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Engleza Academie

Present Simple
Mod de formare:
Afirmativ:

Subiect + verb( se adaug s/es)

Negativ:

Subiect +dont/doesnt + verb

Interogativ: Do/Does +subiect + verb +?


Presentul simplu se folosete pentru a exprima o aciune repetat, obinuit, activiti zilnice, stri
permanente, adevruri general valabile. Se mai folosete n orare i comentarii spoortive.
Se folosete cu adverbe de frecven: never (niciodat); rarely, seldom ( rar); sometimes (uneori);
usually (deobicei); often (des); always (mereu)
Alte reguli:

Doar la persoana a III-a singular se adaug S/ES

Dac verbul se termin n ss, sh, ch, x, o se adaug ES

Dac verbul se termin n vocal i y se adaug S

Dac verbul se termin n consoan i y, y-ul se transform n i i se adaug ES

Exemple i propoziii uzuale:

The train leaves at half past two. Trenul pleac la ora dou i jumtate

I always drink coffee in the morning. Mereu beau cafea de diminea.

I rarely skip breakfast. Rareori sar peste micul dejun.

Mark never goes to sleep before 10 pm. -Mark nu se culc nicodat nainte de ora 10.

Lucy often eats fried potatoes for dinner. Lucy mnnc deseori cartofi prejii la cin.

It rains a lot in London. n Londra plou des.

I hate people who speak to much.- Ursc oamenii care vorbesc prea mult.

My mother cooks very well. Mama mea gtete foarte bine

Exprima: A)-o actiune simpla,repetata:usually,generally;often(des);seldom(rar);every.


23523d38x I sometimes miss the first class in the morning.
B)-adevaruri general valabile.
23523d38x Water boils at 100^C.
C)-se foloseste in comentarii sportive sau indicatii scenice:
The football player passes the ball to Ronaldinho and this scores.
The lady joins the group in the middle of the stage.
Affirmative:
S+Vb
Pers a 3a singular + S/ES la Vb.
Eg: I often spend my winter holiday in the mountains.
He usually calls me when I sleep.
Interrogative:
Do/Does + S +Vb
Eg: Do you wake up early in the morning?
Does he drives his car?
Negative:
S + don't/doesn't + Vb
Eg: I don't know the answer to this question .
He doesn't belive she loves him.
To earn=a castiga
As a rule=de regula
To succeed=a reusii
Kite= zmeu

Present Countinous
Mod de formare:
Afirmativ:
Negativ:

Subiect + verbul to be la prezent + verb-cu terminaia ing


Subiect + verbul to be la prezent + not + verb-cu terminaia ing

Interogativ: Verbul to be la prezent + Subiect + verbul-cu terminaia ing


Prezentul continuu se folosete pentru a exprima aciuni care au loc n momentul vorbirii, n zilele
acestea, aciuni iritante, planificate, personale, n viitor, situaii aflate n continu schimbare..

Se folosete cu adverbele : now (acum) ; at the moment (n acest moment) ; these days (n aceste
zile)
Exemple:

I am talking to my mother. Vorbesc (acum, n acest moment) cu mama mea.

You are speaking to loud. Tu vorbeti prea tare.

1. La forma afirmativa auxiliarul apare de cele mai multe ori in


forma sa contrasa:

I'm running
You're runnning
He's running
We're running
They're running

2. La forma interogativa se inverseaza ordinea dintre subiect si


auxiliar:

Am I running?
Are you running?
Is he running?
Is she running?
Are we running?
Are you running?
Are they running?

3. La forma negativa cuvantul not precedat de auxiliar apare de


cele mai multe ori in forma sa contrasa (dar niciodata dupa am) :

I' m not runninng


You aren't running
He isn't running

She isn't running


We aren't running
You aren't running
They aren't running

4. Forma interogativ-negativa

Am I not running ?
Aren't you running ?
Isn't herunning ?
Isn't she running ?
Aren't we running ?
Aren't you running ?
Aren't they running ?

B. INTREBUINTARE (cand folosim acest aspect al


Prezentului in vorbire)
1. Pentru a descrie o actiune in curs de desfasurare in
momentul vorbirii.
In acest caz, este insotit adesea de o indicatie temporala, cum
ar fi now, at the moment

Look! He's wasing his car. Priveste! El isi spala masina.


What are you doing there? Ce faci acolo?
2. Pentru a descrie pozitiile corpului:
She's standing. Ea sta in picioare
He's leaning against a wall. El sta sprijinit de un perete.
3. Cand e vorba de o actiune viitoare, prevazuta sau
programata:
They're buying a new house in May. Ei isi cumpara o casa noua in
luna mai.
What are you doing next Monday? Ce faci lunea viitoare?

4. Cand e vorba de ceva care s-ar putea produce in orice


moment:

He looks funny when he's playing his trumpet. Arata comic atunci
cand canta la trompeta.
5. Impreuna cu always, pentru a exprima iritarea sau
dezaprobarea:

She's always coming in when we talk something important.


Intotdeauna trebuie sa intre in camera fix cand vorbim noi lucruri
importante.

Present Perfect
Prezentul perfect (Present Perfect) desemneaz o aciune trecut, care fie
tocmai s-a ncheiat, fie c se desfoar ntr-un timp deschis,
nedeterminat.
Spre deosebire de trecut, care desemneaz tot o aciune trecut, la
prezent perfect momentul ncheierii aciunii nu e necesar s fie cunoscut.
Prezentul perfect corespunde n limba romn trecutului (perfectul
compus). De exemplu:

A nins. = It has snowed. (momentul nu este determinat precis)

Dac momentul ar fi fost determinat, traducerea devenea:

A nins acum o or. = It snowed an hour ago.

S+have\has+verb la a III-a
Negativ
subiect have / has not verb la forma a III-a (participiu trecut)
Interogativ
have / has subiect verb la forma a III-a (participiu trecut)
Adverbe specifice
Adverbe de frecven
ntre cele 2 verbe (verbul auxiliar i verbul conjugat) pot aprea:

adverbe de frecven definit: often, seldom, ever, never, usually,


sometimes
adverbe de frecven indefinit: just, recently, already

Exemplu: I have just met her.


Adverbul "yet"
Adverbul yet se aeaz doar pe finalul propoziiei i numai n
propoziii interogative i negative.
n propoziii interogative are sensul de deja. De exemplu:
Have you met her yet?

Dac ar trebui transpus n propoziie afirmativ, yet ar deveni


already:
I have already met her.
n propoziii negative are sensul de nc. De exemplu:
I haven't met her yet.
Adverbul "for"
Adverbul for, cu sensul de timp de, arat durata aciunii, fr a
preciza momentul de nceput i de final. n propoziie are poziie
aproape final. De exemplu:
I haven't met her for 2 years. She has written her math teacher.
Adverbul "since"
Adverbul since, cu sensul ncepnd din, arat momentul de nceput,
fr a preciza durata sau momentul de final. Poziia este spre finalul
propoziiei. De exemplu:
I haven't met you since Monday.
Dup since urmeaz ntotdeauna trecut dac mai urmeaz o propoziie.
De exemplu:
I haven't met her since I came. (este o aciune mai trecut dect cea cu
ntlnirea)
I have worked here since last year.
Afirmativ
Afirmativ (forma contras) I've worked here since last year.
I have not worked here since last year.
Negativ
Negativ (forma contras) I haven't worked here since last year.
Have I worked here since last year?
Interogativ
Yes, I have.
Rspuns pozitiv
No, I have not.
Rspuns negativ

e present perfect is formed from the present tense of the verb have and the past participle of a
verb:

The present perfect continuous is formed with have/has been and the ing form of the verb:
Use
We use the present perfect tense:

for something that started in the past and continues in the


present:

Theyve been married for nearly fifty years.


She has lived in Liverpool all her life.
Note: We normally use the present perfect continuous for this:
She has been living in Liverpool all her life.
Its been raining for hours.

for something we have done several times in the past and


continue to do:

Ive played the guitar ever since I was a teenager.


He has written three books and he is working on another one.
Ive been watching that programme every week.
We often use a clause with since to show when something started in the
past:
Theyve been staying with us since last week.
I have worked here since I left school.
Ive been watching that programme every week since it started.

when we are talking about our experience up to the present:

Note: We often use the adverb ever to talk about experience up to the
present:
My last birthday was the worst day I have ever had.
Note: and we use never for the negative form:
Have you ever met George?
Yes, but Ive never met his wife.

for something that happened in the past but is important at the


time of speaking:

I cant get in the house. Ive lost my keys.


Teresa isnt at home. I think she has gone shopping.
Im tired out. Ive been working all day.

We use the present perfect of be when someone has gone to a place and
returned:
A: Where have you been?
B: Ive just been out to the supermarket.
A: Have you ever been to San Francisco?
B: No, but Ive been to Los Angeles.
But when someone has not returned we use have/has gone:
A: Where is Maria? I havent seen her for weeks.
B: She's gone to Paris for a week. Shell be back tomorrow.
We often use the present perfect with time adverbials which refer to the
recent past:
just; only just; recently;

Scientists have recently discovered a new breed of monkey.


We have just got back from our holidays.
or adverbials which include the present:
ever (in questions); so far; until now; up to now; yet (in questions and
negatives)
Have you ever seen a ghost?
Where have you been up to now?
Have you finished your homework yet?
No, so far Ive only done my history.
http://mariaparaschiv.files.wordpress.com/2011/11/presentperfect-simple.pdf
http://www.slideshare.net/amihaela22/present-perfectsimple16180220

Future Simple
a) affirmative
S + SHALL + vb. (infinitiv scurt)
WILL
Obs :

'LL - SHALL (invechit) + I , we


WILL (fam.) + toate persoanele

Ex :
I'll buy a new stereo next month . (Luna viitoare mi voi cumpara o
combina .)

They'll come later . (Ei vin mai tarziu .)


She'll be here soon enough . (Ea o sa vina destul de repede .)
b) interrogative
SHALL / WILL + S + vb. ?
Ex :
Will you buy this stereo from me ? (O sa-mi cumperi combina ?)
Will they come next week after all ?
after all = pana la urma
c) negative
S + SHAN'T + vb. (infinitiv scurt)
WON'T
! to want = a vrea
d) USAGE
Future Simple este folosit pentru a exprima actiuni viitoare .

Ex :
My sister will have a baby in 3 month .
Will my sister have a baby in 3 month ? Yes, she will .
No, she won't .
My sister won't have a baby in 3 month .

I'll buy a present / gift for my father next week .


Will / Shall I buy a present for my father next week ? Yes, I will .
No, I won't .
I won't buy a present for my father next week .
TRANSLATE :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Prietena mea o sa se mute la Bucuresti peste 3 luni .


Prietenii nostrii o sa-si cumpere un catel de ziua fetei lor .
Bateria o sa mi se termine luni .
Filmul o sa inceapa in 20 minute .
O sa plecam timp de o saptamana .

battery = bateria
to be over = a se termina
puppy / dog = catel
go away = a pleca
to move = a se muta
1. My friend will move to Bucharest in 3 month .
Will my friend move to Bucharest in 3 month ? Yes, she will .
No, she won't .
My friend won't move to Bucharest in 3 month .
2. Our friends will buy a dog for their daughter's birthday .
Will our friends buy a dog for their daughter's birthday ? Yes, they
will .

No, they
won't .
3. The / My battery will be over in 4 days .
Will my battery be over in 4 days ? Yes, it will .
No, it won't .
My battery won't be over in 4 days .
4. The movie will begin in 20 minutes .
Will the movie begin in 20 minutes ? Yes, it will .
No, it won't .
5. We'll go away for a week .
Will we go away for a week ? Yes, we will .
No, we won't .
6. The Ministers will meet on Strasbourgh .
Will the Ministers meet on Strasbourgh ? Yes, they will .
No, they won't .
The Ministers won't meet on Strasbourgh .
7. Where we will living after wedding ?
8. The President will give an interview on TV .
Will thePresident give an interview on TV ? Yes, he will .
No, he won't .

The President won't give an interview on TV .


9. She will have dinner with her husband at the restaurant .
Will she have dinner with her husband at the restaurant ? Yes, she
will .
No, she
won't .
She won't have dinner with her husband at the restaurant .
10.

I will go next week on the dentist .

Will I go next week on the dentist ? Yes, I will .


No, I won't .
I won't go next week on the dentist .

The Simple Future Tense (numit i Simple Future, Indefinite Future


este un timp verbal n limba englez. n limba romn poart numele de
Viitorul simplu sau Viitorul nedefinit.
Acest timp exprim:

aciuni viitoare n general


aciuni legate de un anumit moment
aciune legat de o anumit perioad de timp n viitor:
o I shall miss you - O s-mi lipseti;
o You'll feel much better after the treatment - Te vei simi
mult mai bine dup tratament;
o She will be eighteen on Monday - (Ea) mplinete luni
18ani.[1]

Acest timp verbal este format cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar shall la


persoana I-a singular i plural i will la persoana a II-a i a III-a.
Forma afirmativ
I (he, she,it)
Subiect +

shall

play

Auxiliarul shall + Verbul la infinitiv scurt

M voi juca
We (you, they)
Subiect +

will

play

Auxiliarul will + Verbul la infinitiv scurt

Ne vom juca
To play

To think

I shall/will play

I shall/will think

You shall/will play

You shall/will think

He, she, it shall/will play

He, she, it shall/will think

We shall/will play

We shall/will think

You shall/will play

You shall/will think

They shall/will play

They shall/will think

Forma negativ: I shall/will not play/think (forma contras: I


shan't/won't play/think)
Forme interogativ: shall/will I play/think

Forme interogativ-negativ: shall/will I not play/think (forma


contras: shan't/won't I play/think)

Future continuous
http://www.slideshare.net/amihaela22/future-continuous-16180337

Future perfect
Subject + WILL HAVE + Verb (past participle form)
Quick examples

I will have graduated from university by May.


Patrick will have lived in Hong Kong for 20 years by the next
month.
The train will have left by now.
We use the Future Perfect tense to talk about actions that will
be finished before some point in the future. We also use this
tense to express situations that will last for a specified period of
time at a definite moment in the future. The last use is to express
certainty that an action was completed.
Use

1. Completion before a specified point in the future


2. Actions or situations that will last in the future (for a specified
time)
3. Certainty that an action was completed
Use 1: Completion before a specified point in the future

The first use of this tense is to talk about future actions that will
be finished before some specified point in the future.
Before they come, we will have cleaned up the house.
John will have eaten the whole cake, by the time the birthday
party starts!
Use 2: Duration in the Future

Another use of this tense is to talk about actions will last after a
given point in the future.
By the next year, I will have known Monica for 30 years.
Patrick will have lived in Hong Kong for 20 years by 2012.
Common Time Expressions
Time expressions that are commonly used with the Future
Perfect:
By
By the time
Before
By tomorrow/7 o'clock/next month
Until/till
Use 3: Certainty About the Near Past
The last use is to express conviction that something happened in
the near past.
The train will have left by now. We have to look for another way
to get there. (I'm sure the train has left)
The guests will have arrived at the hotel by now. (I'm sure the
guests have arrived at the hotel)

Future Perfect Continuous


Future Perfect Continuous
Future Perfect Continuous has two different forms: "will have been doing " and "be
going to have been doing." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect Continuous
forms are usually interchangeable.

FORM Future Perfect Continuous with "Will"


[will have been + present participle]
Examples:
You will have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
Will you have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?

You will not have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.

FORM Future Perfect Continuous with "Be Going To"


[am/is/are + going to have been + present participle]
Examples:
You are going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally

arrives.
Are you going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally
arrives?
You are not going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane
finally arrives.

NOTE: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future Perfect
Continuous with little or no difference in meaning.
Complete List of Future Perfect Continuous Forms

USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Future

We use the Future Perfect Continuous to show that something will continue up until a
particular event or time in the future. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since
Friday" are all durations which can be used with the Future Perfect Continuous. Notice
that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous and the Past Perfect Continuous;
however, with Future Perfect Continuous, the duration stops at or before a reference
point in the future.
Examples:
They will have been talking for over an hour by the time Thomas arrives.
She is going to have been working at that company for three years when it

finally closes.
James will have been teaching at the university for more than a year by the time
he leaves for Asia.
How long will you have been studying when you graduate?
We are going to have been driving for over three days straight when we get to
Anchorage.
A: When you finish your English course, will you have been living in New Zealand for
over a year?
B: No, I will not have been living here that long.

Notice in the examples above that the reference points (marked in italics) are in Simple
Present rather than Simple Future. This is because these future events are in time
clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.

USE 2 Cause of Something in the Future

Using the Future Perfect Continuous before another action in the future is a good way to
show cause and effect.
Examples:
Jason will be tired when he gets home because he will have been jogging for over an

hour.
Claudia's English will be perfect when she returns to Germany because she is going to
have been studying English in the United States for over two years.

Future Continuous vs. Future Perfect Continuous


If you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for two weeks" or "since
Friday," many English speakers choose to use the Future Continuous rather than the
Future Perfect Continuous. Be careful because this can change the meaning of the
sentence. Future Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Future Perfect
Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the future. Study the
examples below to understand the difference.
Examples:
He will be tired because he will be exercising so hard.

THIS SENTENCE EMPHASIZES THAT HE WILL BE TIRED BECAUSE HE WILL BE EXERCISING AT THAT
EXACT MOMENT IN THE FUTURE.
He will be tired because he will have been exercising so hard.

THIS SENTENCE EMPHASIZES THAT HE WILL BE TIRED BECAUSE HE WILL HAVE BEEN EXERCISING
FOR A PERIOD OF TIME. IT IS POSSIBLE THAT HE WILL STILL BE EXERCISING AT THAT MOMENT OR
THAT HE WILL JUST HAVE FINISHED.

REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses


Like all future forms, the Future Perfect Continuous cannot be used in clauses
beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as
soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect Continuous, Present Perfect
Continuous is used.
Examples:

You won't get a promotion until you will have been working here as long as Tim. Not

Correct
You won't get a promotion until you have been working here as long as Tim. Correct

AND REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs


It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any
continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbscannot be
used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Future Perfect Continuous with these verbs,
you must use Future Perfect .
Examples:
Ned will have been having his driver's license for over two years. Not Correct
Ned will have had his driver's license for over two years. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only,
never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
You will only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.
Will you only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives?
You are only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.
Are you only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE
Examples:
The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it

is finished. ACTIVE
The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by
the time it is finished. PASSIVE
The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the
time it is finished. ACTIVE
The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six
months by the time it is finished. PASSIVE

NOTE: Passive forms of the Future Perfect Continuous are not common.

Past Simple
The Past Simple (numit i The Past Tense Simple, The Past Indefinite sau Preterite) este un
timp verbal n limba englez. n limba romn poart numele deTrecutul simplu, Trecutul
nedefinit sau Preteritul nedefinit.
Acest timp exprim:

aciuni petrecute n trecut i care nu mai au legtur cu prezentul;

este timpul folosit pentru descrierea naraiunilor;

aciuni repetitive petrecute n trecut.

n cazul verbelor regulate acest timp se formeaz cu infinitivul scurt la care se adaug terminaia (e)d.
n cazul verbelor neregulate (n limba englez sunt cteva sute) acest timp se formeaz cu forma a
II-a.

Folosirea acestui timp n cazul verbelor regulate i


neregulate[modificare | modificare surs]
Exemple de folosire a Trecutului simplu pentru verbe regulate:

I planted the seed on Friday. (verb regulat + ed)

He arrived by the train yesterday afternoon. (verb regulat + ed)

When did they get married? (verb regulat + ed)

We walked to school every day. (verb regulat + ed)

Charles entered the hall, looked around, took off his coat and sat down. (verb regulat + ed)

I came home at 6 o'clock. (verb neregulat forma a II-a)

Last night I went to the kino. (verb neregulat forma a II-a)

Exemple de conjugri[modificare | modificare surs]


Verbe regulate

Persoana I-a singular: I listened. (Eu am ascultat).

Persoana a II-a singular: You listened. (Tu ai ascultat)

Persoana a III-a singular: He/She/It listened. (El/Ea a ascultat)

Persoana I-a plural: We listened. (Noi am ascultat).

Persoana a II-a plural: You listened. (Voi ai ascultat)

Persoana a III-a plural: They listened. (Ei/ele au ascultat)

Verbe neregulate

Persoana I-a singular: I spoke. (Am vorbit.)

Persoana a II-a singular: You spoke.

Persoana a III-a singular: He/She/It spoke.

Persoana I-a plural: We spoke.

Persoana a II-a plural: You spoke.

Persoana a III-a plural: They spoke.

Vezi lista verbe neregulate !

Forma interogativ i negativ[modificare | modificare surs]


Forma interogativ

Persoana I-a singular: Did I speak? (Am vorbit?)

Persoana a II-a singular: Did you speak?

Persoana a III-a singular: Did he/she/it speak?

Persoana I-a plural: Did we speak?

Persoana a II-a plural: Did you speak?

Persoana a III-a plural: Did they speak?

Forma negativ
Forma negativ se formeaz cu did not (sau forma prescurtat/contras didn't).

Persoana I-a singular: I did not speak.

Persoana a II-a singular: You did not speak.

Persoana a III-a singular: He/She/It did not speak.

Persoana I-a plural: We did not speak.

Persoana a II-a plural: You did not speak.

Persoana a III-a plural: They did not speak.

Past continous
The Past Continous Tense (numit i Continuous Preterite) este un timp verbal n limba englez.
n limba romn poart numele de Trecutul continuu sauPreteritul continuu.
Acest timp exprim:

o aciune sau o stare n trecut

o aciune sau o stare desfurat n mod continuu ntr-un interval bine definit din trecut

Preteritul continuu nlocuiete n vorbirea indirect prezentul continuu: he said were having
visitors - a spus c au musafiri[1].

Acest timp se traduce prin imperfectul din limba romn.

Forma afirmativ[modificare | modificare surs]

I (he, she,it)

Subiect

was

playing

Auxiliarul to be la trecut Participiul prezent

Eu (el, ea) m jucam.

We (you, they)

Subiect

were

playing

Auxiliarul to be la trecut Participiul prezent

Noi ne jucam.

Exemple de conjugri[modificare | modificare surs]


I was playing.
You were playing.
He (she, it) was playing.
We were playing.
You were playing.
They were playing.

Forma interogativ i negativ[modificare | modificare surs]


Forma interogativ
Was I playing?
Were you playing?
Was he (she, it) playing?
Were we playing?
Were you playing?
Were they playing?

Forma negativ
I was not playing.
You were not playing.
He (she, it) was not playing.

We were not playing.


You were not playing.
They were not playing.

Exemplu cu verbul to learn la Trecutul continuu (Past Continuous)

Forma afirmativ

I was learning

You were learning

Forma negativ

I was not learning

You were not (weren't)


learning

Forma interogativ

Forma interogativnegativ

Was I learning?

Was I not learning?

Were you learning?

Were you not learning?

He/she/it was

He/She/It was not (wasn't)

Was he/she/it

Was he/she/it not

learning

learning

learning?

learning?

Were we learning?

Were we not learning?

Were you learning?

Were you not learning?

Were they learning?

Were they not learning?

We were learning.

You were learning.

They were learning.

We were not (weren't)


learning.

You were not (weren't)


learning.

They were not (weren't)


learning.

Past Perfect
Past perfect simple exprima o actiune trecuta terminata inaintea altei actiuni trecute. In
unele gramatici se spune ca past perfect simple exprima un raport de anterioritate intre
doua actiuni trecute.
He told me that Judy had left the building a few minutes before. Mi-a spus ca Judy a
plecat/plecase din cladire cu cateva minute inainte.
Past perfect simple are urmatoarele forme:
Afirmativ: subiect+auxiliarul had (have la past simple)+participiu trecut
He had known her.
Negativ: subiect+had not/hadnt+participiu trecut
He had not/hadnt known her.

Interogativ: had+subiect+participiu trecut


Had he known her?
Past Perfect Simple
Se formeaza cu verbul to have" la Past Tense Simple, la care se adauga forma III (past
participle) a verbului de conjugat.
Afirmativ
I had worked.
Negativ
I had not (hadn't) worked.
Interogativ
Had I worked?
Acest timp are aceeasi forma la toate persoanele. Este, ca si Present Perfect, un verb de
relatie, dar, in acest caz, este vorba de o relatie intre doua momente trecute.
Arata o actiune trecuta care a avut loc inaintea unei alte actiuni sau a unui moment din
trecut.
Ex. Yesterday at 9 o'clock I had had breakfast.
(Ieri la ora 9 luasem micul dejun.)
When you rang me up, I had finished writing my homework.
(Cnd mi-ai telefonat, terminasem de scris temele.)
Ca sens, echivalentul in limba romna al acestui timp este mai mult ca perfectul. Se poate
traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul sau perfectul compus.
Past Perfect Continuous
Se formeaza cu Past Perfect Simple al verbului to be", la care se adauga forma -ing a
verbului de conjugat.
Afirmativ
I had been working.
Negativ
I had not (hadn't) been working.
Interogativ
Had I been working?
Aceste forme se pastreaza la toate persoanele.
Timpul Past Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intre doua momente
trecute. De asemenea, cnd in aceeasi fraza in propozitia principala se afla un verb la Past
Tense, Past Perfect Continuous poate prelua functiile lui Present Perfect Cotinuous in
propozitia secundara.

Ex. When he entered the room, she had been typing for one hour.
(Cnd el a intrat in camera, ea batea la masina de o ora.)
After John had been watching TV for 10 minutes, he got bored.
(Dupa ce John privise (a privit) la televizor 10 minute, s-a plictisit.)
He said it had been raining for three days.
(El a spus ca ploua de trei zile.)
Dupa cum se observa, acest timp se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul, perfectul
compus sau imperfectul din limba romna.

Past Perfect Countinous


1.)Mai-mult-ca-perfectul continuu exprim o aciune n desfurare n trecut,
produs naintea unei alte aciuni din trecut sau naintea unui moment
trecut2.)Mai mult ca perfectul exprima o atiune aflata in desfasurare intrerupta
de o alta actiune mult mai importanta
Cum se formeaz
Mai-mult-ca-perfectul continuu se formeaz cu ajutorul formei de mai-mult-caperfect a verbului auxiliar primar be plus participiul prezent al verbului de
conjugat.
Exemple

It was cold because it had been snowing. Era rece pentru c ninsese.

Had you been looking for us long? Ne-ai cutat mult?


I had not been sleeping well that night and I felt tired. Nu dormisem bine n
noaptea aceea i eram obosit.

Cnd se folosete
1. Exprim o aciune trecut n desfurare, care are loc naintea:
o unui moment anterior: Mary had been eating before Johns phone
call. Maria mnca cnd a sunat-o Ion.
o unei alte aciuni trecute: When we finally met, you had been looking
for us for two hours. Cnd ne-am ntlnit n cele din urm, ne cutai
de dou ore.
2. Exprim aciuni care au fost n curs de desfurare pn cu puin naintea
unui anumit moment din trecut: I had just been dressing when the phone
rang. Tocmai m mbrcam cnd a sunat telefonul.
3. Exprim aciuni aflate n desfurare o anumit perioad de timp naintea
unui moment din trecut, menionat sau nu i continund nc n acel
moment: Since the death of her parents, the children had been living with
their uncles. De la moartea prinilor, copiii locuiau cu unchii lor.
4. Se folosete n vorbirea indirect i n contexte trecute, n propoziii
completive, atunci cnd exist un verb la timpul trecut n propoziia
principal, n toate situaiile n care se folosete prezentul perfect continuu
n vorbirea direct:
o atunci cnd vorbitorul este interesat de aciunea verbului, nu de
rezultatul acesteia: Jane said she had been translating the whole
morning. Jane a spus c a tradus toat dimineaa.
o pentru a exprima caracterul incomplet al aciunii: Monica was
surprised to see that somebody had been eating her sandwich (= part
of it). Monica a fost surprins cnd a vzut c cineva i-am mncat
sandviul.
o nainte de for i since cu valoare temporal: Diana complained that it
had been snowing for three days/since the beginning of the week.
Diana s-a plns c ningea de trei zile/de la nceputul sptmnii.
o dup since, atunci cnd aciunea verbului care urmeaz continu nc:
Joan said she had been looking after her little brothers since she had
been lying in bed with a broken leg. Joan a spus c are grij de fraii
ei mai mici de cnd zace n pat cu piciorul rupt.
5. Past Perfect Continuous

6. Se formeaza cu Past Perfect Simple al verbului to be", la care se adauga


forma -ing a

7. verbului de conjugat.
8.
9. Afirmativ
10.I had been working.
11.
12.Negativ
13.I had not (hadn't) been working.
14.
15.Interogativ
16.Had I been working?
17.Aceste forme se pastreaza la toate persoanele.
18.Timpul Past Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intre
doua momente
19.trecute. De asemenea, cnd in aceeasi fraza in propozitia principala se afla
un verb la Past
20.Tense, Past Perfect Continuous poate prelua functiile lui Present Perfect
Cotinuous in
21.propozitia secundara.
22.Ex. When he entered the room, she had been typing for one hour.
23.(Cnd el a intrat in camera, ea batea la masina de o ora.)
24.After John had been watching TV for 10 minutes, he got bored.
25.(Dupa ce John privise (a privit) la televizor 10 minute, s-a plictisit.)
26.He said it had been raining for three days.
27.(El a spus ca ploua de trei zile.)
28.Dupa cum se observa, acest timp se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul,
perfectul
29.compus sau imperfectul din limba romna.

Past Continuous Tense : Forme


Afirmativ :
S + verbul To BE la past tense + verbul de conjugat + ING
I was reading the lesson when the teacher came in. Citeam lectia cand a intrat
profesoara.

Negativ :
S + verbul To BE la past tense la forma negativa + verbul de conjugat + ING
They werent looking for Susan; they were looking for her sister. Ei nu o cautau pe
Susan, ei o cautau pe sora ei.

Interogativ :

Verbul To BE la past tense + S + verbul de conjugat + ING


Was he driving too fast when he had the accident? Conducea el prea repede cand a
avut accidentul?

Trecutul simplu (Past Continuous Tense) se foloseste pentru a exprima :


actiune care se afla in desfasurare la un moment dat in trecut.
While wou were having a bath, the phone rang. In timp ce faceai baie a sunat
telefonul.
actiune care continua de ceva vreme
Yesterday I was jogging in the park. Ieri, faceam jogging in park.
actiune care are loc in acelasi timp cu o alta actiune in trecut
While I was reviewing the article my husband was watching his favourite tv show. In
timp ce eu revizuiam articolul sotul meu urmarea show-ul tv favorit.

The passive

Diateza Pasiva ( Passive Voice )


Tense /Verb Form

Active Voice

Passive Voice

Present Simple
Present Continuous
Present Perfect
Past Simple
Past Continuous
Past Perfect 333c221d
Future
Conditional
Perfect Conditional
Present Infinitive
Perfect Infinitive
Present Participle / gerund
Perfect Participle

keeps
is keeping
has kept
kept
was keeping
had kept
will keep
would keep
would have kept
to keep
to have kept
keeping
having kept

is kept
is being kept
has been kept
was kept
was being kept
had been kept
will be kept
would be kept
would have been kept
to be kept
to have been kept
being kept
having been kept

Diateza pasiva se formeaza de regula :

to be + V 3 / -ed

The poem is read by me .


A nice house was build in our street .
The dress has been bought by my sister .

Mather washes the child . ( diateza activa )


The child is washed by mother . ( diateza pasiva )
The pupil is solving a problem . ( diateza activa )
The problem is being solved by the pupil . ( diateza pasiva )
We have sent for a doctor . ( diateza activa )
A doctor has been sent for . (diateza pasiva )
You can't speak to him . ( diateza activa )
He can't be spoken to . ( diateza pasiva )
Atunci cnd verbul din propozitia activa are 2 complemente , unul direct si unul
indirect , ambele complemente pot deveni subiecte ale propozitiilor pasive :
Mother told the children a story . ( diateza activa )
A story was told to the children . ( diateza pasiva )
The children were told a story . ( diateza pasiva )
Verbele to have , to get , pot fi folosite cu nteles cauzativ si cu nuanta de pasiv
, n constructii n care arata ca altcineva si nu subiectul face actiunea , iar
complementul direct o sufera .
I had my hair cut . - M-am tuns ( la coafor )
She had her dress cleaned . - si-a curatat rochia ( la spalatorie )
Where do you get your shoes mended ? - Unde-ti repari pantofii ?
Verbul to get poate fi folosit n locul verbului to be ( auxiliar ) .
The tourists got caught by a storm . ( were caught ) .

DIATEZA PASIVA

Toate timpurile invatate se refera la Diateza Activa, subiectul propozitiei efectueaza actiunea.
I am eating a boa constrictor - Eu mananc un sarpe boa

In Diateza Pasiva actiunea se face asupra subiectului


I am being eaten by a boa constrictor. - Eu sunt mancat de un sarpe boa
The clothes have been rinsed in the washing machine - Hainele au fost clatite in masina de spalat

Diateza Pasiva - Present Tense


The crates are lifted by me - Lazile sunt ridicate de mine
La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I lift crates - Eu ridic lazi.
I am lifted - Eu sunt ridicat
You are lifted - Tu esti ridicat
He is lifted - El este ridicat
She is lifted - Ea este ridicata
We are lifted - Noi suntem ridicati
You are lifted - Voi sunteti ridicati
They are lifted - Ei, Ele sunt ridicati/ridicate

Diateza Pasiva - Present Continuous


The creates are being lifted by me
La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I am lifting crates.
I am being lifted
You are being lifted

He is being lifted
She is being lifted
We are being lifted
You are being lifted
They are being lifted

Diateza Pasiva - Past Tense


The crates were lifted by me - Lazile au fost ridicate de mine
La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I lifted crates - Eu am ridicat lazi.
I was lifted - Eu am fost ridicat
You were lifted - Tu ai fost ridicat
He was lifted - El a fost ridicat
She was lifted - Ea a fost ridicata
We were lifted - Noi am fost ridicati
You were lifted - Voi ati fost ridicati
They were lifted - Ei, Ele au fost ridicati

Diateza Pasiva - Present Perfect


The creates have been lifted by me
La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I have lifted crates.
I have been lifted - Eu am fost ridicat
You have been lifted - Tu ai fost ridicat
He has been lifted - El a fost ridicat
She has been lifted - Ea a fost ridicata
We have been lifted - Noi am fost ridicati
You have been lifted - Voi ati fost ridicati
They have been lifted - Ei, Ele au fost ridicati

Diateza Pasiva - Past Continuous

The crates were being lifted by me - Lazile erau ridicate de mine


La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I was lifting crates - Eu ridicam lazi.
I was being lifted - Eu eram ridicat
You were being lifted - Tu erai ridicat
He was being lifted - El era ridicat
She was being lifted - Ea era ridicata
We were being lifted - Noi eram ridicati
You were being lifted - Voi erati ridicati
They were being lifted - Ei, Ele erau ridicati

Diateza Pasiva - Past Perfect


The crates had been lifted by me - Lazile fusesera ridicate de mine
La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I had lifted crates - Eu ridicasem lazi.
I had been lifted - Eu fusesem ridicat
You had been lifted - Tu fusesesi ridicat
He had been lifted - El fusesese ridicat
She had been lifted - Ea fusesese ridicata
We had been lifted - Noi fuseseram ridicati
You had been lifted - Voi fuseserati ridicati
They had been lifted - Ei, Ele fusesera ridicati

Diateza Pasiva - Future Tense


The creates will be lifted by me - Lazile vor fi ridicate de mine.
La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I will lift crates - Eu voi ridica lazi.
I will be lifted - Eu voi fi ridicat
You will be lifted - Tu vei fi ridicat
He will be lifted - El va fi ridicat
She will be lifted - Ea va fi ridicata
We will be lifted - Noi vom fi ridicati
You will be lifted - Voi veti fi ridicati

They will be lifted - Ei, Ele vor fi ridicati

Diateza Pasiva - Future Continuous


The creates will be being lifted by me.
La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I will be lifting crates.
Acest timp e prea complicat. Nu se foloseste

Diateza Pasiva - Future Perfect


The creates will have been lifted by me - Lazile vor fi fost ridicate de mine.
La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I will have lifted crates - Eu voi fi ridicat lazi.
I will have been lifted - Eu voi fi fost ridicat
You will have been lifted - Tu vei fi fost ridicat
He will have been lifted - El va fi fost ridicat
She will have been lifted - Ea va fi fost ridicata
We will have been lifted - Noi vom fi fost ridicati
You will have been lifted - Voi veti fi fost ridicati
They will have been lifted - Ei, Ele vor fi fost ridicati

Diateza Pasiva - Perfect Continuous Tenses


La Diateza Activa ar fi fost:
I have been lifting crates
sau
I had been lifting crates
sau
I will have been lifting crates

The conditional 1,2,3


O fraz condiional este format din 2 tipuri de propoziii:propoziia subordont condiional
(If Clause), care exprim o condiie si propoziia principal sau regent (Main Clause), care
exprim rezultatul condiiei. In limba englez exist patru tipuri de baz de condiionale:

Tipul 1.
Tipul 2.
Tipul 3.
Tipul 0.

Structura unei fraze condiionale


O fraz condiional poate avea o structur de tipul:
IF Condiie
Rezultat
If she has time, she will help you.
sau
Rezultat
IF Condiie
She will help you if she has time.
Observai folosirea virgulei n primul exemplu.

Fraza condiional de tipul 1


O fraz condiional de tipul 1 se refer la o condiie posibil si la rezultatul probabil al
acesteia.Ea implic obinerea unui anumit rezultat prin indeplinirea unei condiii date. Folosim
timpul prezent in subordonata condiionala(pentru exprimarea conditiei) si viitorul in regenta
(pentru exprimarea rezultatului).
De exemplu, pentru a trece un examen, un student trebuie s invee.In cazul in care studentul
inva,probabilitatea ca el sa treac examenul e ridicat.Am putea, asadar, formula urmtoarea
fraz:
IF Condition
Result
Present Tense Simple Future Tense
If he studies,
he will pass the exam.
Dac nvat,
el va trece examenul.
In exemplul de mai sus facem referire la doua aciuni viitoare, realizarea primei dintre ele (
Daca inva ) fcand-o posibila pe cea de-a doua (el va trece examenul).

Fraza condiional de tipul 2


O fraz condiional de tipul 2 se refer la o condiie improbabila sau ipotetica si la
rezultatul probabil al acesteia. Folosim acest tip de condiional pentru a exprima o situaie
imaginara contrar realitii prezente sau pentru a exprima o situaie improbabil intr-un moment
viitor. Folosim timpul trecut in subordonata si Condiionalul prezent in regent.
IF Condition
Result
Past Tense Simple
Present Conditional
If I had money,
I would buy a car.
Dac a avea bani,
a cumpra o main.
If he won the lottery,
he would travel all over the world.
Daca ar catiga la loterie, ar cltori in toata lumea.
Primul exemplu se refer la o situaie imaginar contrar realitii prezente: eu nu am bani in
prezent, asadar nu voi cumpra o main.
Al doilea exemplu exprim o situaie improbabil n viitor: ansele ca el s ctige la loterie sunt
reduse, aadar e puin probabil cltoria lui n toat lumea.

Fraza condiional de tipul 3


O fraz condiional de tipul 3 se refer la o condiie ireal trecut si exprim o situaie
imaginar sau contrar realitii intr-un moment trecut.Folosim mai mult ca perfectul in
subordonat si condiionalul perfect in regent.
IF Condition
Result
Past Perfect Tense
Perfect Conditional
If I had known the truth, I would have been happier.
Dac a fi tiut adevarul, as fi fost mai fericit.
Exemplul de mai sus se refer la o situaie contrar realitii trecute- eu nu am stiut adevarul si
nu am fost mai fericit.

Fraza condiional de tipul 0


Fraza conditional de tipul 0 se refer la un rezultat care este intotdeauna valabil pentru o
anumit condiie.Folosim timpul prezent atat in subordonat, cat si in regent.
IF Condition
Result
Present Tense Simple Present Tense Simple
If you heat ice,
it melts.
Daca nclzeti gheaa, se topete.

Tipuri mixte
Atunci cand cele doua pri ale unei fraze condiionale(condiia si rezultatul)se refer la perioade
diferite de timp, fraza rezultant este ceea ce numim o fraz condiional mixt. Exist
urmtoarele tipuri de condiionale mixte in limba engleza:

Rezultat prezent al unei condiii trecute


Timpul folosit in subordonata condiional este mai mult ca perfectul, iar timpul din propoziia
principala este condiionalul prezent.
IF CLAUSE
MAIN CLAUSE
If + past perfect
present conditional
If he had taken my advice, he would be rich now.
Daca mi-ar fi urmat sfatul, acum era bogat
O astfel de fraz condiional se refer la o condiie trecut ireal si rezultatul probabil al
acesteia in prezent, exprimand o situaie contrar realitii atat in prezent, cat i in trecut. In
exemplul de mai sus, If he had taken my advice exprim o situaie contrar realitii din
trecut(He did not take my advice/ el nu mi-a urmat sfatul), iar he would be rich now exprima o
situaie contrar realitii prezente (he is not rich/el nu e bogat)

Rezultat trecut al unei condiii prezente sau generale


Folosim trecutul simplu in subordonata condiional si condiionalul perfect in regent.
'IF' CLAUSE
MAIN CLAUSE
If + simple past
Perfect conditional
If you could speak English, you would have got the job.
Daca ai fi stiut/stiai engleza, ai fi obtinut slujba.
O astfel de fraz condiional se refer la o condiie prezent ireal si la rezultatul trecut
probabil- dar ireal- al acesteia. In exemplul de mai sus, If you could speak English este o
situaie contrar realitii prezente (you cannot speak English/tu nu stii engleza), iar you would
have got the job este contrar realitii trecute ( you did not get the job/tu nu ai obinut slujba).

Conditional Sentences Type 1


In all types of Conditional Sentences the conditional clause or IF CLAUSE, states the condition
under which the action in the MAIN CLAUSE is true.

Conditional sentences type 1 contain conditions in the IF CLAUSE concerning future actions in
the MAIN CLAUSE which may or not may happen.
Ex: IF CLAUSE ( condition )

MAIN CLAUSE ( result )

If i have time, i shall go to the mountains.


I shall go = I'll go

Conditional sentence type 1 se formeaza din :


MAIN CLAUSE

IF CLAUSE

VIITOR + IF or Whether /If not/Unless + PREZENT


FUTURE + IF + PRESENT
SHALL / WILL
Shall pentru persoana I sg, pl
Will la toate persoanele

In propozitia Conditionala de tip 1 dupa IF se foloseste verbul la timpul prezent si se traduce prin
viitor.
I'll go to the mountains if i have time

Voi merge la munte daca voi avea

timp
Sally will be in time if she catches the bus .
Dupa UNLESS se foloseste verbul la forma pozitiva.

You will not ( won't ) be able to make a salad unless you get fresh
vegetables.
You won't be able to get bread unless you go to the baker's.
Propozitia conditionala IF poate fi inainte sau dupa propozitia principala, ea poate
exprima generalitati adevarate, actiuni obisnuite si de asemenea poate fi folosit timpul
prezent in propozitia principala si de asemenea in conditionala IF.
Ex: If you put salt in warm water ,it dissolves.
If salt is put in warm water it will dissolve.
If the weather is bad we stay at home.

In propozitia principala poate fi folosit Imperativul.


IF CLAUSE

MAIN CLAUSE

IF + Present + Imperative
Ex: If you want to lose weight, eat less.
Tipul acesta de conditionala este frecvent folosita pentru a da sfaturi, ordine si
avertismente.

Conditional 2
Ca si prima forma de conditional in engleza, a doua forma de conditional in engleza se refera la
viitor, o situatie si rezultatul ei; diferenta este ca in primul conditional avem o probabilitate reala
ca rezultatul sa aiba loc, pe cand in al doilea conditional nu exista o posibilitate reala pentru acel
rezultat.
Forma: IF + past simple (conditia) + WOULD si verbul de conjugat (rezultatul)
If I had that book, I would be able to write the paper for the literature course. (Daca as avea
cartea aceea, as putea sa-mi scriu lucrarea pentru cursul de literatura.)
If we had our own studio apartment, we would have so much privacy. (Daca am avea propria
noastra garsoniera, am avea atat de multa intimitate.)
If they wrote that letter, they would get in touch with the recipient. (Daca ar scrie scrisoarea
aceea, ei ar intra in contact cu destinatarul.)
If I had a doll, I would give it to the little girl. (Daca as avea o papusa, i-as da-o fetitei.)

Dupa I/ he/ she/it folosim de obicei forma de subjonctiv were:


If I were her, I wouldnt take all that nonsense from him. (Daca as fi in locul ei, n-as accepta
toate prostiile din partea lui.)
If it were that simple, I would do it in a second. (Daca ar fi asa simplu, as face-o intr-o secunda.)

Expresia If I were you este folosita pentru a oferi sfaturi:


If I were you, Id give him the sack. (Daca as fi in locul tau, l-as concedia.)
If I were you in that position, I wouldnt think twice. (Daca as fi in locul tau in acea situatie, nu
m-as mai gandi de doua ori.)

A doua forma de conditional este deseori folosita pentru a vorbi despre situatii cu putine sanse de
realizare:
If we were in India, we would ride elephants. (Daca am fi in India, am merge pe elefanti.)
If I bought a lottery ticket, I would have a chance at winning. (Daca as cumpara un bilet la loto,
as avea o sansa de castig.)
If I was still taking care of the cat, I would buy some cat food. (Daca as mai fi avand inca grija
de pisica, as cumpara niste mancare de pisici.)
If they were hinting something, I would know. (Daca ei ar bate apropouri, mi-as da seama.)

Propozitia principala poate contine would, could sau might:


If I wore those jeans, people would laugh at me. (Daca as purta blugii aceia, lumea ar rade de
mine.)
If it were possible, I could do it all over again. (Daca ar fi posibil, as face-o din nou de la
inceput.)
If I were there, I might make a scandal, so Id better stay away. (Daca as fi acolo, s-ar putea sa
provoc un scandal, asa ca mai bine stau departe.)

Uneori, conditionalul este mai degraba subinteles decat explicit:


She wouldnt accept the offer. (if I proposed it to her.) Nu ar accepta oferta (daca i-as propuneo.)
What would happen at this point? (if I said yes.) Ce s-ar intampla? (daca as zice da.)

Pentru PRESENT CONDITIONAL tipul 2, verbul like cu SHOULD / WOULD +


Infinitive PENTRU persoana I si WOULD +Infinitive pentru celelalte persoane.
Ex: Nick would like to climb mountains.
In Conditionala de tip 2 PAST TENSE este folosit in IF clause si PRESENT CONDITIONAL in
propozitia principala .
IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE
If
Ex :

+ Past tense Present Conditional

If I had a dog I should / would play with it.


I'd be very upset if you didn't wear it.

Dupa UNLESS ( IF negativ = Daca nu ) se foloseste intotdeauna verbul la forma pozitiva.


Ex:

I wouldn't play that record UNLESS i liked it .

Propozitia Conditionala continand IF I WERE YOU = Daca as fi in locul tau, poate fi folosita sa
exprime sfatul ,opinia, recomandarea vorbitorului
IF CLAUSE ( advice) MAIN CLAUSE
Ex:

If i were you I wouldn't go to the mountains.

Dupa constructia WERE TO pote fi follosit infinitivul in IF CLAUSE pentru a arata o


improbabilitate mai mare , de asemenea si la folosirea lui SHOULD pentru a arata conditia .
Ex:

If the players were to try harder they would win the match.

In Engleza formala,were poate fi asezat primul si IF poate fi omis.


IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE
Were + subiect
Ex:

Present Conditional

Were his father at home, John would play the stereo.

In propozitia principala dupa would este folosit HAVE TO pentru a arata obligatia , necesitatea.
IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE
If + Past Tense

Would have to + Infinitive

Ex :

If Peter's parents were away he would have to cook his meals.

WOULD din propozitia principala poate fi inlocuit cu MIGHT urmat de infinitiv pentru a arata
probabilitatea si posibilitaea unei actiuni.
IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE
If + Past Tense
Ex : If

Might + Infinitive

Mary didn't wear her coat , she might catch a cold.

If Mike fell off the tree he might break his leg.

WOULD din propozitia principala poate fi inlocuit cu COULD urmat de infinitiv pentru a arata
posibilitatea unei actiuni.
IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE
If + Past Tense
Ex :

Could + Infinitive

If the weather were fine , we could go on a picnic next Sunday.

If i knew English better i could read more English books.


In propozitia IF CLAUSE se poate folosi would si infinitivul pentru a arata vointa si reprezinta
forma politicoasa iar in propozitia principala conditionalul prezent.

IF CLAUSE ( willingness ) MAIN CLAUSE


If + Would + Infinitive
Ex :

Present Conditional

If you would wait a few moments i would make you some coffee.
If you would wait a few moments i would listen to you.

CONDITIONALUL 3
Conditional Sentences type 3 este formata din IF + PAST PERFECT + PERFECT
CONDITIONAL

IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE


Past perfect

Perfect Conditional

If they had invited me i should have gone on a picnic.


would
If you had learnt for the test you would have gone to the party tonight.
SHOULD/WOULD + Perfect infinitive pentru prima persoana si WOULD + Perfect infinitive
pentru celelalte persoane.
Propozitiile Conditionale de tip 3 se refera la constructii nereale , ipotetice contrare faptelor
petrecute.
Past perfect este identic ca forma cu subjonctivul perfect. El exprima o actiune anterioara celei
exprimate de verbul din propozitia principala sau o situatie ireala, imposibila.
Propozitiile conditionale de tip 3 exprima faptul ca nu pot fi indeplinite conditiile, deoarece se
refera la trecut. Diferitele verbe auxiliare care pot fifolosite aduc variante de sens in privinta
concluziilor ( ar fi...trebuit, putea...avea sa fie ).
Concluziile se refera la trecut.
Propozitie - If
Past Perfect

Propozitie principala
Conditional I sau should / could / might / ought to + infinitiv

Exemplu : If she hadn't ....,she wouldn't....


If she hadn't ....she couldn't.....
If she hadn't learned so much she wouldn't get such a good mark.
Pentru propozitii de acest fel este valabil acelasi lucru ca si la cazul 1 cu exceptia, ca asupra
prezentului se rasfrang concluziile.

Subjonctiv
Subjonctivul
Subjonctivul, mod verbal inexistent n limba romn, se folosete n dou situaii:
pentru a arta o aciune viitoare posibil (poate fi realizat n viitor) sau pentru a

arta o aciune trecut nerealizat, virtual (aciunea ar fi putut fi realizat).


Subjonctivul are dou forme, fiecare dintre ele cu dou timpuri: subjonctivul
sintetic (prezent i trecut) i subjonctivul analitic (prezent i trecut).
SUBJONCTIVUL SINTETIC PREZENT
Subjonctivul sintetic prezent este identic ca form cu infinitivul scurt al verbului: I
be, he cry, it blow, they speak
ATENIE: verbul to be are forma de subjonctiv be, iar la celelalte verbe NU
ADUGAI -S LA PERSOANA A III-A SINGULAR (nu confundai
subjonctivul sintetic prezent cu Present Simple).
Utilizare subjonctiv sintetic prezent:
1. n urri, dorine, etc. Long live the king! Triasc regele!
2. n subordonate condiionale pentru a exprima o posibilitate: If that be the case, I
will give up. Dac aa vor sta lucrurile, voi renuna.
3. n subordonate completive directe dup verbe ca: desire, it is
necessary/mandatory/impossible/likely/possible (that), insist, suggest, order,
propose, urge, cnd aciunea verbului se refer la viitor: She suggests that they
come here at 5. Ea sugereaz ca ei s vin aici la 5.
4. dup as if, as though, even if, even though, cnd aciunea se refer la viitor: I
will finish the job even if it cost me a fortune. O s termin treaba chiar dac o s
m coste o avere.
OBSERVAIE: n vorbirea obinuit subjonctivul sintetic prezent este nlocuit cu
indicativul prezent.
SUBJONCTIVUL SINTETIC TRECUT
Subjonctivul sintetic trecut este identic ca form cu Past Simple, iar verbul to be
are DOAR forma were.
OBSERVAIE: Verbele modale could, might, would pot fi folosite cu rol de
subjonctiv sintetic trecut al verbelor can, may, will.
Utilizare subjonctiv sintetic trecut:

1. n subordonate condiionale dac verbul din principal/regent este la


condiional prezent. Vezi i corespondena timpurilor. He should be upset if you
did that to him. Ar fi suprat pe tine dac i-ai face asta.
2. dup I wish, I suppose, Its (high) time, as if, as though, even if, even though,
pentru a exprima o aciune contrar realitii: I wish you went home now. A vrea
s pleci acas acum (dar nu pleci nc).
NOT: Subjonctivul sintetic trecut are i o form continu, identic cu Past
Continuous: I wish you were not talking so loud. As vrea s nu mai vorbesti asa
tare.
SUBJONCTIVUL ANALITIC
Subjonctivul analitic se formeaz cu ajutorul unui verb auxiliar de obicei shall,
should, may/might i infinitiv.
Subjonctivul cu shall
Subjonctivul cu shall (shall+infinitiv) se folosete:
1. cu sensul de vrei?/vrei? , pentru a afla dorina celui cu care vorbim- Shall I
give you a lift? S te duc cu maina?/Vrei s te duc cu maina? Lets play chess,
shall we? Vrei s jucm ah?
2. dup verbe ca decide, establish, order, intend: It has been decided that students
shall be allowed there. S-a hotrt s se dea voie studenilor acolo.
Subjonctivul cu should
Subjonctivul cu should (should + infinitiv) se folosete:
1. dup verbe ca: order, give orders, it is necessary/imperative/strange/mandatory,
decide, etc. It is mandatory that all people should be there at 9. Este obligatoriu
ca toat lumea s fie acolo la 9.
2. dup lest (ca nu cumva s): Hurry, lest you should miss the train. Grbete-te
ca s nu pierzi trenul. She is afraid lest she should fail the exam. Se temea ca nu
cumva s pice examenul/s nu ia examenul.
Subjonctivul cu may/might

Subjonctivul cu may/might se folosete:


1. pentru a exprima o urare: May you live long! La multi ani!/S traiesti mult si
bine!
2. dup verbe ca hope, be afraid, fear: I hope you may pass the exam. Sper s
treci/iei examenul. NOT: De multe ori in aceast situaie se prefer indicativul: I
hope youll pass the exam.
In engleza contemporana, subjonctivul nu are formele lui proprii. El apare cu
forme de infinitiv, de Past Tense si de Past Perfect. De asemenea, exista
echivalenti de subjonctiv care constau in verbele should, may, might, would +
infinitiv.
1. Subjonctiv cu forma de infinitiv
a. Apare in propozitii exclamative, exprimnd o lozinca, o urare, o dorinta sau
un blestem.
Ex. Long live the king!
Traiasca regele.
Come what may.
Fie ce-o fi.
God forgive you!
Fie ca Domnul sa te ierte!
Curse this fog!
Blestemata fie aceasta ceata!
b. Poate fi intlnit in poezia clasica, in situatii in care, in engleza
contemporana, ar fi inlocuit cu prezentul.
Ex. Shakespeare: "If this be error".
If this is error
Byron: "Though the hart be still as loving" .the heart is
c. Poate fi folosit ca o modalitate de a da ordine.
Ex. Everybody leave the hall.
Toata lumea sa paraseasca sala.
Somebody bring me a glass of water.
Cineva sa-mi aduca un pahar cu apa.

d. Dupa constructii de tipul: it is impossible that, it is desirable that, it is


necessary that, it is likely that.
Ex. It is necessary that you be present.
E necesar ca tu sa fii prezent.
It is desirable that we finish the translation first.
Este de dorit ca noi sa terminam inti traducerea.
It is impossible that he do this.
Este imposibil ca el sa faca aceasta.
e) Dupa verbe ca: to propose, to suggest, to insist, to demand, to urge, to
recommend, to order
Ex. I recommended that his proposal be accepted.
Am recomandat ca propunerea lui sa fie acceptata.
The doctor insisted that I keep indoors.
Doctorul a insistat ca eu sa stau acasa.
1. Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect:
Apare dupa urmatoarele expresii:
a. I wish (mi-as dori, bine ar fi sa)

Daca dorinta se refera la momentul prezent, se foloseste subjonctivul cu


forma de Past Tense.

Ex. I wish I were in England now.


Mi-as dori sa fiu in Anglia acum.
Nota: Verbul to be la subjonctivul du forma de Past Tense, apare ca
were la toate persoanele.

Daca dorinta se refera la un moment anterior, se foloseste subjonctivul cu


forma de Past Perfect.

Ex. I wish I had been born in England.


Mi-as dori sa ma fi nascut in Anglia.

Daca dorinta se refera la un moment viitor, se foloseste would, ca echivalent


de subjonctiv.

Ex. I wish it would stop raining.


Mi-as dori sa inceteze ploaia.
b) If only - are aproximativ acelasi sens cu I wish
Ex. If only I lived to be a hundred!
Bine ar fi sa traiesc pna la o suta de ani!
c) As if/though (ca si cum, de parca)
even if/even though (chiar daca)
Ex. You speak English as if you were an Englishman.
Vorbesti engleza de parca ai fi englez.
You speak English as if you had lived in England.
Vorbesti engleza ca si cum ai fi trait in Anglia.
d)It is time. (E timpul.)
It is high time. (Era de mult timpul.)
Ex. It is time the child went to bed.
E timpul sa mearga copilul la culcare.
It is high time you began to study seriously.
Era de mult timpul sa incepi sa studiezi serios.
a. I would sooner/rather (as prefera sa.)
Ex. I would sooner you stayed at home tonight.
As prefera sa stai acasa in seara asta.
In exemplul de mai sus, persoana care isi exprima preferinta este diferita de cea
care face actiunea.
In cazul in care persoana care isi exprima preferinta este aceeasi cu cea care face
actiunea, se poate folosi fie subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense, fie cel cu forma
de infinitiv.
Ex. I would sooner I stayed at home tonight.
I would sooner stay at home tonight.
1. Echivalenti de subjonctiv
a. should - ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (1-d) se poate folosi dupa
constructii de tipul: It is impossible that, it is necessary that.
Ex. It is necessary that you should be present.
It is desirable that we should finish the translation first.

It is impossible that he should do this.


Acest tip de constructii se traduc la fel (vezi 1-d), fie ca se foloseste in limba
engleza subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv, fie ca se foloseste should ca echivalent
de subjonctiv.
Exista o situatie in care nu se poate folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv,ci
este necesara introducerea lui should. Este vorba de cazul cnd propozitia
secundara exprima o actiune anterioara celei din principala.
Ex. It is impossible that he should have done this.
Este imposibil ca el sa fi facut aceasta.
Dupa cum se observa, in aceasta situatie should este urmat de infinitivul trecut.

De asemenea, la fel ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (vezi 1-e), should


poate aparea dupa verbe ca: to propose, to suggest, to insist, to demand, to
urge, to recommend.

Ex. I recommend that his proposal should be accepted.


The doctor insisted that I should stay indoors.

Dupa conjunctia lest (ca nu cumva sa)

Ex. Hurry up lest you should miss the train.


Grabeste-te ca nu cumva sa pierzi trenul.
I am afraid lest he should fail the exam.
Mi-e teama ca nu cumva sa piarda examenul.
Nota: In engleza contemporana exista tendinta de a se omite should
dupa lest si de a se folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv.
Ex. Hurry up lest you miss the train.

Intrebari introduse prin how, why, where,when, fie in vorbirea direca, fie in
vorbirea indirecta.

Ex. How should I know where he is now?


De unde sa stiu unde este el acum?
I don't see why you should be so rude to him.
Nu vad de ce sa fii att de nepoliticos cu el.
a. may, might
Ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv, may poate aparea in lozinci si urari:

Ex. May success attend you!


Fie ca succesul sa fie cu tine!
May you live long and be happy!
Fie sa traiesti mult si sa fii fericit.

Dupa to hope, to be afraid

Ex. I hope that he may pass the exam.


Sper ca el sa treaca examenul.
I was afraid that he might fail the exam.
Mi-era teama sa nu cada la examen.
Dupa cum reiese din exemplele de mai sus, daca verbul din propozitia principala
este la timpul prezent, in secundara se foloseste may, iar daca verbul din propozitia
principala este la timpul trecut, in secundara se foloseste might.

Dupa so that, in order that

Ex. Study hard so that/in order that you may pass the exam.
Invata serios ca sa treci examenul.
I studied hard so that/in order that I might pass the exam.
Am invatat serios ca sa trec examenul.

Dupa whoever, whenever, wherever, however, whichever, whatever sau dupa


formulele echivalente no matter who, no matter when, etc.

Ex. Whoever you may/might be, you have no right to do this.


No matter who you may/might be, you have no right to do this.
Oricine ai fi, nu ai dreptul sa faci asta.
Wherever I may/might be, I will ring you up.
Oriunde as fi, iti voi telefona.

Dupa it is possible, it was possible

Ex. It is possible that he may be here in time.


Este posibil ca el sa ajunga aici la timp.
It was possible that he might be here in time.
Era posibil ca el sa fi ajuns aici la timp.
Nota: Dupa cum se poate observa, echivalentii de subjonctiv sunt la
origine verbe modale. Exisa situatii cnd se pot folosi si alte verbe
modale dect cele expuse in acest capitol ca echivalenti de subjonctiv,

iar in aceste cazuri, verbele respective aduc in propozitie si sensul lor


initial.
Ex. I wish I could speak English.
Mi-as dori sa pot vorbi engleza/sa fiu in stare sa vorbesc engleza.
I wish I might borrow your car.
Mi-as dori sa pot/sa am permisiunea de a imprumuta masina ta.
WISHES
From Intermediate upwards, learners of English find themselves using wish
through a number of different tenses. Sometimes it can be a little confusing about
when we are supposed to use this word and with which form of a verb. Lets take a
look at the following sentences.
1. I wish I had eaten a bigger breakfast. Im so hungry!
2. I wish I was taller
3. I wish I could fly to the moon and back
4. I wish Jessica would stop talking
If we direct our attention to the first sentence, we can see the most typical use of
wish in English. In this example, the speaker is talking about a situation in the
past they cannot change. The basic formula for this use of wish is outlined
below.
Subject Pronoun + wish + Subject Pronoun + Past Perfect + Object
I wish I had eaten a bigger breakfast
Heres another
I wish I had visited the Eiffel Tower
Just like the first example, the second sentence is similar because the speaker is
referring to something in the past. They regret their decision to not visit the Eiffel
Tower in Paris and cannot do anything in the present to change this behavior.
Lets take a look at the second sentence in bold. Notice that here, the speaker is
not referring to an action in the past. Instead, they are talking about something
they dislike about themselves in the present. Take a look at this grammatical
formula.
Subj. Pronoun + wish + Subj. Pronoun + Past Simple + Adjective and/or
Object

I wish I was taller


Heres another
I wish I had brown hair
From our third sentence, we see the use of wish with a modal verb, could. In this
example, the speaker is referring to something unrealistic and imaginary.
Therefore, if there is something you would love to happen, but at the same time
you are certain it will not, use the modal verb could in a similar structure to that
found in our first sentence. The only difference, is that we are replacing the past
perfect with could + an infinitive form of the verb.
Subj. Pronoun + wish + Subj. Pronoun + could + Infinitive Verb + Object
I wish I could fly to the moon and back
I wish I could play professional soccer
Finally, we come to our fourth sentence. It is clear that the speaker is angry with
Jessica. Maybe they cannot concentrate whilst studying. Perhaps, Jessica has an
extremely loud voice. Whatever the reason, the sentence is referring to an event in
the present and tells us that the speaker is feeling irritated or annoyed. For this
context, we use a new modal verb: would.
Subj. Pronoun (I) + wish + Subj. Pronoun + would + Infinitive Verb +
Object/Gerund
I wish Jessica (she) would stop talking
I wish Daniel (he) would eat his vegetables
There we have it! By studying the grammatical rules above, you too can share with
classmates some of your own wishes and regrets!
Modal Verbs
Verbele modale (Modal verbs) exprima atitudinea vorbitorului fata de ceva,
actiunea din cadrul acestuia fiind vazuta ca posibila, probabila, necesara,
obligatorie, de dorit etc.
Ex.: It might rain later. - S-a putea sa ploua mai tarziu.
Verbele modale englezesti se pot imparti in:

Verbe notionale exprimannd modalitatea. Acestea se comporta ca verbele


obisnuite (want, wish, order, oblige, advise, intend, mean, prefer, etc.).
o Ex.: He wants to see the play. - El vrea sa vada piesa.

Verbe modale defective (Defective Modal Verbs). Acestea exprima de


asemenea modalitatea, dar din punct de vedere formal, prezinta anumite
caracteristici (can / could, may / might, must, have to, shall/should, will /
would, ought to, be to, used to, need, dare).

1. Caracteristicile verbelor modale


Caracteristicile verbelor modale sunt:
1) Sunt defective. - Adica le lipsesc anumite forme verbale si de aceea nu pot fi
conjugate la toate modurile si timpurile. Dar ele pot fi folosite pentru redarea mai
multor timpuri.
I can help you next week. - Am sa te pot ajuta saptamana viitoare.
I could skate when I was a child. Stiam sa patinez cand eram copil.
2) Nu primesc "-s" la persoana a III-a singular (cu exceptia lui "be to" si "have to").
He must see this play. - Trebuie sa vada aceasta piesa.
3) Formeaza singure interogativul si negativul fara ajutorul auxiliarului "do /did"
(cu exceptia lui "have to").
Must you do this? - Trebuie sa faci asta?
Do you have to type that report? - Trebuie sa dactilografiezi raportuls?
4) Sunt urmate de verbe cu infinitiv fara "to" (cu exceptia lui "be to", "have to",
"ought to").
She can cook. - Ea stie sa gateasca.
He has to get up early every day. - El trebuie sa se scoale devreme in fiecare zi.
2. CAN / COULD (a putea, a sti)
Can este folosit pentru toate persoanele la indicativ prezent.
Could este folosit ca trecut al lui "Can", si subjonctiv-conditional.
Can/could poate exprima:
1) Capacitatea (fizica sau intelectuala) de efectuare a unei actiuni.
Tom can speak three foreign languages. - Tom stie sa vorbeasca trei limbi straine.
I could run faster than you. - Puteam sa alerg mai repede decat tine.
- Cand "Can" exprima abilitatea, putinta de a face ceva, este adesea inlocuit de: "be
able to", "be capable of", sau "know how to".
I can ski now. (Stiu sa schiez acum)
I am able to ski now. (Pot sa schiez acum.)

I could skate when I was a child. (Stiam sa patinez cand eram copil.)
Although it was very cold yesterday, we were able to skate. (Desi a fost foarte frig
ieri, am reusit sa patinam.)
2) Can este folosit pentru a exprima permisiunea, ca o alternativa a lui "may" in
exprimarea familiara. Could este folosit pentru a exprima permisiunea in trecut.
Can I borrow your umbrella? - Pot (imi permiti) sa iau umbrela ta?
On Sundays we could stay in bed until 8 o'clock. - Duminica aveam voie sa stam in
pat pana la ora 8.
3) Posibilitatea, presupunerea.
They can be there now. - E posibil ca ei sa fie acolo, acum.
She could read the book. - Ea ar fi putut (e posibil) sa citeasca cartea.
4) Pentru a exprima: o cerere, rugaminte politicoasa (Could este mai politicos decat
Can).
Can you wait a few moments? - Poti sa astepti cateva momente?
5) Could + infinitivul perfect este folosit pentru a exprima capacitatea nerealizata
de efectuare a unei actiuni din trecut.
She could have helped me. (But she didn't.) - Ea ar fi putut sa ma ajute. (Dar nu a
facut-o.)
3. MAY / MIGHT (a putea, a avea voie)
May este folosit pentru a cere sau a acorda permisiunea in limbaj formal, politicos
(mai oficial decat can).
May I go? - Pot (imi permiteti) sa plec?
You may go. - Puteti sa plecati.
Might exprima la fel permisiunea, cu valoare de conditional si subjonctiv, precum
si posibilitatea vaga.
Might I go home? - As putea pleca acasa?
You might not come in. - Nu ai putea (nu ai avea voie) sa intri.
They might be there now. S-ar putea sa fie acolo acum.
- May / Might + verbul la prezent exprima o posibilitate prezenta sau viitoare (in
sau dupa momentul vorbirii).
He may come today. - Se poate sa vina azi.
He might come tomorrow. - S-ar putea sa vina maine.
- La forma interogativa si negativa, "May" exprimand posibilitatea este inlocuit de
constructiile "do you think + prezent / viitor" sau "be likely + infinitiv".
Do you think he'll come today? - Crezi ca o sa vina astazi?
Is he likely to come today? - Crezi ca o sa vina astazi?

3. MUST (a trebui)
Adesea, Must este inlocuit cu "to have to" (a trebui neaparat, a avea obligatia).
- Must exprima:
1) obligatie, datorie.
You must write to them. - Trebuie sa le scrii.
I must leave soon. - Trebuie sa plec curand.
2) posibilitate, presupunere.
You must be tired. - Trebuie sa fii obosit. (Probabil ca esti obosit.)
She must be at home now. Trebuie sa fie acasa acum.
Nota:
- La solicitarea permisiunii, raspunsul se formeaza cu "may", "can" sau "must not".
May I stay here? - Pot sa stau aici?
Yes, you may - Da, aveti voie. (vi se permite)
No, you musn't. - Nu, este interzis.
- Daca se pune la indoiala obligatia, raspunsul se formeaza cu "must" (impunere)
sau "need not" (lipsa necesitatii).
Must I really go there? - Chiar trebuie sa ma duc acolo?
Yes, you must. - Da, trebuie. (este obligatoriu)
No, you needn't. - Nu, nu este necesar (nevoie).

VERBE MODALE IN ENGLEZA


Verbele: can, may, must, ought, shall, will si partial need si dare formeaza grupul
de verbe modale.
Aceste verbe nu formeaza infinitivul cu particula 'to'.

can - a putea, cu intelesul de a fi in stare. In vorbirea curenta mai ales in


intrebari se foloseste in locul lui 'may' (vezi mai jos) (inseamna si conserva si
'to can' = a face conserva)
may - a putea, cu intelesul de a avea voie. (inseamna si luna mai). In plus se
foloseste in urari, de exemplu poate fi tradus prin 'fie' .

must - a trebui, a fi necesar (inseamna si must- suc de struguri), poate fi


tradus uneori si prin probabil (sau 'trebuie ca')
ought to- ar trebui, ar fi cazul
shall - este o intarire a unui ordin daca este spus apasat. Altfel formeaza
viitorul persoanei intai. In acest ultim caz deobicei se inlocuieste cu 'will'
(vezi mai jos).
will - formeaza viitorul, particula 'voi' din romaneste. I will come = Voi veni.
Se foloseste si la formarea viitorului.(deasemeni inseamna testament.
Inseamna si vointa).
need - a trebui, cu intelesul de a avea nevoie
dare - a indrazni, a provoca pe cineva

Mai jos cititi exemple in care se folosesc aceste verbe

Este binecunoscuta propozitia: I know I can - Stiu ca pot dintr-o poveste


pentru copii in care o locomotiva isi tot repeta aceasta cat se straduieste sa
urce un deal.
They eat what they can and they can what they eat - Mananca ce pot si
pun in conserva ceea ce mananca.

May I have this dance? (Pot sa am acest dans) - Imi acordati acest dans?
May the force be with you! - Fie ca forta sa te insoteasca! din filmul
StarWars, adica sa ai noroc.

If you must, you must - Daca trebuie, trebuie.


I must be dreaming - Trebuie ca visez (probabil ca visez)

Pentru exemple cu ought to vedeti poezia de mai jos:


I got your wedding invitation
I'm surprised you thought of me
But I don't believe your wedding

Am primit invitatia la nunta


Ma mir ca te-ai gandit la mine
Dar nu cred ca nunta ta

Is just where I ought to be

E un loc unde ar trebui sa fiu

For you put your arms around her


Kiss her lips so tenderly
As she's standing there beside you
That's just where I ought to be

Pentru ca iti vei pune bratele in jurul ei


O vei saruta pe buze cu tandrete
Cat ea va sta langa tine
Acolo ar trebui sa fiu eu.

Like a fool I introduced you


I said baby meet my friend
Never thought that I could lose you
But I lost you there and then

Ca o proasta v-am introdus


Am zis: Draga, intalneste-o pe prietena
mea
Niciodata n-am crezut ca o sa te pierd
Dar te-am pierdut atunci si acolo

I took the diamond ring you gave


me
Threw it way out to sea
And I had an awful feeling
That's just where I ought to be

Am luat inelul de diamant pe care mi l-ai


dat
L-am aruncat departe in mare
Si am avut un sentiment groaznic
Ca acolo ar trebui eu sa fiu

Cele zece porunci date de Dumnezeu lui Moise in Biblie se spun in engleza
cu shall pentru intarire. De exemplu: You shall not kill = Nu vei omori (sa
nu omori)
We shall overcome = Vom invinge este un cantec muncitoresc american, to
overcome inseamna a depasi un moment greu.

I will survive = Voi supravietui este binecunoscutul cantec al Gloriei Gaynor


Intr-un cunoscut cantec Que sera, sera o fetita isi intreaba mama ce va fi
cand va fi mare:

I asked my mother what will I be?


Will I be happy? Will I be rich?
My mother said to me:
Que sera, sera
Whatever will be, will be
The future is for us to see
Que sera, sera

Am intrebat-o pe mama, ce voi fi


Voi fi fericita? Voi fi vesela?
Mama mi-a raspuns:
Que sera, sera
Ce va fi, va fi
Viitorul este pentru noi de descoperit
Que sera, sera

Verbele modale need si dare in cele mai multe cazuri se comporta ca verbe
obisnuite. Sunt insa si situatii cand ele capata proprietati de verbe modale

Need I go on? - E nevoie sa continui? In engleza moderna e mai probabil sa


se zica: Do I need to go on? caz in care need nu mai este verb modal.
How dare you talk like this! - Cum indraznesti sa vorbesti asa!

Caracteristicile generale ale verbelor modale

1. Nu accepta particula to pentru infinitiv, nu au participiu si nici forma cu ing.


Din aceasta cauza multe timpuri lipsesc acestor verbe.
2. Foarte important: Verbul care urmeaza unui verb modal nu are to in fata.
Adica, pe romaneste spui: Trebuie sa mananc sau mai arhaic Trebuie a manca
In englezeste se spune I must eat. (Daca spui: I need to eat - need aici nu e
verb modal).
Din exemplele de mai sus vedem ca aceasta regula a verbelor modale e
respectata: I know I can (fara 'to'), May I have this dance? (fara 'to') etc
3. Forma negativa nu cere do. Adica in cazul celorlalte verbe se pune un do not
sau does not pentru negatie. I eat meat - Mananc carne. I do not eat meat - Nu
mananc carne. Daca insa spui I can not eat meat - Nu pot sa mananc carne,
particula do cade.

4. Forma interogativa nu cere do. Do you eat meat? - Mananci carne? folosind
verbul modal can devine Can you eat meat? - Poti sa mananci carne?.
Folosind must spunem: Must you eat meat? - Trebuie sa mananci carne?
.
5. Aceste verbe nu se schimba dupa persoana: I can, you can, he/she can etc.
Adica persoana a treia singular nu primeste 's'.
6. Aceste verbe se pot contracta cu particula not din propozitii negative. can't =
can not, mustn't = must not, won't = will not sunt verbele modale care
folosesc cel mai mult aceasta regula.
7. Pentru formarea celebrului 'nu-i asa' din engleza e necesar folosirea acestor
verbe. Forma 'nu-i asa' depinde de verbul modal folosit in prima parte a
intrebarii. I can go, can't I? - Pot sa ma duc, nu-i asa? sau He will go, won't
he? - Va merge, nu-i asa?

8.

DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH (VORBIREA


DIRECTA SI INDIRECTA)

9. Vorbirea directa: John said: She is not at home'


10.Vorbirea indirecta: John said she was not at home.
11.Pentru a trece o propozitie de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta, trebuie
respectate o serie de reguli.
12.1. Atunci cand verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut, ceea ce se
intampla in majoritatea cazurilor, in propozitia secundara se schimba
timpurile dupa cum urmeaza:
DIRECT SPEECH
INDIRECT SPEECH
Prezent Simplu
Trecut Simplu
Prezent Continuu
Trecut Continuu
Prezent Perfect Simplu
Trecut Perfect Simplu
Prezent Perfect Continuu
Trecut Perfect Continuu
Trecut Simplu
Trecut Perfect Simplu
Trecut Continuu
Trecut Perfect Continuu
Viitor Simplu
Future-in-the-Past
13.Ex. He said I am ill'. - He said he was ill.

14.He said I have been working hard. - He said he had been working hard.
15.He said I was ill'. - He said he had been ill.
16.He said I will do the exercise'.- He said he would do the exercise.
17.2. Se schimba pronumele, in functie de sens.
18.Ex. He said: She gave me a book'.
19.He said she had given him a book.
20.3. Se schimba o serie de cuvinte in functie de sens.
21.Ex. today -> that day
22.yesterday -> the day before/the previous day
23.tomorrow -> the next day/the following day
24.the day after tomorrow -> in two days time
25.next week -> the next/the following week
26.two years ago -> two years before
27.now -> then
28.this -> that
29.these -> those
30.here -> there
31.Ex. He said: Ill be at home today'. - He said he would be at home on that day.
32.He said: I am going to do this traslation tomorrow'.- He said he was going to
do that translation the next day.
33.4. Frazele conditionale sunt trecute la vorbirea indirecta in modul
urmator:
34.
tipul 1 devine tipul 2:
35.'If it rains, I will stay at home.'
36.He said if it rained he would stay at home.
37.
tipurile 2 si 3 nu se schimba:
38.'If it rained, I would stay at home.'
39.He said if itrained he would stay at home.
40.'If it had rained, I would have stayed at home.'
41.He said if it had rained he would have stayed at home.
42.5. Verbele modale would, should, ought to, could, might raman
neschimbate la vorbirea indirecta.
43.Ex. He said: I might be late'
44.He said he might be late.
45.Modalitati de introducere a propozitiilor secundare in vorbirea indirecta
46.1. Afirmatii: cu that (care se poate omite)
47.Ex. He said: I am ill'. - He said (that) he was ill.
48.2. Comenzi: cu infinitivul (afirmativ sau negativ)
49.Ex. He said Go out'. - He told me to go out.
50.He said Dont go out'. - He told me not to go out.

51.3. Intrebari
52.Exista doua tipuri de intrebari: generale si speciale. Intrebarile generale sunt
cele care incep cu un verb, iar raspunsul poate fi da sau nu.
53.Ex. Where have you been?
54.Ive been away, on holiday.
55.Intrebarile generale se introduc cu if sau whether (daca).
56.Ex. He asked me if I liked music.
57.Intrebarile speciale se introduc cu cuvantul interogativ respectiv.
58.Ex. He asked me where I had been.
59.In cazul intrebarilor speciale trecute la vorbirea indirecta, trebuie acordata
atentie ordinei cuvintelor din propozitia secundara. Intrucat aceasta propozitie
incepe cu un cuvant interogativ, exista tentatia de a folosi ordinea cuvintelor din
propozitiile interogative, ceea ce este o greseala.
60.Ex. He asked me: What is the time?'
61.Corect: He asked me what the time was.
62.Incorect: He asked me what was the time.

Direct speech [vb directa]


"I play football"
"I am playing football"
"I have played football"
"I played football"
"I was playing football"
"I had played football"
"I had been playing football"
"I will play football"
"I can play football"
Reported speech
He said (that) he played football
He said (that) he was playing football
He said (that) he had played football
He said (that) he had played football
He said (that) he had been playing football
He said (that) he had played football
He said (that) he had been playing football
He said (that) he would play football
He said (that) he could play footbal

1. Articolul hotart (the)


Articolul hotart (the) se scrie inaintea cuvantului pe care-l determina si se
foloseste astfel:
- Inaintea unui substantiv care a mai fost mentionat n contextul respectiv.
A bird saw a mouse. The mouse loved the bird. - O pasare a vazut un soarece.
Soarecele a iubit pasarea.
- Atunci cnd att vorbitorul ct si ascultatorul cunosc notiunea exprimata de
substantiv, chiar daca nu a mai fost mentionat n context.
- Where's the bathroom? - It's on the first floor. = Unde este baia? - Este la primul
etaj.
- In propozitii sau fraze n care definim sau identificam anumite persoane sau
obiecte.
The girl in blue is my cousin. - Fata in albastru e verisoara mea.
- Referitor la obiecte pe care le consideram unice.
the earth, the sun, the moon, the stars - pamantul, soarele, luna, stelele
Mary is in the garden (the garden of this house). - Maria este in gradina (gradina
acestei case).
- Inaintea superlativului sau numeralelor ordinale: first, second, thirds, etc (primul,
al doilea, al treilea) si only (unic /a, singur /a, numai).
the best day (cea mai buna zi), the first week (prima saptamana), the last chapter
(ultimul capitol), the only way (singura cale).
- Inaintea unor adjective pentru a te referi n general la un grup de oameni care au
n comun o anumita nsusire (sunt frumosi, tineri, batrni, japonezi, etc)
the young (tanarul), the beautiful (frumosul), the old (batranul), the best (cel mai
bun), the Japanese (japonezul).
- Nume de locuri geografice, oceane, ruri, mari, deserturi, munti, regiuni
the Caribbean (Caraibe), the Sahara (Sahara), the Atlantic (Atlantic)
- Se foloseste naintea unor nume proprii (muzee, institutii, hoteluri, ziare,
orchestre, grupuri muzicale, vapoare, nume de famili la plural,etc).
the National Gallery, the Royal Shakespeare, the Savoy, the Beatles, the Spice
Girls, the Guardian, the Telegraph, the Daily, the Titanic, the Tower of London
(Turnul Londrei), the House of Parliament (Casa parlamentului), the Smiths
(familia Smith)
- Decade, secole, grupe de ani.
My parents went to University in the seventies. - Parintii mei au mers la facultate
in anii saptezeci.

2. Articolul nehotart (a / an)


Articolul nehotarat in limba engleza este "a" sau "an".
- A se foloseste naintea substantivelor care ncep cu o consoana.
a boy (un baiat), a car (o masina), a house (o casa)
- An se foloseste naintea substantivelor care ncep cu o vocala (a, e, i, o, u).
an apple (un mar), an orange (o portocala, un portocaliu), an opera (o opera)
Exceptii:
An nainte de un "h" mut: - an hour (o ora), an honor (o onoare).
A nainte de "u" sau "eu" atunci cnd se pronunta ca "you": - a European, a
university, a unit (o unitate)
Articolul nehotart se foloseste in urmatoarele cazuri:
- Pentru a te referi la ceva pentru prima data:
Would you like a drink? - Ti-ar place o bautura?
I've finally got a good job. - In sfarsit am obtinut o slujba buna.
- Pentru a te referi la un anume membru al unui grup sau clase:
Exemple:

cu nume de profesii: John is an engineer. (Ion este un inginer.)


cu nationalitati si religii: John is an Englishman. (John este un englez)
cu instrumente muzicale: Marius was playing a violin when the visitor
arrived. (Marius canta la vioara cand a sosit vizitatorul.)
cu numele zilelor: I was born on a Thursday. (Am fost nascut intr-o Joi)
pentru a desemna "un fel de", sau "un exemplu de": The mouse has a tiny
nose. (Soarecele are un nas micut). It is a very strange car. (E o masina
foarte ciudata.)
cu substantive la singular, dupa cuvinte cum ar fi what si such: What a hoax!
He is such a prodigious young man. (Ce pacaleala! E un tanar atat de
extraordinar.)
atunci cnd te referi la un singur obiect sau persoana, echivaleaza cu "one":
I'd like an orange and two lemons, please. (Asi dori o portocala si doua
lamai, va rog.)

- Retineti ca se spune a hundred (o suta), a thousand (o mie), a million (un milion).

3. Articolul zero
Se spune ca e vorba de Articolul zero (sau fara articol) atunci cand nu se foloseste nici un
articol.
Articolul nu se foloseste n urmatoarele cazuri:
- Cu nume de tari (la singular).
Germany is an important economic power. - Germania e o importanta putere economica.
He's just returned from Argentina. - El tocmai s-a intors din Argentina
(Exceptie: I'm visiting the United States next week. - Vizitez Statele Unite saptamana viitoare.)
- Cu numele limbilor.
French is spoken in Tahiti. - Franceza este vorbita in Tahiti.
English uses many words of Latin origin. - Engleza foloseste multe cuvinte de origine latina.
- Cu numele meselor.
Lunch is at midday. - Masa de prnz este la prnz (amiaza).
Dinner is in the evening. - Cina este seara
Breakfast is the first meal of the day. - Micul dejun e prima masa a zilei.
- Cu numele persoanelor (doar cele la singular).
John's coming to school. - Ion vine la scoala.
George King is my uncle. - Regele George este unchiul meu.
- Cu titluri si nume proprii:
Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth's son. - Printul Charles este fiul reginei Elisabeta
Dr. Watson was Sherlock Holmes' friend. - Dr. Watson a fost prietenul lui Sherlock Holmes.
(Insa titlurile generice, luate singure, au articol: the Queen of England, the Pope)
- Dupa cazul posesiv format cu 's.
His sister's car. - Masina surorii lui.
Laura's basket. - Cosul Laurei.
- Cu numele profesiilor.
Engineering is a useful career. - Ingineria e o cariera folositoare.
He'll probably go into medicine. - El probabil va merge la medicina.
- Cu nume de magazine:
I'll get the card at Smith's. - Am sa obtin cardul la magazinul lui Smith. (smith = fierar)
- Cu ani.
1978 was a wonderful year. - 1978 a fost un an minunat.
Do you remember 1995? - Iti amintesti de 1995?
- Cu substantive unice (uncountable nouns).
Milk is often added to tea in England. - Laptele este adesea adaugat la ceai in Anglia.
Peace is good. - Pacea e buna.
- Cu numele unor munti, lacuri si insule:
Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska. - Muntele McKinley e cel mai inalt munte
din Alaska
She lives near Salty Lake. - Ea locuieste (traieste) langa Lacu Sarat.
Have you visited Long Island? - Ai vizitat Long Island?
- Cu majoritatea numelor de strazi , orase, statii pentru mijloacele de transport si aeroporturi.

Victoria Station is in the centre of London. - Statia Victoria e in centrul Londrei.


Can you direct me to Bond Street? - Poti sa ma directionezi spre strada Bond?
They're flying from Heathrow. - Ei zboara de la Heathrow.
- In unele expresii invariabile.
by car (cu masina), at school (la scoala), at work (la munca), at University (la universitate), in
church (la biserica), in bed (in pat), by train (cu trenul), on foot (pe jos), on holiday (in vacanta),
on air (in broadcasting) (in direct).

The infinitive
Infinitivul in engleza este modul care reprezinta starea sau actiunea exprimata de un verb.

Infinitivul scurt in engleza se foloseste in urmatoarele situatii:


- dupa verbele to make, to have cu sens cauzativ: That songs makes me cry (Acel cantec ma face sa
plang).
- dupa verbele modale, afara de ought to: We must hurry if we want to catch the airplane (Trebuie sa ne
grabim daca vrem sa prindem avionul).
- dupa had better, would better, would rather, more than, nothing but, had rather: You had better
do what the teacher told you (Mai bine ai face ceea ce ti-a spus profesorul).
- dupa urmatoarele verbe: to let, to hear, to see, to fill,to help to watch (doar la diateza activa):
Will you help me move this table? (Ma ajuti sa mut masa aceasta?)
Infinitivul lung in engleza este folosit in doua situatii:
- in formula Acuzativ + Infinitiv: I prefer you to help me tomorrow. (Prefer sa ma ajuti tu maine), dupa
verbe ca si: to prefer, to order, to imagine,to consider, to find, to allow, to think, to suppose,
to know , to want,to like,to hate, to declare, to believe,
- in formula Nominativ Infinitiv (predicatul la diateza pasiva): They seem to be late (Ei par sa intarzie),
dupa verbe ca si: to happen, to prove, to be sure, to be likely, to seem, to be unlikely
Propozitii in care e folosit infinitivul in engleza:
1. The idea of winning makes him run faster.
Ideea de a castiga il face sa alerge mai repede.
2. I can help you whenever you need me.
Pot sa te ajut oricand ai nevoie de mine.
3. The teacher let the students go home after a difficult test.
Profesorul i-a lasat pe elevi sa mearga acasa dupa un test greu.

4. My parents want to go on a cruise for their anniversary.


Parintii mei vor sa mearga intr-o croaziera de aniversarea lor.
5. It is unlikely to rain today.
Este putin probabil sa ploua astazi.
6. Our guests proved to arrive on time.
Musafirii nostri s-au dovedit sa soseasca la timp.

Infinitivul

Este modul care denumete aciunea sau starea exprimat de un verb. Poate fi folosit att la aspectul
simplu ct i la cel continuu, att la diateza activ ct i la cea pasiv. Are dou forme: infinitiv prezent i
infinitiv perfect.
Infinitivul prezent arat c aciunea se desfoar n acelai timp cu verbul dup care este aezat.
I hope to get there in time. = Sper s ajung acolo la timp.
Infinitivul perfect arat c aciunea exprimat de el este anterioar celei artate de verbul din faa lui.
Im sorry to have talked to you so rudely. = mi pare ru c i-am vorbit aa de urt.
Folosirea infinitivului
A. Infinitivul scurt se folosete:
1. Dup verbe modale cu excepia lui ough to
The children can swim quite well. = Copiii pot nota destul de
bine.
2. Dup verbele to make i to have, cu sens cauzativ
He makes me laugh. = M face s rd.
I had her clean the room at once. = Am fcut-o s curee
camera imediat (de ndat).
3. Dup verbele to see, to hear, to fill, to watch, to let,
to observe, to help, cnd sunt la diateza activ
Did you see her come last night ? = Ai vzut-o venind ast
noapte ?

4. Dup construciile had better, had rather, would rather,


would better, more than, nothing but
He would rather eat than sleep. = Mai bine ar mnca dect s
doarm.
I cant but wait. = Nu pot dect s atept.
B. Infinitivul lung se folosete de regul n dou tipuri de
construcii:
1. Construcia acuzativ + infinitiv
We want you to come at five. = Vrem ca s vii la cinci.

We expected them to speak English. = Ne-am ateptat ca ei


s vorbeasc englezete.
Aceast construcie se folosete dup verbe ca: to belive, to consider, to imagine, to find, to order,
to know, to allow (a permite), to think, to suppose, to want, to hate, to declare, to prefer, to
like
(statement = declaraie oficial)
2. Construcia nominativ + infinitiv
He is known to be a great singer. = Se tie ca fiind un mare
cntre.
We are supposed to come at five. = Se presupune s venim la
cinci.
She seemed to be worried. = Pare a fi ngrijorat.
Spre deosebire de construcia cu acuzativ, construcia cu nominativ are drept caracteristic faptul c
predicatul propoziiei este la diateza pasiv.
Construcia cu nominativ poate fi folosit i dup urmtoarele verbe la diateza activ: to happen, to
seem (a prea), to prove, to be sure, to be likely (a fi posibil), to be unlikely
(a nu fi posibil)
I happen to know French too. = Se ntmpl s tiu i
francez.
They are sure to come in time. = Cu siguran c ei vor veni la

timp.
She is likely to have arrived at home by now. = Este posibil s
fi sosit deja acas.
Situaii speciale pentru particula to
a) Cnd exist dou sau mai multe infinitive legate prin virgul
sau conjuncie (i), numai primul dintre ele are to n fa
I want to learn, write, read and speak English well. = Vreau s
nv, s scriu, s citesc i s vorbesc englezete bine.
b) To apare la toate infinitivele dac acestea sunt departe
unul de cellalt
She preferred to go to the garden gate, to look up and down
the street and to lock the door with her own hand. =
Ea a preferat s mearg la poarta grdinii s priveasc n
susul i-n josul strzii i s ncuie ua cu mna ei.

c) n rspunsurile la ntrebri, se pstreaz particula to la


sfritul propoziiei pentru a evita repetarea infinitivului
- Do you want to come with me ? = Vrei s vii cu mine ?
- Yes, Id like to. = Da, mi-ar plcea.
- Does he intended to visit them? = Intenioneaz s-i viziteze?
- He ought to. = I-a obligat s-i viziteze.
Infinitivul lung sau scurt se folosete dup anumite adjective sau pentru a exprima un scop, sau dup
verbele to ask, to wonder, to find out (a afla), to understand, cnd acestea sunt urmate de cuvinte
interogative ca: how, what, where, who.
Its difficult to understand that theory. = Este dificil de neles
acea teorie.
I need a lot of money to buy that house. = Am nevoie de o
mulime de bani ca s cumpr acea cas.

I didnt know what to say. = N-am tiut ce s spun.


Show me where to put it. = Arat-mi unde s-l pun.
Can you tell me how to get there ? = Poi s-mi spui cum
ajung acolo ?

Common verbs followed by ing nouns are:


Verbs of liking and disliking:

detest

dislike

enjoy

hate

fancy

like

love

I love swimming but I hate jogging.


They always enjoyed visiting their friends.
A: Do you fancy going for a walk?
B: I wouldnt mind
Phrases with mind:

wouldnt mind (= would like)

dont mind (= I am willing to)

would you mind (= will you please?)

I wouldnt mind having some fish and chips.


I dont mind waiting for a few minutes.
Would you mind holding this for me?
Verbs of saying and thinking:

admit

consider

deny

imagine

remember

suggest

Our guide suggested waiting until the storm was over.


Everyone denied seeing the accident.
Other common verbs are:

avoid

begin

finish

keep

miss

practise

risk

start

stop

I havent finished writing this letter.


Lets practise speaking English.
Passive form of -ing

Many of these verbs are sometimes followed by the passive form of -ing: being + past
participle
I dont like being interrupted.
Our dog loves being stroked under the chin.
Noun + -ing clause

Some verbs are followed by a noun and an -ing clause:


Verbs to do with the senses:

see

watch

hear

smell

listen to

etc.

We saw everybody running away.


I could hear someone singing.

Other common verbs:

catch

find

imagine

leave

prevent

stop

I caught someone trying to break into my house.


We couldnt prevent them getting away.
- See more at: http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/english-grammar/verbs/verbs-followeding-clauses#sthash.o7jNLOxF.dpuf

Prepositions

1. Indica o suprafata pe care se afla un obiect/ o fiinta/ o persoana:

The pen is on my desk. = Stiloul este pe biroul meu.


I put a vase on the table. = Am pus o vaza pe masa.
The kittens are on the roof = Pisicutele sunt pe acoperis.

2. Indica o parte a corpului:

The ball hit me on my shoulder. = Mingea m-a lovit la umar.

She kissed me on my cheek. = M-a sarutat pe obraz.


The princess wears a tiara on her head. = Printesa poarta o tiara pe cap.

3. Indica data sau ziua in care se petrece un anumit eveniment:

The mailman comes on Tuesdays. = Postasul vine in zilele de marti.


I was born on the 27th of May in 1987. = M-am nascut pe 27 mai 1987.

4. Indica un dispozitiv, precum un telefon, computer, televizor, etc. care este folosit de persoana
care infaptuieste actiunea:

She is always playing on the computer. = Ea se joaca mereu pe calculator.


He is on the phone, so please do not disturb him. = El vorbeste la telefon, asa ca te rog sa
nu il deranjezi.
The politician is on TV, giving an interview. = Politicianul este la televizor, acordand
un interviu.

5. Arata o stare de fapt:

The winter collection is on sale. = Colectia de iarna este la reducere.


The house is on fire. = Casa este in flacari.

At
1. Folosit pentru a indica un moment specific:

I called him on the phone at 4 p.m. = L-am sunat la ora 4 dupa-amiaza.


The plane will land at 7:30 p.m. = Avionul va ateriza la 7:30 p.m.

2. Folosit pentru a indica un loc in care se petrece un eveniment:

They are celebrating their wedding anniversary at a fancy restaurant. = Isi sarbatoresc
aniversarea casatoriei la un restaurant luxos.
There are many people at the swimming pool. = Sunt multi oameni la bazinul de inot.
The football fans are at the stadium. = Suporterii sunt pe stadion.

3. Pentru a indica o adresa de email:

Please contact me at myname@company.com. = Te rog sa ma contactezi la adresa:


myname@company.com.

In
1. Indica momente din timpul zilei, lunii, sau anului:

I drink my tea in the afternoon. = Imi beau ceaiul dupa-amiaza.


In the summer we launch our most profitable advertising campaigns. = Vara lansam
cele mai profitabile campanii de publicitate.
The fiscal year starts in September. = Anul fiscal incepe in septembrie.

2. Indica o locatie:

She looked in the mirror to check her make-up. = S-a uitat in oglinda, pentru a-si
verifica machiajul.
I am reading the novel in the garden. = Citesc romanul in gradina.
When I was a child, I lived in the countryside, but now I live in a big city. = Cand eram
copil, locuiam la tara, dar acum locuiesc intr-un oras mare.

3. Folosit pentru a arata o credinta, opinie, sau sentiment:

Do you believe in ghosts? = Crezi in fantome?


I am interested in photography. = Sunt interesat de fotografie.

Of
1. Folosit pentru a arata apartenenta, relatia sau conexiunea:

This is the diary of my friends sister. = Acesta este jurnalul surorii prietenului meu.
The colour of this costume is very beautiful. = Culoarea acestui costum este foarte
frumoasa.
The first page of the book has the authors signature. = Prima pagina a cartii are
semnatura autorului.
The start of the race is close. = Inceputul cursei este aproape.

2. Indica referinta la un eveniment, o persoana, sau un obiect:

I got married in the summer of 2011. = M-am casatorit in vara anului 2011.
This is a photograph of my family. = Aceasta este o folografie a familiei mele.
This is the first chapter of my book. = Acesta este primul capitol al cartii mele.

3. Indica o cantitate sau un numar:

I drank three cups of coffee. = Am baut trei cesti de cafea.


I only ate two pieces of cake. = Am mancat numai doua bucati de prajitura.
A number of 50 people signed the petition. = Un numar de 50 de oameni au semnat
petitia.

To
1. Indica faptul ca cineva/ceva se misca in directia unui loc, a unei persoane, ori a unui obiect:

I am going to the supermarket. = Ma duc la supermarket.


We are going to the concert tomorrow. = Ne ducem la concert maine.
The dogs are running to their owner. = Cainii alearga catre stapanul lor.
Send the package to my home address. = Trimite coletul la adresa de acasa.

2. Arata o limita sau un plafon:

The speed rose to 100 miles/hour. = Viteza a crescut la 100 mile/ora.


The price dropped to 5 cents/pound. = Pretul a scazut la 5 centi/livra.

3. Folosit pentru a indica o relatie:

This is my answer to your question. = Acesta este raspunsul meu la intrebarea ta.
This product is very important to your business. = Acest produs este foarte important
pentru afacerea ta.

4. Indica o perioada de timp, un interval de timp:

I work nine to five, Monday to Friday. = Lucrez de la 9 la 5, de luni pana vineri.


Its 10 to four. = Este ora 3:50 (10 minute pana la ora 4).

Prepozitia (Preposition) este o parte de vorbire neflexibila (fixa) care descrie legatura dintre
doua cuvinte din aceeasi propozitie. Prepozitiile nu au un inteles de sine statator, ele capata
diferie sensuri puse in legatura cu alte cuvinte.
Cateva exemple de observare a prepozitiilor (cuvintele evidentiate):
You can sit before the desk. - Puteti s stati n faa biroului.
He can bump into the table. - El se poate lovi in masa.
The bird flies toward the tree. - Pasarea zboara spre pom.
I sit on the armchair. - Eu stau pe fotoliu.
- Verbe precedate de prepozitii iau forma n "-ing".
He's good at remembering peoples names. - El isi aminteste cu usurinta numele oamenilor.
Exceptii: but si except sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt.
They did nothing but laugh. - N-au facut nimic (altceva) dect sa rda.
De retinut:
In limba engleza nu se va termina niciodata o propozitie cu o prepozitie.

1. Prepozitii de loc: at, on, in


At se foloseste cu adrese exacte.

James lives at 78 English Street in London. - James locueste la nr. 78, Strada English in Londra.
On desemneaza numele de strazi, sosele, bulevarde, alei, etc.
Her house is on Camp Street. - Casa ei e pe strada Camp.
In se foloseste cu numele regiunilor (orase, judete, tari, state, continente).
She lives in Braila. - Ea locuieste in Braila.
Braila is in Romania - Braila e in romania.

2. Prepozitii de timp: at, on, in


At se foloseste pentru a desemna ora exacta.
The teacher is leaving at 5:15 p.m. - Profesorul pleaca la 5:15 p.m.
On indica zilele si datele calendaristice.
My brother is coming on Monday. - Fratele meu vine luni.
We're having a training on the Fourth of October. - Avem un antrenament pe patru octombrie.
In se foloseste pentru a desemna ore imprecise din timpul zilei, cat si luna, anotimpul, anul.
She likes to jog in the morning. - Ei ii place sa alerge (sa faca jogging) dimineata.
It's too cold in winter to run outside. - E prea frig iarna ca sa alergi afara.
He started the english course in 2010. - El a inceput cursul de engleza in anul 2010.
He's going to come in August. - El are de gand sa vina in august.

3. Prepozitii de timp: for si since


For se foloseste atunci cand se masoara timpul (secunde, minute, ore, zile, luni, ani).
He held his breath for seven minutes. - El si-a inut respiraia timp de apte minute.
She's lived there for seven years. - Ea a trait acolo sapte ani.
Since se foloseste cu data sau ora exacta.
He's worked here since 1976. - El a lucrat aici din anul 1976.
She's been sitting in the waiting room since six-thirty. - Ea statea in camera de asteptare de la
sase-treizeci.

4. Prepozitii de miscare: to si lipsa prepozitiei


To se foloseste pentru a exprima deplasarea, miscarea catre un loc.
They were walking to work together. - Ei mergeau la (spre) munca impreuna.
She's going to the dentist's office this morning. - Ea se duce la dentist (cabinetul dentistului) in
dimineata asta.
Toward si towards exprima de asemenea miscarea spre ceva.
Acestea doua prepozitii sunt doar variantele ortografice ale aceluiasi cuvant si se pot folosi
indiferent.
We're moving toward the light. - Ne miscam spre lumina.
This is a big step towards the project's completion. - Acesta este un mare pas spre finalizarea
proiectului.

Cu urmatoarele cuvinte: home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs, upstairs, nu se


folosesc prepozitii.
Grandma went upstairs Grandpa went home. - Bunica sa dus la etaj bunicul a plecat acasa.
They both went outside. - Amandoi au iesit afara.

5. Prepozitii cu substantive, adjective si verbe


Numeroase substantive, adjective si mai ales verbe se folosesc corect numai insotite de
prepozitiile care le intregesc sensul.

Prepozitii si:
Substantive

Adjective

Verbe
apologize for - a cere scuze (iertare)
pentru
approval of - aprobarea
ask about - a intreba despre
awareness of - gradul de
afraid of - frica de
ask for - a cere [ceva]
contientizare a
angry at - furios la
belong to - a apartine [cuiva]
belief in - credinta in
aware of - constient de
bring up - a aduce
concern for - preocuparea pentru
capable of - capabil sa
care for - a avea grija de
confusion about - confuzie cu
careless about - neatent la /cu
find out - a afla
privire la
familiar with - familiarizat cu
give up - a renunta
desire for - dorina de
happy about - fericit in legatura cu grow up - a creste
fondness for - toleran pentru
interested in - interesat
look for - a cauta [ceva]
grasp of - stapanire de
jealous of - gelos
look forward to - a astepta cu nerabdare
hatred of - ura fata de
made of - facut /fabricat in (din)
sa
hope for - speranta pentru
married to - casatorit /a cu
look up - a privi in sus
interest in - interes in
proud of - mandru de
make up - a alcatui, a nascoci, a prepara
love of - dragostea de
similar to - asemanator cu
pay for - a plati pentru
need for - necesitatea /nevoia de
sorry for - imi pare rau pentru ...
prepare for - a se pregati pentru
a
sure of - sigur de
study for - a invata pentru
participation in - participarea la
tired of - obosit de (satul de)
talk about - a vorbi despre
reason for - motiv pentru
worried about - ingrijorat de / in
think about - a (se) gandi la
respect for - respectul pentru
legatura cu
trust in - a avea incredere in
success in - succes in
work for - a lucra pentru
understanding of - intelegerea
worry about - a fi ingrijorat de, a-si face
griji pentru
- Combinatia dintre verbe si prepozitii se numeste verb frazal.

6. Expresii idiomatice cu prepozitii


Intre folosirea prepozitiilor n limba engleza si limba romna exista numeroase diferente.
Aceeasi prepozitie poate implica frazelor din care face parte un inteles diferit de cel obisnuit,
formand expresii idiomatice. Unele dintre acestea sunt:

in the street (Engl. americ. - on the stret) - pe strada


in the playground - pe terenul de sport
in the sky - pe cer
in the sun - la soare
in the open air - la aer curat
on the way to - n drum spre
on the 1st floor - la etajul 1
round the corner - dupa colt
at present - n prezent
at the some time - n acelasi timp
at this moment - n acest moment
at last - n sfrsit
in a year`s time - peste un an
in my opinion - dupa parerea mea
beyond control - independent de vointa ...
in all probability - dupa toate probabilitatile
by my watch - dupa ceasul meu
by heart - pe de rost, pe dinafara
by mistake - din greseala
to go on a trip / on holiday - a merge n calatorie / n vacanta
to go (out) for a walk - a merge la plimare
lo look out of the window - a privi pe fereastra
to get in through the window - a intra pe fereastr
he`s the tallest in the class - e cel mai nalt din clas
outside the garden - n fata gradinii

7. Prepozitii inutile
In vorbirea de zi cu zi se folosesc incorect prepozitii acolo unde ele nu isi au rostul. Observati
urmatoarele exemple:
She met up with the new coach in the hallway. - Ea sa ntlnit cu noul antrenor pe hol.
The book fell off of the desk. - Cartea a cazut de pe birou.
He threw the book out of the window. - El a aruncat cartea pe fereastr.
She wouldn't let the cat inside of the house. (sau folositi "in") - Ea nu ar lasa pisica in casa.
Where did they go to? - Unde s-au dus ei?
Put the lamp in back of the couch. (se va folosi "behind") - Pune lampa n spatele canapelei.
Where is your college at? - Unde este colegiul dumneavoastra?

TIPURI DE PREPOZITII
1. PREPOZITIILE DE TIMP
on - se utilizeaza pentru a exprima zilele saptamanii: on Monday (luni)

in - se utilizeaza pentru a exprima:


- luna / anotimpul: in March (in martie); in Spring (primavara)
- timpul zilei: in the afternoon (dupa-amiaza)
- anul: in 2001
- o anumita perioada de timp: in a minute (intr-un minut)
at - se utilizeaza pentru a exprima:
- pentru noapte: at night (la noapte)
- pentru weekend: at weekend (in weekend)
- ora exacta: at half past ten (la 10 si jumatate)
since - se utilizeaza pentru a exprima de cand a inceput actiunea pana in prezent: since 2011 (din
2011)
for - se utilizeaza pentru a exprima de cand dureaza actiunea pana in prezent: for two years (de
doi ani)
to - precizeaza timpul exact: ten to six (sase fara zece minute)
past - precizeaza timpul: ten past eight (opt si zece minute)
to, till, until - precizeaza de cand si pana cand are loc actiunea: from Monday to/till Saturday
(de luni pana sambata)
by - precizeaza pana cand are loc actiunea: by 7 o'clock (pana la ora 7)
Alte prepozitii de timp:
ago - six years ago (cu 6 ani in urma)
after - after school (dupa scoala)
between - between Monday and Thursday (intre luni si joi)
during - during the holidays (pe perioada sarbatorilor)
before - before Easter (inainte de Pasti)
within - within an hour (intr-o ora)
up to - up to three hours a day (pana la 3 ore pe zi)
2.
3. PREPOZITIILE DE LOC
in - in the room (in camera), in the kitchen (in bucatarie), in the book (in carte), in the car (in
masina)
at - at the concert (la concert), at the table (la masa), at the door (la usa), at school (la scoala)
on - on the first floor (la primul etaj), on the wall (pe perete), on the table (pe masa), on the

plane (in avion), on the radio (la radio)


by, next to, beside - standing by the car (sta langa masina)
under - under the table (sub masa)
over - over the shirt (peste camasa), over the river (peste rau)
Alte prepozitii de loc:
after (dupa)
in front of (in fata)
among (printre)
behind (in spatele)
on to (pe)
from (din)
4.
5. PREPOZITIILE DE MISCARE
through - through the tunnel (prin tunel)
to - to the theatre (la teatru)
towards - towards the hospital (catre spital)
along - along the river (de-a lungul)
across - across the ocean (peste ocean)
past (langa)
about (prin)
around (in jurul)
Numeroase substantive, adjective si verbe se folosesc corect numai insotite de anumite
prepozitii. Hai sa vedem impreuna cateva exemple:

SUBSTANTIVE CU PREPOZITIE
belief in (credinta in)
concern for (preocupare pentru)
confusion about (confuzie cu privire la)
love of (dragoste de)
foundness for (toleranta pentru)

need for (nevoie de a)


reason for (motiv pentru)
success in (succes in)
respect for (respect pentru)

ADJECTIVE CU PREPOZITIE
afraid of (frica de)
angry at (furios la)
aware of (constient de)
capable of (capabil de)
careless about (neatent la)
interested in (interesat de)
made of (fabricat din)
married to (casatorit cu)
proud of (mandru de)
sure of (sigur de)

VERBE CU PREPOZITIE
ask about (a intreba despre)
bring up (a aduce)
find out (a afla)
look for (a cauta ceva)
look forward to (a astepta cu nerabdare sa)
grow up (a creste)
look up (a privi in sus)
make up (a alcatui)
pay for (a plati)
prepare for (a se pregati pentru)
talk about (a vorbi despre)
trust in (a crede in)
work for (a lucra pentru)

EXPRESII IDIOMATICE
Aceeasi prepozitie poate implica frazelor din care face parte un inteles diferit de cel obisnuit.
Cateva exemple:
in the street (pe strada)
in the playground (pe terenul de joaca)

in the sky (pe cer)


in the sun (la soare)
on the way to (in drum spre)
on the first floor (la etajul intai)
at this moment (in acest moment)
by my watch (dupa ceasul meu)
by heart (pe de rost)
by mistake (din greseala)
to go on a trip (a merge in excursie)
outside the garden (in fata gradinii)
to look out of the window (a privy pe fereastra)
at present (in prezent)
in all probability (dupa toate probabilitatile)
in a year's time (peste un an)
in the open air (la aer curat)
+++++

SUBSTANTIVELE si
PREPOZITIILE
approval of
awareness of
belief in
concern for
confusion about
desire for
ADJECTIVELE si PREPOZITIILE
afraid of
angry at
aware of
capable of
careless about
familiar with
VERBELE si PREPOZITIILE
apologize for
ask about
ask for
belong to
bring up
care for
find out

fondness for
grasp of
hatred of
hope for
interest in
love of

need for
participation in
reason for
respect for
success in
understanding of

fond of
happy about
interested in
jealous of
made of
married to

proud of
similar to
sorry for
sure of
tired of
worried about

give up
prepare for
grow up
study for
look for
talk about
look forward to think about
look up
trust in
make up
work for
pay for
worry about

Prepositional phrases
Sunt formate dintr-una sau doua prepozitii si o alta parte de vorbire:
substantiv articulat sau nearticulat: in urma, din pricina, in fata, in
spatele, fata de, in loc de;
un adverb articulat sau nearticulat: pe dinaintea, alaturi de, aproape de,
afara de, in afaraetc.
Locutiunile prepozitionale in structura carora se afla un substantiv sau un
adverb articulat se construiesc cu substantive si pronume in genitiv: in
fata blocului, in afara gradinii, in urma ei etc.
Observatii:
Uneori prepozitiile si locutiunile prepozitionale pot fi confundate cu
adverbele sau locutiunile adverbiale. In realitate, diferentele sunt
vizibilediferenta formala (prepozitiile si locutiunile prepozitionale, de
obicei, sunt articulate, adverbele si locutiunile adverbiale sunt nearticulate).
Sa se compare:
Ei merg inainte. (adverb)
Ei merg inaintea lui. (prepozitie)
Noi ne-am asezat in fata. (locutiune adverbiala)
Noi ne-am asezat in fata clasei. (locutiune prepozitionala)
Exista desigur, si o diferenta functionala : adverbele au functie sintactica,
prepozitiile si locutiunile prepozitionale nu au functie sintactica, ci exprima o
relatie de subordonare.
Dintre locutiunile prepozitionale cu o structura diferita sau mai complexa pot
fi adaugate : de-a lungul, de-a latul, in raport cu, o data cu, referitor
la, privitor la sau chiar in ceea ce priveste, al carei statut locutional este

dat de faptul ca aceasta imbinare frazeologica calchiaza francezul en ce qui


concerne
Multe dintre locutiunile prepozitionale cunoscute se pot construi cu un
pronume personal in cazul dativ (la forma neaccentuata si cu valoare
posesiva):

Phrasal verbs
Verbe frazale des folosite - (Phrasal Verbs)
TO BREAK off - a se intrerupe brusc din discutie
TO BREAK away with - a se dezobisnui
TO BREAK up - a se desparti
TO BREAK into - a intra prin efractie
TO COME across - a se intalni accidental
TO COME in - a intra
TO COME out - a iesi, a deveni cunoscut
TO GET away - a se da la o parte, a pleca, (Mars!)
TO GET down to - a da jos, a se apuca
TO GET in - a intra
TO GET out - a iesi, (Dispari!, Mars!)
TO GET through - a trece prin ceva, a face legatura telefonica
TO GET up - a se pregati, a se ridica
TO GIVE in - a ceda
TO GIVE off - a emite un miros neplacut
TO GIVE out - a fi epuizat (despre carti)
TO GIVE away - a trada
TO GIVE way - a ceda (despre lucruri/obiecte)
TO GIVE up - a renunta
TO LOOK after - a avea grija de cineva
TO LOOK out - a (te) feri
TO LOOK in to - a examina
TO LOOK up - a cauta pe cineva / a cauta in dictionar
TO LOOK away - a intoarce privirea
TO LOOK for - a cauta
TO LOOK forward to - a astepta cu nerabdare (!cere verb + ing)
TO LOOK on to - a avea vedere spre (ex: mare)

TO LOOK up to - a privi in sus, a admira


TO LOOK down on - a dispretui
TO LOOK out of - a se uita pe geam
TO LOOK over - a se uita superficial
TO MAKE for - a se indrepta spre ceva (un loc)
TO MAKE out - a intelege, a discerne
TO MAKE up - a alcatui, a nascoci, a prepara
TO PUT off - a amana
TO PUT down - a scrie / a inabusi o revolta
TO PUT away - a economisi bani
TO PUT up - a caza pe cineva
TO PUT up with - a suporta pe cineva
TO PUT under - a ascunde
TO PUT on - a se ingrasa / a se imbraca
TO PUT out - a stinge lumina / a stinge focul
TO RUN down - a critica
TO RUN into - a se intalni accidental
TO RUN out of - a ramane fara
TO RUN over - a calca cu masina
TO STAND out - a iesi in evidenta
TO STAND up - a se ridica
TO STAND up with - a rezista, a suporta
TO STAND in - a se intelege
TO STAND off - a sta deoparte
TO STAND by - a fi de fata
TO STAND down - a sta jos
TO STAND against - a fi impotriva, a opune rezistenta
TO STAND for - a fi pentru
TO TAKE down - a scrie / a dobori
TO TAKE to - a simpatiza / a se apuca de ceva
TO TAKE up - a imbratisa o cariera
TO TAKE in - a pacali pe cineva
TO TAKE aback - a fi luat prin surprindere
TO TAKE over - a prelua
TO TAKE on - a ocupa un loc in spatiu
TO TAKE off - a se dezbraca / a decola
TO TAKE down on - a invinovati
TO TAKE after - a semana (cu cineva)
TO APOLOGIZE for - a(-si) cere scuze vpentru ...
TO ASK about - a intreba despre

TO ASK for - a cere ceva


TO BE short of - a ramane fara
TO BE ran down - a fi terminat
TO BELONG to - a apartine [cuiva]
TO BRING back - a evoca
TO BRING about - a se intampla
TO BRING up - a aduce, a educa
TO CALL off - a anula
TO CALL forth - a evoca
TO CARE for - a avea grija de
TO DO without - a se lipsi de ceva
TO DROP off - a atipi
TO FALL out - a se desprinde
TO FALL out with - a anula
TO FIND out - a afla
TO GO off - a exploda
TO GROW up - a creste
TO LET off - a ierta
TO PAY for - a plati pentru
TO REFRAIN from - a se abtine (de la ceva)
TO SEE (somebody) off - a conduce (pe cineva)
TO SEE through - a examina, a analiza
TO SORT out - a rezolva

Adjectivul (The Adjective)


71. Generaliti. Fiinele, obiectele, noiunile etc. prezint caracteristici, obiective sau
subiective, pe care vorbitorul le amintete fie ca nsuiri sau caliti (good bun, beautiful
frumos, hypocritical ipocrit), fie ca pe nite date" care le precizeaz n diferite sensuri al locului, al timpului, al cantitii etc. (this man omul acesta, the then situation situaia
de atunci, much sugar mult zahr, your library biblioteca dumitale). Partea de vorbire
care face asemenea caracterizri, respectiv care modific sau determin substantivele,
este adjectivul. Din punct de vedere morfologic, adjectivul din engleza modern nu se
acord n gen, numr sau caz cu substantivul pe care l modific sau determin: a
diligent pupil - un elev silitor, o elev silitoare a diligent school-girl - o elev silitoare
diligent pupils - elevi silitori, eleve silitoare two diligent school-girls - dou eleve silitoare
the good marks of a - notele bune ale unui diligent pupil - elev sititor
Adjectivele rspund la ntrebrile: of what sort? de ce fel? in what state? n ce stare?
Which? care? what? (is, are etc.)...like? cum? (a se reine c how? cum? e o ntrebare
ce se refer la adverbe de mod, nu la adjective).

Din punct de vedere sintactic, adjectivele pot fi atribute (Attributes) sau nume
predicative (Predicatives).
Spunem c un adjectiv este atributiv (attributive) atunci cnd este aezat n chip
nemijlocit lng substantivul la
care se refer, n marea majoritate a cazurilor naintea substantivului (spre deosebire
de limba romn): a gorgeous landscape - un peisaj fermector three English
playwrights - trei dramaturgi englezi
Good words are worth much. (Prov.) - Vorba dulce mult aduce.
Adjectivele pot fi clasificate din mai multe puncte de vedere:
a) dup coninut (exprim caliti sau, pur i simplu, precizeaz anumite noiuni, v.
75);
b) dup form;
c) dup coninut i regim gramatical.
Clasificarea adjectivelor dup form
74. Dup cum s-a mai artat, adjectivele pot fi derivate (au sufixe specifice etc., v.
72) sau nederivate. Pe de
alt parte, ele pot fi simple sau compuse.
Un adjectiv este simplu (Simple Adjective) atunci cnd nu poate fi descompus n
cuvinte-pri de vorbire: good
bun, right drept, corect, just, long lung, ndelungat, amazing surprinztor (ing nu este
un cuvnt" sau o parte de
vorbire", ci un sufix).
Adjectivele compuse (Compound Adjectives) sunt alcluiete din dou (sau mai multe)
cuvinte-pri de vorbire,
dintre care foarte multe mbinri sunt strine compunerii din limba romn. Iat cteva
dintre cele mai
importante asemenea mbinri:
1) o parte de vorbire compus sau, pur i simplu, o mbinare liber de cuvinte, folosit
atributiv pe lng

un substantiv fa de cure ndeplinete funcia de adjectiv:


short-circuiting adj (tel) de scurtcircuitare
short-circuiting device s (let) scurtcircuitor
life-size s mrime natural
life-size portrait s portret n mrime natural
seaside s litoral, coast (marin)
seaside resort s staiune balnear; plaj
five acts s cinci acte
a five-act play s pies n cinci acte
(v. i Substantivele compuse, 14)
2) adjectiv + substantiv + -(e)d, adjectivele astfel formate referindu-se la:
- prile corpului, organism, psihic:
long-legged - cu picioare lungi
blue-eyed - cu ochi albatri
five-fingered - cu cinci degete
broad-shouldered - sptos, lat n spate
dark-haired - cu prul negru
kind-hearted - bun la suflet
cool-headed - cu snge rece
- articole vestimentare:
long-sleeved - cu mnec lung
short-trousered - cu pantalonii scuri
black-coated - cu hain neagr, cu haine negre
white-shined - cu cma alb
- diverse:

dark-coloured - de culoare nchis


stone-walled - cu perei de piatr
double-windowed - cu ferestre duble
3) adverb + participiu trecut (adjectivat):
so-called - aa-numit, aa-zis
ill-bred - prost crescut short-lived - care triete puin
downcast - abtut, amrt, posac
above-mentioned - (mai) sus-amintit, menionat mai sus
far-fetched - exagerat, nefiresc, forat
4) substantiv + participiu trecut:
snow-bound - nzpezit
bed-ridden - intuit la pat
care-worn - ros de griji
home-made - fcut n cas, de artizanat
air-borne - aeropurtat
5) substantiv + participiu nedefinit:
law-abiding - care respect legea
heart-breaking - sfietor, dureros, jalnic
frost-resisting - rezistent la nghe
water-bearing - (geol.) acvifer
6) substantiv + adjectiv:
manlike - brbtesc
snow-white - alb ca zpada
raven-black - negru ca de corb, negru ca pana corbului
south-easlerfy - sud-estic, de sud-est

atom-free - denuclearizat
colour-blind - care nu distinge culorile
7) adjectiv + adjectiv:
red-hot - incandescent
light blue - albastru-deschis
dark blue - albastru-nchis
Anglo-Saxon - anglo-saxon
8) adjectiv + participiu nedefinit:
slow-moving - (care se mic) ncet
44
good-looking - care arat bine, frumos
9) adverb + adjectiv:
all-powerful - atotputernic
downright - direct, sincer, deschis
10) adjectiv + adverbul most:
innermost, inmost - cel mai luntric
farthermost - cel mai (n)deprtat
uppermost - cel mai de sus, superior
11) alte cazuri:
well-off - avut, cu stare, nstrit
ont-of-fashion - demodat
ill-at-ease - care nu se simte la ndemn/n largul lui; indispus
Adjectivele relative denumesc calitate unui obiect prin raportare la un alt obiect (foarte
frecvent ele arat
substana sau materialul din care este fcut ceva), nu au grade de comparaie i,
sintactic, ocup o poziie

atributiv, ndeplinin funcia de atribut:


a wooden table - o mas de lemn
(predicativ: a table made of wood) - o mas fcut din lemn
an English name - un nume englezesc
(predicativ identic: this name 's English - aces nume este englezesc)
a singing bird - (acesta este o pasre cnttoare)
(predicativ:this is a singing bird) - (acesta este o pasre cnttoare)
a walking stick - (baston pentru plimbare)
(predicativ: this stick is for walking) - (acest baston este pentru plimbare)
a creeping plant (predicativ: this plant is a creeper) - (aceast plant este agtoare)
a gold mine - (o min de aur)
(predicativ: this is a mine of gold) - (aceasta este o min de aur)

Adjectivul este partea de vorbire care califica sau determina un substantiv sau un
echivalent al acestuia.
Adjectivul in engleza se clasifica in:

adjective propriu-zise: beautiful - frumos, ugly - urat etc

adjective pronominale: my - meu, this - acesta etc


O scurta povestire care contine adjective propriu-zise gasiti la sfarsitul lectiei.
1. Adjectivele propriu-zise: descriu, califica un substantiv (de exemplu: papagal
galagios)
Daca adjectivul nu sta langa substantivul la care se refera el se numeste predicativ.
Daca de exemplu spunem: Mie imi plac papagalii dar sunt galagiosi, galagiosi se refera
la papagali si se numeste adjectiv predicativ.
In engleza adjectivul poate deasemeni sa stea pe langa un pronume (little old me,
happy you)
In romaneste adjectivul sta dupa substantiv. Zicem: Au o casa mare
In englezeste adjectivul se afla inaintea substantivului. Zicem: They have a big house
Pentru adjectivele predicative nu exista diferente de constructie a propozitiei in engleza
fata de romana:
Mie imi plac papagalii dar (ei) sunt galagiosi = I like parrots but they are noisy
Un exemplu pentru a tine minte ca adjectivul in engleza se pune in fata, sunt cuvintele

si cantecul "Noapte Linistita" sau "Silent Night".


Mai jos cititi prima strofa din Silent Night:
Silent night, holy night
All
is calm,
all
is bright
Round yon' virgin mother and child
Holy infant
so tender and mild
Sleep
in heavenly peace
Sleep in heavenly peace

Noapte linistita,
noapte sfanta
Totu-i calm,
totu-i luminos
In jurul mamei neprihanite si a copilului
Prunc sfant atat
de fraged si bland
Dormiti
in
pace cereasca
Dormiti in pace cereasca

Cantec de Joseph Mohr - pastor austriac

He is a calm man
El este un barbat calm They are calm men Ei sunt barbati calmi
She is a calm woman Ea este o femeie calma They are calm women Ele sunt femei calme

1.1 Observatii la adjectivul in engleza

nu ia forma de plural (vezi mai jos primul exemplu)

nu se schimba dupa genul substantivului

In engleza, adjectivul se pune inaintea substantivului

un substantiv de multe ori in engleza are mai multe adjective, care se scriu cu virgula
intre ele (fara conjunctia si)
Exemple de adjective multiple:
Two
little
speckled
frogs
Big,
bad
wolf
Long,
hot
summer
Little,
red
hen
Sweet, enchanting, fairy-like music

Doua
broaste mici patate
Lupul
mare
si
rau
Lunga
vara
fierbinte
Gainusa
rosie
Muzica dulce, vrajita, ca de zana.

de remarcat faptul ca limba engleza nu are diminutive asa cum are limba romana, in
engleza se foloseste adjectivul little = mic.
1.2 Exemple de adjective englezesti binecunoscute romanilor
CD (Compact Disk)- Disc Compact
Lucky Goldstar - Steaua de aur norocoasa (marca)
General electric (marca)
New York - Noul York (oras)
Hi-Fi (High Fidelity) - Fidelitate inalta (calitatea sunetului pe o inregistrare)
UFO (Unidentified Flying Object) - OZN (Obiect Zburator Neidentificat)
Pretty Woman - Femeia Frumusica (Frumusica) (film)

Cold Mountain - Muntele Friguros (film)


Adjectivul old - batran (cum/cand se foloseste)
Old in engleza, este mult folosit ca sa-ti arati simpatia fata de o fiinta sau un lucru
In acest caz insa trebuie sau sa se refere la un substantiv care contrazice ideea varstei
inaintate(old boy, old girl)
sau sa aiba in fata un alt adjectiv care sa ne reflecte simpatia asa cum se vede din
traducerea poezioarei de mai jos.
Old
King
Cole
Was
a
merry
old
soul
And a merry old soul was he
He
called
for
his
pipes
And he called for his bowl
And he called for his fiddlers three

Batranul
Rege
Cole
Era un suflet batran si vesel
Si un suflet batran si vesel era el
A strigat sa i se aduca pipele
Si a strigat sa i se aduca strachina
Si a strigat sa vina cei trei lautari

1.3 Adjectivul se poate folosi in mod exceptional dupa substantiv in engleza


Rareori, numai in literatura sau in nume, se poate folosi adjectivul dupa substantiv:
Snow White = Alba ca Zapada,
Big Johnny Stout = Marele Johnny Robustul
1.4 Gradele de comparatie: adjectivele propriu-zise in engleza ca si in romana au
grade de comparatie.

batran - mai batran - cel mai batran = old - older(comparativ superioritate) - the oldest
(superlativ relativ)

batran - mai putin batran - cel mai putin batran = old - less old(comparativ inferioritate) the least old (superlativ relativ)

la fel de batran ca = as old as (comparativ de egalitate)

foarte batran = very old (superlativ absolut)


2. Adjectivele pronominale: Asa cum le spune si numele, acestea provin din pronume;
cu exceptia adjectivelor posesive aceste adjective fiind identice cu pronumele de la care
provin.

2.1 Clasificarea adjectivelor pronominale:


demonstrative
posesive
interogative, relative
indefinite (nehotarate)
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In povestirea de mai jos gasiti adjective propriu-zise, pronominale si grade de


comparatie:
Interview

Interviu

Hello, could you tell me your(adjectiv


posesiv)name dear (adjectiv
propriuzis) sir?

Ati putea sa-mi spuneti


numiti, dragadomnule?

You
don't
know
the
name
of
the great (adjectiv
propriu-zis) Genghis
Khan?

Nu stii numele marelui Gingis Han?

I
am
ruler
indefinit) Mongolia.

Sunt conducatorul intregii Mongolii.

of all (adjectiv

cum

va

I am the strongest, the bravest, the


most powerful(superlative relative) leader
ever born.

Sunt cel mai puternic, cel mai curajos,


cel mai mare conducator care s-a nascut
vreodata

My piercing (adjectiv
provenit
din
verb)eyes
can
make fearful (adjectiv
provenit din substantiv)enemies collapse
like melting (adjectiv
provenit
din
verb) butter.

Ochii
mei patrunzatori pot
dusmanitematori sa
cada
untul care se topeste.

Kublai is my sworn (adjectiv provenit din


verb)enemy.

Kublai e inamicul meu de moarte.

He is the least strong, least brave and


least powerful(superlative relative) leader
ever born.

El e cel mai putin puternic, cel mai


putin curajos, cel mai mai putin
maret conducator care s-a nascut vrodata

He is a weak (adjectiv) coward (substantiv


provenit din adjectiv).

El e un las slab.

His country is smaller (comparativ


superioritate) than a nutshell.

de

Tara lui e mai mica decat o coaja de


nuca.

When I gnash my sharp (adjectiv) teeth at


him and twirl my shiny (adjectiv) sword he

Cand voi scrasni din dintii mei ascutiti si


imi voi invarti sabia stralucitoare el o va

face
precum

will run off through the wilted (adjectiv


provenit din verb) fields of his (adjectiv
posesiv) country.

lua la fuga
tarii lui.

prin

campurile ofilite ale

Thank
you
for this (adjectiv
demonstrativ)amazing (adjectiv provenit
din verb) interview, now I must return to
my
tent
and
have
awonderful (adjectiv) omlette
and raspberry(adjectiv
provenit
din
substantiv) jam for breakfast.

Multumesc
pentru acest interviu extraordinar, acum
trebuie sa ma intorc in cort ca sa mananc
o omleta minunata si gem de zmeura ca
mic dejun.

Have a nice (adjectiv) day!

O zi buna!