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SUBSTANTIVUL

THE NOUN

A.numrul substantivelor/ the number of nouns


B.

genul substantivelor/ the gender of nouns

C.

cazul genitiv/ the genitive case

D.diverse/ miscellaneous

A. NUMRUL SUBSTANTIVELOR/ THE NUMBER OF NOUNS

Regula general: n limba englez, substantivele primesc terminaia s la plural.


e.g. book books, map maps (hri), month months (luni)

Substantivele n limba englez se mpart n:


o Numrabile (countable nouns): a boy two boys
Reguli de formare a pluralului:
Substantivele terminate n y precedat de o vocal, pstreaz acest y
la plural: day days; toy toys, boy-boys, etc.
Substantivele terminate n y precedat de o consoan, schimb acest y
n ie la plural: fly flies (mute), hobby hobbies, city cities (orae),
nationality-nationalities (naionaliti), country-countries (ri), enemyenemies (inamici) etc.
Substantivele terminate n s, ss, x, ch, sh i zz formeaz
pluralul n es: bus buses, class classes, box boxes, bench benches
(bnci), brush brushes, buzz buzzes, watch-watches, etc.
Substantivele terminate n f i fe au pluralul n ves: knife knives
(cuite), half halves, leaf leaves (frunze), life lives (viei), wife wives
(soii), wolf wolves(lupi), shelf-shelves (rafturi), etc.
Excepie: belief beliefs (credine), chief chiefs (efi), roof roofs
(acoperiuri), handkerchief - handkerchiefs (batiste), cliff - cliffs, etc.
Substantivele terminate n o au pluralul n (e)s: potato potatoes
(cartofi), tomato tomatoes (roii), hero-heroes, volcano - volcanoes,
piano pianos, photo photos (fotografii), kangaroo-kangaroos, radioradios, etc.
Unele substantive au aceleai forme la singular i la plural (pluralul zero):
series series (serii), species species (specii), means means (mijloace),
sheep sheep (oi), deer deer (cprioare), trout trout (pstrv), salmonsalmon (somon), herring-herring (hering), etc.
Unele substantive au plural neregulat: man men, woman women, foot
feet, goose geese (gte), tooth teeth (dini), mouse mice (oareci),
child children, louse-lice (pduchi), ox-oxen (tauri), etc.
Plurale strine: stimulus-stimuli, alga-algae, stratum-strata, codexcodices, thesis-theses, analysis - analyses, crisis-crises, criterion-criteria,
phenomenon-phenomena, drama-dramas, idea-ideas, diploma-diplomas,
symposium-symposiums, etc.
o

Nenumrabile (uncountable nouns):


Concrete: bread (pine), butter (unt), chalk (cret), fruit (fructe), gold
(aur), jam (gem), sugar (zahr), silver (argint), news (tiri), furniture
(mobil), luggage/baggage (bagaje), money (bani), cheese, coal
(crbune), food, meat, jewelery (bijuterii), soap (spun), toast, cotton
(bumbac), flour, rice, merchandise (marf), milk, honey, etc.
Abstracte: advice (sfat), homework, information, knowledge (cunotine),
work (munc), progress (progres), strength (putere), research (cercetri),
luck (noroc), evidence (dovezi), remorse (remucare), income (venit),
accommodation (cazare), anger (furie), courage, education, happiness,
beauty, harm (ru), jealousy (gelozie), music, patience (rbdare),
permission, safety (siguran), shopping, smoking, traffic, violence, wealth
(bogie), weather (vreme), laughter (rset), etc.

o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Adjective abstracte devenite substantive: the good (binele), the


beautiful (frumosul), the evil (rul), the rich (bogaii), the poor (sracii),
the sick (bolnavii), the injured (rniii) etc.
Substative care au doar form de plural (Pluralia Tantum):
nume de boli (names of diseases): measles (pojar), mumps (oreion), rheumatics,
rickets (rahitism),
articole de mbrcminte (articles of clothing): clothes, overalls (salopet),
trousers, shorts, pants, gloves (mnui), jeans, sneakers (tenii), pyjamas, tights
(colani), nylons (ciorapi), etc.
unelte/instrumente (tools/instruments): pliers(patent), binoculars, scissors
(foarfece), glasses, scales (balan), compasses (compas), tweezers (penset),
etc.
nume de jocuri (names of games): billiards, cards, darts, dominoes, etc.
nume de tiine i discipline (names of sciences and subjects): mathematics,
politics, linguistics, civics, economics, physics, etc.
nume geografice (geographical names): the Alps, the Carpathians, the Indies,
the Netherlands, the United States of America, etc.
diverse (miscellaneous): fireworks (artificii), funds (fonduri), contents (coninut),
manners, remains (rmie), headquarters (sediu central), corps (cadavru),
archives, customs (vam), outskirts (periferie), savings (economii), valuables
(lucruri de valoare), holidays (vacan), etc.
Substantive colective: people (oameni), police (poliie), youth (tineri),
audience, assembly, committee, council, team, crowd, family, jury, etc
Her family is larger than mine. (sg.)
My family are at home. (= All the members of my family) (pl.)

Cuantificarea substantivelor numrabile i nenumrabile - colocaii (collocations):


a herd of cows/elephants
a slice of bread/pizza/cake/bacon
a pack of wolves
a loaf of bread
a shoal of fish/herring
a speck of dirt
a swarm of bees/insects
a strip of cloth/land
a flock of seagulls/birds/
a scrap of paper
doves/geese/sheep
a pile of
a bunch of
rubbish/books/wood/money/rocks
idiots/roses/flowers/grapes
a box of candy/books/matches
a crowd of fans/spectators/shoppers
a bunch of flowers/grapes
a gang of thugs/bandits
a stack of hay
a group of adults/girls/things
a fleet of ships
a set of
a basket of eggs/flowers/fruit
conditions/assumptions/features
a heap of leaves
a series of accidents
/blankets/bones/dirt/rubbish
a crew of sailors
a kilo of potatoes/tomatoes
a board of directors
a cup of coffee/tea/soup
a choir of singers
a glass of water/wine/juice
a litter of cubs/puppies
a bottle of wine/water
a pride of lions
a carton of milk/juice
a school of whales
a bar of chocolate/soap/metal
a flight of birds/insects/planes
a blade of grass
a bit of cake/wood/fun/luck
a block of marble/ice/wood
a chunk of chocolate/concrete/gold
a cloud of dust
a grain of corn/sand/salt/dust/rice
a cube of ice
an item of clothing/equipment/news
a drop of oil/rain/water
a lump of
a flash of light/inspiration
clay/coal/soil/butter/fat/sugar
a packet of butter/cigarettes
a sheet of cardboard/iron/paper

a piece of
furniture/information/advice/
meat/news/gossip/wisdom/wo
od/
paper/chalk/research/cake/lan
d
a pair of
glasses/pants/scissors/shoes/
socks/gloves/slippers/pyjamas/
boots
a couple of
days/balloons/examples/hours

a jar of jam
a pinch of salt
a puf of smoke/wind
a sip of tea/coffee
a strand of hair/wool
a tin of soup
a tube of paste
a litre of oil/water
a spoonful of medicine/sugar
a handful of sand/dirt
an attack of fever
a burst of laughter

Dou plurale cu aceeai form, dar cu neles diferit:


custom (sg.) = obicei, pl. customs
minutes (pl.) = process-verbal al unei
customs (pl.) = vam
edine
compass (sg.) = busol, pl. compasses
compasses (pl.) = compas
damage (sg.) = avarie, pl. damages
damages (pl.) = despgubiri
effect (sg.) = efect, pl. effects
effects (pl.) = efecte, bunuri
manner (sg.) = mod, pl. manners
manners (pl.) = maniere
minute (sg.) = minut, pl. minutes
Pluralul n funcie de sens:
business (sg.) = ntreprindere, afacere, pl.
businesses
business (sg.) = afaceri, comer
character (sg.) = personaj, pl. characters
character (sg.) = character
hair (sg.) = fir de pr, pl. hairs

scale (sg.) = gam muzical, solz, pl. scales


scales (pl.) = balan
spectacle (sg.) = spectacol, pl. spectacles
spectacles (pl.) = ochelari
term (sg.) = termen, perioad, trimestru,
pl. terms
terms (pl.) = termini, relaii, raporturi,
condiii
hair (sg.) = pr
ice (sg.) = ngheat, pl. ices
ice (sg.) = ghea
paper (sg.) = hrtie, act, ziar, pl. papers
paper (sg.) = hrtie

Plurale cu sens diferit fa de singularele respective:


air (sg.) = aer
respect (sg.) = respect
airs (pl.) = aere
respects (pl.) = omagii
honour (sg.) = onoare
honours (pl.) = onoruri
nylon (sg.) = nylon
nylons (pl.) = ciorapi din nylon

sand (sg.) = nisip


sands (pl.) = plaj
wood (sg.) = lemn
woods (pl.) = pdure

Determinanii substantivelor numrabile (C.N.) i nenumrabile (U.N.):


U.N.
much
I have got much
money/information.
There isnt much milk left.

C.N.
many
Mary bought many oranges
yesterday.
I have many problems on my
mind.

little
There is little information on this
subject.
Weve made little progress in the
field.

a few
Only a few children came to
her party.
A few weeks later, he visited
her.

B. GENUL SUBSTANTIVELOR/ THE GENDER OF NOUNS

n limba englez, numele date brbailor sunt considerate de genul masculin, cele date
femeilor de genul feminin i toate celelalte, denumind fiine, lucruri i noiuni abstracte,
de genul neutru.

Substantivele care denumesc att brbai ct i femei, cum sunt numele profesiunilor i
ocupaiilor, sunt de gen comun: artist, cook (buctar), cousin (verior), doctor, foreigner
(strin), teacher, engineer (inginer), friend, child, inhabitant (locuitor), musician, guest
(musafir), relative (rud), writer (scriitor), neighbour (vecin), parent, person, speaker
(vorbitor), student, enemy, owner (proprietar), partner, passenger (pasager), tourist,
singer, president, traveller (cltor), reader (cititor), orphan, visitor etc.

Majoritatea substantivelor au forme diferite pentru masculin i feminin. Acestea se


realizeaz prin:

I.
Mascu
lin
actor
duke
emper
or
prince
god
maste
r
tiger
hero
waiter
host

Adugarea unei terminaii:


Femi
Traducere
nin
actres
actor actri
s
duche
duce duces
ss
empre mprat ss
mprteas
prince
prin prines
ss
godde
zeu zei
ss
mistre
stpn stpn
ss
tigres
tigru tigroaic
s
heroin
erou eroin
e
waitre
chelner-chelneri
ss
hostes
gazd
III.
Masculin
man

heir

s
heires
s

urma-urma

II.
Folosirea unui cuvnt ajuttor:
Masculin
Feminin
Traducere
boy-friend
girl-friend
prieten prieten
police-man
policepoliist - poliist
woman
chairman
chairwoma
preedinte
n
brother-insister-incumnat - cumnat
law
law
father-inmother-insocru - soacr
law
law
salesman
saleswoma
vnztor n
vnztoare

Folosirea unor cuvinte diferite:


Feminin
Traducere
woman
brbat - femeie

father
husband
boy
bridegroom
brother
son
uncle
nephew
king
lord
Sir
gentleman
Mister (Mr.)
bachelor

mother
wife
girl
bride
sister
daughter
aunt
niece
queen
lady
Madam
lady
Miss, Mrs.
maid, spinster

tat - mam
so - soie
biat - fat
mire-mireas
frate - sor
fiu - fiic
unchi - mtu
nepot - nepoat
rege - regin
lord-doamn
domnule - doamn
domn - doamn
domn - doamn
burlac - femeie
nemritat
boar
sow
porc-scroaf
monk, friar
nun
clugr-clugri
bull
cow
taur-vac
buck
doe
cprior-ciut
drake
duck
roi-ra
cock, rooster
hen
coco-gin
dog
bitch
cine-cea
ram
ewe
berbec-oaie
stallion
mare
armsar-iap
wizard
witch
vrjitor-vrjitoare
C. CAZUL GENITIV/ THE GENITIVE CASE

Cazul genitiv exprim ideea de posesiune. Numele posesorului primete s la singular


i numai la plural. Dac substantivul are plural neregulat, i se adaug s.
e.g.
The girls book. Cartea fetei.
The childrens books. Crile
The girls books. Crile fetelor.
copiilor.
The childs book. Cartea
copilului.

Genitivul se ntrebuineaz pentru:


o Persoane: Anas flowers florile Anei
o Vieuitoare (animale, psri): the cats paws labele pisicii
o Noiuni temporale: todays paper ziarul de astzi, two hours sleep, a
months holiday, a minutes hesitation, yesterdays mail
o Distane: at a miles distance la distan de o mil
o ri, orae, continente: Italys monuments monumentele Italiei
o Noiuni abstracte: lifes joys bucuriile vieii
o Corpuri cereti: the suns light lumina soarelui
o Substantivul ship: the ships captain cpitanul vaporului
o Personificri: the dolls house casa ppuii

Dou substantive legate prin and i care arat o singur posesiune primesc s dup
cel de-al doilea substantiv.
e.g. Mary and Davids friends prietenii Mariei i ai lui David

Dac sunt dou posesiuni diferite s apare de dou ori.


e.g. Marys and Davids friends prietenii Mariei i prietenii lui David.
GENITIVUL PREPOZIIONAL

Genitivul prepoziional este construit cu prepoziia of. Se folosete pentru lucruri dar
i pentru fiine.
e.g. the colour of the grass culoarea ierbii
the future of mankind - viitorul omenirii
the roof of the house - acoperiul casei

CONSTRUCII DIVERSE
Pentru sublinieri: the city of New York (oraul New York);
Pentru a desemna unul sau mai muli din grup: one of my friends (unul dintre prietenii
mei)
Pentru a indica vrsta: a man of thirty-four (un om de 34 de ani)
Pentru a indica o calitate: a man of great value (un om de mare valoare)
Pentru a indica materialul: a statue of marble (o statuie de marmur)
GENITIVUL INDEPENDENT
Shes going to a friends. (i.e. a friends house)
This isnt my book. Its Helens. (i.e. Helens book)
Ill go to the florists to buy roses for my mother. (i.e. the florists shop)

COLOCAII N CARE APARE s


for Gods sake (pentru numele lui Dumnezeu)
for goodness sake
for old times/times sake
for your mothers sake (de dragul mamei tale)
with your minds eye (cu ochiul minii)
at deaths door
lifes work
natures way
D. DIVERSE/ MISCELLANEOUS

Utilizarea majusculelor (Use of capital letters):

nume de persoane (Sam, James, Carrie, Smith, Brown, etc.)


nume geografice (Canada, Romania, Europe, the Danube, the Alps etc.)
obiecte, nume de produse comerciale (Peugeot, Kleenex, Ajax, etc.)
srbtori (Easter, Christmas, New Years Eve, etc.)
zilele sptmnii, lunile anului (Friday, Sunday, Wednesday, January, September etc.)
religii i concepte religioase (Christian, Buddhism, God, Heaven, Hell, etc.)
persoanele sau organismele care dein o funcie public unic (the Pope, the President,
Parliament, the Senate, etc.)
nume de cldiri publice, instituii, legi (the White House, the British Museum, Oxford
University, the Ritz, the Civil Rights Act, etc.)
partide politice i membrii lor (the Democrats, the Labour Party, etc.)
nume de limbi, naionaliti i grupuri etnice (Chinese, Spanish, Romanian, English,
etc.)
adjective i substantive comune derivate din substantive proprii (Victorian, Marxism,
New Yorker, etc.)
nume de ziare i publicaii (the New York Times, The Guardian, People, Cosmopolitan,
etc.)