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Volumul molar, simbol V m, [1] este volumul ocupat de un mol dintr-o substan ( element chimic sau compus chimic

), la o anumit temperatur i presiune . It is equal to the molar mass ( M ) divided by the mass density (). Este egal cu masa molar (M) mprit la densitatea de mas (). It has the SI unit cubic metres per mole (m 3 /mol), [ 1 ] although it is more practical to use the units cubic decimetres per mole (dm 3 /mol) for gases and cubic centimetres per mole (cm 3 /mol) for liquids and solids . Ea are unitatea SI metri cubi per mol (m 3 / mol), [1] dei este mai practic de a folosi unitile de decimetri cubi per mol (dm 3 / mol) pentru gaze i de centimetri cubi per mol (cm 3 / mol ), pentru lichide si solide . The molar volume of a substance can be found by measuring its mass and density then applying the relation Volumul molar de o substan poate fi gsit prin msurarea masa i densitatea apoi aplicarea relaiei

.. If the sample is a mixture containing N components, the molar volume is calculated using: n cazul n care proba este un amestec care conine componente N, volumul molar se calculeaz folosind:

.. For ideal gases , the molar volume is given by the ideal gas equation : this is a good approximation for many common gases at standard temperature and pressure . Pentru gaze ideale , volumul molar este dat de ecuaia gazului ideal : aceasta este o aproximare buna pentru gaze multe comune la temperatur standard i presiune . For crystalline solids , the molar volume can be measured by X-ray crystallography . Pentru solide cristaline , volumul molar poate fi msurat prin X-ray cristalografie .

Contents Coninut
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1 Ideal gases 1 gaze ideale 2 Crystalline solids 2 solide cristaline 3 Molar volume of silicon 3 volum Molar de siliciu 4 References 4 Referine 5 See also 5 A se vedea, de asemenea,

Ideal gases Gaze ideale

The ideal gas equation can be rearranged to give an expression for the molar volume of an ideal gas: Ecuaia gaz ideal pot fi rearanjate pentru a da o expresie pentru volumul molar al unui gaz ideal:

.. Hence, for a given temperature and pressure, the molar volume is the same for all ideal gases and is known to the same precision as the gas constant : R = 8.314 472(15) J mol 1 K 1 , that is a relative standard uncertainty of 1.710 6 , according to the 2006 CODATA recommended value. [2] The molar volume of an ideal gas at 100 kPa (1 bar ) is Prin urmare, pentru o temperatur dat i presiunea, volumul molar este aceeai pentru toate gazele ideale i este cunoscut pentru aceeai precizie ca i constanta gazelor : R = 8.314 472 (15) J mol -1 K -1, c este o rud incertitudinea standard de 1,7 10 -6, n conformitate cu 2006 CODATA valoarea recomandat. [2] volumul molar al unui gaz ideal la 100 kPa (1 bar ) este 22.710 980(38) dm 3 /mol at 0 C 22.710 980 (38) dm 3 / mol la 0 C 24.789 598(42) dm 3 /mol at 25 C 24.789 598 (42) dm 3 / mol la 25 C The molar volume of an ideal gas at 1 atmosphere of pressure is Volumul molar al unui gaz ideal la data de 1 atmosfer de presiune este 22.414 L/mol at 0 C 22.414 L / mol la 0 C 24.465 L/mol at 25 C 24.465 L / mol la 25 C

Crystalline solids Solide cristalin


The unit cell volume ( V cell ) may be calculated from the unit cell parameters , whose determination is the first step in an X-ray crystallography experiment (the calculation is performed automatically by the structure determination software). Celula unitate de volum (V celul) poate fi calculat din parametrii de celula unitate , a cror determinare este primul pas ntr-un experiment cristalografie cu raze X (calculul este efectuat n mod automat de ctre software-ul de determinare structura). This is related to the molar volume by Acest lucru este legat de volumul molar de

where N A is the Avogadro constant and Z is the number of formula units in the unit cell. unde N A este constanta lui Avogadro i Z este numrul de uniti de formula n celula unitate. The result is normally reported as the "crystallographic density". Rezultatul este n mod normal, raportat ca "densitatea cristalografice".

Molar volume of silicon Volumul molar de siliciu

High quality single crystals of ultrapure silicon are routinely made for the electronics industry, and the measurement of the molar volume of silicon, both by X-ray crystallography and by the ratio of molar mass to mass density, has attracted much attention since the pioneering work at NIST by Deslattes et al. (1974). [ 3 ] The interest stems from the fact that accurate measurements of the unit cell volume, atomic weight and mass density of a pure crystalline solid provide a direct determination of the Avogadro constant. [ 4 ] At present (2006 CODATA recommended value), the precision of the value of the Avogadro constant is limited by the uncertainty in the value of the Planck constant (relative standard uncertainty of 510 8 ). [ 4 ] [ 5 ] Cristale de nalt calitate unic a ultrapurificata siliciu sunt de rutin efectuate pentru industria electronica, precum i msurarea volumului molar de siliciu, atat de catre X-cristalografie cu raze i de raportul dintre masa molar de densitatea de mas, a atras mult atenie, deoarece munca de pionierat la NIST de Deslattes et al. (1974). [3] interes provine din faptul c msurtori corecte a volumului celulei unitate, greutate atomic i densitatea de masa a unui solid cristalin pur ofer o determinare direct a constantei lui Avogadro. [4 ] n prezent (2006 CODATA recomandat valoare), precizia de valoarea constantei lui Avogadro este limitat de incertitudine n valoarea de constanta lui Planck (incertitudinea standard relativ de 5 10 -8). [4] [5] The 2006 CODATA recommended value for the molar volume of silicon is 12.058 8349(11)10 6 m 3 /mol, with a relative standard uncertainty of 9.110 8 . [ 5 ] 2006 Valoarea CODATA recomandat pentru volumul molar de siliciu este de 12.058 8349 (11) 10 -6 m 3 / mol, cu o incertitudine standard relativ de 9,1 10 -8. [5]

References Referinte