Mrs Sweet Dear John

Your faithful

Yours sincerely Cordially years With best /kind regards.

Your faithful = al dumneavoastr credincios; With best/kind regards = cele mai sincere urri ; BUSINESS LETTERS = Scrisori de afaceri We thank you for your letter of V mulumim pentru scrisoarea dumneavoastr despre With reference /in replay/Further to your letter of Referitor/Ca replic/Urmare la Following our (telephone) conversationCa urmare a conversaiei ( telefonului ) nostru

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We are pleased /happy to inform you that /Sunt fericii /ncntai s v informm faptul cWe would be grateful if you could V vom fi foarte recunosctori dac ai putea.
Sfritul unei scrisori

I look forward to hearing from you/to meeting you - Atept s aud veti de la dumneavoastr/s v ntlnesc - We would appreciate an answer /A reply by return of post - Un rspuns la scrisoare - We are extremely grateful for /V suntem profund recunosctori - My most sincere thanks forCele mai sincere mulumiri pentru - I wish to express our gratitude= Vreau s exprim gratitudinea noastr pentru
-

The months of the year are : Lunile anului sunt : January; - February; - March; - April; - May; - June; - July;
-

- August; - September; - October; - November; - December;

Seasons of the year :


-

spring ( primvara ); summer ( var) ; autumn ( toamn) ; winter (iarna) ;

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The days of the week :


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Sunday = duminic ; Monday = luni; Tuesday = mari ; Wednesday = miercuri ; Thursday = joi ; Friday = vineri ; Saturday = smbt .

Try to translate into Romanian : Days,Weeks, Months, Seasons, There are seven days in a week.The first day is Monday; the second day is Tuesday ; the third day is Wednesday ; the fourth day is Thursday;the fifth day is Friday ; the sixth day is Saturday and the seventh day is Sunday. Monday, Tuesday,Wednesday,Thursday and Friday are week days.Saturday and Sunday are week-end days and sometimes we call Sunday a holiday .There are four weeks and a few days in a month. There are twelve months in a year.There are about three months in each season. The four seasons are Spring,Summer, Autumn and Winter.March , April and May are Spring months,June,July and August are Summer months; September, October and November are Autumn months; December, January and February are Winter months.

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MOMENTS OF DAYS AND NIGHTS


-

dawn/daybreak = zori de zi/ a se crpa de ziu ; sunrise = rsrit de soare ; sunset = apus de soare ; dusk = amurg ; at dusk = la lsarea serii ;

THE MEALS OF THE DAY


-

breakfast = micul-dejun ; lunch = prnz ; dinner = cina ; supper = supa ;

Translate : MORNING COFFEE Who is it ? Its me ! Oh! Hello,come in.How nice! Are you busy ?You are tired. Yes. Mrs.Brown ? Yes. Time for coffee. Good. What a nice room ! Milk! No, thank you.Where are the children ? At school Sugar ? Yes,pleaseThank you.
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- How is Charlie ? - Hes fine , thank you. - At school? - Yes,please Thank you. - At school. - Yes, at school. - And how is David ? How is his work ? - Oh!All right - Thank you,are the roses from the garden ? - Yes. The garden is nice.There are lots of roses. Words :
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Who is it ? Cine este? How nice ! Ce drgu ! Are you busy ? Eti ocupat ? You are tired? Eti obosit ? Time for coffee ? Este timp pentru cafea ? milk = lapte; at school = la coal; sugar = zahr ; How is (Charlie);Ce face Charlie ? How is his work ? Cum este munca lui? from the garden = din grdin ; there are lots of roses = sunt o grmad de trandafiri ;

At the restaurant Waiter : Good evening ,sir. Man : Ah, good evening. An omlette and macaroni, please.Oh, yes, and a beef steak and some bread and butter. W : Any tomato or lettuce salad,sir ? M : No, thank you. Have you got any cheese ? W : What kind of cheese,sir ? M : Feta cheese.Have you got any? W : Im sorry sir.We havent got any ; but weve got some French cheese.Its very good cheese. M : No, thank you.We havent got French cheese in my country
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A MEAL AT RESTAURANT Translate: -

Hello Chris, you are here already.Good.How are you ? I am very well, thank you. How are you Jerry ?O.K. thanks. Its good to have lunch with an old friend. Yes, its just a quick lunch with an old friend. Yes, its just a quick lunch today but its good to see an old friend. So, what are you drinking ? Im drinking a tomato juice.I have a business meeting this afternoon. Fine, and for me please.Now, what are we going to eat ? This fish is rather good here, but Im not having fish today. I am hungry and thats why Im having steak, a big steak, lots of potatoes, and a salad. Well I never have a lot of lunch.Im leaving a small steak, a little salad and some of your potatoes, for me please. All right. Thats two steaks, two tomato juices, one potatoes and which salad sir ? Tomato. Yes, tomato; a tomato salad for me, please. Yes, sir. How is your wife, and your pretty little daughter? Happy as always? Yes, she is always happy, isnt she mum, youre right; and how is Andrew? Oh! Five thanks.He is working hard as usual. Arent we all ? Im not working this week-end.I am gardening. Oh, here is the food. Here you are gentleman.Two steaks,one tomato salad, and one chips.Is that all sir ? Where is the salt ? Oh, Im sorry sir.Is no salt.Just a moment.Im getting it. Salt is not good for you. I know but steak and potatoes are not good without salt. Here you are.Salt and pepper.
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Is that all sir ? Yes, thank you very much. Youre welcome. Mm, this is very good.I like this steak. Mm,its a lot for me. Oh, come on, we are eating at a restaurant .Enjoy yourself. Well, it is good.And the tomatoes are fresh.The bread is very goodWaiter ! Yes sir ? This is a very good bread. Yes sir , we have a very good baker. Im Iam putting butter on mine.Some more butter please. Yes, sir. And a bottle of water, very cold please. Yes, sir. Here you are. Yes, some fruit, sir ? No, thanks.The bill please. Ah, yes sit ;just a moment. Well, that was a good meal.Now,whats the time? Its two oclock. Im sorry, but I have a meeting Thats O.K.I am going to work, too. Thank you. Oh,no, thats . No, no.Were near my office today. O.K. But when are we meeting again ? Any time, its fun. Ok.Next time we are meeting near my office. Thank you.You have a good restaurant. Ah, thank you sir. Well, lets back to work. Yes.Come on then.

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Translate : A House Near The Sea There is a house in this picture. Its on the hill.The house is white, but its roof is red.There is a chimney on its roof.There is a window and a door at the front of the house.There is a tree behind it.The tree is green and its trunk is brown.The hill is at the front of the picture.Its a green hill.It is green.The grass on it is green.There are two cows on the hill.One cow is white and brown,one cow is white and black.Behind the house there are mountains.They are brown.They are far from the hill.There is a plain in the picture, too.It is near the hill. It is on the right of the hill.It is a yellow plain.On the right of the picture there is the sea. Its colour is blue.Its blue sea.There is an island in the sea.The island is far from the hill.Its an island in the sea.The island is far from the hill.It is green.There is a boat on the sea ,too.Its a white boat.There are men in the boat.Above the mountains , the hill and the sea is the sky. Its colour is blue.The sun in the sky.The sun is yellow.The boat is on the right of the picture.The house is on the left of the picture.The island is on the right.

WORDS :
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hill chimney roof in front behind trunk grass boat sky island near

= deal ; = co, horn ; = acoperi ; = n faa ; = n spate ; = trunchi ; = iarb; = barc ; = cer ; = insul; = lng;

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COLOURS :
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brown white black blue yellow green grey red orange pink purple violet bright-red dark- blue

= maro/cafeniu; = alb (); = negru; = albastru (); = galben (); = verde; = cenuiu (e); = rou ; = portocaliu; = roz, trandafiriu; = purpuriu; = violet; = rou-aprins; = albastru-nchis;

Translate into Romanian : Trafalgar Square London This is Trafalgar Square. It is a big square in London. There are beautiful building round it. Some buildings are high and some are low. There is a monument in the middle of the square.It is Lord Nelsons monument.It is Nelsons statue.The statue is standind on a very high column.A lot of birsds are flying round it.They are pigeons. There is a big building on the left of the picture.It is behind the monument.There are famous pictures inside it. These pictures are paintings.El Greco and Da Vinci are great painters.Some of their paintings are inside the big building.El Greco is Greek , Da Vinci is Italian , and Lord Nelson is English.They are all great men .A lot of cars and buses are going round the square.One bus is stopping at the bus-stop.It is not going round the square.Some passangers are coming out of the bus.Other passengers are going in.Look at the church in the middle of the picture.There are a lot of people going up its staircase.They are visiting the church .Some people are going down .They are going away. There are a lot of other people in the square . Some are walking and some are sitting in the middle of the square .Some are walking and some are sitting in the middle of the square under Nelsons statue. A girl is feeding some pigeons and a boy is looking up.He is looking at an aeroplane.The
156

aeroplane is flying over Trafalgar Square.Aeroplanes are very fast , some cars are fast but carts are slow.

Words :
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square round it high low middle monument famous birds to fly pigeon building inside Greek lot of cars round passenger bus-stop church in the middle staircase under to feed aeroplane fast slow aeroplane fly over

= pia ; = n jurul ; = nalt () ; = jos () ; = n mijlocul ; = monument ; = faimos (); = psri ; = a zbura ; = porumbel; = cldire ; = nuntrul ; = grec ; = multe maini ; = n jurul ; = pasager ; = staie de autobuz; = biseric; = n mijlocul; = scri ; ( casa scrii ) ; = sub, dedesubt ; = a hrni; = avion; = repede, repezi, iute ; = ncet, ncete ; = aeroplan, avion ; = a zbura deasupra;

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COUNTRIES

COUNTRIES CHINA JAPAN PORTUGAL SWITZERLAND VIETNAM AFRICA AMERICA BELGIUM BRAZIL BULGARIA GREECE GERMANY HUNGARY DENMARK FILAND FRANCE ITALY POLAND ROMANIA SPAIN SWEDEN ARABIA HOLLAND NETHERLAND IRELAND SCOTLAND

NAIONALITI Chinese; Japonese; Portuguese; Swiss; Vietnamese; African; American; Belgian; Brasilian; Bulgarian; Greek; German; Hungarian; Danish ; Finnish ; French ; Italian ; Polish ; Romanian ; Spanish ; Swedish ; Arabic ; Dutch ; Dutch ; Irish ; Scots ;

I am Greek; my country is Greece.

Eu sunt grec; ara mea este Grecia. You are British; your country is Britain; Tu eti britanic; ara ta este Britania. She is Italian; her country is Italy. Ea este italianc; ara ei este Italia. They are Greek; their flag is blue and white. Ei sunt greci; steagul lor este albastru i alb. I am Romanian: my country is Romania .Our flag is red, yellow and blue . Sunt romn:ara mea este Romnia. Steagul nostru este rou, galben i albastru.
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I am Romanian. Sunt romn. I am a Romanian woman (man). Sunt o romnc ( romn). The flag of my country is red, yellow and blue. Steagul rii mele este rou, galben i albastru. Its the flag of my country. Este steagul rii mele. My country is Romania. ara mea este Romnia.

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VERBELE NEREGULATE

160

infinitiv

trecut

participiu

traduction

- arise - awake - be - bear - beat - become - begin - bend - bet - bite - blow - break - breed - bring - build - burn - burst - buy - cast - catch - choose - come - cost - creep

- arose - awoke - was/were - bore - beat - became - began - bent - bet - bit - blew - broke - bred - brought - built - burnt - burst - bought - cast - caught - chose - came - cost - crept

- arisen - awoken - been - borne - beaten - become - begun - bent - bet - bitten - blown - broken - bred - brought - built - burnt - burst - bought - cast - caught - chosen - come - cost - crept

- a se ridica ; - a se trezi ; - a fi ; - a suporta, a purta ; - a bate ; - a deveni ; - a ncepe ; - a (se ) ndoi ; - a paria ; - a muca ; - a sulfa; - a (se) sparge ; - a crete , a educa; - a aduce ; - a construi ; - a arde ; - a izbucni, a nvli; - a cumpra ; - a arunca ; - a prinde ; - a alege ; - a veni ; - a costa ; - a se tr, a se furia;

161

- cut - deal - dig - do - draw - dream - drink - drive - eat - fall - feed - feel - fight

- cut - dealt - dug - did - drew - dreamt - drank - drove - ate - fell - fed - felt - fought

- cut - dealt - dug - done - drawn - dreamt - drunk - driven - eaten - fallen - fed - felt - fought

- a tia ; - a trata, a se ocupa de; - a spa ; - a face ; - a desena ; - a visa ; - a bea ; - a conduce ; - a mnca ; - a cdea ; - a hrni ; - a simi ; - a (se) simi ;

- forbid - forget

- forbade - forgot

- forbidden - forgotten

- a interzice ; - a uita ;

- forgive

- forgave

- forgiven

- a ierta ;

- freeze

- froze

- frozen

- a nghea ;

- get - give - go - grow - hang - have - hear

- got - gave - went - grew - hung - had - heard

- got - given - gone - grown - hung - had - heard

a primi ; a da;

- a merge; - a crete; - a atrna; - a avea ; - a auzi ;

162

- hide - hold - hurt - keep - know - lay - lead - lean - leap - learn - leave - lend - let - lie - light - lose - make - mean - meet - pay - put - read - ride - ring - rise - run - say

- hid - held - hurt - kept - knew - laid - led - leant - leapt - learnt left - lent - let - lay - lit - lost - made - meant - met - paid - put - read - rode - rang - rose - ran - said

- hidden - held - hurt - kept - know - laid - led - leant - leapt - learnt - left - lent - let - lain - lit - lost - made -meant - met - paid - put -read - ridden - rung -rosen - run - said

- a (se) ascunde; - a ine; - a rni ; - a ine, a pstra; - a tii; - a pune, a aeza; - a conduce; - a se apleca , a se sprijini ; - a sri ; -a nva; -a pleca, a prsi; - a da cu mprumut; - a lsa , a permite; - a zcea, a se afla; - a prinde ; - a pierde; - a face; - a nsemna; - a ntlni ; - a plti ; - a pune ; - a citi ; - a clri; - a suna ; - a rsri ; - a alerga; - a spune;

163

- see - seek - sell - set - shake - shine - shoot - show - shut - sing - sink - sit - sleep - smell - speak - spell - spend - spread - spring - stand - steal - stick - strike - swear - sweep - swing - take

- saw - sought - sold - set - shook - shone - shot - showed - shut - sang - sank - sat - slept - smelt - spoke - spelt - spent - spread - sprang - stood - stole - stuck - struck - swore -swept - swung - took

- seen - sought - sold - set - shaken - shone - shot - shown - shut - sung - sunk - sat - slept - smelt -spoken - spelt - spent - spread - sprung - stood - stolen - stuck - struck - sworn - swept - swung - taken

- a vedea; - a cuta; - a vinde ; - a pune, a fixa; - a scutura, a tremura. - a strluci; - a mpuca; - a arta; - a nchide; - a cnta; - a (se) scufunda; - a sta , a se aeza; - a dormi; -a zmbi; - a vorbi ; - a otografia; -- a cheltui; - s (se) ntinde; -a izvor ; - a sta ( n picioare); - a fura ; - a lipi; - a lovi; - a jura ; - a mtura; - a nota; - a lua ;

164

- teach - tear - tell - think - throw

- taught - tore - told - thought - threw

- taught - torn -told - thought - thrown

- a nva; - a rupe, a sfia; - a spune; - a gndi; - a arunca ; - a nelege ; - a supra; - a (se) trezi ; - a purta; - a plnge ;

- understand understood understood - upset - wake - wear - weep - upset - woke - wore - wept - upset -woken - worn - wept

- win - write

- won - wrote

- won - written

- a nvinge ; - a scrie;

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