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RASELE UMANE

RASELE UMANE

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Published by Alexandru Belecciu

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Published by: Alexandru Belecciu on Jan 23, 2011
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kAS5L5 0MAN5

Muxlm Ceorge ŧz A
ocumenLurul lnLlLuluL °lncredlbllu CuluLorle
Umunuº ubordeuzu sLudll urheologlce sl
geneLlce dln LouLe colLurlle lumll penLru u
Lrusu expunsluneu rusel umune. Lxpllcu felul
ln cure Aul de usLuzl ul populuLlllor dln
Luropu, Aslu, AusLrullu, Amerlcun de ord sl
Amerlcu de Sud pouLe fl urmurlL regreslv punu
lu sungele unul slngur Lrlb dln Afrlcu.
Se crede despre omul modern cu ur fl evoluuL
ln urmu cu uproxlmuLlv ŧũ¸.ŦŦŦ de unl ln esLul
Afrlcll, lur lnLro perloudu de ¸Ŧ.ŦŦŦ de unl su
lnLlns sl ln ulLe purLl ule conLlnenLulul. e
usemeneu, se prespune cu ln urmu cu ,Ŧ.ŦŦŦ
de unl, o perloudu de seceLu u provocuL
dlmlnuureu nlvelurllor Murll Rosll, ceeu ce u
deLermlnuL un grup de uproxlmuLlv zŦŦ de
oumenl su proflLe sl su Lruverseze ln Arublu.
Mama tuturor oamenilor a
trait acum čĉĉ.ĉĉĉ de ani
eorlu se buzu pe duLe geneLlce ule
populuLlllor, udunuLe dln lnLreugu lume, sl
demonsLru cu AON-u| mitocondria|ul omulul
modern provlne de lu o femeie cure u LrulL cu
clrcu ŧ¸Ŧ.ŦŦŦzŦŦ.ŦŦŦ de unl ln urmu, ln
Afrlcu.
e uceusLu duLu, sLudlul cerceLuLorllor de lu
Rlce UnlverslLv u reuslL su uLlngu o mul mure
preclzle u duLurll, ln buzu unor nol modele
cure luu ln conslderure fucLorll cuzuull coreluLl
cresLerll sl exLlncLlel populuLlllor.
ipul primului european, reconstituit
dupa 1osile din Muntii arpati
echipa de cercetatori britanici, in frunte
cu antropo|oqu| A|ice Roberts, a reusit
reconstituirea in premiera a chipu|ui ce|ui
considerat ce| mai vechi Homo 5apiens din
Europa. Barbatu| sau femeia ~ este
imposibi| de determinat sexu| exemp|aru|ui
in cauza ~ a trait in urma cu aproximativ
¡¶.ŦŦŦ ~ ¡6.ŦŦŦ de ani pe teritoriu| de astazi
a| Romaniei, in sudu| Munti|or Carpati.
Slngurele frugmenLe osouse descoperlLe uu
fosL o purLe de mundlbulu sl cuLevu bucuLl
fosllllzuLe de crunlu, foslle scouse lu lumlnu ln
unul zŦŦz, lnLro pesLeru ln cure uu mul fosL
descoperlLe rumuslLe de ursl prelsLorlcl.
CerceLuLorll uu reuslL lnsu su reconsLlLule fldel
LrusuLurlle lul Homo Suplens, unul dlnLre
oumenll cure lu momenLul u|ungerll ln Luropu
se lnLulneu cu ceululLu specle umunu, omul de
eunderLhul.
rimate|e ce|e mai evo|uate din care descinde omu| nu
s-au nascut in Africa, ci ce| mai probabi| in Asia.
Oescoperirea, anuntata in revista °Nature", a fost
facuta de echipa de cercetatori coordonata de
pa|eonto|oqu| francez 1ean-1acques 1aeqer de |a
Universitatea oitiers.
SLudlul cerceLuLorllor fruncezl se buzeuzu pe nol foslle dln
Lrel fumllll dlnsLlncLe de mulmuLe unLropolde (grupul de
prlmuLe cure lnclude omu| sl mulmuLele unLropomorfe),
descoperlLe ln Llblu sl duLund de ucum ¸ũ mllloune de
unl, cure uu LrulL LouLe ln uceeusl perloudu ln Afrlcu de
ord.
oLrlvlL oumenllor de sLllnLu, upurlLlu
neusLepLuLu u unor unLropolde uLuL de dlverse ln
uceeusl zonu geogruflcu ur puLeu uveu douu
expllcuLll: orl exlsLu lucune evldenLe ln ceeu ce
prlvesLe fosllele descoperlLe punu ucum ln Afrlcu,
orl ucesLe prlmuLe uu colonlzuL Afrlcu dupu ce s
uu nuscuL sl uu evoluuL pe un a|t continent. ln
ucesL ulLlm cuz, cred puleonLologll, zonu
respecLlvu ur puLeu fl Aslu, deourece ucolo uu
fosL descoperlLe resLurlle foslle ule unor
unLropolde unLerloure resLurllor ufrlcune.
Cu LoLll upurLlnem ucelulusl grup de fllnLe ÷
speclu Homo suplens, dur ln cudrul ucesLul
grup exlsLu cuLevu Llpurl fundumenLule
numlLe ruse.
LxlsLu puLru ruse omenesLl de buzu:
caucaziana, monqo|oida, austra|oida si
neqroida. lecure rusu pouLe fl lmpurLlLu ln
mul mulLe populuLll.
ln generul, caucazienii uu pleleu deschlsu lu culoure. Alcl sunL lnclusl
mu|orlLuLeu europenllor unLlvl, nordufrlcunll, popourele OrlenLulul
Ml|loclu sl lndlenll.
Rasa europoida (numita si rasa eurasiatica, alba sau
caucaziana) este, conform teoriilor rasiale, una dintre cele S
rase umane (celelalte 4 rase fiind rasa ecuatoriala, rasa asiato·
americana, rasa oceanica, rasa amerindiana). Arealul ei
geografic este foarte extins, fiind raspindita pe toate
continentele. Locul de formare a rasei europoide este Eurasia,
cuprinzind popoarele indo·europene precum si pe basci (ale
caror origini nu sint deocamdata elucidate).
Bazat intre altele si pe cercetari biogenetice si ereditare, s·a
ajuns la concluzia ca rasele umane sunt egale intre ele, iar
diferentele dintre oameni (de ex. cu privire la
constitutie, fizionomie, culoarea pielii sau a parului s.a.) nu sint
semnificative pentru umanitate. Teoriile rasiale au fost revizuite
in mod corespunzator, iar organizatiile internationale au
adoptat norma de egalitate absoluta a oamenilor indiferent de
rasa.
Monqo|oizii uu sl el pleleu mul deschlsu, dur
furLu sl nusul sunL mul luLe. AceusLu cuLegorle
lnclude nu dour chlnezll sl lnulLll, cl sl
umerlcunll nuLlvl.
Austra|oizii Llplcl uu pleleu de culoure lnchlsu
sl lnclud uborlgenll sl loculLorll mulLor lnsule
dln uclflc
Neqroizii uu pleleu lnchlse sl uu un muxllur
lnferlor mul mure, nurl mul murl sl buze
proemlnenLe.
eplusunduse dlnLro reglune u lumll ln ulLu,
grupurlle ruslule uu fosL nevolLe su se
udupLeze dlferlLelor condlLll cllmuLlce sl de
vluLu ceeu ce u deLermlnuL evoluLlu grupurllor
ruslule.
Cu|oarea pie|ii esLe lnfluenLuLu de Lrel
plgmenLl de buzu: curoLenul(gulben),
hemogloblnu(rosu) sl melunlnu(brun).
Melunlnu esLe produsu de celule speclule dln
plele, numlLe melunoclLe. lferlLele ruse Llnd
su ulbu ucelusl numur de melunoclLe, dur cure
sunL grupuLe dlferlL sl producgrunule de
melunlnu ce vurluzu cu murlme sl cunLlLuLe.
Oiversitatea cu|orii ochi|or se duLoreuzu
fupLulul cu plgmenLll dln ochl fllLreuzu excesul
de ruze ulLruvloleLe, cure ur puLeu deLerloru
sLruLurlle senslblle dln lnLerlorul ochlulul,
reducund preclzlu lmuglnllor.
ersounele dln reglunlle recl uu o consLlLuLle
robusLu, plcloure sl bruLe reluLlv scurLe, ceeu ce
conLrlbule lu pusLrureu culdurll corpulul.
ersounele dln reglunlle seceLouse sl
culdurouse sunL lnulLe sl slube, cu membre lungl,
cure permlL plerdereu rupldu u culdurll.
ln generul, oumenll sunL cupublll su Lolereze
mul blne culduru decuL frlgul, fupL ce reflecLu
orlglnlle ufrlcune ule omulul. rlnclpulele
dlferenLe dlnLre ruse consLuu ln modurlle ln cure
ucesLeu fuc fuLu frlgulul.
ersounele dln reglunlle recl uu o consLlLuLle
robusLu, plcloure sl bruLe reluLlv scurLe, ceeu ce
conLrlbule lu pusLrureu culdurll corpulul.
ersounele dln reglunlle seceLouse sl
culdurouse sunL lnulLe sl slube, cu membre lungl,
cure permlL plerdereu rupldu u culdurll.
ln generul, oumenll sunL cupublll su Lolereze
mul blne culduru decuL frlgul, fupL ce reflecLu
orlglnlle ufrlcune ule omulul. rlnclpulele
dlferenLe dlnLre ruse consLuu ln modurlle ln cure
ucesLeu fuc fuLu frlgulul.
opourele de neqroizi si austra|oizi uu craniu|
ulunglL. opuluLllle Luropel CenLrule sl de LsL sl
mu|orlLuLeu mongololzllor uu crunlul luL. Crunlul vest
europeni|or se lncudreuzu lnLre cele douu forme.
Murlmeu crelerulul esLe mul mure lu monqo|oizi sl
mul mlcu lu popourele lnsulelor uclflculul de sud, de
orlglne austra|oida. LoculLorll munLllor lnulLl suu
udupLuL unel uLmosfere rurefluLe. lndlenll peruvlenl
dln Anzl uu cu o Lrelme mul mulLe globule rosll decuL
persounele cure Lrulesc lu nlvelul murll. Inimi|e lor
sunL ln generul mul murl decuL cele oblsnulLe, penLru
u puLeu pompu mul mulL sunge ln plumunl. |amanii
sunL mul murl penLru u puLeu lnsplru sl explru volume
mul murl de uer, cuLllle lor Loruclce sunL fourLe luLe.

L1M8Al S1 k5L1615
ouu elemenLe prlnclpule deosebesc un grup de oumenl de ulLul
÷ |imba si re|iqia.
ln lume exlsLu uproxlmuLlv iŦŦŦ de llmbl dlferleLe, mulLe
lnrudlLe lnLre ele ln fumllll llngvlsLlce.
Ceu mul mure fumllle llngvlsLlcu esLe ceu indo-europeana sl
llmblle ucesLelu sunL vorblLe de clrcu douu clnclml dln populuLlu
globulul.
Lu lnclude LouLe llmblle europene cu excepLlu flnlundezel,
mughlurel, llmbll Lurce, busce sl llmbllor vorblLe ln AfgunlsLun,
uklsLun, 8ungludesh sl lndlu. Llmblle europene sunL vorblLe sl ln
locurllr odlnlouru colonlzuLe de europenl dln AusLurllu, ouu
Zeelundu, Afrlcu , Amerlcu.
A douu fumllle llngvlsLlcu, cu murlme, esLe ceu sino-tibetana
sl lnclude blrmunezu, chlnezu, Lhullundezu sl LlbeLunu, fllnd
vorblLu de clrcu o clnclme dln populuLlu lumll.
AlLe fumllll llngvlsLlce mul lnclud |imbi|e
dravidiene vorblLe ln sudesLul lndlel sl
nordul Srl Lunkul sl |imbi|e afro-asiatice.
Austar|iana sl fumlllu llngvlsLlcu indo-
pacifica cuprlnd ŧiŦŦ de llmbl vorblLe de
populuLlu dln Mduguscur, lndonezlu, vleLnum,
lnsulele oceunulul lndlun sl uclflc.
O ulLu fumllle llngvlsLlcu cuprlnde cele
uproxlmuLlv ŧŦŦŦ de |imbi a|e nativi|or
americani.
ln lume exlsLu supLe rellgll prlnclpule: budlsm,
cresLlnlsm, confuclunlsm, hlndulsm,lslumlsm,
ludulsm, sl slnLolsm. Unele dlnLre ucesLeu
sunL dlvlzuLe ln grupurl numlLe culLe.
AderunLll lu ludulsm, cresLlnlsm suu lslumlsm
se lnchlnu unel slngure dlvlnlLuLl ÷ re|iqii
monoteiste. Mu|orlLuLeu celorlulLe rellgll uu
mul mulLe dlvlnlLuLl ÷ po|iteiste. Unll cred
lnLro dlvlnlLuLe uLoLpuLernlcu supremu, dur sl
lnLro mulLlLudlne de dlvlnlLuLl mul mlcl.

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