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Termen:CICLOTIMIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : DEX, DICTIONARUL EXPLICATIV AL LIMBII ROMANE, univers enciclopedic, Bucuresti,1998,ACADEMIA ROMANA,INSTITUTUL DE LINGVISTICA,,IORGU IORDAN,Editia a 2-a Definiie : Stare pshica morbida in care depresia alterneaza cu buna dispozitie. Sursa definiiei: DEX,DICTIONARUL EXPLICATIV AL LIMBII ROMANE, univers enciclopedic,Bucuresti,1998,ACADEMIA ROMANA, INSTITUTUL DE LINGVISTICA ,,IORGU IORDAN, Editia a 2-a Nota bene : Din franceza cyclothymie Corespondent englez: cyclothymy Concept generic: boala psihica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim:stare depresiva Hiponim: Sinonim: hipomanie Context : Ciclotimia reprezinta un sentiment de inadecvare,de izolare,o cadere a performantelor intelectuale si o crestere a timpului de somn marcheaza fazele de tip depresiv:o supraestimare a sinelui,o cautare excesiva de contacte sociale,un sentiment de sporire a facultatilor intelectuale si o diminuare a timpului de somn marcheaza perioadele de tip maniacal.

Sursa contextului: DICTIONAR DE PSHIOLOGIE.ROLAND DORON, FRANCOISE PAROT.EDITURA HUMANITAS,BUCURESTI,1999 Context : Nu se stie exact ce determina ciclotimia, ca si in cazul altor afectiuni mentale, cercetatorii arata ca poate rezulta dintr-o combinatie a mai multor factori: - genetici; - procese biochimice ale corpului, cum ar fi modificari in neurotransmitatorii creierului - factori de mediu Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/ciclotimia_101 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Se recomanda ca pacientii care prezinta simptome de ciclotimie sa solicite ajutor medical cat mai precoce. De obicei, tulburarea ciclotima nu se amelioreaza de la sine. Desi pacientul se poate bucura de momentele de euforie si de perioadele in care este mai productiv, acestea pot duce la comportamente impulsive, riscante, cu consecinte serioase. Aceste cresteri emotionale vor fi sigur urmate de caderi care il pot lasa pe pacient deprimat, epuizat, sau chiar cu probleme financiare sau legale. Daca este solicitat consultul medicului de familie acesta va indruma pacientul la un psihiatru cu experienta in ciclotimie si tulburare bipolara. In cazul in care membrii familiei sau prietenii observa simptomele pacientului, e bine ca acestia sa aiba o discutie cu pacientul. Nimeni nu poate fi fortat sa solicite ajutor medical, dar i se poate oferi incurajare si suport si poate fi ajutat pacientul sa gaseasca un profesionist in sanatae mintala. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial

Term : CYCLOTHYMIC DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : THE FAMILY MENTAL HEALTH,ENCYCLOPEDIA,FRANK J.BRUNO,PH.D. Definition : Is a mood disorder characterized by alternating periods of elation and depression. Definition source: THE FAMILY MENTAL HEALTH, ENCYCLOPEDIA, FRANK J.BRUNO,PH.D. Nota bene: Generic concept : DISEASE Grammatical category: NOUN phrase Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: Causes Biological Family: One is 2-3 times more likely to have the disorder if someone in the immediate family has it or if an identical twin has it. In a study by Bertelsen, Harvard, and Huage (1977), if an identical twin had depression, 59% of the identical twins had it also. Gender: Heritability for women ranges from 36-44%; for men, 18-24%. Genes: The same genes may contribute to depression and anxiety. Serotonin: Serotonin regulates other hormones like norepinephrine and dopamine, so when serotonin is low, the other chemicals may fluctuate, causing

irritability, impulsivity and mood irregularities such as Depressed individuals can have high dysthymia and depression. dysthymia Cortisol: Cortisol levels. Cortisol is a stress hormone, and mood disorders often occur during stressful points in ones life. Elevated stress hormones can affect functioning of the hippocampus, an important centre for memory and cognitive processes. Overproducing cortisol can also impair the brains ability to regenerate neurons in the hippocampus. Psychological: Stressful events, as perceived by the individual hopelessness, extreme feelings, negative thinking patterns. Social: Environment Influences the disorder 60-80% of the time. Parenting styles Context source : http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/cyclic+disorder Context : Ciclothymic disorder bears a great resemblance to bipolar disorder.The elevated phase of cyclthymic is distinguishedby symptoms such as little need for sleep,an inflated self-concept,excessive talk.The depressive phase of the disorder is distinguishedby such symptoms as a poor selfconcept,withdrawal from people,a negative attitude toward goals.In neither case are there delusions or hallucinations. Context source: THE FAMILY MENTAL HEALTH,ENCYCLOPEDIA,FRANK J.BRUNO,PH.D. Area of use : MEDICINE 2. Termen:PSIHOPATIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : DEX,DICTIONARUL EXPLICATIV AL LIMBII ROMANE,univers Job loss,

relationship failure, identity change, natural disaster, learned helplessness and

enciclopedic, Bucuresti,1998,ACADEMIA ROMANA, INSTITUTUL DE LINGVISTICA ,,IORGU IORDAN,Editia a 2-a Definiie : Boala pshica ,specific stare morbida caracterizata prin tulburari de afectivitate,de comportament sau de caracter. Sursa definiiei: DEX,DICTIONARUL EXPLICATIV AL LIMBII ROMANE, univers enciclopedic, Bucuresti,1998,ACADEMIA ROMANA, INSTITUTUL DE LINGVISTICA,,IORGU IORDAN, Editia a 2-a Nota bene : Din franceza psychopathie Corespondent englez: pshopathy Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv feminin Hiperonim: afectiune psihopatologica Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : 1891-1 893 J.Koch foloseste pentru prima data termenul izoland inferioritatile pshiopatice care vor deveni tratatul lui E.Kraepelin din 1904 personalitatile pshiopatice. C.Pichard este cel care din 1835 facuse din deficienta,,sensulmoraltrasatura centrala a Moral Insanity,al carei aspect antisocial se afla in centrul tuturor descrierilor de personalitati pshiopatice Sursa contextului: DICTIONAR DE PSHIOLOGIE. ROLAND DORON, FRANCOISE PAROT. EDITURA HUMANITAS, BUCURESTI, 1999 Context : Haloperidsol este folosit in tulburari insotite de agitatie pshiomotorie, dementa, manie, oligofrenie, pshiopatie, schizofrenie acuta si cronica, alcoolism. Sursa contextului: http://ro.wikipedia.org Arie de utilizare : medicina

Comentariu:,,Formularea care a prevalat timp indelungat este cea a lui K. Schneider,care a impus o tipologie caracteriala in care pshiopatia corespunde unor personalitati al caror caracter anormal sau anormal le face sa sufere sau sa sufere societatea. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Termen : PSYCHOPATHIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/psychopathy Definition : any disease of the mind, congenital or acquired, not necessarily associated with subnormal intelligence Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/psychopathy Nota bene: Greek psyche(mind)and pathos(suffering) Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: abberation Context: A mental aberration is a significant deviation from a normal mental activity.In this sense,aberration is synonymous with mental derangement,mental illness,psychopathy. Context source: http://search.medicinenet.com

Context : In a 2002 study,Daniel Kosson and Yana Suchy asked psychopathic inmates to name the emotion expressed on each of 30 faces.Compared to the control group ,psychopaths had a significantly lower rate of accuracy in recognizing disgusted facial affect but a higher rate of accuracy in recognizing anger.. Additionally,when,,condition designed to minimze the involvement of lefthemispheric mechanism were used,psychopaths had more difficulty in accurately indentifying emotions. Context source: http://en.wikipedia.org/ Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Designation status : Official

3. Termen:PSHIASTENIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : DEX,DICTIONARUL EXPLICATIV AL LIMBII ROMANE, univers enciclopedic, Bucuresti, 1998, ACADEMIA ROMANA, INSTITUTUL DE LINGVISTICA,,IORGU IORDAN,Editia a 2-a Definiie : Forma de nevroza caracterizata prin obsesii si fobii,prin stari de

nehotarare si nesiguranta. Sursa definiiei:. DEX, DICTIONARUL EXPLICATIV AL LIMBII ROMANE, univers enciclopedic,Bucuresti,1998,ACADEMIA ROMANA, INSTITUTUL DE LINGVISTICA,,IORGU IORDAN, Editia a 2-a Nota bene : Din franceza psychasthenie Corespondent englez: neurasthenia Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : Muzicoterapia este terapia prin muzica si sunete armonioase.Muzica poate amelira ai uneori poate vindeca anumite afectiuni cum ar fi:starile provocate de stresul cotidian,nervozitate,anxietate,astenia fizica si pshica,durerile de cap,pshiastenia. Sursa contextului: http://ro.wikipedia.org Context : ,,Termenul a fost propus de P.Janet pentru a desemna o entitate clinica pe care a opus-o isterie si care,dupa el,ingloba angoasa,fobia,obsesia,ca si semne accesorii specific subiective ce asociaza sentimente morbide de tipul impresiei de stranietate a lumii exterioare si chiar a persoanei proprii. Sursa contextului: DICTIONAR DE PSHIOLOGIE.ROLAND DORON, FRANCOISE PAROT. EDITURA HUMANITAS, BUCURESTI, 1999 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu:,,In prezent acest termen este aplicat personalitatilor patologice de tip compulsiv,care regrupeaza trasaturi care asociaza in grade diferite tendinta spre scrupule,inhibitia intelectuala si afectiva,indecizia,meticulozitatea,absenta spontaneitatii cu moralismul rigid si abstractionismul.

Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : NEURASTHENIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : ILLUSTRATED OXFORD DICTIONARY Definition : A general term for fatigue,anxiety,listlessness Definition source: ILLUSTRATED OXFORD DICTIONARY Nota bene: from Greek neuron,,nerve,astheneia,,weakness Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: Neurasthenia is a psycho-pathological term first used by George Beard in 1869 to denote a condition with symptoms of fatigue,anxiety,headache,neuralgia and depressed mood. Context source: http://www.righthealth.com/ Context : In 1895, Sigmund Freud reviewed electrotherapy and declared it a "pretense treatment". He emphasized the example of Elizabeth von R's note that "the stronger these were the more they seemed to push her own pains into the background." Nevertheless, neurasthenia was a common diagnosis during World War I, but its use declined a decade later. Context source: http://en.wikipedia.org/ Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Neurasthenia

A neurotic disease that is characterized by increased irritability, fatigability, and loss of the ability to endure prolonged mental and physical strain. Neurasthenia was first described by the American physician G. Beard in 1869. The disease usually arises when psychic trauma occurs in conjunction with extremely tense work and such physiological deprivations as chronic lack of sleep. Endocrine disturbances, a poor diet, infections, and intoxications (from alcohol or cigarettes), all of which weaken the body, foster the development of neurasthenia. A typical condition in neurasthenia is irritable asthenia, a state in which increased excitability and irritability are combined with fatigability and rapid exhaustion. On slight provocation the patient manifests turbulent irritable reactions or excitable outbursts that are usually brief but frequent. The increased irritability often expresses itself in tearful outbursts not previously typical for the patient or in impatience and agitation. Such stimuli as loud noises, bright lights, and sharp odors are not tolerated. The patient is easily distracted, shows an inability to control emotions, and complains of absentmindedness and poor memory. The moods are unstable, with a tendency toward depression. In severe forms of neurasthenia, a picture of depressive exhaustion can develop in which patients are gloomy, sluggish, and indifferent. Neurasthenia is accompanied by sleep disturbances, including difficulty in falling asleep, superficial or unrefreshing sleep, disturbing dreams, sleepiness during the day, and insomnia at night. Appetite decreases or disappears entirely; eructation and regurgitation, heartburn, constipation, and a sensation of heaviness in the stomach occur. Patients frequently complain of headaches, tachycardia, and a sensation of numbness in the heart. Disturbances in sexual functioning can also arise. Three stages of neurasthenia are distinguished. The initial stagehyperesthenic neurastheniais the most common form and is manifested predominantly by irritability and excitability. The second, or intermediate, stage is characterized by irritable asthenia. In the third stagehypoesthenic neurastheniaweakness and exhaustion predominate. The principal symptoms are sluggishness, apathy, increased sleepiness, and depression. Hyperesthenic neurasthenia is treated by establishing a suitable routine for work and rest and by alleviating the causes

of the emotional stress. The patients general physical condition should be improved by a regular diet, vitamin therapy, general restorative treatment, and psychotherapy. When necessary, a change of job is recommended. In cases of hypoesthenic neurasthenia, the patient is hospitalized, and the use of antidepressants and tranquilizers is indicated. The prognosis is usually favorable. Designation status : Official

4. Termen:PSIHOZA

Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : DEX,DICTIONARUL EXPLICATIV AL LIMBII ROMANE,univers

enciclopedic, Bucuresti, 1998, ACADEMIA ROMANA,INSTITUTUL DE LINGVISTICA,,IORGU IORDAN,Editia a 2-a Definiie : Boala caracterizata prin sau tulburari ale comportamentului,gandirii sau afectivitatii bolnavului si de care acesta este constient.Stare de spirit bolnavicioasa caracterizata prin surescitare obsedanta si contagioasa,creata de cauze exterioare,obsesie,idee fixa. Sursa definiiei: DEX, DICTIONARUL EXPLICATIV AL LIMBII ROMANE, univers enciclopedic, Bucuresti,1998, ACADEMIA ROMANA, INSTITUTUL DE LINGVISTICA,,IORGU IORDAN, Editia a 2-a Nota bene : Din franceza psychose Corespondent englez: psychosis Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: tulburare mentala grava Hiponim: psihoza carcerala Sinonim: Context : Termenul a fost introdus la mijlocul secolului XIX lea de pshiatrul german E.Feuchterleben pentru a definini ansamblul tulburarilor mentale grave care afecteaza simtul realitatii si al caracter morbid nu este recunoscut de bolnav. Sursa contextului: DICTIONAR DE PSHIOLOGIE.ROLAND DORON, FRANCOISE PAROT.EDITURA HUMANITAS, BUCURESTI, 1999 Context : Daca elementele externe,precum alimentele,pot influenta in mod decisiv comportamentul nostru ar trebui oare redefinite limitele liberului arbitru?La urma urmei,cunoastem de mult bazele moleculare care se ascund in spatele unor tulburari precum depresiile,sau unele pshioze si dispunem de tratamente destul de eficiente pentru a rezolva unele dintre ele...Sau inca mai ramane un coltisor din creierul nostru care

devine stapan al actiunilor noastre viitoare?Se poate poate deveni bolnav,sau pshiopat prin alegere?In plin secol XXI functionarea creierului nostru ramane unul dintre domeniile cele mai obscure. Sursa contextului: http://www.romedic.ro/ Arie de utilizare : medicina

Comentariu: Psihoza poate fi o caracteristic a mai multor boli, adesea atunci cnd creierul sau sistemul nervos este afectat direct. Totui, faptul c psihoza poate aprea ocazional n paralel cu nite maladii (incluznd boli cum ar fi gripa sau oreieonul, de exemplu) sugereaz c o varietate de stresori ai sistemului nervos pot duce la o reacie psihotic. Psihoza rezultat din condiii non-psihiatrice este uneori cunoscut drept psihoz secundar. Mecanismele prin care aceasta se ntmpl nu sunt nc clare, dar non-specificitatea psihozei i-a fcut pe Tsuang i pe colegii si s argumenteze c psihoza este 'febra' tulburrii mentale un indicator serios dar nonspecific. Condiiile non-psihiatrice care sunt n mod special legate de psihoz includ tumoarea cerebral, demena Lewy bodies, hipoglicemia, intoxicaiile, scleroza multipl, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, sarcoidoza, oreionul, SIDA, malaria i lepra. Stresul psihologic este deasemenea cunoscut drept un declanator al strilor psihotice. Att amintirea unor incidente traumatice experimentate pe toat durata vieii, ct i experiena recent a unui eveniment stresant, pot contribui la dezvoltarea unei psihoze. Psihozele de scurt durat declanate de stres sunt cunoscute drept psihoze reactive scurte, aa c pacienii i pot reveni n mod spontan la funcionarea normal n mai puin de dou sptmni. n unele cazuri rare, indivizii pot rmne ntr-o stare avansat de psihoz pentru mai muli ani, sau poate s aibe simptome psihotice atenuate (cum ar fi halucinaii de intensitate sczut),

prezente tot timpul. Intoxicaia cu droguri, care are efecte depresante generale asupra sistemului nervos central (n special alcool i barbiturice) tinde s nu cauzeze psihoze n timpul folosirii, i pot de fapt s micoreze sau s scad impactul simptomelor la unii oameni. Totui, stoparea consumului de alcool i barbiturice poate fi periculoas, conducnd la psihoze sau delir i la alte, potenial letale, efecte ale stoprii. Deprivarea de somn poate fi legat de psihoz, dei sunt puine dovezi care sugereaz c este un factor de risc major la majoritatea oamenilor. Unii oameni triesc halucinaii hipnagogice sau hipnopompice, unde tririle senzoriale neobinuite sau gndurile apar n timpul trezirii sau n timpul adormirii. Totui, acestea sunt fenomene normale ale somnului, i nu sunt considerate semne ale psihozelor. Statutul desemnarii : Official

Term : PSYCHOSIS ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : ILLUSTRATED OXFORD DICTIONARY Definition : A severe mental derangement ,especially when resulting in delusions and loss of contact with external reality,any of a number of the more severe mental diseases that make you belive things which are not real. Definition source: ILLUSTRATED OXFORD DICTIONARY Nota bene: based on Greek psukhein,,to give life to Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim:

Synonym: Context: Psychotic symptoms may include:

Disorganized thought and speech False beliefs that are not based in reality (delusions), especially unfounded fear or suspicion

Hearing, seeing, or feeling things that are not there (hallucinations)

Thoughts that "jump" between unrelated topics (disordered thinking)

Signs And Tests Psychiatric evaluation and testing are used to diagnose the cause of the psychosis. Laboratory testing and brain scans may not be needed, but sometimes can help pinpoint the diagnosis. Tests may include:

Blood tests for abnormal electrolyte and hormone levels Blood tests for syphilis and other infections Drug screens MRI of the brain
Treatment Treatment depends on the cause of the psychosis. Care in a hospital is often needed to ensure the patient's safety.

Antipsychotic drugs, which reduce hallucinations and delusions and improve thinking and behavior are helpful, whether the cause is a medical or psychiatric disorder. See: Schizophrenia for more information about the treatment of psychosis. Expectations (Prognosis) How well a person does depends on the cause of the psychosis. If the cause can be corrected, the outlook is often good, and treatment with antipsychotic medication may be brief. Some chronic conditions, such as schizophrenia, may need life-long treatment with antipsychotic medications to control symptoms. Complications Psychosis can prevent people from functioning normally and caring for themselves. If the condition is left untreated, people can sometimes harm themselves or others. Calling Your Health Care Provider Call your health care provider or mental health professional if you or a member of your family is losing contact with reality. If there is any concern about safety, immediately take the person to the nearest emergency room to be seen by a doctor. Prevention Prevention depends on the cause. For example, avoiding alcohol abuse prevents alcohol-induced psychosis. References Freudenreich O, Weiss AP, Goff DC. Psychosis and schizophrenia. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, Biederman J, Rauch SL, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. 1st ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2008:chap 28.

Context source: http://www.righthealth.com/topic/psychosis#ixzz1DNGFQdAT Context : Psychosis that is symptomatic of schizophrenia or another psychiatric disorder should be treated by a psychologist and/or psychiatrist. An appropriate course of medication and/or psychosocial therapy is employed to treat the underlying primary disorder. If the patient is considered to be at risk for harming himself or others, inpatient treatment is usually recommended. Treatment of shared psychotic disorder involves separating the affected persons from one another as well as using antipsychotic medications and psychotherapy. Antipsychotic medication such as thioridazine (Mellaril), haloperidol (Haldol), chlorpromazine (Thorazine), clozapine (Clozaril), sertindole (Serlect), olanzapine (Zyprexa), or risperidone (Risperdal) is usually prescribed to bring psychotic symptoms under control and into remission. Possible side effects of antipsychotics include dry mouth, drowsiness, muscle stiffness, and tardive dyskinesia (involuntary movements of the body). Agranulocytosis, a potentially serious but reversible health condition in which the white blood cells that fight infection in the body are destroyed, is a possible side effect of clozapine. Patients treated with this drug should undergo weekly blood tests to monitor white blood cell counts for the first six months, then every two weeks. After an acute psychotic episode has subsided, antipsychotic drug maintenance treatment is typically employed and psychosocial therapy and living and vocational skills training may be attempted. Context source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/psychosis Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Causes, Incidence, And Risk Factors

A number of substances and medical conditions can cause psychosis, including:

Alcohol and certain illegal drugs, both during use and during withdrawal

Brain tumors or cysts


Dementia (including Alzheimer's disease) Degenerative brain diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and certain chromosomal disorders

HIV and other infections that affect the brain Some prescription drugs, such as steroids and stimulants Designation status : Official

5. Termen:OLIGOFRENIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia

Sursa : DEX, DICTIONARUL EXPLICATIV AL LIMBII ROMANE,univers enciclopedic, Bucuresti, 1998, ACADEMIA ROMANA,INSTITUTUL DE LINGVISTICA ,,IORGU IORDAN,Editia a 2-a Definiie : Stare patologica caracterizata prin ramanerea in urma a dezvoltarii facultatiilor pshice,insotita uneori de tulburari ale dezvoltari fizice si de leziunii ale sistemului nervos central,ca urmare a unor suferinte cerebrale,survenite in perioada intrauterina,in cursul nasterii sau in perioada copilariei.

Sursa definiiei:. DEX, DICTIONARUL EXPLICATIV AL LIMBII ROMANE, univers enciclopedic, Bucuresti,1998,ACADEMIA ROMANA, INSTITUTUL DE LINGVISTICA,,IORGU IORDAN, Editia a 2-a Nota bene : Din franceza oligofrenie,din greaca oligos-putin,frenos-suflet Corespondent englez: oligophreny Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: debilitate mentala Hiponim: oligofrenie fenil-piruvica Sinonim: deficienta mentala,retardare mentala Context : eptice usoareGeneralitati Prin oligofrenie se definete o scdere global a funciilor psihice. De obicei este nsotit de un anumit grad de distrugere sau de volumul mai mic al creierului. Bolile prinilor, ca alcoolismul, precum i encefalitele sau alte boli cu rsunet cerebral ale copiilor, pot duce la oligofrenie. Judecata, calculul, memoria sunt

adnc tulburate. Educarea acestor copii este dificil, uneori foarte puin eficace. Bolnavii pot svri fapte penale, ca furturi i atentate la bunele moravuri. Clasificare oligofrenie: - forma grava (oligofrenia de gradul III) - coeficient inteligenta 0 - 19 ) (5% cazuri); - forma medie (oligofrenia de gradul II) - coeficient inteligenta 20 - 49 (20% cazuri); - forma usoara (oligofrenia de gradul I) - coeficient inteligenta 50 - 69 (75% din cazuri); Simptome: Oligofrenia poarte diverse alte denumiri ca inapoierea mintala, debilitate mintal, ntrziere mintal, handicap mintal si se caracterizeaz prin scaderea funciei intelectuale. Oligofrenia nu corespunde n totalitate noiunii de boala, in sensul clasic de proces dinamic in evolutie cu debut, manifestare acuta, vindecarea sau cronicizare. Insuficienta intelectuala insoteste persoana afectat de-a lungul intregii sale existene. Aceasta deficien determin ins dificultai importante de adaptare si frecvente tulburari psihice afective si comportamentale. Tratament - Orientarea si tratamentul copilului depind de mai multi factori: structura afectiva (uneori foarte bogata); starea functiilor senzoriale, motorii si instrumentale; stabilitatea comportamentului; armonia familiala; toleranta mediului etc. Copilul are mai ales nevoie sa simta incredere in altii si in el insusi. Asociata cu o sustinere psihoterapeutica, reeducarea permite adesea sa se obtina progrese apreciabile; in caz de agitatie sau de agresivitate a copilului, se asociaza uneori neurol. Sursa contextului: http://art-zone.ro/boli/Oligofrenie_simptome,_cauze,_tratament.html Context : Oligofrenia este o diminuare cronica accentuata a functiilor psihice de multe ori intovarasita si de o dezvoltare slaba a organismului. Psihicul bolnavilor prezinta alterari in raport cu gradul leziunilor cerebrale. Se pot deosebi:

a) debilitatea mintala, in care tulburarile psihice sunt mai mici. Educatia si instructia lor in scoli reuseste sa-i faca sa progreseze pana la un anumit nivel. Ei sunt oameni care pot avea un comportament satisfacator in societate. b) imbecilitatea, care constituie un grad mai avansat de oligofrenie. Imbecilii pot fi si ei educati intr-o oarecare masura (invata cu foarte mare greutate notiuni simple de aritmetica, pot citi). Deoarece memoria, atentia si judecata le sunt destul de greoaie si deficitare, au nevoie de sprijinul colectivitatii. Sursa contextului: http://articole.famouswhy.ro/despre_oligofrenie/ Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu:,,Debilitatea mentala profuna reperabila in dementa,in deficientele genetice ale inteligentei sau in tulburarile metabolice. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : OLIGOPHRENIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Oligophrenia Definition : group of diseases that is characterized by defective mental development. Oligophrenic diseases can be congenital or acquired in early childhood. Oligophrenia can result from diseases in the mother during pregnancy, including syphilis, rubella, toxoplasmosis, vitamin deficiencies, thyroid diseases, and diabetes mellitus. Other causes of oligophrenia include Rh-incompatibility of maternal and fetal blood, trauma, asphyxia of the fetus during childbirth, residual effects of meningitis, and encephalitis. Oligophrenia can also be inherited, as with Downs syndrome (seeDOWNS SYNDROME). Feeblemindedness is often accompanied by sequelae of focal lesions in the brain, including seizures, motor disturbances, and sensitivity. Abnormalities in physical development are also common Definition source: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Oligophrenia Nota bene:

Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym:

Context: Three degrees of oligophrenia are distinguished for purposes of raising, treating, and educating oligophrenics: idiocy is characterized by severe feeblemindedness, imbecility by moderate feeblemindedness, and moronity by mild feeblemindedness (seeIDIOCY). These degrees of mental inadequacy apply regardless of the etiology of the condition. The mental functioning of idiots is essentially limited to reflex acts. Imbeciles can learn how to tend to some of their own needs. Morons are able to acquire some knowledge and to master some occupational skills despite their poor judgment, narrow perspective, poor vocabulary, weak memory, and the slowness and concreteness of their thought processes. Context source: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Oligophrenia Context : Syndrome of ichthyosis, spasticity, & oligophrenia: Also known as the Sjogren-Larsson syndrome, this is a genetic (inherited) disease characterized by a triad of clinical findings consisting of ichthyosis (thickened fish-like skin), spastic paraplegia (spasticity of the legs) and mental retardation (oligophrenia is an old word for mental retardation).

Context source http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=8025 Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Oligophrenia: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual is mentally retarded. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline mentally retarded range. Scores below 67 are in the retarded range. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28 Designation status : Official

6. Termen:CLAUSTROFOBIE

Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia

Sursa : DEX,DICTIONARUL EXPLICATIV AL LIMBII ROMANE, univers enciclopedic, Bucuresti,1998,ACADEMIA ROMANA, INSTITUTUL DE LINGVISTICA,,IORGU IORDAN,Editia a 2-a Definiie : Teama patologica de spatii inchise. Sursa definiiei: http://dexonline.ro/definitie/claustrofobie. Nota bene : Din fr. claustrophobie Corespondent englez: Claustrophobia Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: fobie Hiponim: Sinonim: nevroza fobica Context : Claustrofobia poate aparea ca urmare a unui eveniment trumatic care s-a petrecut la un moment dat in viata unui individ. Poate fi vorba de acel episod din copilarie cand s-a ascuns intr-un loc ingust de unde nu a mai putut iesi sau de la maturitate, cand a ramas blocat in liftul de la serviciu. Indiferent insa de momentul care a intiparit in creierul claustrofobului reactia fata de locuri inguste, simptomele pe care le (re)simte sunt aceleasi de fiecare data. Poate fi astfel vorba de:

Transpiratie Intensificarea batailor inimi

Greata Lesin Tremurat In plus, viata unui claustrofob mai poate fi afectata si sub anumite unghiuri, pentru ca, de regula acesta va evita sa faca anumite lucruri pe care o persoana care nu se confrunta cu asmenea probleme nu intampina nicio dificultate in a le duce la bun sfarsit.

Astfel, el va evita de pilda, sa calatoreasca cu avionul sau cu masina atunci cand se circula bara la bara, va urca scarile si nu va lua liftul, la petrecerile aglomerate va sta mereu langa usa etc. Sursa contextului: http://www.afla.ro/articole/585/claustrofobia-sub-lupa.html Context : Claustrofobia este adesea rezultatul unei experiente traumatizante asociata de un loc inchis.Poate fi vorba de un fenomen trecator care dispare de la sine.Totusi ,claustrofobia necesita o psihoterapie de fond sau o terapie comporamentala. Sursa contextului: Larousse,,Dictionar de medicina Arie de utilizare : medicina

Comentariu: Claustrofobia este denumirea pentru teama de spatiile inchise. Specialistii sunt de parere ca aceasta fobie este de fapt cauzata de o trauma din copilarie. Din pacate, multe persoane nu stiu ca sufera de aceasta fobie. De aceea este important sa recunosti simptomele pentru a stii cu ce anume te confrunti. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : CLAUSTROPHOBIOA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.thefreedictionary.com/claustrophobia Definition : An abnormal fear of being in narrow or enclosed spaces Definition source: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/claustrophobia

Nota bene: from Latin claustrum "a shut in place" and Greek , phbos, "fear" Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: Claustrophobia is typically thought to have two key symptoms: fear of restriction and fear of suffocation. A typical claustrophobic will fear restriction in at least one, if not several, of the following areas: small rooms, locked rooms, cars, tunnels, cellars, elevators, subway trains, caves, airplanes and crowded areas. Additionally, the fear of restriction can cause some claustrophobics to fear trivial matters such as sitting I a barbers chair or waiting in line at a grocery store simply out of a fear of confinement to a single space. However, claustrophobics are not necessarily afraid of these areas themselves, but, rather, they fear what could happen to them should they become confined to an area. Often, when confined to an area, claustrophobics begin to fear suffocation, believing that there may be a lack of air in the area to which they are confined.

Many claustrophobics remove clothing during attacks, believing it will relieve the symptoms. Any combination of the above symptoms can lead to severe panic attacks. However, most claustrophobics do everything in their power to avoid these situations

Context source: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/claustrophobia Context : Claustrophobia Treatment There is no cure for claustrophobia, however, there are several forms of treatment that can help an individual control her condition. Treatment for claustrophobia can include behavior therapy, exposure therapy, drugs or a combination of several treatments. Behavior therapy includes identifying trigger points and recognizing that one's reactions to these triggers are learned instead of natural; through visualization and positive thinking, the individual learns to disassociate feelings of danger with the confined space. Neuro-Linguistic Programming is a type of behavior therapy that deconstructs the individual's preconceived view of reality, reducing the anxiety provoked by a specific situation or setting. Flooding is a type of exposure treatment in which the individual is exposed to a situation until the anxiety attack passes; a less extreme form of exposure treatment is counter-conditioning. Counter-conditioning includes behavior therapy, as the individual is taught visualization and relaxation techniques before being slowly reintroduced to the trigger situation. Medications prescribed to help treat claustrophobia include anti-depressants and beta-blockers, which help to relieve the heart pounding often associated with anxiety attacks. Alternative claustrophobia treatments include regression hypnotherapy, in which hypnotherapy is used to remember the traumatic event that led to the individual's claustrophobia. The patient is taught to see the event with adult' eyes, which helps to decrease the sense of panic that it has instilled into their minds

Context source: http://www.epigee.org/mental_health/claustrophobia.html Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Designation status : Official

7. Termen:AGORAFOBIE

Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dexonline.ro/definitie/agorafobie Definiie : Team patologic, obsesiv i nemotivat de spaiile largi, de locurile deschise, de piee etc Sursa definiiei: http://dexonline.ro/definitie/agorafobie. Nota bene : Din fr. agoraphobie. Corespondent englez: Agoraphobia

Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: fobie Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : Persoanele cu agorafobie pot prezenta o parte sau toate simptomele de mai jos, cand se afla in locuri publice: - tremuraturi - puls rapid - transpiratii profuze - dureri toracice - dificultati de respiratie - senzatie de sufocare - greata - ameteli - senzatia de pierdere a controlului - teama ca va lesina - teama ca va muri. Rareori se intampla ca o persoana sa prezinte toate simptomele in acelasi timp. Totusi daca o persoana experimenteaza o parte din aceste simptome in acelasi timp, probabil prezinta un atac de panica. In cazurile extreme, simptomele il pot face pe pacient sa fuga din locul in care se gaseste intr-un loc in care se simte in siguranta. Acest lucru il poate face sa evite pe viitor situatiile care ar putea declansa simptome. Desi unii pacienti cu agorafobie simt anxietate marcata si disconfort cand pleca de acasa sau cand se gasesc intr-un loc public, totusi nu dezvolta un atac de panica. Unii dintre agorafobici pot prezenta semne minime de anxietate intrucat pot evita

situatiile care le determina fobia. Agorafobia este de asemeni legata de alte tulburari cum ar fi depresia si tulburarea obsesiv compulsiva Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Fobiile/agorafobia_57 Context : Agorafobia poate fi tratata folosid medicamente sau "terapie prin vorbire" cum ar fi terapia cognitiv-comportamentala, psihanaliza si terapia de grup. Tratamentul medicamentos Antidepresivele (in mod special cele cunoscute sub numele de Inhibitori selectivi ai recaptarii serotoninei - ISRS), sunt cele mai frecvent prescrise medicamente pentru atacul de panica. In mod obisnuit ameliorarile apar in 6-8 saptamani. Benzodiazepinele sunt folosite doar pe termen scurt, pentru calmare in cazurile severe, intrucat pot determina dependenta. Administrarea se va face pentru cel mult 4 saptamani, iar scoaterea medicatiei se face treptat pentru a evita fenomenul de "rebound" (aparitia intr-o forma mai grava a simptomelor de anxietate la intreruperea brusca a medicamentului).

Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Fobiile/agorafobia_57 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Cauza de baza a agorafobiei este necunoscuta. Studiile au aratat ca agorafobia are tendinta de a apare la mai multi membrii ai aceleiasi familii, dar nu este foarte clar daca este implicat un factor genetic sau sunt factori de alta natura. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial

Term : AGORAPHOBIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/agoraphobia Definition : anxiety disorder characterized by a fear of being in an open, crowded, or public place where escape may be difficult or help may not be available if needed. Definition source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/agoraphobia Nota bene: Etymology: Gk, agora, marketplace, phobos, fear Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym:

Context: Treatment for agoraphobia usually consists of both medication and psychotherapy. Usually, patients can benefit from certain antidepressants, such as amitriptyline (Elavil), or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as paroxetine (Paxil), fluoxetine (Prozac), or sertraline (Zoloft). In addition, patients may manage panic attacks in progress with certain tranquilizers called benzodiazepines, such as alprazolam (Xanax) or clonazepam (Klonipin). Context source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/agoraphobia

Context : Agoraphobia is just one type of phobia, or irrational fear. People with phobias feel dread or panic when they face certain objects, situations, or activities. People with agoraphobia frequently also experience panic attacks, but panic attacks, or panic disorder, are not a requirement for a diagnosis of agoraphobia. The defining feature of agoraphobia is anxiety about being in places from which escape might be embarrasing or difficult, or in which help might be unavailable. The person suffering from agoraphobia usually avoids the anxiety-provoking situation and may become totally housebound.

Context source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/agoraphobia Area of use:Medicine Commentary : Agoraphobia occurs about twice as commonly among women as it does in men. The gender difference may be attributable to social-cultural factors that encourage, or permit, the greater expression of avoidant coping strategies by women. Other theories include the ideas that women are more likely to seek help and therefore be diagnosed, that men are more likely to abuse alcohol as a reaction to anxiety and be diagnosed as an alcoholic, and that traditional female sex roles encourage women to react to anxiety by engaging in dependent and helpless behaviors. Research results have not yet produced a single clear explanation as to the gender difference in agoraphobia Designation status : Official

8. Termen:ABULIE

Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.dex-online-ro.ro/cautari/abulie.htm Definiie : boal psihic manifestat prin pierderea sau slbirea voinei Sursa definiiei:. http://www.dex-online-ro.ro/cautari/abulie.htm Nota bene : Din fr. aboulie Corespondent englez: Abulia Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: tulburare de vointa Hiponim: Sinonim: hipobulie accentuata Context : Este o boal caracterizat prin lipsa de iniiativ, spontaneitate, promptitudine. Mai ales se observ n: confuzie mintal, schizofrenie, depresie, melancolie, etc. Bolnavul abulic st de obicei nemicat timp ndelungat, rspunde greu i lacunar la ntrebri i nu execut nici o comand solicitat de interlocutor Sursa contextului: http://www.deeasoft.com/tratament-abulie.html

Context : P.Janet deosebeste aprosexia sau abulia intelectuala de abulia motorie,care corespunde unei incetiniri si unei insuficiente a vointei,in special in trecerea de la idee la act.

Sursa contextului: DICTIONAR DE PSHIOLOGIE.ROLAND DORON, FRANCOISE PAROT.EDITURA HUMANITAS, BUCURESTI, 1999 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: In abulie de deficienta subiectului este legata de realizarea actului pe care si-l reprezinta acest lucru fiind descris de Geuslain cu savoare remarcabila,,bolnavii stiu sa creeze mental,inferior dupa exigentele ratiunii.Ei pot simti dorinta de a face dar sunt neputinciosi sa o realizeze convenabil.P.Janet descrie o abulie motorie,legata de trecerea la realizarea actului si o abulie intelectuala,legata de tulburarea atentiei voluntari. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : ABULIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.thefreedictionary.com/abulia Definition : Loss or impairment of the ability to make decisions or act independently Definition source: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/abulia Nota bene: [New Latin, from Greek abouli , indecision : a-, without; see a-1 + boul, will; see gwel - in Indo-European roots.] Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim:

Synonym: aboulia Context: Aboulia has been known to clinicians since 1838. However, in the time since its inception, the definition of aboulia has been subjected to many different forms, some even contradictory with previous ones.[5] Aboulia has been described as a loss of drive, expression, loss of behavior and speech output, slowing and prolonged speech latency, and reduction of spontaneous thought content and initiative. The clinical features most commonly associated with aboulia are: Difficulty in initiating and sustaining purposeful movements Lack of spontaneous movement Reduced spontaneous movement Increased response-time to queries Passivity Reduced emotional responsiveness and spontaneity Reduced social interactions Reduced interest in usual pastimes

Context source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/abulia Context : Many different causes of aboulia have been suggested. While there is some debate about the validity of aboulia as a separate disease, experts mostly agree that aboulia is the result of frontal lesions and not with cerebellar or brainstem lesions. As a result of more and more evidence showing that the mesolimbic and the mesocortical dopamine system are key to motivation and responsiveness to reward, aboulia may be a

dopamine-related dysfunction. Aboulia may also result from a variety of brain injuries which cause personality change, such as dementing illnesses, trauma, or intracerebral hemorrhage (stroke), especially stroke causing diffuse injury to the right hemisphere. Context source : http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/abulia Area of use:Medicine

Commentary : Illnesses where aboulia may be present Depression

Schizophrenia

Parkinson's Disease Huntington's Disease Progressive supranuclear palsy Traumatic Brain Injury Stroke Designation status : Official

9. Termen:CATALEPSIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.copilul.ro/dictionar-medical/Catalepsie-8722.html Definiie : Stare patologica care apare in unele boli psihice si care se caracterizeaza printr-o rigiditate brusca a muschilor, intarirea accentuata a corpului, bataile inimii scad, iar respiratia devine tot mai inceata Sursa definiiei:. http://www.copilul.ro/dictionar-medical/Catalepsie-8722.html Nota bene : Din fr. catalepsie, cf. gr. katalepsis atac. Corespondent englez: catalepsy Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: stare patologica Hiponim: Sinonim: letargie Context : Letargia si catalepsia au acelasi principiu: pierderea momentana a sensibilitatii si miscarii datorita unei cauze fiziologice inca neexplicata. Ele difera prin aceea ca, in letargie, suspendarea fortelor vitale este generala si da corpului toate aparentele mortii; in catalepsie, ea este localizata si poate afecta o parte mai mult sau mai putin intinsa a corpului, incat sa lase inteligenta sa se manifeste liber, ceea ce nu permite sa fie confundata cu moartea. Letargia este intotdeauna naturala; catalepsia este cateodata spontana, dar poate fi provocata si disipata artificial prin actiune magnetica.

Sursa

contextului:

http://amira-paranormal.blogspot.com/2009/02/letargie-

catalepsie-morti-aparente.html Context : Addex, de asemenea, raportate in timpul iulie sale de C & D in ziua in care la sobolani ADX10059 au aratat un efect dependenta de doza in reducerea catalepsie indusa de haloperidol, un model rozator de boala Parkinson Sursa contextului: http://www.desprestiri.ro/catalepsie-boala Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : CATALEPSY ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/catalepsy Definition : Catalepsy is a nervous condition characterized by muscular rigidity and fixity of posture regardless of external stimuli, as well as decreased sensitivity to pain. Definition source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/catalepsy Nota bene: Etymology: Gk, kata + lambanein, to seize Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: Catalepsy is a symptom of certain nervous disorders or conditions such as Parkinson's disease and epilepsy. It is also a characteristic symptom of cocaine withdrawal. It can be caused by schizophrenia treatment with anti psychotics, such as haloperidol. In some cases, isolated cataleptic instances can

also be precipitated by extreme emotional shock. Protein kinase A has been suggested as a mediator of cataleptic behavior. Context source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/catalepsy Context : Futurbiotics - Brain Fuel NuvaLife.com $1.53

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Brain Vitality-GPC (Acetyl L-Carnitine) Super Formula by$59.9 Purity... 911 Health Shop Herb Pharm - Brain & Memory Tonic - 1 oz Free Shippping on orders over $85.00 (US Deliveries) Total Health Discount Garden of Life Oceans 3 Better Brain with OmegaXanthin -- 90$34.4 Softgels Spend $49 and get Free Shipping on Any Order! VitaCost.com Context source: http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/c/catalepsy/intro.htm Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Artistic depictions 6 $8.39 5

In the arts, catalepsy is often used for dramatic effect, sometimes as a plot device. In literature In Alexandre Dumas, pre's novel The Count of Monte Cristo, the Abb Faria has fits of catalepsy from time to time, before eventually dying from one.In George Eliot's Silas Marner, the main character Silas Marner frequently has cataleptic fits and seizures. It is not mentioned if they are caused by any of the aforementioned factors. In Arthur Conan Doyle's "The Adventure of the Resident Patient", a man feigns catalepsy to gain access to a neurologist's rooms; the doctor attempts to treat him with amyl nitrite. In Ford Madox Ford's The Good Soldier, the protagonist Dowell experiences catalepsy following the death of his wife. In Robert A. Heinlein's Stranger in a Strange Land, the main character Valentine Michael Smith is believed to have catalepsy when he is returned to Earth. In Edgar Allan Poe's "The Premature Burial", the narrator develops catalepsy. He fears being mistakenly declared dead and buried alive, and goes to great lengths to prevent this. In another of Poe's short stories, "The Fall of the House of Usher", Madeline Usher has catalepsy, and is buried alive by her unstable brother Roderick. In Poppy Z. Brite's "Exquisite Corpse", the main character, Comptom, a serial killer (recreation of Jeffery Dahmer's life story) facing a lifetime sentence, uses shamanistic techniques to induce catalepsy, and convincingly deceased is able to escape prison. In mile Zola's short story La Mort d'Olivier Becaille (The Death of Olivier Becaille), the title character is buried alive and notes that "I must have fallen into one of those

cataleptic states that I had read of". In Sax Rohmer's Fu-Manchu novels, Dr. Fu-Manchu has a serum that induces a state of catalepsy so extreme as to be indistinguishable from death. In Charles Dickens's novel Bleak House, Mrs. Snagsby has violent spasms before becoming cataleptic and being carried upstairs like a grand piano. In Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's Lectures on the History of Philosophy: Greek Philosophy to Plato, Hegel describes Socrates as having catalepsy caused by magnetic somnambulism when in deep meditation. In Charles Williams 's novel Many Dimensions, Sir Giles Tumulty says to Lord Arglay, the Chief Justice of England: "You are a louse-brained catalept, Arglay." In Philip K Dick's novel Now Wait For Last Year, Kathy Sweetscent becomes immobilized by withdrawal from JJ-180, an alien (and highly addictive) drug. "My God, Kathy thought as she stood gazing down at the record by her feet. I can't free myself; I'm going to remain here, and they'll find me like this and know something's terribly wrong. This is catalepsy!" In film and television In performances and portrayals, catalepsy places unusual demands on actress; it is harder than it looks. In Sam Taylor's Kiki (film) (1931) Mary Pickford feigns a case of catalepsy to keep from being removed from the apartment of the man she secretly loves. In the soap opera La Traicin, the main character, Hugo De Medina, has catalepsy. Later in the telenovela it is revealed that his daughter, Aurora, has the same illness. In Chavo del Ocho, the main character, El Chavo, would have cataleptic-like fits if frightened, where he would curl as if sitting down in a chair and become stiff. However, he could be healed by being splashed with water. In the 1965 Roman Polanski film Repulsion, Catherine Deneuve's character shows signs of the affliction through her erratic and unexplainable behavior. In two Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episodes, "Statistical Probabilities" and "Chrysalis", the character Sarina Douglas, a genetically-enhanced human woman, exhibits cataleptic

symptoms. In "Chrysalis", Dr. Bashir promises to do everything he can to cure her of the disorder, and is ultimately successful. Designation status : Official

10. Termen:SEVRAJ Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sevraj Definiie : Sevrajul este un sindrom de abstinen, manifestat printr-o puternic

suferin fizic i psihic, specific perioadei de ncetare, de ctre persoana aflat n aceast stare, a consumului de substane care i-au indus starea de dependen. Sursa definiiei:. http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sevraj Nota bene : Din Corespondent englez: withdraw Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: Hiponim: sevraj tabacic Sinonim: Context : Se cunosc mai multe tipuri de sevraj: Sevrajul alcoolic, denumit i sevraj etilic sau sevraj etanolic, se manifest la persoane care sufer de alcoolism i nceteaz ori reduc consumul de alcool, dup 10-15 ani de excese. n 3-6 ore de la oprirea consumului, apar tremurturi ale minilor, limbii i ochilor, grea i vom, slbiciune, tahicardie, transpiraie abundent, tensiune crescut, stri de anxietate, irascibilitate sau deprimare, hipotensiune artostatic. Spre deosebire de sevrajul la droguri (heroin, cocain), sevrajul la alcool pune viaa n pericol. Fr tratament, 20% din pacieni evolueaz spre deces.

Sevrajul tabacic, denumit i sevraj nicotinic, se instaleaz la ntreruperea fumatului. Cnd ncearc sa renune la fumat, dependentul trece prin diferite stri, fizice i psihice: accese de furie, iritabilitate, slab capacitate de concentrare, depresie, frustrare, creterea apetitului sau insomnie. n unele cazuri, sevrajul se poate manifesta i prin diaree sau constipaie. Simptomele fizice ale sevrajului nicotinic ncep cu durerile de cap. Pentru c nicotina este vasoconstrictoare, lipsa acesteia produce dilataia vaselor de snge de la nivelul sistemului nervos central.

Aceast vasodilataie de la nivelul creierului provoac dureri de cap care pot dura doar cteva zile. Aceeai dilataie a vaselor de snge este cauza unor ameeli scurte, n jur de o secund, care trec dupa cteva zile de la renunarea la fumat dar care i pot speria persoana ce ncearc sa se lase de fumat. Dependena psihic apare la fumtorii care nu au depit niciodat un pachet de igri pe zi. De la acest numr n sus i cu vechime mai mare de 10 ani se consider c respectivul fumtor este i dependent fizic. Sevrajul nicotinic este calificat de medici drept o boal, care are numele de cod: DSM-IV.

Sevrajul cofeinic, apare la oprirea brusc a ingestiei de cofein (din cafea) i se asociaz cu cefalee (durere de cap), vertij (ameeal), slbiciune marcat, incapacitate de concentrare, scderea randamentului fizic i intelectual, efecte care sunt de scurt durat (cteva zile) i de intensitate mic spre moderat. Cafeina nu creeaz fenomene de sevraj att de severe sau dunatoare precum sevrajul la droguri sau alcool.

Sevrajul la tranchilizante. Dup 24 de ore fr drog, pot aprea simptome precum anxietatea si agitaia. Sevrajul va dura ntre dou i opt zile, cauznd pierderea apetitului, grea, vom, crampe abdominale, creterea frecvenei cardiace i transpiraii excesive. Alte simptome severe ale sevrajului sunt delirul, convulsiile i uneori moartea.

Sevrajul la opiacee apare atunci cnd consumatorul dependent renun la dozele lui obinuite de stupefiante. Dac dependena este puternic, sevrajul se poate manifesta n forme foarte violente. Senzaiile pe care consumatorii le experimenteaz atunci cnd sunt n sevraj, sunt exact opusul acelora pe care le simt

cnd sunt sub efectul opiaceelor. n timpul sevrajului, la consumatorul de opiacee pot aprea anxietate, iritabilitate, lcrimare abundent, secreii nazale abundente, tremur muscular, senzaia de "piele de gin". Un caz special de sevraj la opioide este observat la nou-nscuii pasiv dependeni din mame ce abuzeaz de droguri n timpul sarcinii. Anumite niveluri de dependen se dezvolt la 50-90% din copiii din mame dependente de heroin. Copiii nscui din mame care se drogheaz sunt i ei dependeni de drog i intr n sevraj la cteva ore dup ce vin pe lume n lipsa administrrii drogului, fapt care le poate pune n pericol viaa Sursa contextului: http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sevraj Context : COAXIL, compr. | tianeptinum Substanta activa: tianeptinum Sursa contextului: http://medicamente.romedic.ro/medicamente.php?med=3585&fl Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Sevrajul se manifesta printr-o serie de simptome pshice si fizice:anxietate,agitatie,astenie,insomnie,anorexie,greturi,varsaturi,naduseli,tremuraturi, ameteli,cefalee,contractii musculare,dureri musculare. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : WITHDRAWL ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Withdrawl Definition : the period a drug addict goes through following abrupt termination in the use of narcotics, usually characterized by physical and mental symptoms Definition source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Withdrawl Nota bene: Etymology: ME, with + drawen, to take away Generic concept : disease

Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: One thing I can tell you about heroin withdrawl is that you only have to go through it once. That's right you don't have to be a mental heavy weight to understand ... Context source: http://www.righthealth.com/topic/Heroin_Withdrawl?#vIS Context : Pseudoabstinence is a term used by some authors[3] to describe signs of withdrawal although the dose remains constant. Such signs may arise in use of benzodiazepines and amphetamines. Context source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Withdrawl Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Withdrawal can refer to any sort of separation, but is most commonly used to describe the group of symptoms that occurs upon the abrupt discontinuation/separation or a decrease in dosage of the intake of medications, recreational drugs, and/or alcohol. In order to experience the symptoms of withdrawal, one must have first developed a physical dependence (often referred to as chemical dependency). This happens after consuming one or more of these substances for a certain period of time, which is both dose dependent and varies based upon the drug consumed. For example, prolonged use of an anti-depressant is most likely to cause a much different reaction when discontinued than the repeated use of an opioid, such as heroin. In fact, the route of administration, whether intravenous, intramuscular, oral or otherwise, can also play a role in determining the severity of withdrawal symptoms. There are different stages of withdrawal as well. Generally, a person will start to feel worse and worse, hit a plateau, and then the symptoms begin to dissipate. However, withdrawal from certain drugs (benzodiazapines, alcohol) can be fatal and therefore the abrupt

discontinuation of any type of drug is not recommended.[citation needed] The term "cold turkey" is used to describe the sudden cessation use of a substance and the ensuing physiologic manifestations. Designation status : Official

11. Termen:CLEPTOMANIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dexonline.ro/definitie/cleptomanie Definiie : Manie caracteristic prin impulsul patologic de a-i nsui prin furt bunuri strine fr a avea nevoie de ele i fr a urmri vreun profit material. Din fr. cleptomanie. Sursa definiiei: http://dexonline.ro/definitie/cleptomanie. Nota bene : Din fr. cleptomanie. Corespondent englez: kleptomania Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv

Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : Criteriile de diagnostic pentru cleptomanie sunt reprezentate de : 1. esecul repetitiv, recurent de a rezista impulsului de a fura obiecte, ce nu au valoare utilitara sau monetara pentru persoana respectiva; 2. exista o stare de tensiune crescanda emotional inainte de comiterea actului (furtului), ce exercita asupra acestuia o atractie irezistibila; 3. dupa comiterea furtului se instituie o stare de placere, de gratificare, usurare si detensionare; 4. lipsa caracterului de razbunare sau de represalii impotriva unei anumite persoane si nu este un raspuns la o ideie deliranta sau o halucinatie; 5. nu poate fi explicat mai bine de o tulburare de conduita sau un episoade maniacale sau de o tulburare de personalitate de tip antisocial. Sursa contextului: http://www.romedic.ro/cleptomanie Context : Cleptomania este determinanta de un act mai impulsiv decat compulsiv si este precedata de un sentiment de tensiune crescanda si urmat de o liniste sau usurare.El nu este comis din manie sau razbunare si nu intra in cadrul delicventei pshiopate. Sursa contextului: DICTIONAR DE PSHIOLOGIE.ROLAND DORON, FRANCOISE PAROT. EDITURA HUMANITAS, BUCURESTI, 1999 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Indivizii cu cleptomanie experienteaza impulsul de a fura si sunt constienti de faptul ca actul este daunator si lipsit de sens. Frecvent, subiectul in cauza se tem sa nu fie prinsi si de multe ori este trist, depresiv sau se simte vinovata in legatura cu fapta sa (cu furturile) . Cleptomania poate fi asociata cu un cumpat compulsiv si cu tulburarile depresive, cu tulburarile anxioase (anxietate), cu cele de comportament

alimentar (in special cu bulimia), cu tulburarile de personalitate, dar si cu alte tulburari de control al impulsurilor. Din pacate, aceasta incapacitate de a se abtine in a fura poate fi cauza multor dificultati si probleme de natura legala, in familie, in viata profesionala. Din cauza lipsei studiilor se cunosc prea putine lucruri despre cleptomanie, astfel ca se estimenaza ca 6 la 1000 de persoane din populatia generala sufera de cleptomanie. Se pare ca sub 5% din hotii din magazine au cleptomanie. Multi factori insa influenteaza incidenta si prevalenta cleptomaniei, deoarece acesta este un comportament care recidiveaza; persoanele in cauza sunt de multe ori vazuti ca hoti care recidiveaza, ca criminali si de multe ori nu se face o evaluare de specialitate. Multi hoti de asemenea sunt diagnosticati eronat ca avand o tulburare de personalitate de tip antisocial. Din informatiile culese se pare ca apare preponderant la femei deoarece ele sunt mai des supuse unei evaluari psihiatrice fata de barbati care in urma acestor acte sunt trimisi direct la inchisoare. Multe dintre cazuri debuteaza in adolescenta apoi isi urmeaza caracterul episodic sau cronic. Au fost descrise trei evolutii tipice: -sporadic, cu episoade scurte, si lungi perioade de remisiune (perioade in care nu a furat) -episodica, cu perioade prelungite de furturi si perioade de remisune care alterneaza; -cronica, dar cu un oarecare grad de fluctuatie. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : KLEPTOMANIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.thefreedictionary.com/kleptomania Definition : an anxiety disorder characterized by an abnormal, uncontrollable, and recurrent urge to steal. The objects are taken not for their monetary value, immediate need, or utility but because of a symbolic meaning usually associated with some unconscious emotional conflict; they are usually given away, returned surreptitiously, or

kept and hidden. People who have the condition experience an increased sense of tension before committing the theft and intense gratification during the act. Afterward they display signs of depression, guilt, and anxiety over the possibility of being apprehended and losing status in society. In less severe cases the impulse is expressed by continuously borrowing objects and not returning them. Treatment consists of psychotherapy to uncover the underlying emotional problems. Definition source: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/kleptomania Nota bene: Greek kleptein, to steal + -mania Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: Kleptomania is distinguished from shoplifting or ordinary theft, as shoplifters and thieves generally steal for monetary value, or associated gains and usually display intent or premeditation, while kleptomaniacs are not necessarily contemplating the value of the items they steal or even the theft until they are compelled without motive.

Context source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/kleptomania Context : Kleptomania is an impulse control disorder often related to other mood disorders, such as depression, substance abuse, or eating disorders. But not everyone who shoplifts is a kleptomaniac. Kleptomaniacs do not steal because they want a particular item and can't afford it. In fact, they often discard stolen items, or secretly return them to

the store from which they were taken. Instead, kleptomaniacs are driven by an uncontrollable urge to steal things. They often feel increased anxiety when the craving hits, and this can only be relieved by taking the desired item. Often they are not even fully aware that they have stolen the item.

True kleptomania is quite rare, and symptoms may appear as early as age five. About 1 percent of people who shoplift are diagnosed with kleptomania; roughly 5 percent exhibit symptoms of the disorder. The behavior is often triggered by major stressful events, although scientists aren't sure what causes it. They suspect it may be due to a chemical imbalance, particularly the brain chemical serotonin. That's because people who suffer from kleptomania are sometimes successfully treated with Prozac and other antidepressants. However, this may be because the drugs treat the other mood disorders that often accompany kleptomania, not kleptomania itself. Area of use: Medicine Commentary : The handbook used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental disorders is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . Published by the American Psychiatric Association, the DSM contains diagnostic criteria and research findings for mental disorders. It is the primary reference for mental health professionals in the United States. The 2000 edition of this manual (fourth edition, text revision), known as the DSM-IV-TR, lists five diagnostic criteria for kleptomania:

Repeated theft of objects that are unnecessary for either personal use or monetary value. Increasing tension immediately before the theft. Pleasure or relief upon committing the theft. The theft is not motivated by anger or vengeance, and is not caused by a delusion or hallucination. The behavior is not better accounted for by a conduct disorder , manic episode , or antisocial personality disorder. http://www.minddisorders.com/Kau-Nu/Kleptomania.html#ixzz1E7VbMkN7 Designation status : Offic 12. Termen: ANOREXIE NERVOASA Limba termenului: Romna Tara termenului:Romnia Sursa : http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anorexie_nervoas%C4%83 Definiie : Anorexia nervoas este o tulburare psihiatric din categoria tulburrilor de alimentare, caracterizat printr-o reducere anormal a greutii corpului i printr-o deformare a imaginii propriului corp cu teama prevalent , persistent, de ngrare. Sursa definiiei: http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anorexie_nervoas%C4%83. Nota bene : Termenul anorexia i are originea n greaca veche: an (- sau -lipsa de, " privativ" ), i rexis () = dor, poft, apetit (de la verbul "orgo" = a ntinde, a oferi cuiva, a tinde spre) (exist i n greaca modern: orexi - = poft). Corespondent englez: anorexia nervosa Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : grup nominal

Hiperonim:tulburare pshiatrica Hiponim: anorexie nervoasa de tip restrictiv Sinonim: Context : Persoanele suferind de anorexia nervoas i limiteaz greutatea corpului prin abinerea voluntar ndelungat de a se hrni (nfometare sau post voluntar) (anorexia nervoas de tip restrictiv) i prin alte metode - ca de pild abuzul de purgative, clisme, i diuretice, folosirea de substane anorectigene, i excesul de exerciii fizice (anorexia nervoas de tip eliminator, purgativ). Sursa contextului: http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anorexie_nervoas%C4%83 Context : n 1868 Sir William Wilthey Gull a dedicat i el bolii un tratat i i-a dat numele folosit pn astzi, de anorexia nervoas. n diagnosticul diferenial el a menionat tuberculoza, tulburri mezenterice, i a susinut c n acest caz e vorba de o "apepsie isterica" (hysteric apepsia). Francezul Ernest Charles Lasgue a descris o triad caracteristic, dup opinia lui, acestei boli, pe care a denumit-o anorexie isteric: post, amenoree i hiperactivitate. Dup cum se vede, amndoi, Gull i Lasgue au fost convini de existena unor cauze psihice i au legat aceast boal de isterie. Sursa contextului: http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anorexie_nervoas%C4%83 Arie de utilizare : DSM - IV - TR specific dou tipuri de anorexie nervoas :

Tipul restrictiv: n timpul episodului curent de anorexie nervoas, persoana nu a avut comportamente regulate de accese de mncare rapid sau de eliminare sau purgaie (adic de vrsturi auto - provocate, de exerciii fizice exagerate sau abuz de laxative, diuretice sau clisme)

Tipul cu Accese de mncare rapid sau Tipul eliminator: n cursul episodului curent de anorexie nervoas, persoana s-a angajat n mod regulat n comportamente ca accese de mncare rapid sau comportamente de eliminare

(vrsturi auto-provocate, exerciii fizice exagerate sau abuzul de laxative, diuretice sau clisme) Comentariu: Statutul desemnarii : Oficial

Term : ANOREXIA NERVOSA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.cmha.ca/bins/content_page.asp?cid=3-98&lang=1 Definition : Anorexia nervosa also known as simply Anorexia is an eating disorder characterized by refusal to maintain a healthy body weight and an obsessive fear of gaining weight. It is often coupled with a distorted self image which may be maintained by various cognitive biases that alter how the affected individual evaluates and thinks about her or his body, food and eating. Definition source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anorexia_nervosa Nota bene: The term is of Greek origin: an- (-, prefix denoting negation) and orexis (, "appetite"), thus meaning a lack of desire to eat.[14] Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun phrase Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: Three chronic eating disorders have been identified. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by severe weight loss due to extreme food reduction. Symptoms include: refusal to keep body weight at or above the normal weight for one's body type

dieting to extremes, usually coupled with excessive exercise feeling overweight despite dramatic weight loss loss of menstrual periods extreme preoccupation with body weight and shape Context source: http://www.cmha.ca/bins/content_page.asp?cid=3-98&lang=1 Context: Treatment for anorexia nervosa tries to address three main areas. 1) Restoring the person to a healthy weight; 2) Treating the psychological disorders related to the illness; 3) Reducing or eliminating behaviours or thoughts that originally led to the disordered eating Context source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anorexia_nervosa Area of use: Medicine Commentary: Anorexia has an average prevalence of 0.3-1% in women and 0.1% in men for the diagnosis in developed countries. The condition largely affects young adolescent women, with between 15 and 19 years old making up 40% of all cases. Approximately 90% of people with anorexia are female. Anorexia nervosa is more prevalent in the upper social classes and it is declared to be rare in less developed countries (Gelder, Mayou and Geddes 2005) Designation status : Official

13. Termen:XENOFOBIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dexonline.ro/definitie/xenofobie Definiie : Ur fa de strini i fa de tot ce este strin Sursa definiiei: http://dexonline.ro/definitie/xenofobie Nota bene : Din fr. xnophobie Corespondent englez: Xenophobia Concept generic: boalapshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim:fobie Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : Xenofobia este adesea provocat i nteit de inegalitile sociale cnd acestea se cupleaz cu diferene de etnie sau de religie, ca n Transilvania pe vremea Imperiului Austro-Ungar, n Irlanda de nord (Ulster) ntre protestani i catolici, n Algeria pe vremea stpnirii franceze, n Africa de Sud pe vremea apartheidului, n Statele Unite ntre afro-americani, caucaso-americani (cum i spun albii) i hispano-americani, sau n Europa ntre populaiile sedentare i Rromi, sau ntre populaiile cretine i Evrei. Cteodat xenofobia poate fi provocat i nteit de factori politici: Romnii nu aveau nici-o form de xenofobie mpotriva africanilor, pn cnd situaia priviliegiat a anumitor studeni africani n

Romnia pe vremea regimului comunist a provocat abuzuri i tensiuni; Arabii erau foarte tolerani cu Evreii i primitori cu cltorii occidentali de secole, dar colonialismul, apoi conflictul Israelo-Palestinian au provocat n majoritatea lumii arabo-musulmane o intens xenofobie mpotriva americanilor, a europenilor i a Evreilor.

n Evul Mediu, xenofobia avea adesea o baz religioas: credincioii unei religii se temeau de oricine nu le mprtea credina. n Antichitate, avea o baz cultural: Grecii i Romanii i socoteau barbari pe toi cei care nu le mprteau limba, religia i forma de civilizaie

Sursa contextului: http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xenofobie Context : din romania (oammr) isi exprima ingrijorarea pentru valul de xenofobie antiromaneasca ce marcheaza, in aceste zile, viata publica din italia, transmite corespondentul rompres. 'suntem ingrijorati de evenimentele din italia, deoarece... Sursa contextului: http://www.romedic.ro/despre/xenofobie Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Statutul desemnarii : Oficial

Term : XENOPHOBIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.thefreedictionary.com/xenophobia Definition : A person unduly fearful or contemptuous of that which is foreign, especially of strangers or foreign peoples Definition source: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/xenophobia Nota bene: Generic concept : Grammatical category: Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: racism, xenophoby Antonyms

xenomania xenophilia xenophily allophilia

Context: Xenophobia has two main objects:

The first is a population group present within a society that is not considered part of that society. Often they are recent immigrants, but xenophobia may be directed against a group which has been present for centuries, or became part of this society through conquest and territorial expansion. This form of xenophobia can elicit or facilitate hostile and violent reactions, such as mass expulsion of immigrants, pogroms or in other cases, genocide. The second form of xenophobia is primarily cultural, and the objects of the phobia are cultural elements which are considered alien. All cultures are subject to external influences, but cultural xenophobia is often narrowly directed, for instance, at foreign loan words in a national language. It rarely leads to aggression against individual persons, but can result in political campaigns for cultural or linguistic purification. In addition, entire xenophobic societies tend not to be open to interactions from anything "outside" themselves, resulting in an isolationism that can further xenophobia Context source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/xenophobia Area of use:Medicine Designation status : Official

14. Termen:AMNEZIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia

Sursa : http://www.romedic.ro/amnezie-0R1080 Definiie : Pierderea memoriei, sau amnezia, se refera la imposibilitatea de reamintire a evenimentelor din trecut sau a informatiilor inmagazinate Sursa definiiei: http://www.romedic.ro/amnezie-0R1080 Nota bene : Din fr.amnesie Corespondent englez: amnesia Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: tulburare de memorie Hiponim: amnezie globala Sinonim: afazie amnezica Context : Ce este amnezia?Pierderea memoriei, sau amnezia, se refera la imposibilitatea de reamintire a evenimentelor din trecut sau a informatiilor inmagazinate. In functie de cauza sa, amnezia se poate instala subit sau treptat, iar pierderea memoriei poate fi temporara sau permanenta. In plus, pierderea memoriei poate privi evenimentele recente sau cele din trecutul indepartat, sau poate fi o combinatie de ambele tipuri. Desi procesul de imbatranire duce in mod normal la dificultatea de a invata si de a retine informatii noi, ea nu este responsabila si de pierderile insemnate de memorie decat daca este insotita de o boala. Care sunt cauzele amneziei?O amnezie poate fi cauzata de o leziune a ariilor... Sursa amnezie Context : Clasificarea tipurilor de amnezie Neurologii vorbesc despre existena a trei tipuri de amnezie: anterograd, retrograd i temporar. Amnezie anterograd apare atunci cnd pacientul nu poate reine informaii noi. Acest tip de amnezie apare, de regul, dup o vtmare cerebral, eveniment ce determin oprirea n asimilarea de noi amintiri. Amnezia retrograd apare atunci cnd contextului: http://www.i-medic.ro/simptome/pierderea-de-memorie-

bolnavul nu i mai poate aminti niciun moment dinainte de evenimentul traumatic. Amnezia global temporar este o form uoar de amnezie, deoarece ea se manifest pe o perioad scurt de timp, afectnd, ns, o mare parte din memorie. Nu se tie cauza apariiilor atacurilor de amnezie, ns acestea creaz panic pacientului care se afl n situaia de a nu-i mai aminti nimic timp de aproximativ 24 de ore. Majoritatea vtmrilor cerebrale provoac amnezie retrograd i confuzie post-traumatic, ns cu ct lovirea este mai grav, cu att mai serioas va fi amnezia. Bolnavii de Alzheimer arat la nceput probleme ale memoriei imediate. Acetia i amintesc cu greu evenimente care au avut loc n urm cu cteva zile, ns i aduc aminte cu exactitate de ntmplri care au avut loc cu ani n urm. La persoanele care sufer de Alzheimer n stadiu avansat, memoria de lung durat ncepe s fie afectat. Sursa contextului: http://www.sanatateatv.ro/articole/parinti/amnezia---clasificaresi-metode-de-tratament/ Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Diagnosticarea cauzei producerii amneziei implic efectuarea unei serii de teste. Oricine sufer de pierderi inexplicabile de memorie ar trebui s consulte un medic specialist, deoarece acesta poate stabili cauza instalrii amneziei i tipul de tratament necesar. Tratamentele pentru amnezie difer n funcie de cauza care a dus la apariia bolii. ns, indiferent care a fost cauza declanrii amneziei, reabilitarea cognitiv este prezent n cazul tuturor bolnavilor, deoarece i ajut s fac fa pierderilor de memorie. n cazul amneziilor aprute n urma comoiilor, bolnavul are nevoie de odihn. Dac alcoolismul este cauza amneziei, pacientul trebuie s renune la viciu i s fie susinut emoional, n timp ce amnezia cauzat de boala Alzheimer poate fi ameliorat cu ajutorul medicaiei. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : AMNESIA ID Language : English

ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.thefreedictionary.com/amnesia Definition : Partial or total loss of memory, usually resulting from shock, psychological disturbance, brain injury, or illness. Definition source: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/amnesia Nota bene: [Greek amn si , forgetfulness, probably from amn sti , from amn stos, not remembered : a-, not; see a-1 + mimn skein, mn -, to remember; see men-1 in IndoEuropean roots.] Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: memory loss,blakout Context: Permanent amnesia usually occurs following brain damage to either the diencephalons or the medial temporal lobe. Amnesia resulting from impairment to the medial temporal lobe can occur following anoxia, cerebrovascular accidents, head injury, and viral infections to the brain. The primary structures involved in the processing of memory within the medial temporal lobe are the hippocampus and the amygdala. One of the most common causes of diencephalic amnesia is Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, a disorder caused by a thiamine deficiency, usually related to chronic alcoholism. Context source: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/amnesia Context : Forms of amnesia

In anterograde amnesia, the ability to form new memories through memorization is impaired or lost. A person may find themselves constantly forgetting information, people or events after a few seconds or minutes, because the data does not transfer successfully from their conscious short-term memory into permanent long-term memory

In retrograde amnesia, a person's pre-existing memories are lost to conscious recollection, beyond an ordinary degree of forgetfulness. The person may be able to memorize new things that occur after the onset of amnesia (unlike in anterograde amnesia), but is unable to recall some or all of their life or identity prior to the onset

Context source http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/amnesia Area of use: Medicine Commentary : How is amnesia diagnosed? A mental health professional will want to take a careful personal history. Causes of amnesia can include: External trauma, such as a blow to the head Internal trauma, such as stroke Exposure to a toxic substances such as carbon monoxide Inadequate diet Brain tumors Seizures Designation status : Official

15. Termen:HALUCINATIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://art-zone.ro/boli/Halucinatiile_cauze_tratament.html Definiie : Halucinaia este o tulburare psihic prin care o percepie senzorial are loc n absena stimulului. Cu alte cuvinte, dei obiectul fizic nu exist n realitate, acesta este perceput de subiect prin intermediul unuia din cele cinci simuri. Sursa definiiei: http://art-zone.ro/boli/Halucinatiile_cauze_tratament.html. Nota bene : Din Corespondent englez: hallucination

Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: fenomen patologic Hiponim: halucinatie auditiva Sinonim: iluzie Context : Halucinaiile sunt percepii fr obiect, adic formarea unor imagini mintale care nu i afl corespondent n realitate. Ele pot i vizuale (aanumitele vedenii"), auditive (voci" sau glasuri"), olfactive (mirosuri urte, pestileniale), sau tactile (arsuri, furnicturi, cureni" etc). Apariia delirului, nsoit sau nu de halucinaii este o situaie n care psihiatrul va fi consultat de urgen, fiind singurul n msur s pun n eviden cauza acestor tulburri, ca i tratamentul care trebuie urmat. Sursa contextului:http://articole.famouswhy.ro/delirul_si_halucinatiile/#ixzz1E8NrGkFy Context : Halucinatiile sunt asociate cu boli mintale si cel mai des cu schizofrenia. Totusi, acestea pot fi provocate si de tulburarea bipolara, depresie sau manie, mai ales daca au si caracteristici psihotice. Halucinatiile sunt doar una dintre manifestarile posibile ale tulburarii bipolare, dar sunt intalnite in rare cazuri, chiar daca este vorba despre un tip sever de depresie maniacala (ciclotimia sau tulburari bipolare II, de exemplu) care exclud, prin definitie, prezenta halucinatiilor. Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/despre-halucinatii_7944 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Exista mai multe cauze care declanseaza halucinatiile: - alcoolismul, consumul de droguri (lsd, cocaina, marijuana, am fetamina, heroina, ketamina); - starile de delir sau dementa (halucinatiile vizuale sunt cele mai des intalnite); - epilepsia (din cauza tulburarilor care apar la nivelul lobului temporal) - halucinatii

oflactive; - febra - in mod special la copii si la varstnici; - narcolepsia; - tulburari psihice: schizofrenia, depresia psihotica, sindromul de stres post-traumatic; - probleme senzoriale, cum ar fi orbirea sau surditatea; - afectiuni grave: insuficienta hepatica, insuficienta renala, SIDA si cancer la nivelul creierului Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : HALLUCINATION ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Hallucination Definition : sensory experience of something that does not exist outside the mind. A person can experience a hallucination in any of the five senses. Auditory hallucinations are a common symptom of schizophrenia. Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Hallucination Nota bene: Etymology: L, alucinari, to wander in mind Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: delusion,illusion Context: Hallucinations that are recognized as such by the experiencer include those resulting from sensory deprivation, drug use, and the phantom limb state. See Schizophrenia. Hallucinations may occur in a range of neurologic and psychiatric conditions, although they are usually considered hallmarks of schizophrenia. Delusional

misidentification syndromes are a subtype of hallucinations and may also occur in neurological and psychiatric disease. For example, Capgras syndrome, which is commonly seen in schizophrenia, causes the individual to replace a familiar person (usually the spouse) with an imposter with the same or similar physical appearance. Frgoli syndrome is the delusional confusion of an individual as a familiar person in disguise. Context source: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/hallucination Context : The types of hallucinations include: An auditory hallucination is an hallucination involving the sense of hearing. Called also paracusia and paracusis. A gustatory hallucination is an hallucination involving the sense of taste.

A hypnagogic hallucination is a vivid dreamlike hallucination at the onset of sleep.

Hypnopompic hallucination is a vivid dreamlike hallucination on awakening. Kinesthetic hallucination is an hallucination involving the sense of bodily movement. Lilliputian hallucination is an hallucination in which things, people, or animals seem smaller than they would be in reality. Olfactory hallucination is an hallucination involving the sense of smell. Somatic hallucination is an hallucination involving the perception of a physical experience occurring with the body. Tactile hallucination is an hallucination involving the sense of touch. Visual hallucination is an hallucination involving the sense of Context source: http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=24171

Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Stages of a hallucination


1. Emergence of surprising or warded-off memory or fantasy images 2. Frequent reality checks 3. Last vestige of insight as hallucinations become "real" 4. Fantasy and distortion elaborated upon and confused with actual perception 5. Internal-external boundaries destroyed and possible pantheistic experience

Designation status : Official

16. Termen:NEVROZA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dictionar.romedic.ro/NEVROZA Definiie : Nevroza reprezinta o tulburare mintala care nu atinge functiile esentiale ale personalitatii si de care subiectul este foarte constient. O nevroza se traduce in mod obisnuit printr-un sentiment de teama, prin constanta judecatii prin pasional si imaginar, prin perturbatii ale vietii sexuale si sociale. Totusi spre deosebire de psihotic, nevrozatul nu pierde contactul cu realul si ramane relativ adaptat la mediul sau si la viata sociala. Anxioliticele pot aduce o ameliorare in momentele cele mai dificile, dar nu constituie in nici un caz un tratament de fond si nu trebuie urmat vreme indelungata. Psihoterapia permite, in general, vindecarea unei nevroze. Sursa definiiei:. http://dictionar.romedic.ro/NEVROZA Nota bene : Din fr. nvroser

Corespondent englez: neurosis Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: tulburare mentala Hiponim: nevroza carcerala Context : Din Lumea "PSY" Nevroza: o tulburare de care sintem constienti si pe care o resimtim in mod dureros DATA PUBLICARII: 03/01/2007 Aceasta nu atinge functiile esentiale ale personalitatii. Tocmai de aceea, spre deosebire de psihotic, nevrozatul nu pierde contactul cu realul si ramine relativ adaptat la mediul sau si la viata sociala. In numarul de astazi al "Ghidului pentru Sanatate , puteti citi despre nevroza anxioasa. In numerele viitoare, cei interesati pot afla mai multe despre nevroza obsesiva si nevroza de esec. "Nevroza reprezinta o tulburare mintala care nu atinge functiile esentiale ale personalitatii si de care subiectul este foarte constient. O nevroza se traduce in mod obisnuit printr-un sentiment de teama, prin constanta judecatii, prin pasional si imaginar, prin perturbatii ale vietii sexuale si sociale. Totusi, spre deosebire de psihotic, nevrozatul nu pierde contactul cu realul si ramine relativ adaptat la mediul sau si la viata sociala", spune dr. Gabriel Crumpei, medic psihiatru in Policlinica nr. 1 Iasi. Nevrozele sint tulburari patologice functionale ale creierului cu ecou negativ in intregul organism Nevroza este o tulburare de care subiectul este constient si o resimte in mod dureros. Nevroza poate fi considerata intr-un fel o modalitate de aparare impotriva temerilor, a urii, a agresivitatii. De obicei, nevrozele sint de trei feluri: nevroza anxioasa, nevroza obsesionala sa nevroza de esec. Nevroza astenica se caracterizeaza prin cefalee, insomnie, oboseala, lipsa de energie , imposibilitatea concentrarii, intr-un cuvint familiar, stare de "astenie". Sursa contextului: http://www.ziaruldeiasi.ro/ghidul-pentru-sanatate/nevroza-otulburare-de-care-sintem-constienti-si-pe-care-o-resimtim-in-mod-dureros~ni4743

Context : Clasificare nevrozelor

Se disting urmtoarele forme principale de nevroze: forma astenic (neurastenia, psihastenia), isteric (isterio-neurastenia) i obsesiv. Aceast clasificare a nevrozelor este n conformitate cu conceptul lui I.P.Pavlov despre tipurile activitii nervoase superioare la om: puternic, neechilibrat, mobil; corespunde temperamentului coleric; puternic, echilibrat, mobil; corespunde temperamentului sanguinic; puternic, echilibrat, inert; corespunde temperamentului flegmatic; slab, neechilibrat; corespunde temperamentului melancolic. Ca parametri ai activitii nervoase superioare servesc capacitatea consolidrii reflexului condiionat, expresivitatea i trinicia lui, fora inhibiiei interne i externe, viteza iradierii i concentraiei proceselor de excitaie, gradul flexibilitatii la influene psihice patogene. n compartimentul nevroze sunt incluse i astfel de forme nozologice cum ar fi enurezisul, crampele profesionale, ticul nervos, situaii nevrotice particulare. Sursa contextului: http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nevroz%C4%83 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: n prezent e acceptat concepia unei etiologii multifactoriale a nevrozelor. Diversitatea factorilor etiologici se poate grupa n trei categorii: biologici, sociali, psihogeni. Fiecare din factorii etiologici deine ponderea respectiv n instalarea

unui anumit tip de nevroz. Nevroza se consider ca reacie la amploarea stresului psihosocial, proporional cu poziia social a individului. Patogenitatea circumstanelor vitale se manifest doar n combinare cu atitudinea individului fa de ele. Astfel, patogenia nevrozei este o reacie la stres a unui psihic vulnerabil, cu un conflict interior dureros, la persoanele neantrenate sau depite ca poziie social i pregtire, de rspunderile sociale mereu n cretere Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : NEUROSIS ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.thefreedictionary.com/neurosis Definition : Any of various mental or emotional disorders, such as hypochondria or neurasthenia, arising from no apparent organic lesion or change and involving symptoms such as insecurity, anxiety, depression, and irrational fears, but without psychotic symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. No longer in scientific use. Definition source: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/neurosis Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: neuroticism, psychoneurosis

Context : Neurosis was coined by the Scottish doctor William Cullen in 1769 to refer to "disorders of sense and motion" caused by a "general affection of the nervous system". For him, it described various nervous disorders and symptoms that could not be explained physiologically. It derives from the Greek word "" (neuron, "nerve") with the suffix -osis (diseased or abnormal condition). The term was however most influentially defined by Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud over a century later. It has continued to be used in contemporary theoretical writing in psychology and philosophy. The American Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) has eliminated the category of "Neurosis", reflecting a decision by the editors to provide descriptions of behavior as opposed to hidden psychological mechanisms as diagnostic criteria, and, according to The American Heritage Medical Dictionary, it is "no longer used in psychiatric diagnosis". These changes to the DSM have been controversial. Context source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/neurosis Context : The severity and types of symptoms of disorders that are considered a neurosis or neurotic disorder vary between the specific disorders and from person to person. Excessive anxiety and fear are common symptoms of and/or underlie many disorders that are considered a neurosis or neurotic disorder. Context source: http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/n/neurosis/intro.htm Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Symptoms of Neurosis
Symptoms depend on the type of neurosis Emotional distress

Self-awareness of psychological problems

Occupational disturbance Disturbance of social life Designation status : Official

17. Termen:DEPRESIA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dictionar.romedic.ro/DEPRESIA Definiie : Depresia este o tulburare a starii afective, care duce la aparitia unei trairi de tristete sau de pierdere a sperantei pentru o perioada indelungata de timp. Fiind mai serioasa decat un simplu episod de tristete, de suparare sau decat o traire temporara de scadere a energiei, depresia poate avea un impact semnificativ asupra bucuriei de a-ti trai viata, asupra capacitatii de munca, asupra starii generale de sanatate si asupra persoanelor apropiate.

Sursa definiiei:. http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Depresia---tristetea patologica/ depresia-tristetea-patologica_18 Nota bene : Din fr. dpressif Corespondent englez: depression Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv

Hiperonim: sindrom afectiv Hiponim: depresie exogena Sinonim: disperare Context : Ce anume cauzeaza depresia este un subiect intens studiat in prezent. Expertii considera ca predispozitia genetica, impreuna cu evenimentele de viata stresante, afectiuni medicale, administrarea de medicamente sau alti factori, pot determina un dezechilibru al anumitor substante chimice din creier, denumite neurotransmitatori, ducand la aparitia depresiei. Situatiile care pot declansa un episod de depresie sunt: - unele medicamente, cum ar fi narcoticele folosite pentru indepartarea durerii sau steroizii; de obicei simptomele depresive dispar odata ce medicamentul este oprit - tulburari ale secretiei hormonale, cum ar fi un dezechilibru al glandei tiroide sau suprarenale - dezechilibre chimice, precum dezechilibrele nivelurilor sanguine ale calciului sau nivelurile scazute ale fierului (anemia) - afectiunile indelungate (cronice), precum artrita, bolile cardiace sau cancerul - infectiile, cum ar fi infectiile virale sau infectiile ficatului sau ale creierului - factorii de stres majori, ca de exemplu moartea unei persoane dragi - factorii de stres cronici, precum saracia, dificultatile familiale, probleme medicale grave proprii sau ale unei persoane apropiate. - varstnicii care trec de la o viata independenta la o viata in care depind de ceilalti au adeseori depresie - presiuni asupra copiilor si adolescentilor, din partea societatii sau a celor de aceeasi varsta - consumul de alcool, de substante ilegale sau probleme in legatura cu abuzul de o

substanta - sindromul premenstrual cronic - menopauza - durerea cronica - stresul - oboseala - nasterea recenta. Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Depresia---tristetea-patologica/ depresia -tristetea-patologica_18 Context : Sindromul Cushing este dificil de diagnosticat, deoarece semnele si simptomele sale se intalnesc si in cazul altor afectiuni. De exemplu, sindromul ovarului polichistic un dezechilibru hormonal la femei -se manifesta prin crestere excesiva a parului si prin cicluri menstruale neregulate. Depresia, tulburarile alimentatiei si alcoolismul prezinta unele simptome ale sindromului Cushing. Sursa contextului: http://www.romedic.ro/sindromul-cushing/diagnostic Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Depresia poate debuta cu simptome de anxietate (cum ar fi o ingrijorare excesiva) sau cu simptome precum tristetea sau lipsa de energie, care dureaza de mai multe zile sau luni, inainte de instalarea completa a depresiei. Pot aparea tulburari in capacitatea de concentrare sau de memorare, sentimentul de pierdere a placerii in activitatile care altadata erau placute, sentimentul de pierdere a sperantei, scaderea energiei, modificari ale somnului si ale poftei de mancare. Persoana cu depresie se poate izola social de ceilalti si isi poate pierde interesul pentru activitatea sexuala.

Evolutia depresiei variaza de la o persoana la alta. Pot fi prezente simptome usoare sau severe de depresie, pentru o perioada indelungata de timp sau pentru o perioada scurta. Un procent mic de persoane se simt depresive in marea majoritate a vietii lor; acestea necesita un tratament de intretinere. Majoritatea pesoanelor cu depresie pot fi tratate cu succes cu medicamente, consiliere profesionala sau o combinatie a celor doua. Tulburarile depresive sunt clasificate in functie de severitatea si de durata lor. Depresia poate fi usoara, moderata sau severa. Ea poate debuta brusc (depresie acuta) sau poate dura o perioada indelungata (depresie cronica). De exemplu, tulburarea distimica, este o depresie cronica usoara. Unii oameni pot avea un episod de depresie majora care se poate suprapune peste o tulburare distimica (depresie dubla). In cazul unei depresii severe, poate fi necesara o internare intr-un spital pentru o perioada scurta de timp, in special daca sunt prezente ganduri de sinucidere. Deoarece depresia creste riscul de tentativa de suicid, persoana respectiva trebuie sa urmeze imediat un tratament daca sunt prezente idei de autodistrugere. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : DEPRESSION ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Depression Definition : A state of being depressed marked especially by sadness, inactivity, difficulty with thinking and concentration, a significant increase or decrease in appetite and time spent sleeping, feelings of dejection and hopelessness, and sometimes suicidal thoughts or an attempt to commit suicide. Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Depression Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym:

Synonym: despair, misery, sadness, dumps (informal), the blues, melancholy, unhappiness, hopelessness, despondency, the hump (Brit. informal), bleakness, melancholia, dejection, wretchedness, low spirits, gloominess, dolefulness, cheerlessness, downheartedness I slid into a depression and became morbidly fascinated with death. Context: Close to 20% of Americans are likely to suffer major depression at some time, and women tend to be more susceptible to the disorder than men. Major depression is likely to interfere significantly with everyday activity, with symptoms including insomnia, irritability, weight loss, and a lack of interest in outside events. The disorder may last several months or longerand may recurbut it is generally reversible in the short run.

Context source: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/depression Context : A diagnosis of depression may be missed or delayed for a wide variety of reasons. For example, people with depression may fear the stigma of or be embarrassed by mental illness and not seek treatment. A diagnosis of depression can be missed because symptoms of depression can be related to many other conditions. At the same time, depression can accompany other conditions. Context source: http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/d/depression/intro.htm Area of use: Medicine Commentary : The severity and types of symptoms of depression vary from person to person. Typical symptoms include feelings of sadness, anxiety, and/or despair that do not go away. Other feelings may include hopelessness, guilt, worthlessness, helplessness, and anger and irritability. People with depression may also experience a loss in interest in activities they once enjoyed, chronic fatigue, trouble focusing, and difficulties with memory or in making decisions. Sleep abnormalities may also occur,

such as insomnia or a desire to sleep all the time. Suicidal thoughts or attempts at committing suicidal may also be experienced.

Chronic pain is also associated with depression. The two conditions are connected closely because the mood and pain perception centers are both located in the same areas of the brain. Both chronic pain and depression can deplete the body's stores of endorphins and other neurochemicals that regulate mood and sensation and result Designation status : Official

18. Termen:CATATONIE

Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dictionar.romedic.ro/CATATONIE Definiie : Sindrom psihomotor al schizofreniei, caracterizat printr-o stare de fixare a corpului n anumite poziii, conduit stereotip i stupoare mintal Sursa definiiei:. http://www.dexonline.news20.ro/cuvant/catatonie.html Nota bene : Gen. -iei. / < fr. catatonie, cf. gr. kata n jos, tonos tensiune]. Corespondent englez:catatonia Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: sindrom psihopatologic Hiponim: catatonie tardiva Sinonim: narcolpesia Context : Din moment ce catatonia este simptomul rezultant al unei dezordini profunde, tratamentul este orientat spre tratarea cauzei profunde. Exist o varietate de medicamente ce pot fi utilizate pentru tratament, depinznd de tipul de catatonie. Tratamentul obinuit const n a ncepe cu o precripie de antipsihotice, ca tratament de baz (aa cum ar fi Risperdal i/sau Haloperidol), urmat de o ajustare conform evoluiei. Benzodiazepanele sunt utilizate doar ocazional, spre exemplu n cazul excitrii catatonice, dar niciodat n cazul stuporii catatonice. Sursa contextului: http://wapedia.mobi/ro/Catatonie Context : Catatonia este un sindrom psihomotor, listat n Manualul de diagnostic i statistica al tulburarilor mintale (vedei, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders), al mai multor boli mintale, printre care se pot meniona schizofrenia, tulburarea bipolar, depresia clinic i altele, caracterizat printr-o stare de fixare a corpului n anumite poziii, conduit stereotip i stupoare mintal. Catatonia comport similariti cu alte condiii mintale, printre care encephalitis lethargica i sindromul neuroleptic malign sunt cele mai notabile. Exist mai multe

tratamente relativ puse la punct pentru a o trata, i n funcie de caz, se pot folosi unul sau mai multe medicamente combinate, incluznd antipsihotice i benzodiazepane. Catatonia nu este o tulburare mintal, ci este un simptom al altor tulburari mintale, aa cum ar fi cele menionate anterior. Exist un subtip de schizofrenie, denumit "schizofrenie catatonic," caracterizat de pierderea extrem a abilitii motrice sau, total opus, o hiperactivitate motric. Pacienii catatonici pot sta n poziii rigide ore ntregi ignornd total n decursul strii catatonice orice fel de stimuli externi. Tipuri de catatonie Sursa contextului: http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catatonie Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Tipuri de catatonie Stupoarea catatonic este o stare apatic, lipsit de micare, n care persoana nu reacioneaz la stimulii externi. Activitatea motric este aproape inexistent. Indivizii aflai n aceast stare nu au contact vizual aproape deloc sau deloc cu cei aflai n preajm i/sau pot fi mui i rigizi. Excitarea catatonic este o stare de agitaie constant i de excitare motric i nervoas. Indivizii n aceast stare sunt extrem de activi, fiind numii hiperactivi, chiar dac activitatea lor este lipsit de logic i scop, fiind adesea agresivi i chiar violeni fa de ei nii i fa de ceilali. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial

Term : CATATONIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.thefreedictionary.com/CATATONIA

Definition : An abnormal condition variously characterized by stupor, stereotypy, mania, and either rigidity or extreme flexibility of the limbs. It is most often associated with schizophrenia. Definition source: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/CATATONIA Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: catatonic schizophrenia, catatonic type schizophrenia Context: In catatonic stupor, motor activity may be reduced to zero. Individuals avoid bathing and grooming, make little or no eye contact with others, may be mute and rigid, and initiate no social behaviors. In catatonic excitement the individual is extremely hyperactive although the activity seems to have no purpose. Violence toward him/herself or others may also be seen. NMS is observed as a dangerous side effect associated with certain neuroleptic (antipsychotic) drugs such as haloperidol (Haldol). It comes on suddenly and is characterized by stiffening of the muscles, fever, confusion and heavy sweating. Catatonia can also be categorized as intrinsic or extrinsic. If the condition has an identifiable cause, it is designated as extrinsic. If no cause can be determined following physical examination, laboratory testing, and history taking, the illness is considered to be intrinsic. Context source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/catatonia Context : Recognition of catatonia is made on the basis of specific movement symptoms. These include odd ways of walking such as walking on tiptoes or ritualistic pacing, and rarely, hopping and skipping. Repetitive odd movements of the fingers or hands, as well as imitating the speech or movements of others also may indicate that catatonia is present. There are no laboratory or other tests that can be used to positively diagnose this condition, but medical and neurological tests are necessary to rule out underlying lesions or disorders that may be causing the symptoms observed

Context source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/catatonia Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Treatment of catatonia includes medications such as benzodiazipines (which are the preferred treatment) and rarely barbiturates. Antipsychotic drugs may be appropriate in some cases, but often cause catatonia to worsen. Electroconvulsive therapy may prove beneficial for clients who do not respond to medication. If these approaches are unsuccessful, treatment will be redirected to attempts to control the signs and symptoms of the illness. Designation status : Official

19. Termen:EPILEPSIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Epilepsia-si-Convulsiile/epilepsia-cauzesimptome-tratament_310

Definiie : Epilepsia este o tulburare neurologica comuna care se datoreaza unor factori care interfereaza cu impulsurile electrice la nivelul creierului. Sistemul nervos produce descarcari electrice bruste, excesive si dezorganizate, care duc la aparitia convulsiilor. Convulsiile interfera temporar cu controlul musculaturii, controlul defecatiei (eliminarea de fecale), vorbirea, vederea si constienta bolnavului. Aparitia convulsiilor este inspaimantatoare, in special daca sunt severe. Din fericire, tratamentul reduce impulsurile electrice anormale la nivelul creierului si controleaza crizele convulsive. Epilepsia nu este o forma de retardare intelectuala sau boala psihica si nu este contagioasa.

Sursa tratament_310

definiiei:.

http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Epilepsia-si-Convulsiile/epilepsia-cauze-simptomeNota bene : Din fr. pilepsie, lat. epilepsia. Corespondent englez: epilepsy Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: manifestare patologica Hiponim: caracter epileptic Context : Convulsiile sunt singurul simptom vizibil al epilepsiei. Exista mai multe tipuri de convulsii, iar simptomele fiecarui tip in parte se manifesta diferit la diferite persoane. Convulsiile pot dura de la cateva secunde pana la cateva minute. Constienta poate fi pierduta sau mentinuta in timpul convulsiilor, depinzand de tipul de epilepsie. Unii bolnavi isi amintesc ce s-a intamplat in timpul convulsiilor, in timp ce altii

nici nu realizeaza ca au facut convulsii. Convulsiile in timpul carora bolnavul cade sau muschii devin rigizi (tepeni) sau isi pierde controlul sunt usor de recunoscut. Dar multe convulsii nu implica aceste reactii, si pot fi foarte greu de recunoscut. Unele convulsii se manifesta printr-o privire fixa si pierduta timp de cateva secunde. Altele constau in cateva spasme musculare, sau in caderea capului din pozitia normala sau perceptia unor mirosuri (de obicei neplacute) si unor imagini pe care doar bolnavul le simte. Convulsiile epileptice survin, adesea, fara o avertizare in prealabil, cu toate ca unii bolnavi mentioneaza o "aura" inainte de inceperea convulsiilor. Convulsiile inceteaza atunci cand activitatea electrica anormala se incheie si activitatea cerebrala revine la normal. Convulsiile sunt de doua tipuri: - partiale - generalizate Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Epilepsia-siConvulsiile/epilepsia-cauze-simptome-tratament_310 Context : Cea mai severa dintre evolutiile posibile ale epilepsiei este dementa epileptica, mai frecventa printre copii, cu evolutie progresiva a functiilor de cunoastere si afectiva. Ceea ce nu trebuie a fi uitat in prezenta unui epileptic, este ca, atunci cand boala este incomplet controlata terapeutic si asociaza si alte semne neurologice, apar probleme emotionale, de mare ajutor este siguranta oferita de cei din jur si atitudinea sociala optimista. De altfel, in conditiile controlului adecvat terapeutic, in absenta leziunilor neurologice, scorurile la testele de inteligenta sunt la limita normalului, iar performantele de orice nivel profesional, artistic sau al afacerilor, pot fi la multi dintre acestia deosebite

Sursa contextului: http://www.terapii-naturiste.com/remedii_naturiste/epilepsie.htm Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Mai multe conditii pot fi asemanatoare convulsiilor, dar nefiind de fapt convulsii. Acestea includ: - dureri de cap cu caracter de migrena - spasme musculare - ticuri - tulburari de somn - convulsii psihogenice - intervale de timp de apnee (fara respiratie Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : EPILEPSY ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source :http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/epilepsy Definition : any of a group of syndromes characterized by paroxysmal transient disturbances of brain function that may be manifested as episodic impairment or loss of consciousness, abnormal motor phenomena, psychic or sensory disturbances, or perturbation of the autonomic nervous system; symptoms are due to disturbance of the electrical activity of the brain.

Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/epilepsy Nota bene: French pilepsie, from Latin epil psia, from Greek epil psis, from

epilambanein, epil p-, to lay hold of : epi-, epi- + lambanein, to seize.] Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: The various forms of epilepsy were traditionally divided into two groups. Cases of unknown origin, or cause, were classified as true epilepsy (also called idiopathic or essential epilepsy). The term symptomatic epilepsy was used to designate epileptic manifestations that were either residual symptoms of organic brain damage (for example, as a result of injury) or symptoms of a particular disease (such as a tumor or cysticercosis of the brain). Because of the many different causes of epilepsy, some investigators consider it preferable to subdivide all epileptic seizures into epileptic reactions (solitary attacks provoked by an extreme stimulus, such as intoxication), epileptic syndromes (epileptic seizures accompanying various diseasesfor example, brain tumor), and epilepsy proper (an independent disease Context source: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/epilepsy Context : Epilepsy surgery is an option for patients whose seizures remain resistant to treatment with anticonvulsant medications who also have symptomatic localization-related epilepsy; a focal abnormality that can be located and therefore removed. The goal for these procedures is total control of epileptic seizures,[31] although anticonvulsant medications may still be required

Context source http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Epilepsy

Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Washington, D.C. (February 09, 2011) The Epilepsy Foundation announces Richard P. Denness as the President and Chief Executive Officer (CEO), effective today. Designation status : Official

20. Termen:PARANOIA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dexonline.ro/definitie/paranoia Definiie : Nume generic pentru un grup de boli psihice cronice care se manifest prin lips de logic n gndire, prin idei fixe, prin susceptibilitate, prin orgoliu exagerat, prin mania persecuiei, prin halucinaii etc.;

Sursa definiiei: http://dexonline.ro/definitie/paranoia. Nota bene : Din fr. paranoa, gr. paranoia, nebunie Corespondent englez: paranoia Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: sindrom halucinatoriu Hiponim: paranoia halucinanta,sindrom paranoid Sinonim: delir Context : Recent, n cadrul medical, termenul este folosit pentru a descrie deluzii n care persoana afectat crede c este persecutat. Mai exact, ele au fost definite ca avnd dou elemente centrale: 1. Individul crede c se ntmpl sau se va ntmpla ceva ru, 2. Individul crede c persecutorul are intenia de a-i face ru. ntruct se ateapt permanent la ostilitate, ridiculizare i trdare din partea celorlali, paranoicul ajunge uor s sufere de mania persecuiei Sursa contextului: http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paranoia Context : Paranoia se dezvolta pe terenul unei predispozitii constitutionale in care egocentrismul si inadaptabilitatea sunt trasaturi innascute servind ca premise si explicatie pentru intreaga structura deliranta. Bolnavii au urmatoarele trasaturi: inadaptabilitate, hipertrofia eu-lui, eroare de rationament si suspiciozitate. Cum se manifesta ? In cele mai multe cazuri este vorba de persoane cu un comportament apparent normal, bine orientate si capabile sa-si realizeze scopurile propuse. Structura morbida pare sa apara tocmai pe linia obiectivelor si scopurilor personale. Aceste scopuri nu sunt insa in concordanta cu posibilitatile reale ale subiectilor, cu situatia lor sociala sau cu raporturile lor cu cei din jur. Structura personalitatii lor este caracterizata prin rigiditate, orgoliu, neincredere, egocentrism. Pe acest fond, orice traire

emotionala sau dorinta nerealizata focalizeaza nejustificat intreaga lor activitate in scopul satisfacerii acestor dorinte. Orice piedica este interpretata ca o nedreptate, ca ostilitate. Unii ajung sa creada ca au de indeplinit misiuni importante, altii ca sunt iubiti de persoane distinse sau ca sunt inselati. Pacientii devin impenetrabili, nu receptioneaza si nu retin din realitate decat acele evenimente care se potrivesc cu interpretarile lor. Astfel se creeaza sistemul delirant, caracterizat prin premise false si impenetrabilitatea la critica. Cele mai fecvente premise false sunt furnizate de interpretari si intuitii deliranteale prezentului sau ale trecutului sub forma iluziilor de memorie. Raspunsul bolnavilor la atitudinea potrivnica pe care o iau cei din jur fata de comportamanetul lor patologic determina inadaptarea lor progresiva si recurgerea la actiuni antisociale. Bolnavii nu pot intelege neconcordanta ideilor lor cu ale celorlalti si ajung sa se considere persecutati, urmariti, inselati. Sursa contextului: http://sanatate.ele.ro/Paranoia_--a7066.htmlmedicina Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Termenul paranoia a fost folosit pentru a descrie o boal mental n care o gndire delirant este singura sau cea mai important caracteristic. n tentativa sa original de a clasifica bolile mentale, Kraepelin a folosit termenul paranoia pur pentru a descrie o condiie unde era prezent delirul, dar fr o deteriorare aparent a capacitii intelectuale i fr alte caracteristici ale dementia praecox, boala redenumit mai apoi schizofrenie. Notabil, n definiia sa, gndul nu trebuia s fie persecutor pentru a fi clasificat ca paranoic, deci orice gnd delirant putea fi clasificat ca fiind paranoic. De exemplu, o persoan care are gndul delirant c este o figur religioas important ar fi clasificat de Kraepelin ca suferind de "paranoia pur". Chiar i n prezent, un delir nu trebuie s aib ca i caracteristici suspiciunea sau frica pentru a fi clasificat ca fiind paranoic. O persoan, ar putea fi diagnosticat cu schizofrenie paranoic fr un delir de persecuie, prin simplul fapt c delirul se refer la ei nsi, cum ar fi gndul c ar fi un agent SRI sau un membru cunoscut al familiei regale

Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : PARANOIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/paranoia Definition : Paranoia is a thought process thought to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of irrationality and delusion. Paranoid thinking typically includes persecutory beliefs concerning a perceived threat towards oneself. Historically, this characterization was used to describe any delusional state. Definition source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/paranoia Nota bene: [Greek, madness, from paranoos, demented : para-, beyond; see para-1 + nous, noos, mind.

Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim:

Synonym: obsessio n, suspicion, delusion, persecution complex Context: The following medical conditions are some of the possible causes of Paranoia. There are likely to be other possible causes, so ask your doctor about your symptoms. Normal personality - people are diverse and some people have more paranoid beliefs or beliefs in conspiracy theories than other people.
Cannabis intoxication Marijuana intoxication Schizophrenia Schizoid personality disorder Schizoaffective disorder Delusional disorders Social phobia - excessive concern about other people "watching" or "judging" is like

paranoia, but is not true paranoia.


Paranoid disorders

Drug induced Toxic states


Binswanger's disease

Context source: http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/symptoms/paranoia/causes.htm Context :PARANOIA: The Conspiracy Reader Volume 1 Were the Apollo moon landings hoaxed? Is Osama Bin Laden really dead? Who wrote the occult grimoire, Necronomicon? In this new PARANOIA compendium, 24 authors and interviewees discuss the monumental conspiracies of our time Context source http://www.paranoiamagazine.com/

Area of use: Medicine Commentary : According to clinical psychologist P. J. McKenna, "As a noun, paranoia denotes a disorder which has been argued in and out of existence, and whose clinical features, course, boundaries, and virtually every other aspect of which is controversial. Employed as an adjective, paranoid has become attached to a diverse set of presentations, from paranoid schizophrenia, through paranoid depression, to paranoid personalitynot to mention a motley collection of paranoid 'psychoses', 'reactions', and 'states'and this is to restrict discussion to functional disorders. Even when abbreviated down to the prefix para-, the term crops up causing trouble as the contentious but stubbornly persistent concept of paraphrenia." Designation status : Official 21. Termen:DELIR Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dictionare.edu.ro/definitie/delir Definiie : Tulburare a contiinei, manifestat prin halucinaii, aiurri, iluzii etc., ntlnit n unele boli mintale, n stri febrile Sursa definiiei: http://dictionare.edu.ro/definitie/delir Nota bene : Din fr. dlire Corespondent englez: delirium Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: tulburare de constiinta Hiponim: delir cronic Sinonim: iluzie,halucinatie

Context : Delirul reprezinta convingerea absoluta a persoanei care nu poate fi combatuta cu argumente logice si care nu cedeaza in ciuda evidentelor; o convingere intro idee falsa sustinuta ferm in pofida probelor si dovezilor obiective si evidente in sens contrar si in pofida faptului ca alti membri ai culturii respective nu impartasesc credinta respectiva si care trebuie astfel interpretat in functie de traditiile in care a crescut persoana. Sursa contextului: http://www.romedic.ro/delir-tulburare-deliranta Context : Delirul: Termenul de delirium este sinonim starii confuzionale acute, cu toate ca el descrie de fapt o varietate clinica distincta a sindromului confuzional, caracterizata prin perioade de agitatie, hiperactivitate mentala, insomnie, hiperactivitate la anumiti stimuli (zgomote brutale), halucinatii vizuale, hiperactivitate motorie si stimulare vegetativa. Tulburarile de atentie, specifice sindromului confuzional sunt prezente in ciuda unei vigilente aparente. Agitatia din delir variaza in mod caracteristic si poate alterna cu o stare confuzionala discreta. Sursa contextului: http://www.e-referate.ro/referate/Starile_confuzionale_acute _si_delirul2006-09-15.html Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Este foarte important de diferentiat daca este sau nu este bizar un delir, in special pentru a face diferenta intre tulburarea deliranta si schizofrenie. Astfel, un delir este considerat bizar daca sunt de neinteles, daca niciodata nu se pot intampla si daca nu provine din experienta zilnica a persoanei afectate (de exemplu, invadatorii din spatial comic au implantat electrozi in creierul pacientului, sau ca organele sale interne au fost inlocuite de niste forte extraterestre printr-o operatie care nu a lasat nici o urma, nici o cicatrice) . Delirurile care nu sunt bizare (nonbizare) se situeaza in sfera posibilului (de

exemplu este urmarit de straini, este otravit, este inselat de catre sotie) Delirul poate fi sistematizat (cand temele delirante se leaga intr-un sistem delirant care pare coerent, situatie intalnita in paranoia) si nesistematizat (cand temele delirante nu se leaga logic intre ele, intalnit in schizofrenie). Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : DELIRIUM ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/delirium Definition : Delirium is a state of mental confusion that develops quickly and usually fluctuates in intensity. Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/delirium Nota bene: from Latin: madness, from dlrre, literally: to swerve from a furrow, hence be crazy, from DE- + lra ridge, furrow Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: madness, raving, insanity, lunacy, derangement. frenzy, passion, rage, fever, fury, ecstasy, hysteria

Context: The duration of delirium is typically affected by the underlying cause. If caused by a fever, the delirious state often subsides as the severity of the fever

subsides. However, it has long been suspected that in some cases delirium persists for months and that it may even be associated with permanent decrements in cognitive function. Barrough said in 1583 that if delirium resolves, it may be followed by a "loss of memory and reasoning power." Recent studies bear this out, with cognitively normal patients who suffer an episode of delirium carrying an increased risk of dementia in the years that follow. In many such cases, however, delirium undoubtedly does not have a causal nature, but merely functions as a temporary unmasking with stress, of a previously unsuspected (but well-compensated) state of minimal brain dysfunction (early dementia Context source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Delirium Context : Delirium involves a quick change between mental states (for example, from lethargy to agitation and back to lethargy). Symptoms include: Changes in alertness (usually more alert in the morning, less alert at night) Changes in feeling (sensation) and perception

Changes in level of consciousness or awareness

Changes in movement (for example, may be slow moving or hyperactive)

Changes in sleep patterns, drowsiness

Confusion (disorientation) about time or place Decrease in short-term memory and recall Unable to remember events since delirium began (anterograde amnesia) Unable to remember events before delirium (retrograde amnesia) Disrupted or wandering attention Inability to think or behave with purpose Problems concentrating

Disorganized thinking Speech that doesn't make sense (incoherent) Inability to stop speech patterns or behaviors Emotional or personality changes Anger Agitation
Anxiety Apathy Depression

Euphoria Irritability

Incontinence Movements triggered by changes in the nervous system (psychomotor restlessness) Context source: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000740.htm Area of use:Medicine Commentary : Since delirium may occur in very many grades of severity, all

symptoms may occur with varying degrees of intensity. A mild disability to focus attention may result in only a disability in solving the most complex problems. As an extreme example, a mathematician with the flu may be unable to perform creative work, but otherwise may have no difficulty with basic activities of daily living. However, as delirium becomes more severe, it disrupts other mental functions, and may be so severe that it borders on unconsciousness or a vegetative state. In the latter state, a person may be awake and immediately aware and responsive to many stimuli, and capable of coordinated movements, but unable to perform any meaningful mental processing task at.

Designation status : Official

22. Termen: FOBIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dexonline.ro/definitie/fobie Definiie : Stare patologic de nelinite i de fric obsedant, lipsit de o cauz obiectiv sau precis Sursa definiiei:. http://dexonline.ro/definitie/fobie Nota bene : Din fr. phobie Corespondent englez: phobia Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: simptom nevrotic Hiponim: agorafobie Sinonim: Repulsie

Context : Fobiile nu mai sunt demult o necunoscuta pentru lumea medicala. In termeni de specialitate fobia ar putea fi definita ca stare permanenta de teama fata de diverse situatii, obiecte, activitati sau persoane. De multe ori insa aceasta teama poate trece de limita suportabilului, devenind un obstacol real. Exista fobii "clasice", destul de cunoscute majoritatii, precum arahnofobia si exista fobii rare, care desi ar putea parea amuzante sau ciudate, sunt cat se poate de problematice. Pteronofobia teama de a fi gadilat cu pana: Pteronofobia reprezinta teama de a nu fi gadilat cu pana. Aceasta se pare ca provine pe fondul unor traume din copilarie legate de gadilat. Daca un bebelus este gadilat constant, pe masura ce creste poate dezvolta aceasta fobie, al carei catalizator poate fi orice obiect fin, dar mai cu seama penele. Tafofobia teama de a fi ingropat de viu: Desi ar putea parea nejustificata, aceasta teama are o motivatie destul de logica. Inainte ca medicina moderna sa evolueze si sa se poata stabili cu exactitate daca o persoana a decedat cu adevarat, au existat nenumarate cazuri de oameni ingropati de vii. Acest lucru a contribuit de altfel si la aparitia miturilor legate de strigoi. Insa de la a te gandi la asa ceva, pana la a dezvolta o fobie, este o distanta foarte mare de ordin psihologic. Panfobia teama de tot Panfobia mai este cunoscuta sub denumirile de Pantofobia, Panofobia sau Omnifobia si reprezinta teama de... tot sau, mai exact, de tot si de nimic. Personele care sufera de aceasta boala se simt mereu persecutate, sunt intr-o permanenta stare de tensiune si teama, de cele mai multe ori descrisa ca amenintare din partea unui rau

necunoscut. Aceasta fobie reprezinta si un simptom pentru schizofrenie. Paraskavedekatriafobia teama de Vineri 13

Data de 13 este asociata de superstitiosi pericolelor si este considerata o zi a ghinionului. Astfel, de la superstitie la fobie se pare ca drumul nu este foarte lung. Sa speram totusi ca specialistii nu vor descoperi realmente o legatura intre ghinion si cifra 13. Neofobia teama de noutate Este de obicei generata de aparitia lucrurilor noi, insa poate avea impact si la nivel senzitiv, odata cu inregistrarea unor senzatii, perceptii noi. In context generalizat se poate trasa o legatura intre persoanele conservatoare si aceast tip de fobie. Gimnofobia teama de nuditate Reprezinta teama de a fi vazut gol si de a vedea alte persoane dezbracate, chiar si in situatiile in care acest lucru se considera normal. Se pare ca teama in cauza este intens corelata cu tulburarile sexuale. Se poate ca unele dintre femeile care nu accepta sa faca sex cu lumina aprinsa, sa aiba aceasta fobie... Ergasiofobia teama de munca O fobie care pare sa afecteze din ce in ce mai multe persoane este teama de munca. Din punct de vedere medical, aceasta fobie chiar exista, reprezentand conditia

psihologica a multor oameni. De altfel, se pare ca aceasta teama reprezinta un simptom pentru alte boli mintale mai grave. Coulrofobia teama de clovni. Desi nu reprezinta un lucru neobisnuit in cazul copiilor, s-a dovedit ca aceasta fobie poate afecta si adolescentii sau adultii. De cele mai multe ori adultii nu admit o potentiala aversiune fata de clovni, fiind perfect constienti ca este ceva irational. Cromofobia teama de culori Oamenii care sufera de cromofobie sunt nevoiti sa stea departe de tot ceea ce este colorat, pentru ca ii ingrozeste. Cam greu intr-o lume multicolora... Sursa contextului: http://www.yuppy.ro/articol/Top/2299/Top-10-Cele-maibizare-fobii.html Context : Psihoterapie la distanta Sursa contextului: http://www.romedic.ro/psihoterapie-la-distanta-0N17978 Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term :PHOBIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Phobia Definition : an obsessive, irrational, and intense fear of a specific object, such as an animal or dirt; of an activity, such as meeting strangers or leaving the familiar setting of the home; or of a physical situation, such as heights and open or closed spaces Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Phobia Nota bene: Etymology: Gk, phobos, fear Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim:

Synonym: phobic disorder, phobic neurosis Context: Phobias occur in over 10% of the general population. Social phobia may be the most common kind, affecting approximately 7% of individuals. When persons encounter the phobic situation or phobic object, they typically experience a phobic reaction consisting of extreme fearfulness, physical symptoms (such as racing heart, shaking, hot or cold flashes, or nausea), and cognitive symptoms (particularly thoughts such as I'm going to die or I'm going to make a fool of myself). These usually subside quickly when the individual is removed from the situation. The tremendous relief that escape from the phobic situation provides is believed to reinforce the phobia and to fortify the individual's tendency to avoid the situation in the future. Context source: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/phobia Context : A phobia is different because it is an extremely strong fear of a situation or thing. It is also a kind of fear that doesn't go away. Kids who have a phobia will be afraid of something every time they see or experience it. They won't just be afraid once or twice. Kids who have phobias often go out of their way to avoid the situation or thing that scares them.

Context source http://kidshealth.org/kid/feeling/emotion/phobias.html

Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Medications are sometimes used to augment cognitive and exposure therapies. For example, beta-adrenergic blocking agents, such as propranolol, lower heart rate and reduce tremulousness, and lead to reduced anxiety. Certain kinds of antidepressants and anxiolytic medications are often helpful. It is not entirely clear how these medications exert their antiphobic effects, although it is believed that they affect levels of neurotransmitters in regions of the brain that are thought to be important in mediating emotions such as fear. Designation status : Official

23. Termen:AGNOZIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.dex-online-ro.ro/cautari/agnozie.htm Definiie : Pierdere sau tulburare a funciilor intelectuale de recunoatere a celor vzute, auzite, pipite. Sursa definiiei: http://www.dex-online-ro.ro/cautari/agnozie.htm. Nota bene : Din fr. agnosie. Corespondent englez: agnosia Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: tulburare de recunoastere Hiponim: agnozie tactila Sinonim: asimbolie Context : Prin agnozie intelegem incapacitatea de a recunoaste obiecte uzuale in pofida pastrarii intacte a organelor de simt si a unei inteligente normale. Agnozia poate

afecta oricare din functiile senzoriale. Cele mai des intalnite sunt agnozia vizuala, agnozia auditiva si agnozia tactila. Sursa contextului: http://www.psihoterapie.net/dictionar/a/agnozie.html

Context :

Agnoziile sunt prezente atat in clinica neurologica cat si in cea

pshiatrica,ceea ce face ca unii autori sa le considere,,elemente patologice de granitasituate intre neurologie si pshiatrie.Agnoziile sunt mai complexe decat par la prima vedere,pentrul ca ele nu implica numai analizatorul afectat ci si procesele de cunoastere si experienta acumulata de subiect. Sursa contextului: ,,Dictionar de pshiatrieConstantin Gorgos Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : AGNOSIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Agnosia Definition : inability to recognize the import of sensory impressions; the varieties correspond with several senses and are distinguished as auditory (acoustic), gustatory, olfactory, tactile, and visual. Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Agnosia Nota bene: Etymology: Gk, a + gnosis, not knowledge Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym:

Context: Agnosia can result from strokes, dementia, or other neurological disorders. It may also be trauma-induced by a head injury, brain infection, or hereditary. Some forms of agnosia have been found to be genetic. Patients who experience dramatic recovery from blindness experience significant to total Agnosia. Context source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/agnosia Context : Charcot-Wilbrand syndrome: Loss of dreaming after a stroke. In more technical terms the syndrome is characterized by visual agnosia and the inability to revisualise images. Named for the French founder of modern neurology Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) and the German neuro-ophthalmologist Hermann Wilbrand Context source: http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=39283 Area of use: Medicine Commentary : For all practical purposes, there is no direct cure. Patients may improve if information is presented in other modalities than the damaged one. Different types of therapies can help to reverse the effects of Agnosia. In some cases, occupational therapy or speech therapy can improve agnosia, depending on its etiology Designation status : Official 24. Termen:DEMENTA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dictionar.romedic.ro/dementa Definiie : Demena este caracterizat printr-un declin progresiv al abilitilor intelectuale i sociale. Un numr de afeciuni care determin deteriorarea progresiv n orice parte a sistemului nervos (tulburri neurodegenerative).

Sursa definiiei: http://www.sanatateatv.ro/ghid-terapeutic/dementa/.

Nota bene : Din Corespondent englez: insanity Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiponim: dementa senila Sinonim: alienaie mintal Context : Variaz de la individ la individ, depinznd de motenirea genetic, stilul de via, nivelul cultural i experiena personal de via. Unele dintre caracteristicile generale ale demenei sunt: diminuarea sau pierderea memoriei, a capacitii de gndire, de raionament i de limbaj. Pe msur ce demena evolueaz, pot aprea modificri de personalitate i comportament anormale. Uneori, persoanele cu demena i pot pierde abiliti de baz precum limbajul sau alimentatul Sursa contextului: http://www.sanatateatv.ro/ghid-terapeutic/dementa Context : Cnd un om in varsta sufer de demen, el sau ea nu numai isi pierde capacitatea lor de a vorbi, dar i pierd de asemenea, capacitatea lor de a comunica cu oamenii. Acest lucru poate fi foarte frustrant pentru persoana i a lui sau ei de cei dragi. Ca persoana nu este n msur s pun gndurile i sentimentele n cuvinte, el sau ea poate afia furie i frustrare. Cu toate acestea, acest lucru nu trebuie s fie cazul cu un iubit. Cercetatorii au descoperit ca terapia prin art pentru demen este un mod fantastic pentru persoanele care sufer de aceast tulburare de a se exprima. Folosind arta persoana va fi capabila s exprime ceea ce simte el sau ea, chiar dac acetia nu sunt capabili s le exprime n cuvinte.

Sursa contextului: http://www.babyboomercaretaker.com/Romanian/senior-

health/elderly-disease/dementia/index.html Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Datorit faptului c femeile n toate rile europene triesc mai mult dect brbaii, exist mai multe femei suferind de demen dect brbai. Soiile sunt deseori mai tinere dect soii lor. Brbaii suferind de demen, deseori sunt cstorii, dar femeile suferind de demen sunt deseori vduve. Structura familiei n majoritatea rilor europene reflect c persoane n vrst vduve de sex feminin, deseori triesc singure. Demena este caracterizat prin pierderea abilitilor cognitive i emoionale, suficient de severe ca s interfereze cu funcionarea de zi cu zi i calitatea vieii. Simptomele demenei pot fi evaluate n trei sectoare: cognitiv, comportamental i motor.

Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term :INSANITY ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Insanity Definition : legal term for mental illness of such degree that the individual is not responsible for his or her acts. Insane. Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Insanity Nota bene: Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym:

Hyponim: Synonym: lunacy, madness, mania, dementia

Context:

Madness, the non-legal word for insanity, has been recognized

throughout history in every known society. Primitive cultures turned to witch doctors or shamans to apply magic, herbal mixtures, or folk medicine to rid deranged persons of evil spirits or bizarre behavior, for example. In ancient Israel it was held that disturbances of the mind or emotions were caused by "supernatural forces" or an angry God, as a punishment for sin or failure to follow the commandments. The Old Testament is replete with references to kings and commoners that go insane, and the Jewish prophets were thought to be psychologically abnormal because they acted in strange ways, departed markedly from the norm in appearance, and foretold of future events that few understood. The Greeks replaced concepts of the supernatural with a secular view, believing that afflictions of the mind did not differ from diseases of the body. They saw mental and physical illness as a result of natural causes and an imbalance in bodily humors. Hippocrates frequently wrote that an excess of black bile resulted in irrational thinking and behavior. Romans made further contributions to psychiatry, in particular the precursor to contemporary practice. They put forth the idea that strong emotions could lead to bodily ailments, the basis of todays theory of psychosomatic illness. The Romans also supported humane treatment of the mentally ill, and to support such codified into law the principle of insanity as a mitigation of responsibility for criminal acts. The Middle Ages, however, witnessed the end of the progressive ideas of the Greeks and

Romans.During the 18th century, the French and the British introduced humane treatment of the clinically insane, though the criteria for diagnosis and placement in an asylum were considerably looser than today, often including such conditions as Speech disorder, speech impediments, epilepsy and depression. Europe's oldest asylum is the Bethlem Royal Hospital of London, also known as Bedlam, which began admitting the mentally ill in 1403. The first American asylum was built in Williamsburg, Virginia, circa 1773. Before the 19th century these hospitals were used to isolate the mentally ill or the socially ostracized from society rather than cure them or maintain their health. Pictures from this era portrayed patients bound with rope or chains, often to beds or walls, or restrained in straitjackets. Context source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/insanity Context : Hamlet actually slips into insanity at certain moments in the play. Is this true, or is Hamlet merely play-acting insanity Context source http://www.enotes.com/hamlet/q-and-a/tags/insanity Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Insanity is no longer considered a medical diagnosis but is a legal term in the United States, stemming from its original use in common law. The disorders formerly encompassed by the term covered a wide range of mental disorders now diagnosed as organic brain syndromes, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and other psychotic disorders. Designation status : Official

25. Termen:NEVROZA EXPERIMENTALA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : DICTIONAR DE PSHIOLOGIE.ROLAND DORON,FRANCOISE PAROT.EDITURA HUMANITAS,BUCURESTI,1999 Definiie : Perturbare de comportament care rezulta din manevre experimentale. Sursa definiiei: DICTIONAR DE PSHIOLOGIE.ROLAND DORON, FRANCOISE PAROT.EDITURA HUMANITAS,BUCURESTI,1999 Nota bene : Din Corespondent englez: Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : grup nominal Hiperonim: nevroza Hiponim: Sinonim: tulburare de comportament Context : Dupa nevroza experimentala, obtinuta la caine de catre Pavlov, acesta a dedus ca si la om, bineanteles intr-un mod mai complex, se petrec aceleasi dereglari ale functionarii scoartei cerebrale privind cele doua procese fundamentale: excitatia si inhibitia. Sursa contextului: http://articole.famouswhy.ro/despre_nevroza/#ixzz1EVXyuUVA

Context : I.Pavlov a aplicat-o la perturbari ale conditionarilor realizate sau la o dificultate de a stabili noi conditionari,ca urmare a anumitor conditii experimentale, precum expunerea la discrimari depasind capacitatile animalului sau eruperea unui factor traumatizant. Sursa contextului: DICTIONAR DE PSHIOLOGIE.ROLAND DORON, FRANCOISE PAROT. EDITURA HUMANITAS, BUCURESTI, 1999 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu:Pavlov a observat formele diferitepe care le putea lua nevroza experimentala in functie de tipologia cainelui si a fost surprins de persistenta ei.El a vazut in aceasta un model experimental al dezordinilor patologice ale comportamentului la om. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : EXPERIMENTAL NEUROSIS ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?experimental+neurosis Definition : A behaviour disorder produced experimentally, as when an organism is required to make a discrimination of extreme difficulty and "breaks down" in the process. Definition source: http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?experimental+ neurosis Nota bene: Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun

Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym:

Context:

AS NEUROSIS we understand a chronic deviation of the higher nervous activity, lasting weeks, months, and even years. For us the higher nervous activity is manifested chiefly in the system of conditioned positive and negative reflexes to any stimulus and partially, but to a lesser degree, in the general behaviour of our animals (dogs). The factors which have produced neuroses in our animals are: first, stimuli too strong or too complex; secondly, a strain of the inhibitory process; thirdly, collision (direct consequential) of the two opposing nervous processes; fourthly and finally, castration. Neuroses are expressed in a weakening of both processes separately or together, in chaotic nervous activity, and in various phases of the hypnotic state. Different combinations of these symptoms give entirely distinct pictures. Whether or not the animal breaks down and in what form depends upon the type of nervous system Context source: http://www.heretical.com/pavlov/chap-46.html Context : In the fromework of the research on conditioning conducted by Ivan PAVLOV,a experimental neurosis is a state of great agitation and confusion caused by the inability of a dog to make a meaningful choice between two similar stimuli. Context source : THE FAMILY MENTAL HEALTH, ENCYCLOPEDIA, FRANK J.BRUNO,PH.D. Area of use: Medicine

Commentary : The important point about a experimental neurosis is that it demonstrates that a pathological condition is an organism can be induced by experience alone. Designation status : Official

26. Termen:ANXIETATE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.dex-online-ro.ro/cautari/anxietate.htm Definiie : Stare de nelinite, de ateptare ncordat, nsoit de palpitaii, jen n respiraie Sursa definiiei: http://www.dex-online-ro.ro/cautari/anxietate.htm. Nota bene : Din fr. anxit, lat. anxietas, -atis. Corespondent englez: anxiety Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: tulburari anxioase Hiponim: Sinonim: frica,stare de panica.angoasa Context : Fiecare dintre noi a trecut prin experiente de frica intensa, care este o emotie umana normala, si care ne ajuta in confruntarea cu pericolul. Dar unii oameni traiesc o frica foarte intensa si irationala, care nu este justificat prin prezenta unei situatii periculoase. O persoana anxioasa continua sa simta o neliniste permanenta care interfereaza si cu viata sa cotidiana. Acesta poate sa indice prezenta unei tulburari de anxietate. Insumand cele spuse mai sus, anxietatea resimtita de o persoana este o frica foarte intensa si nejustificata de un pericol adevarat. Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/anxietate

Context : Anxietate generalizata. Este frica exagerata si grija legata de lucruri comune. Centrul anxietatii poate fi reprezentat de prieteni, familie, sanatate, munca, bani sau ratarea unei intalniri importante (de fapt tot ceea ce este important persoanei poate sa capteze centrul atentiei ca focus al anxietatii). Vorbim despre anxietate generalizata daca grija exagerata este prezenta in aproape fiecare zi, timp de 6 luni, si daca persoana are dificultati in controlarea anxietatii. In plus persoana mai simte una sau mai multe dintre urmatoarele simptome: - irascibilitate si iritabilitate usoara; - oboseala; -insomnie; - probleme de concentrare; (nu se simte capabil sa gandeasca)

Fobia sociala: Consta in frica de evaluarea si judecata negativa a altor oameni. De aceea oamenilor caracterizate prin fobie sociala le este frica sa faca ceva ce le-ar putea umili in fata publicului de ex. a vorbi in public, a folosi toalete publice, a manca sau a bea in public, sau orice alta situatie sociala incluzand comportamentul la petreceri sau/si la locul de munca. Cei care sufera de fobie sociala poate sa simta frica in cazul unei singure, sau in cazul mai multor situatii. Aceasta frica poate sa conduca la evitarea situatiilor respective, care, ulterior poate sa ajunga la izolare. Fobii specifice

O persoana cu fobie specifica simte o frica persistenta si irationala de un obiect specific sau de o situatie. Frica poate sa apara fata de anumite animale, locuri sau persoane, si poate sa fie atat de intensa incat persoana respectiva va manifesta simptome fizice intense sau atac de panica. Aceste fobii se pot referi la caini, sange, furtuna, paianjeni, ace, sau la alte obiecte si situatii, dar, in orice caz anxietatea resimtita este exagerata si tulburatoare. Adultii care sufera de fobii de obicei sunt constienti de faptul ca frica lor este exagerata si irationala. In orice caz nevoia lor de a evita obiectul, situatia sau persoana care stau la baza fricii poate sa le restranga viata.

Tulburare de panica: Atacurile de panica sunt comune in populatia umana comparativ cu tulburarile de panica, care sunt mai rar intalnite. Atacurile de panica pot sa nu fie legate de o situatie anume, ci pot aparea spontan. Pentru ca o persoana sa fie diagnosticata cu tulburare de panica, trebuie sa aiba circa 4 atacuri de panica lunar intr-o perioada mai indelungata. Tulburarea de panica poate sa fie diagnosticata daca atacurile de panica sunt frecvente si exista si o frica intensa si persistenta de aparitia unui alt atac de panica. Tulburarea obsesiv-compulsiva (ocd) Oamenii care au aceasta tulburare au ganduri (ex. O femeie are senzatia ca sotul ei o insala fara a avea insa nici un indiciu) sau impulsuri (obsesii) intruzive, involuntare si nedorite. In acelasi timp se simt si fortate sa efectueze ritualuri mentale si comportamentale, ca de ex. spalatul excesiv al mainilor, dusuri excesiv de frecvente (de mai multe ori pe zi), sau verificarea repetitiva a anumitor lucruri (de ex. daca a incuiat

usa, sau daca a stins aragazul). De obicei sunt constienti de irationalitatea si natura excesive a comportamentelor sau a gandurilor lor.

Tulburare de stres post-traumatic (ptsd) Apare dupa un eveniment extrem de traumatic. Evenimentul poate sa fie recent (ex. accident de masina, abuz fizic) sau poate sa fie intamplat in trecut (ex. abuz sexual in copilarie). Reactii de suferinta, soc si furie sunt reactii normale dupa evenimente traumatice. Oamenii cu PTSD manifesta reactii severe, prelungite si intruzive, care afecteaza in mod dramatic viata lor de zi cu zi. Acestea pot sa includa ganduri sau imagini intruzive despre situatia traumatizanta, care sunt la fel de, sau chiar si mai stresante decat evenimentul original. De obicei oamenii incep sa evite situatiile sau evenimentele care le reamintesc de trauma, inclusiv locuri si situatii similare. Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/anxietate Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Se estimeaza ca aproximativ 6.5% din populatia lumii sufera sau a suferit de anxietate diagnosticata medical, dar sunt mult mai multi cei care sufera simptome suparatoare de stres sau anxietate. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : ANXIETY ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.thefreedictionary.com/anxiety Definition : state of apprehension and fear resulting from the anticipation of a threatening event or situation. identifiable cause. Definition source: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/anxiety In psychiatry, a patient has an anxiety disorder if normal psychological functioning is disrupted or if anxiety persists without an

Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Synonym: worry, care, concern, solicitude Context: Physical effects of anxiety may include heart palpitations, muscle

weakness and tension, fatigue, nausea, chest pain, shortness of breath, stomach aches, or headaches. The body prepares to deal with a threat: blood pressure and heart rate are increased, sweating is increased, blood flow to the major muscle groups is increased, and immune and digestive system functions are inhibited (the fight or flight response). External signs of anxiety may include pale skin, sweating, trembling, and pupillary dilation. Someone who has anxiety might also experience it as a sense of dread or panic. Although panic attacks are not experienced by every person who has anxiety, they are a common symptom. Panic attacks usually come without warning, and although the fear is generally irrational, the perception of danger is very real. A person experiencing a panic attack will often feel as if he or she is about to die or pass out. Context source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/anxiety Context : Anxiety can be a symptom of an underlying health issue such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart failure, or heart arrythmia. Abnormal and pathological anxiety or fear itself may be a medical condition that falls under the blanket term "anxiety disorder." Such conditions came under the aegis of psychiatry at the end of the 19th century and current psychiatric diagnostic criteria recognize several specific forms of the disorder. Recent surveys have found that as many as 18% of Americans may be affected by one or more of them. Context source http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/anxiety Area of use:Medicine

Commentary : The philosopher Sren Kierkegaard, in The Concept of Anxiety, described anxiety or dread associated with the "dizziness of freedom" and suggested the possibility for positive resolution of anxiety through the self-conscious exercise of responsibility and choosing. In Art and Artist (1932), the psychologist Otto Rank wrote that the psychological trauma of birth was the pre-eminent human symbol of existential anxiety and encompasses the creative person's simultaneous fear of and desire for separation, individuation and differentiation. The theologian Paul Tillich characterized existential anxiety[23] as "the state in which a being is aware of its possible nonbeing" and he listed three categories for the nonbeing and resulting anxiety: ontic (fate and death), moral (guilt and condemnation), and spiritual (emptiness and meaninglessness). According to Tillich, the last of these three types of existential anxiety, i.e. spiritual anxiety, is predominant in modern times while the others were predominant in earlier periods. Tillich argues that this anxiety can be accepted as part of the human condition or it can be resisted but with negative consequences. In its pathological form, spiritual anxiety may tend to "drive the person toward the creation of certitude in systems of meaning which are supported by tradition and authority" even though such "undoubted certitude is not built on the rock of reality". According to Viktor Frankl, the author of Man's Search for Meaning, when a person is faced with extreme mortal dangers, the most basic of all human wishes is to find a meaning of life to combat the "trauma of nonbeing" as death is near. Designation status : Official

26. Termen:NEVROZA OBSESIVA

Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nevroz%C4%83 Definiie : Nevroza obsesiv (obsesivo-fobic) apare n situaii conflictuale la persoanele cu trsturi de caractre alarmant ipohondrice, la care gndirea logic predomin asupra sentimentelor. Bolnavii cu nevroz obsesiv nu sunt siguri de aciunile lor, fixeaz legturile dintre unele mprejurri inofensive pentru ei cu succesul sau insuccesul personal Sursa definiiei: http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nevroz%C4%83. Concept generic:boala Categoria gramaticala : grup nominal Hiperonim: obsesie

Context : De obicei, nevrozele sint de trei feluri: nevroza anxioasa, nevroza obsesionala sa nevroza de esec. Nevroza astenica se caracterizeaza prin cefalee, insomnie, oboseala, lipsa de energie imposibilitatea concentrarii, intr-un cuvint familiar, stare de "astenie".

Sursa contextului: http://www.ziaruldeiasi.ro/ghidul-pentru-sanatate/nevroza-otulburare-de-care-sintem-constienti-si-pe-care-o-resimtim-in-mod-dureros~ni4743 Context : FICUS CARICA (SMOCHIN) nevroza fobica si obsesiva 50ml PLANTMED Sursa contextului: http://farmaciaverde.util21.ro/produs_4839_ficus-carica-

smochin-nevroza-fobica-si-obsesiva-50ml-plantmed.html Arie de utilizare : medicina

Comentariu:

Mai rare, dar tipice pentru nevroza obsesiv sunt gndurile,

amintirile, micrile obsesive, care n afar de caracterul lor obsesiv, se mai caracterizeaz prin contientizarea efectului patogen i au o atitudine critic fa de acestea. O manifestare frecvent a obsesiilor sunt ritualurile - micri i aciuni obsesive, nsoite de ndoieli, team i spaim efectuate n contradicie cu raiunea, n sperana evitrii unor ntmplri nefericite.

Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE NEUROSIS ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/medical/obsessive_compulsive_neurosis.htm Definition : Obsessive compulsive neurosis: a disorder characterized by the persistent and repetitive intrusion of unwanted thoughts, urges, or actions that the person is unable to prevent; the compulsive thoughts may consist of single words, ideas, or ruminations often perceived by the sufferer as nonsensical; the repetitive urges or actions vary from simple movements to complex rituals; anxiety or distress is the underlying emotion or drive state, and the ritualistic behavior is a learned method of reducing the anxiety.obsessive-compulsive disorder. SYN: compulsive neurosis, obsessional neurosis. Definition source: http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/medical/obsessive_ compulsive _neurosis. htm Generic concept: disease Grammatical category: noun Context: Some of the causes of Obsessive compulsive neurosis are included in the list below:

The exact cause is still unable to be fully determined but the two main theories are:
Biological factors - anomalies in the brain structure. This theory is supported by the

fact that brain surgery can alleviate some cases. Serotonin theory - low levels of serotonin. This theory is supported by the fact that the use of medications to increase serotonin levels (SSRI's) can alleviate symptoms in OCD sufferers. The reality may well be that there is more than one cause and this coupled with environmental factors can trigger OCD More than half of patients suffer OCD as a life-long chronic condition with periods of exacerbation and improvement Context source: http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/medical/obsessive_compulsive_ neurosis.htm Context : experience from multiple centers suggests a degree of optimism for the use of radiosurgery in the treatment of intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder, and future research in psychiatric neurosurgery is proceeding in a cautious fashion. Any such work necessitates the coordination and effort of a multidisciplinary team. Context source: http://www.medicine.virginia.edu/clinical/departments/ neurosurgery/gammaknife/disorders/obsessive-page Area of use: Medicine Commentary : These medical disease topics may be related to Obsessive compulsive neurosis: cognitive behavioural therapy
personality disorder schizophrenia

Designation status : Official

28. Termen: SCHIZOFRENIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dictionare.edu.ro/definitie/schizofrenie Definiie : Boal mintal cronic caracterizat prin slbirea i destrmarea progresiv a funciilor psihice i prin pierderea contactului cu realitatea. Sursa definiiei: http://dictionare.edu.ro/definitie/schizofrenie. Nota bene : Din fr. schizophrnie.

Corespondent englez: schizophrenia Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: psihoza endogena Hiponim: schizofrenie infantila Sinonim: dementa precoce Context : simptomele variaza. Exista mai multe tipuri de schizofrenie, astfel ca semnele si

In general, aceste simptome includ: - credinte care nu se bazeaza pe realitate (delir), cum ar fi credinta pacientului ca cineva unelteste impotriva lui - halucinatii auditive sau vizuale (pacientul aude si vede lucruri care nu exista); mai frecvente sunt halucinatiile auditive - vorbire incoerenta - neglijarea igienei personale - lipsa emotiilor - emotii nepotrivite contextului in care se gaseste pacientul - manifestari agresive - comportament catatonic - o senzatie persistenta ca este urmarit - probleme de functionare la scoala sau la serviciu - izolare sociala - neindemanare, miscari necoordonate.

Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/schizofrenia_110 Context : Exista mai multe tipuri de schizofrenie. De exemplu, pacientii care au impresia ca sunt persecutati sunt catalogati ca suferind de "schizofrenie paranoida"; pacientii care sunt incoerenti dar care nu au iluzii sunt inclusi in categoria de "schizofrenie dezorganizata". Forma cea mai debilitanta de schizofrenie este schizofrenia "negativa": pacientii cu aceasta forma de boala sunt lipsiti de initiativa, motivatie, interes social, incapabili sa se bucure si sa reactioneze afectiv. Intrucat schizofrenia difera de la un pacient la altul ca intensitate, severitate si frecventa a episoadelor psihotice sau reziduale, multi specialisti folosesc termenul de "schizofrenie" pentru a descrie un spectru de boli cu gravitate variabila. Sursa contextului: http://www.emedonline.ro/afectiuni/view.article.php?category =6&article=95&page=4 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Criteriile de diagnostic pentru schizofrenie sunt: - prezenta a cel putin doua din urmatoarele: delir, halucinatii, vorbire dezorganizata, comportament dezorganizat sau catatonic, sau prezenta simptomelor negative - disfunctie semnificativa in abilitatea de a munci, merge la scoala sau a indeplini sarcinile zilnice - aceste semne sunt prezente de cel putin sase luni - nu sunt prezente alte tulburari mentale. Pacientul poate fi diagnosticat cu unul din cele cinci tipuri de schizofrenie, desi nu toti pacientii se potrivesc unei categorii specifice. Aceste cinci subtipuri sunt: - paranoid - catatonic

- dezorganizat - nediferentiat - rezidual. Pacientul poate discuta cu medicul despre tipul de schizofrenie pe care il prezinta pentru a invata mai multe despre boala si despre solutiile de tratament. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : SCHIZOPHRENIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/SCHIZOPHRENIA Definition Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder (or a group of disorders) marked by severely impaired thinking, emotions, and behaviors. Schizophrenic patients are typically unable to filter sensory stimuli and may have enhanced perceptions of sounds, colors, and other features of their environment. Most schizophrenics, if untreated, gradually withdraw from interactions with other people, and lose their ability to take care of personal needs and grooming. Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/SCHIZOPHRENIA

Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: dementia praecox, schizophrenic disorder, schizophrenic psychosis

Context: The cause of schizophrenia is unknown. Genetic factors appear to be involved in producing susceptibility to the condition, with studies among identical twins showing a 30%50% concordance rate, a figure that has been confirmed by the results of adoption studies. Biochemical research suggests that high levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, or excessive numbers of receptors for dopamine, may be at the root of schizophrenia. Medical imaging studies have revealed various physical and physiological anomalies in some patients. Other research has focused on mistiming of neural responses to stimuli in the brain. Many researchers maintain that a combination of influences, including such environmental factors as viral illness or malnutrition in the patient's mother during pregnancy, may lead to schizophrenia

Context source: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/schizophrenia Context : Medications that are thought to be particularly effective in treating positive symptoms of schizophrenia include olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone (Risperdal), quetiapine (Seroquel), ziprasidone (Geodon), aripiprazole (Abilify), paliperidone (Invega), and asenapine (Saphis). These medications are the newer group of antipsychotic medications, also called second-generation antipsychotics. They are known for having the ability to work quickly compared to many other psychiatric medications. As a group of medications, side effects that occur most often include sleepiness, dizziness, and increased appetite. Weight gain, which may be associated with higher blood sugar levels, elevated blood lipid levels, and sometimes increased levels of a hormone called prolactin, may also occur. Although older antipsychotic medications in this class like haloperidol (Haldol), perphenazine (Trilafon), and molindone (Moban) are more likely to cause muscle stiffness, shakiness, and very rarely uncoordinated muscle twitches (tardive dyskinesia) that can be permanent, health-care practitioners

appropriately monitor the people they treat for these potential side effects as well. Also, more recent research regarding all antipsychotic medication seems to demonstrate that the older (first-generation) antipsychotics are just as effective as the newer ones and have no higher rate of people stopping treatment because of any side effect the medications cause. Not all medications that treat schizophrenia in adults have been approved for use in treating childhood schizophrenia. Context source http://www.medicinenet.com/schizophrenia/page4.htm Area of use: Medicine

Commentary : The psychiatrist Kurt Schneider (18871967) listed the forms of psychotic symptoms that he thought distinguished schizophrenia from other psychotic disorders. These are called first-rank symptoms or Schneider's first-rank symptoms, and they include delusions of being controlled by an external force; the belief that thoughts are being inserted into or withdrawn from one's conscious mind; the belief that one's thoughts are being broadcast to other people; and hearing hallucinatory voices that comment on one's thoughts or actions or that have a conversation with other hallucinated voices.[15] Although they have significantly contributed to the current diagnostic criteria, the specificity of first-rank symptoms has been questioned. A review of the diagnostic studies conducted between 1970 and 2005 found that these studies allow neither a reconfirmation nor a rejection of Schneider's claims, and suggested that first-rank symptoms be de-emphasized in future revisions of diagnostic systems. Designation status : Official

29. Termen:AUTISM Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dexonline.ro/definitie/autism Definiie : Stare patologic manifestat prin ruperea legturilor psihice cu lumea exterioar i intensa trire a vieii interioare Sursa definiiei: http://dexonline.ro/definitie/autism. Nota bene : Din fr. autisme. Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Sinonim: indiferenta afectiva,disociere

Context : estimatie moderata a predominatiei autismului este de aproximativ 45/10 000 indivizi. Totusi, estimarile recente urca pna la 10/10 000. Daca ar fi sa facem o comparatie, cea de-a doua rata,de 10/10 000, este aproximativ egala cu rata de nasteri a indivizilor cu sindromul Down, cea mai cunoscuta boala cromozomiala si cauza cea mai des ntlnita cauza a retardarii mentale. Diferenta dintre ratele de predominanta din diferite studii este cauzata n mare parte de faptul ca, de-a lungul timpului, criteriile de diagnosticare s-au schimbat de la primele descrieri ale lui Kanner iar cel curent este mai larg dect criteriul anterior utilizat. Odata ce s-a nascut un copil autist, riscul de a se naste un alt copil autist variaza ntre 3 pna la 7%. Autismul apare de 4 sau 5 ori mai des la barbati dect la femei. Sursa contextului: http://www.autism.ro/istorie.html Context : Autismul are o plaja larga de gravitate. Incepand de la formele usoare, in care se gasesc copiii greu sociabili, considerati foarte seriosi, care interactioneaza dificil chiar si cu parinti, si au anumite obiceiuri neobisnuite, pana la cazurile grave in care vorbirea lipseste cu desavarsire, iar copiii sunt in imposibilitatea de a fi independenti sau de a interectiona in vreun fel cu lumea inconjuratoare. Depinde foarte mult nu numai gravitatea bolii, ci si momentul in care aceasta este descoperita si se incepe terapia cu ei. Autismul este din pacate, o boala grava, fara leac, dar care poate fi ameliorata daca este depistata din timp si tratata corespunzator. Primele semne pot aparea inca din primele luni de viata. Copilul autist, nu zambeste, nu rade. Nu se uita in ochii celuilalt. Nu intinde manutele catre parinti. Are o expresie a fetei aproape imobila si nu reactioneaza aproape deloc la ceea ce-l inconjoara. Prefera anumite pozitii ale corpului si repeta mecanic anumite miscari. Mai marisor, la varsta primelor gungureli, acestea intarzie. Nici

cuvintele nu se grabesc sa apara in gurita lui. Multi parinti ignora acest aspect punandu-l pe seama unei simple intarzieri in vorbire sau cel mult il suspecteaza de probleme cu auzul si vorbirea.

Sursa contextului: http://forum.7p.ro/Despre-autism.aspx?g=posts&t=417 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: n 1943 doctorul Leo Kanner a descris pentru prima data 11 copii care s-au prezentat la clinica sa cu o combinatie de grave deficite de vorbire marcate de anormalitati n interactiunea sociala si o nclinatie spre comportamente stereotipe, repetitive si ritualisitce. Acesti 11 copii au fost primii copii diagnosticati cu autism infantil. Desi denumirea initiala a evidentiat ca autismul infantil e observat n copilarie si documentele descriu comportamentul autist la copii, acum este clar ca autismul e vazut ca o boala pe tot parcursul vietii a carei tip si severitate se modifica n timp odata cu dezvoltarea individului.

Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : AUTISM ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.medicinenet.com/autism_and_communication/article.htm Definition : Autism is a developmental disorder that is characterized by impaired

development in communication, social interaction, and behavi Definition source: http://www.medicinenet.com/autism_and_communication/article.htm Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: Individuals with autism fail to develop normal personal interactions in virtually every setting. This means that affected persons fail to form the normal social contacts that are such an important part of human development. This impairment may be so severe that it even affects the bonding between a mother and an infant. It is important to note that, contrary to popular belief, many, if not most, persons with this disorder are capable of showing affection, demonstrating affection bonding with their mothers or other caregivers. However, the ways in which individuals with autism demonstrate affection and bonding may differ greatly from the ways in which others do so. Their limited socialization may erroneously lead parents and pediatricians away from considering the diagnosis of autism Context source: http://www.medicinenet.com/autism_and_communication/article.htm Context : How is autism treated?

There is no cure for ASD. Therapies and behavioral interventions are designed to remedy specific symptoms and can bring about substantial improvement. The ideal treatment plan coordinates therapies and interventions that meet the specific needs of individual children. Most health care professionals agree that the earlier the intervention, the better. Educational/behavioral interventions: Therapists use highly structured and intensive skill-oriented training sessions to help children develop social and language

skills, such as Applied Behavioral Analysis. Family counseling for the parents and siblings of children with ASD often helps families cope with the particular challenges of living with a child with ASD. Medications: Doctors may prescribe medications for treatment of specific ASDrelated symptoms, such as anxiety, depression, or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Antipsychotic medications are used to treat severe behavioral problems. Seizures can be treated with one or more anticonvulsant drugs. Medication used to treat people with attention deficit disorder can be used effectively to help decrease impulsivity and hyperactivity. Other therapies: There are a number of controversial therapies or interventions available for people with ASD, but few, if any, are supported by scientific studies. Parents should use caution before adopting any unproven treatments. Although dietary interventions have been helpful in some children, parents should be careful that their childs nutritional status is carefully followed. Context source: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/autism/detail_autism.htm Area of use:Medicine Commentary : Communication is usually severely impaired in persons with autism. What the individual understands (receptive language) as well as what is actually spoken by the individual (expressive language) are significantly delayed or nonexistent. Deficits in language comprehension include the inability to understand simple directions, questions, or commands. There may be an absence of dramatic or pretend play and these children may not be able to engage in simple age-appropriate childhood games such as Simon Says or Hide-and-Go-Seek. Teens and adults with autism may continue to engage in playing with games that are for young children. Designation status : Official

30. Termen:ISTERIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dexonline.ro/definitie/isterie Definiie : Boal nervoas caracterizat prin apariia unor simptome neurologice foarte variate, nejustificate de existena unor leziuni i declanate prin ocuri emotive (accese de rs sau de plns, convulsii, sufocri etc.), sugestie sau utosugestie etc.. Sursa definiiei: http://dexonline.ro/definitie/isterie. Nota bene : Din fr. hystrie, it. isteria Corespondent englez: hysteria Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: sindrom nevrotiforme Hiponim: sindrom isteric

Sinonim: conversie,tulburare de personalitate Context : Cei care combat psihanaliza n acest mod nu stiu sau au uitat ca la nceput psihanaliza a fost si ea o terapie scurta. Cazurile din "Studii despre isterie" din prezentul volum ilustraza acest fapt. Primul dintre ele, cel al doamnei Emmy von. N. a durat sapte saptamni n primul an, adica mai putin de doua luni, iar n al doilea, dupa recidiva, opt saptamni. Cazul miss Lucy R. nu a durat mai mult de noua saptamni. Pentru Katharina, al treilea caz, a fost suficienta o singura "sedinta" pentru a demonta simptomul. Am folosit cuvntul sedinta ntre ghilimele pentru ca ntlnirea ntre Freud si Katharina a fost ntmplatoare, n afara oricarui cadru terapeutic. Iar de domnisoara Elisabeth v. R., Freud s-a ocupat o perioada neprecizata, dar nu mai mult de un an, ceea ce, n raport cu psihanaliza actuala, reprezinta o perioada scurta. Sursa contextului: http://www.librariabucuresti.com/cgi-bin/Carti-Studii-despreisterie-0-1220-14-.htm

Context : Cauze: Persoanele care fac crize de isterie sunt, de regula, foarte nervoase. Exista o lista lunga de cauze dar mentionarea catorva dintre ele este suficienta: anxietatea, frica subita, indigestiile, nervozitatea extrema, accesele de furie si menstruatia la fetele tinere. In unele cazuri, este vorba, pur si simplu, despre perversitate si nimic altceva. Desigur, cauza trebuie stabilita pentru a putea trata cu succes afectiunea

Sursa

contextului:

http://blog.mamanatura.ro/isteria-cauzele-si-tratamentele-

crizelor-de-isterie/ Arie de utilizare : medicina

Comentariu: Tratament: Atitudinea fata de o astfel de persoana trebuie sa fie intotdeauna ferma. Nu trebuie sa se manifeste emotie sau mila, ci blandete. Dupa criza, bolnavul nu trebuie ridiculizat iar episodului, pe cat posibil, trebuie sa i se acorde cat mai putina importanta. Oricare dintre plantele urmatoare este eficienta: Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, odolean, verbina, gura-lupului sau iarba matei. Se pune o lingurita cu varf la o ceasca de apa clocotita, se lasa sa infuzeze 30 de minute si se bea o ceasca de 4 sau 5 ori pe zi. Se recomanda o cesca inainte de culcare. Odoleanul, guralupului si iarba matei sunt disponibile, sub forma de capsule, in magazinele care comercializeaza plante medicinale. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : HYSTERIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/hysteria Definition : The term "hysteria" has been in use for over 2,000 years and its definition has become broader and more diffuse over time. In modern psychology and psychiatry, hysteria is a feature of hysterical disorders in which a patient experiences physical symptoms that have a psychological, rather than an organic, cause; and histrionic personality disorder characterized by excessive emotions, dramatics, and attention-seeking behavior.

Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/hysteria Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Synonym: delirium, frenzy, fury, craze

Context: Patients with hysterical disorders, such as conversion and somatization disorder experience physical symptoms that have no organic cause. Conversion disorder affects motor and sensory functions, while somatization affects the gastrointestinal, nervous, cardiopulmonary, or reproductive systems. These patients are not "faking" their ailments, as the symptoms are very real to them. Disorders with hysteric features typically begin in adolescence or early adulthood.

Histrionic personality disorder Histrionic personality disorder has a prevalence of approximately 2-3% of the general population. It begins in early adulthood and has been diagnosed more frequently in women than in men. Histrionic personalities are typically self-centered and attention seeking. They operate on emotion, rather than fact or logic, and their conversation is full of generalizations and dramatic appeals. While the patient's enthusiasm, flirtatious behavior, and trusting nature may make them appear charming, their need for immediate gratification, mercurial displays of emotion, and constant demand for attention often alienates them from others. Context source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/hysteria Context : Causes of Hysteria

Psychological disorders Physical disorders Brain disorders Dementia Brain tumor

Context source http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/h/hysteria/intro.htm Area of use: Medicine

Commentary :

A more modern understanding of hysteria as a psychological

disorder was advanced by the work of Jean-Martin Charcot, a French neurologist. In his 1893 obituary of Charcot, Sigmund Freud attributed the rehabilitation of hysteria as a topic for scientific study to the positive attention generated by Charcots neuropathological investigations of hysteria during the last ten years of his life. Freud questioned Charcots claim that heredity is the unique cause of hysteria, but he lauded his innovative clinical use of hypnosis to demonstrate how hysterical paralysis could result from psychological factors produced by non-organic traumas (psychological factors that Charcot believed could be simulated through hypnosis). To Freud, this discovery allowed subsequent investigators such as Pierre Janet and Josef Breuer to develop new theories of hysteria that were essentially similar to the medieval conception of a split consciousness, but with the non-scientific terminology of demonic possession replaced with modern psychological concepts. In the early 1890s Freud published a series of articles on hysteria which popularized Charcot's earlier work and begun the development of his own views of hysteria. By the 1920s Freud's theory was influential in Britain and the USA. The Freudian psychoanalytic school of psychology uses its own, somewhat controversial, ways to treat hysteria. Freudian psychoanalytic theory attributed hysterical symptoms to the subconscious mind's attempt to protect the patient from psychic stress. Subconscious motives include primary gain, in which the symptom directly relieves the stress (as when a patient coughs to release energy pent up from keeping a secret), and secondary gain, in which the symptom provides an independent advantage, such as staying home from a hated job. More recent critics have noted the possibility of tertiary gain, when a patient is induced subconsciously to display a symptom because of the desires of others (as when a controlling husband enjoys the docility of his sick wife). There need be no gain at all, however, in a hysterical symptom. A child playing hockey may fall and for several hours believe he is unable to move, because he has recently heard of a famous hockey player who fell and broke his neck. Designation status : Official

31. Termen:APATIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dexonline.ro/definitie/apatie Definiie : Stare de indiferen, lips de interes fa de orice activitate i fa de lumea nconjurtoare. (n concepia filozofilor stoici antici) Ideal moral care const n nbuirea oricrei pasiuni. Sursa definiiei: http://dexonline.ro/definitie/apatie. Nota bene : Din fr. apathie, lat. apathia. Corespondent englez: apathy Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Context : Apatia te distruge miseleste Iti fura bucuria prezentului si-ti proiecteaza un viitor fara culoare, fara directie... si, cel mai grav, te poate imbolnavi. Ti-e indiferent ce faci astazi, desi ai primit mai multe propuneri? Ai o gramada de treaba si nu ai chef de nimic? Nu te mai implici in nicio activitate pentru ca, oricum, ai impresia ca nu conteaza? Daca asa stau lucrurile, inseamna ca te-ai cufundat intr-o stare de apatie: fara putere, fara pasiune, fara vlaga, fara initiativa... Apatia se manifesta printr-o atitudine generalizata de indiferenta, superficialitate, dezinteres, obosea la fizica si psihica, dificultati de acceptare a schimbarilor, agatarea de trecut in detrimentul prezentului sau o atitudine de resemnare. Etimologia cuvantului apatie(derivat din grecescul apatheia, compus din a - fara si pathos

- pasiune) desemneaza lipsa totala de pasiune. Fara emotii, viata este terna, lipsita de culoare. Resursele interioare sunt inepuizabile; tot ce se poate deteriora este accesul la aceste resurse. In functie de contextul in care se manifesta si de cauzele care o declanseaza, putem considera ca exista mai multe forme de apatie. Fie ca insoteste o astenie pasagera si se extinde si in planul vietii sexuale, fie ca se asociaza unor probleme de sanatate sau este cauzata de nefericirea provocata de singuratate sau plictiseala, primul pas pentru a iesi din amorteala specifica apatiei este sa o recunoastem. Sursa contextului: http://revistaplafar.ro/mens-sana/673/apatia-te-distrugemiseleste. Html

Context : Apatie De ceva vreme sunt intr-o continua stare de blegeala, de apatie. Parca nimic nu ma mai atrage, nimic nu-mi mai starneste interesul. Fac lucrurile mecanic, fara sa pun suflet, din inerite. Si nu pot sa-mi explic de ce, cum, de unde? Mi-am luat o zi libera poate reusesc sa ma urnesc din starea asta. Rezultate zero. M-am vopsit, poate ma plictisese culoarea parului. Nici asta. CUlmea, nici de gatit nu aveam chef. Eram intr-un stadiu aiurea rau al existentei mele Sursa contextului: http://delphinash.blogspot.com/2010/05/apatie.html Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Trupa a fost primit cu apatie si indiferen de publicul britanic, astfel membrii fiind nevoii s traverseze oceanul, unde, dup editarea albumului de debut, dobndesc n scurt timp consacrarea, fiind recunoscui drept cei mai de seam succesori artistici ai fostului grup Cream, n care a activat i Eric Clapton (chitar, vocal). Simultan, cei patru zep constituiau principalii rivali ai formaiei Jeff Beck Group.

Statutul desemnarii : Oficial

Term : APATHY ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/apathy Definition : an absence or suppression of emotion, feeling, concern, or passion; an indifference to stimuli found generally to be exciting or moving. The condition is common in patients with neurasthenia, depressive disorders, and schizophrenia. apathetic, adj. Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/apathy Nota bene: Etymology: Gk, a, pathos, not suffering ANTONYMS: EMOTION, FEELING, SENSIBILITY Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Synonym: spiritlessness, numbness, indifference Context: Mental health journalist and author John McManamy argues that although psychiatrists do not explicitly deal with the condition of apathy, it is a psychological problem for some depressed people, in which they get a sense that "nothing matters", the "lack of will to go on and the inability to care about the consequences". He describes depressed people who "...cannot seem to make do anything," who "can't complete anything," and who do not "feel any excitement about seeing loved ones." He acknowledges that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders does not discuss apathy. In a Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences article from 1991, Dr Robert Marin MD claimed that apathy occurs due to brain damage or neuropsychiatric illnesses such as Alzheimers, dementia, Parkinson's, or

Huntingtons, or else an event such as a stroke. Marin argues that apathy should be regarded as a syndrome or illness. A review article by Robert van Reekum MD et al. from the University of Toronto in the Journal of Neuropsychiatry (2005) claimed that "depression and apathy were a package deal" in some populations which may help illustrate what people mean when they say that "The opposite of love is not hate, it is apathy Context source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apathy Area of use: Medicine

Commentary :

Apathy is a common feeling of complete discontent

(dissatisfaction, i.e. not satisfied) for one's emotional behavior. Apathy etymologically derives from the Greek (apatheia), a term used by the Stoics to signify indifference for what one is not responsible for (that is, according to their philosophy, all things exterior, one being only responsible of his representations and judgments). Some people may believe that the concept was then reappropriated by Christians, who adopted the term to express a contempt of all earthly concerns, a state of mortification, as (they claim) the gospel prescribes. However there is no such text in the Christian Bible. The word has been used since then among more devout writers. Clemens Alexandrinus, in particular, brought the term exceedingly in vogue, thinking hereby to draw the philosophers to Christianity, who aspired after such a sublime pitch of virtue. The concept of apathy became more sympathetically accepted in popular culture during the First World War, in which the appalling conditions of the Western Front led to apathy and shellshock amongst millions of soldiers. Many often had no emotion or thought process concerning killing/death in general

Designation status : Official 32. Termen:MANIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dexonline.ro/definitie/manie Definiie : Boal mintal manifestat prin euforie, stare de excitaie psihomotorie, logoree, halucinaii, incoeren a gndirii etc.; p. ext. idee fix care preocup pe cineva. Sursa definiiei: http://dexonline.ro/definitie/manie. Nota bene : Din ngr. mana, fr. manie. Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: sindrom afectiv Hiponim: nebunie maniaco-depresiva Sinonim: tulburare de dispozitie Context : Activarea acestor scheme de gndire negativ este responsabil de apariia simptomelor, cum ar fi : frica, tristeea, pasivitatea, mania i iritarea. Acestor scheme li se adaug greelile de gndire tipice (generalizari abuzive, exagerari pozitive i negative, o gndire absolutista, dihotomizarea, etc), ce fac ca triada cognitiv negativ s fie mentinuta. Acestea isi au originea n experientele precoce nefavorabile, ele ramanand n stare latenta i potand fi reactivate ulterior de evenimente similare. Sursa contextului: http://www.romedic.ro/cauzele-depresiei/abordarea-congnitiva Context : Mnia este ciuma rugciunii (Avva Evagrie Ponticul). Mnia este o betie. Nenorocirea acelora care sunt beti fr s se fi mbtat de vin (Sf. Vasile cel Mare). Mnia este semnul vdit al celor ce nu cinstesc pe Dumnezeu (Sf. Antonie cel

Mare). Mnia este n om o groap pentru el; cine si-a frnt mnia, acela a trecut aceast groap (Sf. Efrem Sirul). Mnia este un primejdios sftuitor pentru oricine. Tot ce se ntreprinde la mnie nu e niciodat chibzuit (Sf. Grigorie Teologul). Mnia nu trebuie s fie cu cei ce se roag. Ea este veninul serpilor (Avva Evagrie Ponticul). Mnia orbeste ochii sufletului si nu-l las s vad Soarele Drepttii (Sf. Casian Romanul). Mniosul nu poate deosebi lucrurile rele de cele bune (Sf. Casian Romanul). Mnia obisnuieste mai mult dect celelalte patimi s tulbure si s zpceasc sufletul (Sf. Diadoh al Foticeei). Dac cineva s-ar nfrna de la mncruri si buturi, dar prin gndurile sale ar ntrta mnia, acela se aseamn cu o corabie ce cltoreste pe mare avnd pe dracul crmaci (Avva Evagrie Ponticul). Niciodat si nicieri nu gseste diavolul un loc mai potrivit pentru el ca n mnie si dusmnie (Sf. Ioan Hrisostom). Sursa contextului: http://www.plasticsusa.com/ortho/filo_manie.html Arie de utilizare : medicina

Comentariu: Omul mnios, care d fru liber mniei-nvalnic prin firea ei, face multe prostii i pcate, printre care intr i certurile, arat Solomon. Mnia poate fi pricin de omor:(cazul lui Irod care, nelat de magi, se mnie att de tare, nct comand masacrul pruncilor, cazul fariseilor i crturarilor, care l rstignesc pe Isus din pricina mniei cauzate de minunile Lui i de vindecrile din ziua Sabatului, dup cum relateaz evangheliile, cazul fiilor lui Iacov, Simeon i Levi care, orbii de mnia pricinuit de necinstirea sorei lor Dina de ctre Sihem, au ucis toi oamenii din cetate, dup cum istorisete Cartea Facerii, cazul lui Cain care, vznd c Dumnezeu a privit cu bunvoin spre jertfa lui Abel i spre a lui nu, se mnie foarte tare, i l ucide pe Abel,

mpratul Nebucadnear, care se mnie pe vrjitori, pe cititorii n stele, pe descnttori i pe Haldei pentru c ei nu reuiser s-i spun ce vis avusese, spunnd c e peste puterea muritorilor acest lucru i ncepe s-i omoare, irul crimelor fiind ntrerupt de Daniel carei spune ce visase dup ce Dumnezeu i descoperise noaptea visul i tlmcirea lui tentativ de omor: (cazul lui Saul, care se aprinde de mnie pe Ionatan pentru c acesta se mprietenise cu David i vrea s-l omoare, cazul lui Esau, care se mniase pe fratele su, Iacob i cuta s-l omoare pentru c l nelase, furnd prin iretlic binecuvntarea tatlui lor, Isaac). - pedepse severe (A doua carte a Cronicilor relateaz cum Asa s-a mniat pe vztorul Hanani i l-a pus n nchisoare pentru c l-a mustrat c, dup ce Dumnezeu l-a ajutat n lupta cu etiopienii i libienii, s-a sprijinit pe mpratul Siriei. mpratul Babilonului, n mnia lui, prefcuse lumea n pustie, i i prpdise poporul, pn cnd a fost dobort fr cruare, relateaz cartea profetic Isaia. mpratul Egiptului s-a mniat pe doi dregtori ai si: pe mai marele paharnicilor i pe mai marele pitarilor i i-a trimis la nchisoare.Unul dintre oamenii pe care-i va atinge mnia mpratului este slujitorul de ocar, ne asigur Solomon. Alteori mnia poate avea roade mai puin dramatice: n pilda fiului risipitor Isus arat cum auzind c tatl su l primise cu mare fast i bucurie pe fiul cel mic care, dup ce i cheltuise cu prostituatele partea sa de motenire, se ntorsese smerit acas, fiul cel mare din pilda fiului risipitor se ntrt de mnie i nu vrea s intre n casa tatlui su cei 10 apostoli se mnie cnd aud c Isus le spune lui Iacov i Ioan c cinstea de a sta de-a dreapta i de-a stnga Tatlui nu atrn de el, ci va aparine acelora pentru care a fost pregtit. Eliab, fratele cel mare al lui David se mnie pe acesta, cnd vede c David se interesa de rsplata promis celui care l va nvinge pe Goliat. Domnitorii filistenilor s-au mniat pe Achi pentru c vroia s-l ia n lupt i pe David i i interzic lui Achi acest lucru. Naaman, cpetenia otirii mpratului Siriei, se aprinde de mnie cnd vede c Elisei nu vine n persoan la el s-l vindece de lepr, ci i spune s se scalde de 7 ori n Iordan dar ascult cuvntul proorocului i este vindecat, relateaz Cartea a doua a regilor. Balac, mpratul Moabului, se aprinde de mnie pe ghicitorul Balaam pentru c acesta, chemat s blesteme vrjmaii, i binecuvnteaz

Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : MANIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.thefreedictionary.com/MANIA Definition : a mental disorder characterized by great excitement and occasionally violent behaviour Definition source: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/MANIA Nota bene: Middle English, madness, from Late Latin, from Greek mani ; see men-1 in Indo-European roots Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Context: manic episode is defined in the American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic manual as a period of seven or more days (or any period if admission to hospital is required) of unusually and continuously effusive and open elated or irritable mood, where the mood is not caused by drugs or a medical illness (e.g., hyperthyroidism), and (a) is causing obvious difficulties at work or in social relationships and activities, or (b) requires admission to hospital to protect the person or others, or (c) the person is suffering psychosis. To be classed as a manic episode, while the disturbed mood is present at least three (or four if only irritability is present) of the following must have been consistently prominent: grand or extravagant style, or expanded self-esteem; reduced need of sleep (e.g. three hours may be sufficient); talks more often and feels the urge to talk longer; ideas flit through the mind in quick succession, or thoughts race and preoccupy the person; over indulgence in enjoyable behaviors with high risk of a negative outcome (e.g., extravagant shopping, sexual adventures or improbable commercial schemes). Context source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Mania Context : Dysphoric mania: The concurrent presence of symptoms of depression

and mania together. Also called Mixed bipolar state Context source: http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=24356 Area of use:Medicine Commentary : In antiquity the term mania referred to all forms of mental disturbance with motor and speech agitation. Later, it was used as a synonym for delirium or an irresistible urge (for example, pyromania, the urge to set fires, and kleptomania, the urge to steal). In the first half of the 19th century the French psychiatrist J. E. D. Esquirol advanced the popular conception of monomaniaan obsession with a single idea or urge. From the mid-19th century to the beginning of the 20th, mania was considered a separate disease. Designation status : Official

33. Termen:MELANCOLIA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dexonline.ro/definitie/melancolie Definiie : Boal psihic care se manifest printr-o continu depresiune, prin

tristee morbid, prin apatie, delir, halucinaii, anxietate i obsesia sinuciderii. Sursa definiiei: http://dexonline.ro/definitie/melancolie. Nota bene : Din fr. mlancolie, lat. melancolia. Corespondent englez: melancholia Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Sinonim: delir partial,lentoare pshica si motorie Context : Un psihiatru australian militeaza pentru recunoasterea melancoliei ca si boala mintala distincta, dupa ce acest diagnostic a fost scos din manualele de boli mintale, in 1980. Gordon Parker conduce o echipa internatioanala de psihiatrii care isi doresc ca melancolia sa fie recunoscuta ca boala mintala, relateaza The Telegraph. Melancolia a fost descrisa prima oara de Hipocrate, in secolele V si IV, i.Hr. Insa in secolul XX a decazut din drepturi, ea nemaifiind recunoscuta ca boala de sine statatoare, nemaiputandu-se da acest diagnostic. melancolie. Sursa contextului: http://www.ziare.com/viata-sanatoasa/sanatate/melancoliaboala-mintala-1003233 Context : Melancolia este unul din cei mai vechi termeni psihiatrici, fiind folosit chiar de Hippocrate (460-370 .Chr.) pentru a descrie dispoziia neagr (melas-negru) a depresiei. El este nc folosit astzi pentru a descrie depresiile caracterizate de: - o anhedonie sever (lipsa capacitii de a simi fericire; lipsa plcerii), -lipsa reactivitii la stimuli plcui (nu se simte mai bine, chiar i pentru perioade scurte de timp, dac se ntmpl ceva pozitiv) -o stare de tristee aparte, diferit de cea resimit dup moartea cuiva drag In prezent, psihiatrii trebuie sa aleaga intre depresie minora si majora, atunci cand se confrunta cu pacienti ce prezinta semne de

-stare mai proast dimineaa -lentoare psihomotorie sau agitaie - treziri matinale precoce, -scdere n greutate -sentimente profunde de vin (deseori exagerate i legate de evenimente lipsite de importan. Aceti pacieni au frecvent idei de suicid. Melancolia este frecvent numit depresie endogen pentru c apare fr s fie precedat de un eveniment de via stresant. Rspunde bine la administrarea de medicamente antidepresive. Sursa contextului: http://www.romedic.ro/diagnosticul-de-depresie-tipuri/ melancolia Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Melancolia e sentimentul c nefericirea are s te copleeasc chiar n mijlocul paradisului. definiie de Emil Cioran Statutul desemnarii : Oficial

Term : MELANCHOLIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/melancholia Definition : A mental disorder characterized by depression, apathy, and withdrawal Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/melancholia

Nota bene: Etymology: Gk, melas, black, chole, bile Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Context: During the early 17th century, a curious cultural and literary cult of melancholia arose in England. It was believed that religious uncertainties caused by the English Reformation and a greater attention being paid to issues of sin, damnation, and salvation, led to this effect. In music, the post-Elizabethan cult of melancholia is associated with John Dowland, whose motto was Semper Dowland, semper dolens. ("Always Dowland, always mourning.") The melancholy man, known to contemporaries as a "malcontent," is epitomized by Shakespeare's Prince Hamlet, the "Melancholy Dane." Another literary expression of this cultural mood comes from the death-obsessed later works of John Donne. Other major melancholic authors include Sir Thomas Browne, and Jeremy Taylor, whose Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and Holy Living and Holy Dying, respectively, contain extensive meditations on death. A similar phenomenon, though not under the same name, occurred during Sturm und Drang, with such works as The Sorrows of Young Werther by Goethe or in Romanticism with works such as Ode on Melancholy by John Keats. In the 20th century, much of the counterculture of modernism was fueled by comparable alienation and a sense of purposelessness called "anomie"; earlier artistic preoccupation with death has gone under the rubric of memento mori. Context source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/melancholia Area of use: Medicine

Commentary : The name "melancholia" comes from the old medical belief of the four humours: disease or ailment being caused by an imbalance in one or other of the four basic bodily liquids, or humours. Personality types were similarly determined by the dominant humour in a particular person. According to Hippocrates, melancholia was

caused by an excess of black bile, hence the name, which means 'black bile', from Ancient Greek "" (melas), "dark, black", + "" (khol), "bile"; a person whose constitution tended to have a preponderance of black bile had a melancholic disposition. See also: sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric. Melancholia was described as a distinct disease with particular mental and physical symptoms in the fifth and fourth centuries BC. Hippocrates, in his Aphorisms, characterized all "fears and despondencies, if they last a long time" as being symptomatic of melancholia. In the medieval Arab world, the Arab psychologist Ishaq ibn Imran (d. 908), known as "Isaac" in the West, wrote an essay entitled Maqala fi-l-Malikhuliya, in which he discovered a type of melancholia: the "cerebral type" or "phrenitis". He carried out a diagnosis on this mental disorder, describing its varied symptoms. The main clinical features he identified were sudden movement, foolish acts, fear, delusions and hallucinations. Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi (d. 982) discussed mental illness in his medical encyclopedia, Kitab al-Malaki, which was translated into Latin as Liber pantegni, where he discovered and observed another type of melancholia: clinical lycanthropy, associated with certain personality disorders. He wrote the following on this particular type of melancholia: "Its victim behaves like a rooster and cries like a dog, the patient wanders among the tombs at night, his eyes are dark, his mouth is dry, the patient hardly ever recovers and the disease is hereditary." In The Canon of Medicine (1020s), Avicenna dealt with neuropsychiatry and described a number of neuropsychiatric conditions, including melancholia. He described melancholia as a depressive type of mood disorder in which the person may become suspicious and develop certain types of phobias. The Canon of Medicine was also translated into Latin in the 12th century. In his study of French and Burgundian courtly culture, Johan Huizinga noted that "at the close of the Middle Ages, a sombre melancholy weighs on people's souls." In chronicles, poems, sermons, even in legal documents, an immense sadness, a note of despair and a fashionable sense of suffering and deliquescence at the approaching end of times, suffuses court poets and chroniclers alike: Huizinga quotes instances in the

ballads of Eustache Deschamps, "monotonous and gloomy variations of the same dismal theme", and in Georges Chastellain's prologue to his Burgundian chronicle, and in the late fifteenth-century poetry of Jean Meschinot. Ideas of reflection and the workings of imagination are blended in the term merencolie, embodying for contemporaries "a tendency", observes Huizinga, "to identify all serious occupation of the mind with sadness". The most extended treatment of melancholia comes from Robert Burton, whose The Anatomy of Melancholy (1621) treats the subject from both a literary and a medical perspective. Burton wrote in the 16th century that music and dance were critical in treating mental illness, especially melancholia. A famous allegorical engraving by Albrecht Drer is entitled Melencolia I. This engraving portrays melancholia as the state of waiting for inspiration to strike, and not necessarily as a depressive affliction. Amongst other allegorical symbols, the picture includes a magic square, and a truncated rhombohedron. The image in turn inspired a passage in The City of Dreadful Night by James Thomson (B.V.), and, a few years later, a sonnet by Edward Dowden. Designation status : Official 34. Termen:ALIENARE MINTALA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nebunie Definiie : Nebunie sau alienare, alienaie, demen, sminteal, smintire, icneal, boal mintal, a fost pn sfritul secolului al XIX -lea considerat ca o comportare neobinuit ca nu se ncadreaz n normele de comportare n societate. Termenul definea n trecut numai o aberaie de la comportarea unui om normal (latin delirare). C aceast comportare neobinuit este legat de o boal, exista n medicin numai o presupunere vag despre o cauz patologic Sursa definiiei: http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nebunie.

Nota bene : Din Corespondent englez: alienation Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Context : Aflat n faa vreunui caz de alienare mintal ori tulburare psihic, este dificil s te pronuni dac acela este sau nu sub nrurirea vreunui duh ru. Nu sunt specialist n medicin psihiatric, ns neleg prin natura unei pregtiri generale c disfunciile psihice au totdeauna legtur cu anumite disfuncii organice, disfuncii cerebrale, disfuncii endocrine sau hormonale i tiu c acestea pot fi tratate doar n clinici specializate. Se ntmpl ns ca persoane - care nu neleg ntru nimic sensul, rostul i necesitatea tratrii bolilor psihice de ctre personalul medical instruit n acest sens - s pun adesea alienarea mintal pe seama posedrii de ctre diavol.

Sursa contextului: http://www.laurentiudumitru.ro/cazul-tanacu.php Context : Tulburari ale ratiunii si vointei care apara de raspundere, daca exclud capacitatea persoanei de a intelege faptele savarsite si consecintele acestora, precum si de a-si autodetermina conduita. Cel care nu are discernamant pentru a se ingriji de interesele sale din cauza alienarii mintale este pus sub interdictie Sursa contextului: http://www.euroavocatura.ro/dictionar/2130/Alienare_mintala Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Activitatea fizica pura, ce nu implica prea multe eforturi intelectuale, ar putea fi eliberatoare, dar in acelasi timp, poate sa duca si la alienare mintala, sugereaza un nou studiu realizat de cercetatorii de la Universitatea New South Wales. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : ALIENATION ID Language : English

ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/alienation Definition : A state of estrangement between the self and the objective world or between different parts of the personality. Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/alienation Nota bene: L, alienare, to estrange Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Synonym: disaffection, estrangement

Context: Real alienation is explained by Hegel as alienation of the spirit. The overcoming of alienation is the theoretical recognition of the falseness of alienation. Marx referred to this as Hegels uncritical positivism. Hegel makes no distinction between objectification and alienation, equating the latter with the objectification of human abilities. In his critique of Hegel, L. Feuerbach offered an anthropological interpretation of alienation. Regarding religion as the alienation of the material and sensuous essence of man, he saw the causes of this alienation in certain psychological states, such as fear and a feeling of dependence. He interpreted mans sensuous nature as the inalienable foundation of human life and juxtaposed it to the false world of alienation, which includes idealism and theology. This line of thought, which counterposes the genuine and the unreal, the world of alienation and the world of love, was further reinforced by the Young Hegelians (for example, B. Bauer and M. Hess) and by various petit bourgeois ideologists of the 1840s and 1850s, including Proudhon and M. Stirner.

Context source: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/alienation Context : The concept of alienation is deeply embedded in all the great religions and social and political theories of the civilised epoch, namely, the idea that some time in the past people lived in harmony, and then there was some kind of rupture which left people feeling like foreigners in the world, but some time in the future this alienation would be overcome and humanity would again live in harmony with itself and Nature. Context source http://www.marxists.org/glossary/terms/a/l.htm Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Marx's theory of alienation argues that things that naturally belong together are kept separate, or things that are properly in harmony are made to be antagonized. In the concept's most important use, it refers to the alienation of people from aspects of their "human nature" (Gattungswesen, usually translated as 'species-essence' or 'species-being'). Marx believed that alienation is a systematic result of capitalism. His theory relies on Feuerbach's The Essence of Christianity (1841), which argues that the idea of God has alienated the characteristics of the human being. Stirner would take the analysis further in The Ego and Its Own (1844), declaring that even 'humanity' is an alienating ideal for the individual, to which Marx and Engels responded in The German Ideology (1845). Designation status : Official

35. Termen:PANICA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.dex-online-ro.ro/search.php?cuv=PANICA Definiie : Senzaie de spaim violent de care este cuprins subit (i adesea fr temei) o persoan sau o colectivitate. Sursa definiiei: http://www.dex-online-ro.ro/search.php?cuv=PANICA. Corespondent englez: panic disorder Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: stare anxioasa Hiponim: atac de panica Sinonim: acces de angoasa Context : Atacul de panica este un acces brusc de frica intensa sau anxietate (stare afectiva caracterizata prin neliniste psihomotorie, teama nedeslusita, fara obiect) care cauzeaza

simptome ingrijoratoare, dar care nu ameninta viata: batai accentuate ale inimii, dificultatea respiratiei, sentimente de pierdere a controlului sau de moarte iminenta. In mod obisnuit, dureaza de la 5 la 20 minute si poate fi cauzat de circumstante stresante sau poate aparea pe nesteptate.

Sursa

contextului:

http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Anxietate-si-atac-de-

panica/atacul -de-panica-si-tulburarile-cauzate-de-panica_16 Context : Tulburarile cauzate de panica pot fi controlate medicamentos (antidepresive) si prin consiliere (terapia comportamentala). Tratamentul eficace reduce numarul si frecventa atacurilor de panica, scade anxietatea si imbunatateste calitatea vietii. Daca atacurile de panica au un factor cauzal anume (reactie medicamentoasa) nu este neaparat necesar tratament, acestea oprindu-se dupa inlaturarea cauzei (oprirea medicatiei cu ajutorul medicului). Cateodata atacurile de panica pot continua si dupa inlaturarea factorului cauzal si pot determina tulburari cauzate de panica.

Sursa contextului:

http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Anxietate-si-atac-de

panica/ atacul-de-panica-si-tulburarile-cauzate-de-panica_16 Arie de utilizare : medicina

Comentariu: Cauza exacta a tulburarilor legate de panica nu este cunoscuta. Se crede ca este rezultatul unui dezechilibru intre substantele chimice ale creierului (neurotransmitatori). De asemenea, poate fi transmisa de la o generatie la alta (genetic). Copii cu parinti cu astfel de tulburari au sanse de 8 ori mai mari decat altii sa dezvolte boala. Un risc crescut il au si cei care au parinti cu depresie sau tulburari bipolare. Tensiunea nervoasa (de exemplu pierderea unei relatii) poate declansa simptome ale tulburarilor de panica. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : PANIC DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Panic+disorder Definition : A psychological disorder characterized by recurrent panic attacks and usually resulting in the development of one or more phobias, such as agoraphobia. It may or may not be associated with a specific situational trigger Definition source: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Panic+disorder

Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun

Context: Each year, panic disorder affects one out of 63 Americans. While many people experience moments of anxiety, panic attacks are sudden and unprovoked, having little to do with real danger. Panic disorder is a chronic, debilitating condition that can

have a devastating impact on a person's family, work, and social life. Typically, the first attack strikes without warning. A person might be walking down the street, driving a car, or riding an escalator when suddenly panic strikes. Pounding heart, sweating palms, and an overwhelming feeling of impending doom are common features. While the attack may last only seconds or minutes, the experience can be profoundly disturbing. A person who has had one panic attack typically worries that another one may occur at any time. As the fear of future panic attacks deepens, the person begins to avoid situations in which panic occurred in the past. In severe cases of panic disorder, the victim refuses to leave the house for fear of having a panic attack. This fear of being in exposed places is often called agoraphobia. People with untreated panic disorder may have problems getting to work or staying on the job. As the person's world narrows, untreated panic disorder can lead to depression, substance abuse, and in rare instances, suicide. Context source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/panic+disorder Context : Most of the symptoms of a panic attack are physical, and many times these symptoms are so severe that people think theyre having a heart attack. In fact, many people suffering from panic attacks make repeated trips to the doctor or the emergency room in an attempt to get treatment for what they believe is a life-threatening medical problem. While its important to rule out possible medical causes of symptoms such as chest pain, heart palpitations, or difficulty breathing, its often panic that is overlooked as a potential cause not the other way around.

Context source http://www.helpguide.org/mental/panic_disorder_anxiety_attack_ symptom_treatment.htm Area of use: Medicine

Commentary : Causes and symptoms Scientists are not sure what causes panic disorder, but they suspect the tendency to develop the condition can be inherited. Some experts think that people with panic disorder may have a hypersensitive nervous system that unnecessarily responds to nonexistent threats. Research suggests that people with panic disorder may not be able to make proper use of their body's normal stress-reducing chemicals. People with panic disorder usually have their first panic attack in their 20s. Four or more of the following symptoms during panic attacks would indicate panic disorder if no medical, drug-related, neurologic, or other psychiatric disorder is found: pounding, skipping or palpitating heartbeat shortness of breath or the sensation of smothering dizziness or lightheadedness nausea or stomach problems chest pains or pressure choking sensation or a "lump in the throat" chills or hot flashes sweating fear of dying feelings of unreality or being detached tingling or numbness shaking and trembling fear of losing control or going crazy A panic attack is often accompanied by the urge to escape, together with a feeling of certainty that death is imminent. Others are convinced they are about to have a heart attack, suffocate, lose control, or "go crazy." Once people experience a panic attack, they

tend to worry so much about having another attack that they avoid the place or situation associated with the original episode. Designation status : Official

36. Termen:AMBIVALENTA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.dexonline.news20.ro/cuvant/ambivalenta.html Definiie : stare psihologic a unui individ care denot n acelai timp tendine i triri contradictorii Sursa definiiei: http://www.dexonline.news20.ro/cuvant/ambivalenta.html. Nota bene : Din fr. ambivalence Corespondent englez: ambivalence Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Sinonim: nevroza obsesionala Context : mai multe moduri. 1. Ambivalenta ca si contopire a sentimentelor pozitive si negative trezite de una si aceeasi persoana. Aceste sentimente de ambivalenta deriva dintr-o radacina unica si nu dintr-un amestec de calitati in persoana spre care este dirijata ambivalenta. De ex. ambivalenta infantila fata de mama pleaca de la coexistenta in copil a capacitatii de a iubi si a celei de a ura si nu de la trasaturile de caracter atragatoare sau respingatoare ale mamei (care pot insa sa sporeasca ambivalenta). Jung utilizeaza termenul de Ambivalenta in conceptia lui Jung Jung a folosit termenul de ambivalenta pe care l-a preluat de la Bleuer ("ambivalenta" a fost introdus de Bleuer) in

"ambivalenta" cu sensul de "bivalenta", pe care il leaga de polarizarea pozitiva si negativa. Sursa contextului: http://www.psihoterapie.net/dictionar/a/ambivalenta.html

Context : In psihanaliza termenul de ambivalenta este folosit pentru atitudinile emotionale in care coexista impulsuri contradictorii, de tipul ura-dragoste. De exemplu imi urasc mama pentru ca mi-a interzis mereu sa fac anumite lucruri, dar in acelasi timp o iubesc si mi-e teama ca daca ii spun ce am pe suflet se va supara pe mine. Sursa contextului: http://www.consilierepsihologica.net/?p=527 Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : AMBIVALENCE ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ambivalence Definition : a state in which a person concomitantly experiences conflicting feelings, attitudes, drives, desires, or emotions, such as love and hate, tenderness and cruelty, pleasure and pain toward the same person, place, object, or situation. To some degree, ambivalence is normal. Treatment in severe, debilitating cases consists of psychotherapy appropriate to the underlying cause. Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ambivalence Nota bene: L, ambo, both, valentia, strength Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Synonym: indecision, doubt, opposition, conflict, uncertainty, contradiction, wavering, fluctuation, hesitancy, equivocation, vacillation, irresolution

Context: In psychoanalysis, the concept of ambivalence (introduced by Bleuler in 1911) refers to an underlying emotional attitude in which the co-existing contradictory impulses (usually love and hate) derive from a common source and are thus held to be interdependent. Moreover, when the term is used in this psychoanalytic sense, it would not usually be expected that the person embodying ambivalence would actually feel both of the two contradictory emotions as such. With the exception of cases of obsessional neurosis, one or other of the conflicting sides is usually repressed. Thus, for example, an analysand's love for his father might be quite consciously experienced and openly expressed while his 'hate' for the same object might be heavily repressed and only indirectly expressed, and thus only revealed in analysis. Another relevant distinction is that whereas the psychoanalytic notion of 'ambivalence' sees it as engendered by all neurotic conflict, a person's everyday 'mixed feelings' may easily be based on a quite realistic assessment of the imperfect nature of the thing being considered Context source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/ambivalence Context : Ambivalence manifests itself in many ways:yhe inability to make a choice,doubt in decision,confusion.When one is in a state of great ambivalence about the pros and cons on marrying someone,about a career option,or something of equal significance,the associated mental conflict can have an adverse effect on ones health. Context source THE FAMILY MENTAL HEALTH ENCYCLOPEDIA,FRANK J.BRUNO PH.D. Area of use: Medicine Designation status : Official

37. Termen:SINDROM AMOTIVATIONAL Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa: http://www.psihoterapia.eu/index.php?option=com_content&task=view& id=175&Itemid=44 Definiie : pierderea dorintei de a desfasura activitati curente, caracterizat de apatie, lipsa de energie, cresterea in greutate Sursa definiiei: http://www.psihoterapia.eu/index.php?option=com_content& task=view&id=175&Itemid=44. Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : AMOTIVATIONAL SYNDROME ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Amotivational+syndrome Definition : Amotivational syndrome is a psychological condition associated with diminished inspiration to participate in social situations and activities, with lapses in apathy caused by an external event, situation, substance (or lack of), relationship, or other cause.

Definition source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Amotivational+ syndrome Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Context: Amotivational Syndrome" was hypothesized as a long term effect of marijuana use -- that is, it was supposed to be an effect which occured among people who smoke pot, not when they were stoned, but all the time. Various studies were done to try to find "Amotivational Syndrome." Some claimed success. Others claimed that there was no such animal. But there was one trend: the more successful studies were done on young persons Context source: http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/slikker.htm Context : Amotivational Syndrome It has sometimes been observed that when a young person starts smoking marijuana there are systematic changes in that person's lifestyle, ambitions, motivation, and possibly personality. These changes have been collectively referred to as the _amotivational syndrome_, whose symptoms are: "... apathy, loss of effectiveness, and diminished capacity or willingness to carry out complex, long-term plans, endure frustration, concentrate for long periods, follow routines, or successfully master new material. Verbal facility is often impaired both in speaking and writing. Some individuals exhibit greater introversion, become totally

involved with the present at the expense of future goals and demonstrate a strong tendency toward regressive, childlike, magical thinking." Context source http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_myth17.shtml Area of use: Medicine Designation status : Official 38. Termen:PERSONALITATE MULTIPLA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.sfatmedical.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/Tulburarea_de_ identitate_disociativa_personalitatea_multipla Definiie : Este o tulburare cronica ce consta in prezenta a doua sau mai multe personalitati distincte, fiecare avand un set specific de atitudini si comportamente Sursa definiiei:http://www.sfatmedical.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/Tulburarea _de_identitate_disociativa_personalitatea_multipla. Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Context : Subiect incitant pentru psihiatri, dar si pentru scenaristii de film, tulburarea 'personalitatii multiple' suscita de ani buni dispute aprinse. Considerata de multi o curiozitate psihiatrica rara si misterioasa, tulburarea de identitate disociata (cunoscuta anterior ca tulburare de personalitate multipla) este de fapt mult mai frecventa. Cercetarile recente realizate de Asociatia Psihologilor Americani arata ca tulburarea de identitate disociata este diagnosticul real pentru 5-20% dintre persoanele din spitalele psihiatrice, din nefericire multi dintre ei primind un alt diagnostic si un tratament gresit. Statisticile plaseaza tulburarile disociative in aceeasi categorie cu schizofrenia, depresia si anxietatea, ca una dintre cele patru probleme mentale majore din anul 2006.

Sursa

contextului:

http://grajdaru.3x.ro/e107_plugins/content/content.php?

content.161

Context : Exista semne clinice care ridica ipoteza unei personalitati multiple: bolnavul raporteaza existenta unor "goluri" de memorie bolnavului i se descriu de catre alte persoane intamplari in care a fost implicat si de care nu isi aduce aminte bolnavul este recunoscut de persoane straine care i se adreseaza utilizand un alt nume modificari notabile in comportamentului bolnavului semnalate de observatori directi alta personalitate (alte personaliti) apare in cursul hipnozei utilizarea pronumelui "noi" referitor la propria persoana cefalee pronuntata descoperirea de scrieri, desene, articole de imbracaminte intre posesiile bolnavului, dar pe care bolnavul nu le recunoaste ca fiind ale sale halucinatii auditive, sub forma de voci "venite din interior Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatmedical.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/Tulbu rarea_de_identitate_disociativa_personalitatea_multipla Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Atunci cand se confrunta cu situatii traumatice coplesitoare din care, boala apare ca o aparare dupa o trauma psihica din copilarie: viol, abuz sexual din partea parintilor, violenta fizica in familie. Dupa astfel de situatii, copiii folosesc fuga de realitate ca un mod de aparare extrem de eficace impotriva durerii fizice si emotionale acute sau contra anticiparii ingrijoratoare a durerii. Prin acest proces

disociativ,

gandurile,

sentimentele,

amintirile

si

perceptiile

experientei

traumatizante pot fi separate psihologic, astfel incat copilul sa functioneze ca si cand trauma nu s-ar fi intamplat. Ionel se transforma in Vasilica. Tulburarile disociative sunt adesea mentionate ca o tehnica de supravietuire foarte creativa. Acestea permit indivizilor sa indure circumstante "disperate, fara speranta" pentru a conserva cateva zone de functionare sanatoasa. Totusi, pentru un copil ce a fost violat fizic si sexual in mod repetat, disocierea defensiva devine in timp consolidata si conditionata. Deoarece evadarea disociata este atat de eficace, copiii care au practicat-o frecvent si o pot folosi automat oricand se simt amenintati sau anxiosi - chiar daca situatia provocatoare de teama nu este extrema sau abuziva. In acest sens, statisticile sunt graitoare: in SUA, 8% din populatie a suferit cel putin un episod traumatizant in copilarie. Pentru Romania nu exista statistici, dar probabil cifra este asemanatoare. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : disorder Definition : Multiple personality disorder, or MPD, is a mental disturbance classified as one of the dissociative disorders in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). It has been renamed dissociative identity disorder (DID). MPD or DID is defined as a condition in which "two or more distinct identities or personality states" alternate in controlling the patient's consciousness and behavior. Note: "Split personality" is not an accurate term for DID and should not be used as a synonym for schizophrenia. Definition source: http://medicaldictionary.thefreedictionary.com/multiple+ http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/multiple+personality+

personality+disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: This disorder is theoretically linked with the interaction of

overwhelming stress, traumatic antecedents, insufficient childhood nurturing, and an innate ability to dissociate memories or experiences from consciousness. A high percentage of patients report child abuse. People diagnosed with DID often report that they have experienced severe physical and sexual abuse, especially during early to mid childhood. Several psychiatric rating scales of DID sufferers suggested that DID is strongly related to childhood trauma rather than to an underlying electrophysiological dysfunction.

Others believe that the symptoms of DID are created iatrogenically by therapists using certain treatment techniques with suggestible patients, but this idea is not universally accepted. Skeptics have observed that a small number of US therapists were responsible for diagnosing the majority of individuals with DID there, that patients did not report sexual abuse or manifest alters until after treatment had begun, and that the "alters" tended to be rule-governed social roles rather than separate personalities. Context source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/multiple+personality+disorder Context : Not all children who are severely and repeatedly abused develop

multiple personality disorder. However, if the abuse is repeatedly extreme and the child does not have enough time to recover emotionally, the disassociated thoughts and feelings may begin to take on lives of their own. Each cluster of thoughts tends to have a

common emotional theme such as anger, sadness, or fear. Eventually, these clusters develop into full-blown personalities, each with its own memory and characteristics.

Context source http://www.scienceclarified.com/Ma-Mu/Multiple-PersonalityDisorder.html Area of use: Medicine Commentary : MPD does not disappear without treatment, although the rate of switching seems to slow down in middle age. The most common treatment for MPD is long-term psychotherapy twice a week. During these sessions, the therapist must develop a trusting relationship with the main personality and each of the alters. Once that is established, the emotional issues of each personality regarding the original trauma are addressed. The main and alters are encouraged to communicate with each other in order to integrate or come together. Hypnosis is often a useful tool to accomplish this goal. At the same time, the therapist helps the patient to acknowledge and accept the physical or sexual abuse he or she endured as a child and to learn new coping skills so that disassociation is no longer necessary. About one-half of all people being treated for MPD require brief hospitalization, and only 5 percent are primarily treated in psychiatric hospitals. Sometimes mood-altering medications such as tranquilizers or antidepressants are prescribed for MPD patients. The treatment of MPD lasts an average of four year Designation status : Official

39. Termen:TULBURARE DE PERSONALITATE NARCISISTA Limba termenului: Romn

Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://alinamd.wordpress.com/2008/10/03/tulburarea-de-personalitatenarcisista/ Definiie : Tulburarea de personalitate narcisica este o afectiune mentala in care pacientul are un simt crescut al propriei importante si o nevoie profunda de a fi admirat. Ei cred ca sunt superiori celorlalti si au putina consideratie fata de sentimentele acestora din urma. Dar in spatele mastii de incredere foarte mare sta o imagine de sine fragila, vulnerabila la cea mai mica critica. Sursa definiiei: http://alinamd.wordpress.com/2008/10/03/tulburarea-depersonalitate-narcisista/. Corespondent englez: narcissistic personality disorder Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : grup nominal Hiponim: componenta narcisica a personalitatii

Context : Simptomele tulburarii de personalitate narcisica cuprind: - credinta ca este mai bun decat ceilalti - prezenta unor fantezii despre putere, succes si atractivitate - exagerarea propriilor realizari si talente - asteptarea continua de lauda si admiratie - credinta ca este special - esuarea in a recunoaste emotiile si sentimentele celorlalti - convingerea ca ceilalti trebuie sa fie de acord cu ideile si planurile sale - profitare de bunavointa celorlalti - dispretul fata de persoanele pe care le considera inferioare

- gelozie fata de altii - credinta ca ceilalti sunt gelosi fata de persoana sa - probleme in mentinerea unor relatii sanatoase - stabilirea de scopuri nerealiste - se simte rapid respins si ranit - incredere in sine fragila - aparenta de persoana cerebrala si neemotionala. Sursa contextului: http://alinamd.wordpress.com/2008/10/03/tulburarea-depersonalitate-narcisista/ Context : Psihologii trateaz aceast trstur ca fiind o boal foarte greu de tratat, poate chiar fr rezultat optim. Singurul lucru bun care se poate face este o terapie care s ncerce o stopare a naintrii acestei disfuncii de personalitate sau, cel puin controlarea naintrii ei. Putem considera aceast boal ca si o criz permanent de personalitate. Narcisismul este o extrem nefericit a respectului pentru propria persoan. Narcisistul nu va avea niciodat prieteni i nu se va putea acomoda niciodat ntr-un grup, deoarece el se va simi ntotdeauna superior celorlali din punct de vedere estetic. Pe de alt parte, nici ceilali nu-l vor accepta n preajma lor, narcisistul fiind considerat o persoan foarte dificil, o persoan cu care trebuie s te pori cu mnui. Sursa contextului: http://nutolera.com/2010/07/tulburarea-de-personalitate-de-tipnarcisic/ Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Tulburarea de personalitate narcisica este una din cele cateva tipuri de tulburari de personalitate. Tulburarile de personalitate sunt afectiuni in care oamenii au caracteristici care ii fac sa se simta si sa se poarte dezagreabil in preajma celorlalti, limitand abilitatile lor de a functiona in cadrul relatiilor sau in alte arii ale vietii, cum ar fi profesional sau scolar. In mod particular, personalitatea narcisica este caracterizata de un

comportament dramatic, emotional, intrand in aceeasi categorie cu tulburarile de personalitate histrionica, antisociala si borderline. Tratamentul tulburarii de personalitate narcisica se centreaza pe psihoterapie. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : NARCISSISTIC PERSONALITY DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Narcissistic+personality +disorder Definition : a psychiatric diagnosis characterized by an exaggerated sense of selfimportance and uniqueness, an abnormal need for attention and admiration, preoccupation with grandiose fantasies concerning the self, and disturbances in interpersonal relationships, usually involving the exploitation of others and a lack of empathy. Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Narcissistic+ personality+disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: The prevalence of Narcissistic Personality Disorder is less than 1% of the general population. It is seen in 2% to 16% of psychiatric outpatients. This disorder is more frequent in males (50% to 75%) than females. Course:Narcissistic traits are very common in adolescents, but most adolescents grow out of this behavior. Unfortunately, for some, this narcissistic behavior persists and intensifies into adulthood; thus they become diagnosed with this disorder. Context source: http://www.mentalhealth.com/dis/p20-pe07.html Context : In many cases, people with narcissistic personality disorder: Are self-centered and boastful

Seek constant attention and admiration Consider themselves better than others Exaggerate their talents and achievements Believe that they are entitled to special treatment Are easily hurt but may not show it Set unrealistic goals May take advantage of others to achieve their goals Context source http://www.medicinenet.com/narcissistic_personalitydisorder/article.htm Area of use:Medicine Commentary : Narcissistic personality disorder is one of a group of conditions called dramatic personality disorders. People with these disorders have intense, unstable emotions and a distorted self-image. Narcissistic personality disorder is further characterized by an abnormal love of self, an exaggerated sense of superiority and importance, and a preoccupation with success and power. However, these attitudes and behaviors do not reflect true self-confidence. Instead, the attitudes conceal a deep sense of insecurity and a fragile self-esteem. Designation status : Official 40. Termen:COMPLEXUL LUI OEDIP Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dictionar.romedic.ro/complex_al_lui_oedip Definitie: n psihanaliz, complexul Oedip simbolizeaz legtura erotic incontient cu printele de sex opus i rivalitatea fa de printele de acelai sex,

care se dezvolt nc din copilrie i provoac sentimente de vinovie i team n cadrul unei stri nevrotice. Sursa definiiei: http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complexul_Oedip. Corespondent englez: OEDIPUS COMPLEX Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : grup nominal Context : Complexul lui Oedip este un concept teoretic central in Psihanaliza. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) a descris aceasta notiune, referindu-se la o legenda a Greciei antice, in care Oedip, fiul regelui din Teba, fara sa stie, ucide pe propriul lui tata, Laios, si se casatoreste cu mama lui, Iocasta. In psihanaliza, complexul Oedip simbolizeaza legatura erotica inconstienta cu parintele de sex opus si rivalitatea fata de parintele de acelasi sex, care se dezvolta inca din copilarie si provoaca sentimente de vinovatie si teama in cadrul unei stari nevrotice. Potrivit teoriei, complexul apare in timpul asa numitei faza oedipiana si isi face simtita prezenta in jurul varstei de 3-5 ani Sursa contextului: http://www.rightwords.ro/dictionar/complexul-lui-oedip--9 Context : n primele sale lucrri, Freud folosete expresiile "complex nuclear" sau "complex matern", termenul de "complex Oedip" (dipuskomplex) apare pentru prima dat n lucrarea "Zur Psychologie des Sexuallebens" ("Psihologia vieii sexuale", 1910). Dup Freud, elaborarea unui "complex Oedip" constituie o etap normal n dezvoltarea copiilor de sex masculin, mama fiind perceput din primul stadiu de dezvoltare drept aceea care i ofer snul pentru a se nutri, fapt care declaneaz o prim senzaie elementar de plcere ("faza oral" a vieii sexuale). Acest impuls iniial de tandree este la originea complexului Oedip, care apoi evolueaz n trei faze:

Faza falic. Copilul de sex masculin ncepe s aib intuiia compotamentului sexual al prinilor, ntre care ar exista o complicitate din care el este exclus. Sentimentul de frustraie i provoac reacii tipice, ncercnd s se interpun ntre

tat i mam (de ex. intr n camera prinilor fr s bat la u). Dezvolt o rivalitate fa de tat i i exhibeaz penisul n prezena mamei.

Teama de castrare. Tatl capt n reprezentarea fiului statura unei figuri autoritare susceptibil s-l pedepseasc. Fiul i imagineaz castrarea fie ca o sanciune din partea tatlui, n situaia de rivalitate (complex Oedip "pozitiv"), fie ca o identificare cu mama, n dorina invers de a-i seduce tatl (complex Oedip "inversat", care demonstreaz ambivalena i bisexualitatea uman potenial). Impulsurile sexuale sunt n aceast faz refulate i pot genera traume psihice i stri nevrotice.

Faza rezolutiv sau de identificare. Refularea impulsurilor sexuale dureaz pn la adolescen, vrst la care fiul se elibereaz treptat de complexul Oedip i i caut parteneri sexuali n afara prinilor, construindu-i propria personalitate cu elemente ce provin att de la mam, ct i de la tat. Sursa contextului: http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complexul_Oedip Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Este o perioada fundamentala in dezvoltarea copilului. Conflictul oedipian are loc in general intre varsta de trei si cinci ani. Freud a preluat acest mit pentru a ilustra relatiile tumultoase dintre un copil si parintii lui: copilul va fi indragostit de parintele de sex opus si va manifesta sentimente de rivalitate fata de parintele de acelasi sex cu el. Aceasta perioada de intrebari este de asemenea o faza a opozitiilor: copilul este supus impulsurilor, le suporta si se acomodeaza cu ele. Cele mai multe consultatii psihologice au loc in aceasta perioada. Caci aceasta faza de organizare a legaturilor afective se traduce printr-o agitatie emotionala intensa. Copilul se foloseste de subterfugii pentru a va atrage atentia si a va separa de partenerul de viata. Amintiti-va ca trece printr-o perioada intensa si incercati sa-l intelegeti in loc sa-l pedepsiti. Insa o situatie oedipiana

reusita nu conduce mereu pe calea heterosexualitatii ci participa la echilibrul afectiv. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : OEPIDUS COMPLEX ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.thefreedictionary.com/OEDIPUS+COMPLEX Definition : In psychoanalysis, a subconscious sexual desire in a child, especially a male child, for the parent of the opposite sex, usually accompanied by hostility to the parent of the same sex

Definition source: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/OEDIPUS+COMPLEX Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: Oedipus complex, Freudian term, drawn from the myth of Oedipus designating attraction on the part of the child toward the parent of the opposite sex and rivalry and hostility toward the parent of its own. It occurs during the phallic stage of the psycho-sexual development of the personality, approximately years three to five. Resolution of the Oedipus complex is believed to occur by identification with the parent of the same sex and by the renunciation of sexual interest in the parent of the opposite sex. Freud considered this complex the cornerstone of the superego and the nucleus of all human relationships. Many psychiatrists, while acknowledging the significance of the Oedipal relationships to personality development in our culture, ascribe love and

attraction toward one parent and hatred and antagonism toward the other not necessarily to sexual rivalry but to resentment of parental authoritarian power Context source: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Oedipus+complex Context : Modern interpretations of Freudian theories are often critical, and his Oedipus theory has been no exception. Many current psychologists think of it as too simplistic, and the authors of the Oxford Companion to the Mind (1987) state, "Freud's formula gives a onesided and too simple an account of the complex interactions of the family." It would be fair to say that this is the current view of Freud's Oedipal notions. Yet, looking to Freud's Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis (1920), Freud writes, "I do not wish to assert that the Oedipus complex exhausts the relation of children to their parents: it can easily be far more complicated. The Oedipus complex can, moreover, be developed to a greater or lesser strength, it can even be reversed; but it is a regular and very important factor in a child's mental life." Read more: Oedipus Complex - Freud, Parent, Feelings, Electra, Love, and Theory http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/460/Oedipus-Complex.html#ixzz1Fj8TlqVS Context source http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/460/Oedipus-Complex.html Area of use: Medicine Commentary : One potent postmodern voice of protest against the dethroning of the Oedipus complex has been that of Lacan. He considered "the Oedipus complex - in so far as we continue to recognize it as covering the whole field of our experience with its signification - ...superimposes the kingdom of culture"[14] upon the individual: marks his or her entrance into the symbolic order. In this sense, 'a child learns what power independent of itself is as it goes through the Oedipus complex...encountering the existence of a symbolic system independent of it'[15]. Designation status : Official

41. Termen:BOALA PICK Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.paginamedicala.ro/boli-afectiuni/Boala-Pick_688/ Definiie : ,,Forma particulara din punct si de rara vedere de dementa degenerativa atrofie presenila,caracterizata anatomic printr-o

circumscrisa,care afecteaza de obicei regiunile frontale si temporale,fiind insotita de modificari neuronale specifice. Sursa definiiei: DICTIONAR DE PSIHOLOGIE. Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: dementa Context : Boala Pick Debuteaza mai devreme decat boala Alzheimer si este dificil de diferentiat de aceasta. Examenele imagistice arata atrofii lobare simetrice ale lobilor temporali sau frontali (patognomonice pentru boala Pick), atrofii care pot sa prinda si ganglionii bazali. Morfopatologic, neuronii sunt balonizati, iar la coloratia argentica

prezinta incluziuni citoplasmatice cunoscute sub numele de corpi Pick, provenind din componentele alterate ale citoscheletului neuronal. Diferentierea de boala Alzheimer este ingreunata si de faptul ca placile amiloide se intalnesc in ambele cazuri la nivelul creierului. Din punct de vedere clinic, boala Pick este o dementa care progreseaza lent. Simptome includ: tulburari de memorie, pierderea initiativei, imposibilitatea de a denumi obiectele cunoscute, stereotipii verbale, pacientii isi pierd capacitatea de a conduce actiuni simple (de exemplu nu mai stiu sa se imbrace, sa foloseasca o bricheta etc.), reactioneaza identic la evenimente diferite. tratament tintit pentru boala Pick. Sursa contextului: http://www.paginamedicala.ro/boli-afectiuni/Boala-Pick_688/ Context : Din punct de vedere clinic, boala Pick este o dementa care progreseaza lent. Simptome includ: tulburari de memorie, pierderea initiativei, imposibilitatea de a denumi obiectele cunoscute, stereotipii verbale, pacientii isi pierd capacitatea de a conduce actiuni simple (de exemplu nu mai stiu sa se imbrace, sa foloseasca o bricheta etc.), reactioneaza identic la evenimente diferite. Alte simptome care insotesc boala sunt iritabilitatea, dezinhibitia emotionala, cresterea poftei de mancare. Alte simptome care insotesc boala sunt Nu exista un iritabilitatea, dezinhibitia emotionala, cresterea poftei de mancare.

Sursa contextului: http://www.romedic.ro/boala-pick Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : PICKS DISEASE ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pick's_disease

Definition : Pick's disease, is a rare neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive destruction of nerve cells in the brain. Symptoms include loss of speech (aphasia), and dementia. Definition source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pick's_disease Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: dementia Context: Pick's disease is named after Arnold Pick, a professor of psychiatry from the University of Prague who first discovered and described the disease in 1892 by examining the brain tissue of several deceased patients with histories of dementia. As a result, the characteristic histological feature of this disease - a protein tangle that appears as a large body in neuronal tissue - is named a Pick body. In 1911, Alois Alzheimer also noted the complete absence of senile plaques and neurofilbrillary tangles as well as the presence of Pick Bodies and occasional ballooned neurons. Context source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pick's_disease Context : The symptoms of Pick's disease include difficulty in speech and thinking, and behavioral changes. The changes in personality allow doctors to distinguish between Pick's disease and Alzheimer's disease.. Pick's disease is one of the causes of the clinical syndrome of frontotemporal lobar degeneration which has three subtypes. Pick's disease pathology is associated more with the frontotemporal dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia subtypes than the semantic dementia subtype. Context source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pick's_disease Area of use: Medicine Commentary : The disease gets worse slowly. Tissues in the temporal and frontal lobes of the brain start to shrink over time. Symptoms such as behavior changes, speech difficulty, and impaired thinking occur slowly, but continue to get worse. The early personality changes can help doctors tell Pick's disease apart from Alzheimers. (Memory loss is often the main, and earliest, symptom of Alzheimer's.) People with Pick's disease

tend to behave the wrong way in different social settings. The changes in behavior continue to get worse and are often one of the most disturbing symptoms of the disease. Some patients will have more prominent difficulty with decision making, complex tasks, or language (trouble finding or understanding words or writing).

General symptoms are listed below. Behavioral changes: Can't keep a job Compulsive behaviors Inappropriate behavior Inability to function or interact in social or personal situations Problems with personal hygiene Repetitive behavior Withdrawal from social interaction Emotional changes: Abrupt mood changes Decreased interest in daily living activities Failure to recognize changes in behavior Failure to show emotional warmth, concern, empathy, sympathy Inappropriate mood

Not caring about events or environment Language changes: Can't speak (mutism) Decreased ability to read or write Difficulty finding a word Difficulty speaking or understanding speech (aphasia) Repeat anything spoken to them (echolalia) Shrinking vocabulary Neurological problems:

Increased muscle tone (rigidity)

Memory loss that gets worse Movement/coordination difficulties (apraxia) Designation status : Official

42. Termen:NEVROZA TRAUMATICA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.srdp.ro/nevrozatraumd.html Definiie : Tip de nevroza in care aparitia simptomelor este consecutiva unui soc emotional legat, in general, de o situatie in care subiectul si-a simtit viata amenintata. Ea se manifesta, in momentul socului, printr-o criza anxioasa paroxistica, ce poate provoca stari de agitatie, de stupoare sau de confuzie mentala.

Sursa definiiei: http://www.srdp.ro/nevrozatraumd.html. Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: nevroza Context : Evolutia ei ulterioara, care survine cel mai des dupa un interval liber, permite desprinderea schematica a doua situatii:

a) Traumatismul functioneaza ca element declansator, care pune in evidenta o structura nevrotica preexistenta; b) Traumatismul capata o pondere determinanta in insusi continutul simptomului (retrairea evenimentului traumatizant, cosmar repetitiv, tulburari de somn, etc.), care apare ca o tentativa repetata de a "lega" si a provoca abreactia traumei; o asemenea "fixatie la trauma" e insotita de o inhibitie mai mult sau mai putin generalizata a activitatii subiectului. Freud si psihanalistii rezerva, de obicei, denumirea de nevroza traumatica acestui al doilea tablou clinic. Sursa contextului: http://www.srdp.ro/nevrozatraumd.html Context : Nevroza traumatica se dezvolta la un interval de timp ce poate dura ani, ce separa prima natere de o viitoare natere printr-un efect retroactiv. Termenul de nevroza este inadecvat pentru ca in prezent, el este rezervat pentru a desemna conflictul psihic realizand un compromis intre dorinta i aparare. El desemneaza totui un tablou clinic in care evenimentul are parte determinanta chiar in continutul simptomelor. Sursa contextului: http://www.f0.ro/trauma-si-nevroza-traumatica-aparuta-inurma-pierderii-unei-sarcini-in-conceptia-freudiana/ Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Nevroza traumatic este starea consecutiv unui oc afectiv legat de o situaie de pericol real (nu pulsional, din lumea imaginar). Ulterior ocului, apare un puseu de angoas paroxistic, nsoit de o stare de agitaie, stupoare sau confuzie mental. Situaia traumatic generatoare se exprim prin simptom. Evenimentul traumatizant este retrit, ncercndu-se n acest fel legarea (elaborarea) traumei. n faa afluxului de excitaie traumatic, subiectul nu poate rspunde printr-o elaborare psihic sau descrcare adecvat. Exist un raport ntre situaia traumatic i predispoziie. Traumatismul se grefeaz pe o structur nevrotic preexistent. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial

Term : TRAUMATIC NEUROSIS ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.answers.com/topic/traumatic-neurosis Definition : The term traumatic neurosis designates a psycho-pathological state characterized by various disturbances arising soon or long after an intense emotional shock. In the second half of the nineteenth century, a number of observations corresponding to a clinical picture of this kind were reported, typically in the wake of military action or railroad disasters, and related either to hysteria or to neurasthenia. Definition source: http://www.answers.com/topic/traumatic-neurosis Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Synonym: potsttraumatic stress disorder Context: Freud was to construct his theory of the neuroses on the model of traumatic neurosis. However, by stressing the sexual character of the precipitating factor and the possibility that the action of traumatic neurosis could be deferred, rather than the fright occasioned by an accident's actual threat to life, he jettisoned what had hitherto constituted the specificity of the category. Furthermore, by taking into account predisposition for and tolerance of trauma, as well as the trauma's significance in the subject's history and mental organization, Freud relativized and reduced the notion of shock and its etiological import. The whole issue was destined to achieve its full immediacy only when historical events brought the war neuroses to the fore, prompting Freud to reconsider traumatic neurosis, first in 1916 in his Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis and once again in the context of his great theoretical revision of 1920. Context source: http://www.answers.com/topic/traumatic-neurosis

Context : Conceptual reappraisal of traumatic neurosis awaited simultaneous studies of combat reactions in American Vietnam War veterans and contemporaneous child abuse in the domestic civilian arena. The diagnostic category of posttraumatic stress disorder emerged from studies of the former, and dissociative disorders, seen by some as a complex form of posttraumatic disorder, from the latter. These disorders were incorporated into DSM-III (1980), but psychodynamic factors were excluded from it and its successor DSM-IV (1994). Contemporary dynamic approaches to traumatic neurosis tend to conflate dissociation and repression, and the field is still marred by lack of conceptual clarity (Singer, 1990). Context source: http://www.bookrags.com/tandf/traumatic-neurosis-tf/ Area of use: Medicine Designation status : Official 43. Termen:PERSONALITATE PASIV-AGRESIVA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.psihoterapie.net/forum/psihoterapie/tulburari-de-personalitate/ personalitatea-pasiv-agresiva.html Definiie : subiectii din acest grup manifestand permanent o rezistenta pasiva la orice solicitare sociala sau profesionala, fiind opozitionisti, negativisti si sabotori mascati. Sursa definiiei: http://www.psihoterapie.net/forum/psihoterapie/tulburari-depersonalitate/tulburarile-de-personalitate.html. Corespondent englez: passive-aggressive personality disorder Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Context : Ceea ce caracterizeaza trasaturile de personalitate este maniera obisnuita de a percepe mediul inconjurator si propria persoana si maniera de a se comporta si reactiona a acesteia. O personalitate este dificila atunci cand unele trasaturi

ale caracterului sau sunt mult prea accentuate, sau rigide, inadaptate situatiilor si cauzeaza suferinte propriei persoane si celor din jur. Personalitatea pasiv-agresiva face parte din categoria personalitatilor dificile si se caracterizeaza prin urmatoarele: - manifesta rezistenta la exigentele celorlalti, atat in domeniul profesional, cat si in viata personala - are probleme cu reprezentantii autoritatii, le pune la indoiala ordinele - taraganeaza in indeplinirea sarcinilor, se considera neinteleasa si rau tratata Sursa contextului: http://www.psihoterapie.net/forum/psihoterapie/tulburari-depersonalitate/personalitatea-pasiv-agresiva.html Context : Personalitatea de tip pasiv-agresiv este extrem de frecventa, multe din trasaturile sale pot fi cu usurinta observate in conduita noastra si a celor din jur. Caracteristica sa principala se refera la modalitatea de raspuns prin conduita agresiva mascata. Altfel spus, atunci cind dorim sa ne exprimam agresiv fata de cineva, nu o facem la modul vizibil si clar, ci recurgem la o serie de acte si conduite voalate, care, la prima vedere, nu par a avea o dominanta agresiva", explica dr. Gabriel Crumpei. Sursa contextului: http://www.ziaruldeiasi.ro/ghidul-pentru-sanatate/cum-sarelationam-cu-personalitatile-dificile~ni4cq8 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Metodele prin care puteti relationa cu personalitatile pasiv-agresive sunt urmatoarele: - fiti amabili, binevoitori cu ei, pentru a le arata ca le intelegeti punctul de vedere - cereti-le parerea cat de des puteti, dati-le posibilitatea sa participe la luarea deciziilor - ajutati-le sa se exprime direct, deoarece comportamentul lor reprezinta un mod indirect de a-si exprima agresivitatea fata de cei din jur

- reamintiti-le din cand in cand regulile pe care trebuie sa le respecte in situatiile respective - nu va prefaceti ca nu le-ati remarcat impotrivirea, altfel spus, nu este recomandat sa asteptati sa le treaca supararea de la sine, caci nu se va intampla acest lucru - nu ii criticati ca pe niste copii, ci abordati-i ca pe niste adulti responsabili de faptele lor; - nu va lasati antrenati in jocul represaliilor reciproce Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : PASSIVE AGGRESSIVE PERSONALITY DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source :http://www.steadyhealth.com/articles/Passive_Aggressive_Personality_Di sorder_a289.html Definition : Passive-aggressive personality disorder is a chronic condition in which a person accepts the desires and needs of others, but actually passively resists them, becoming increasingly hostile and angry. This affects almost all interpersonal or occupational situations. It is a method of dealing with stress or frustration, but it results in the person attacking other people in indirect ways. This disorder can manifest itself as resentment, stubbornness, procrastination, sullenness, or intentional failure at doing requested tasks. However modern psychiatry no longer recognize this condition as an official diagnosis. Definition source: http://www.steadyhealth.com/articles/Passive_Aggressive_ Personality_Disorder_a289.html Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun

Context: There are certain behaviors that help identify passive-aggressive behavior. Obstructionism Procrastination Resentment Resisting suggestions from others Sullenness Ambiguity Avoiding responsibility by claiming forgetfulness Blaming others Chronic lateness and forgetfulness Complaining Not expressing hostility or anger openly Fear of competition Making excuses and lying Fear of dependency Fear of intimacy Fear of authority Fostering chaos Intentional inefficiency Context source: http://www.steadyhealth.com/articles/Passive_Aggressive_ Personality_Disorder_a289.html Context : It is proven that individuals with passive-aggressive personality disorder are ambivalent within their relationships. They are sometimes very hard to understand because they are in doubt between expressing hostile defiance toward people they see and attempting to mollify these people by asking forgiveness. Thats why, they are sometimes very difficult to handle. These individuals are noted for the stormy nature of their interpersonal relationships and they are resentfully quarrelsome and irritable.

They often feel like a victim. People in relationships with them are just waiting for the next struggle and round of volatility and carping criticism. In most cases, they engage in grumbling, moody complaints, and sour pessimism. These socially maladaptive behaviors result in inevitable interpersonal conflict and frustration. These individuals can control others by forcing them into an uncomfortable anticipatory stance. Passive-aggressive individuals are able to trap people into situations wherein whatever they do is wrong. Context source http://www.steadyhealth.com/articles/Relationships__a289.html Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Until fairly recently, many psychiatrists and psychologists felt that treatment did not help people with a personality disorder. However, specific types of psychotherapy (talk therapy), sometimes with drugs, have now been shown to help many people. Choosing an experienced, understanding therapist is essential. Designation status : Official

44. Termen:NEVROZA ASTENICA Limba termenului: Romn

Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.scribd.com/doc/16517169/nevroza-astenica Definiie: nevroza astenica este o afectiune psihogena exprimata clinic printrun complex de tulburari psihice si somatice grupate in mod dominant in jurul sindromului caracteristic astenic

Sursa definiiei: http://www.scribd.com/doc/16517169/nevroza-astenica. Corespondent englez: asthenic neurosis Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : grup nominal Hiperonim: sindrom nevrotiform Hiponim: sindrom astenic Context : Nevroza astenica este o afectiune functionala, reversibila ale carei simptome principale sunt: astenia, cefaleea si insomnia Sursa contextului: http://www.scribd.com/doc/16517169/nevroza-astenica Context : Se cunosc trei factori mai importanti raspunzatori de aparitia nevrozei astenice: - factorul psihogen adica tulburarile sufletesti: - factorul somatogen adica tulburarile organice corporale care pot favoriza sau dezlantui o nevroza; - factorul predispozant care tine de ereditate si constitutie. Sursa contextului: http://www.scritube.com/medicina/LUCRARE-DE-DIPLOMA -INGRIJIREA-9215207.php

Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Internarea bolnavului cu nevroza astenica se face n clinica de psihiatrie cndacesta ia primul contact cu spitalul. Acest prim contact constituie un eveniment important n viata bolnavului, deoarece el se desparte de mediul sau obisnuit si este nevoit sa decurga la ajuttorul oamenilor straini.

Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : ASTHENIC NEUROSIS ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: The author has studied over 200 cases of asthenic neurosis. The ocular manifestations could be classified into four clinical types according to the dominant ocular symptoms. 58.34% of these patients were female and 41.66% were male. 78% of the patients were between 20 and 40 years. 59% were students. In 75% of these cases a raised retinal blood pressure as an ocular manifestation was discovered. The ocular disturbances in asthenic neurosis are present especially in persons who regularly work more than 8 hours continuously. The treatment consists of physical and intellectual rest periods, sedatives, tonics, and connective tissue therapy with extracts of whole eyeballs. In 80% of cases we had favourable results. Context source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18637 Context : asthenic neurosis (or neurasthenia; sleep disorders, fatigue and weakness at wakening, insomnias, cephalgia, vertigo, lump in the throat, suffocation fits or breathing disorders, continuous fatigue asthenia and lack of energy, concentration

and memory disorders, neuralgias, numbness and tingling in the limbs, irritability fits, nervousness, emotional hypersensitivity and low tolerance to noise. Read more: http://www.articlesbase.com/diseases-and-conditions-articles/neurosis -treatment-3963982.html#ixzz1FjYsDlGC Under Creative Commons License: Attribution Context source: http://www.articlesbase.com/diseases-and-conditions-articles/ neurosis-treatment-3963982.html Area of use: Medicine Designation status : Official

45. Termen:DEPRESIE MAJORA UNIPOLARA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa: http://www.sfatmedical.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/Depresia_unipolara

_tulburarea_depresiva_majora Definiie : Dac depresia dureaz prea mult sau capt o form sever (numit depresie major ), efectele ei pot fi de-a dreptul invalidante pentru pacient. Ea poate provoca tulburri ale proceselor fiziologice normale - hrnirea, somnul, nivelul de activitate fizic, capacitatea de concentrare i de realizare a diferitelor sarcini. Dac nu este eliminat, ea poate duce la pierderea productivitii, declin funcional i creterea mortalitii. Sursa definiiei: http://www.sanatate.org/boli/depresia.php. Corespondent englez: unipolar dpression Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: depresie Hiponim: sindrom depresiv-hipocondric Context : Se suspecteaza tulburarea depresiva majora daca: cinci (sau mai multe) din urmatoarele simptome au fost prezente in cursul unei aceleiasi perioade de 2 saptamani si reprezinta o schimbare fata de functionarea anterioara cel putin unul dintre simptome este dispozitia depresiva sau pierderea interesului si a placerii Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatmedical.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/ Depresia_unipolara_tulburarea_depresiva_majora

Context : Bolile psihice majore (schizofrenia, boala maniaco depresiv, depresia major unipolar, boala obsesiv compulsiv i unele tulburri de personalitate) au o puternic component genetic. Marile tulburri psihice sunt determinate de existena unei predispoziii care poate izbucni n contextul unei aciunii unor factori de stres.

Sursa contextului: http://www.sanatateatv.ro/emisiuni-medicale/psihiatrie/bolilepsihice-majore-conditii-de-transmitere-ereditara/ Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Factori de risc: istoric de episoade depresive anterior istoric familial de tulburare depresiva, indeosebi la rude de gradul I sexul feminin varsta de debut inainte de 40 ani perioada post-partum asociatia cu alte afectiuni (boala Parkinson, diabet, boala coronariana, neoplasm, stadii debut Alzheimer) medicamente: rezerpina, diureticele tiazidice, digitala, metildopa, cicloserina, hormoni (contraceptive orale, steroizi anabolizanti), antiinflamatoare nesteroidiene absenta suportului social evenimente stresante, negative ale vietii consum de substante psihoactive Statutul desemnarii : Oficial

Term : UNIPOLAR DEPRESSION ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Major_depressive_disorder

Definition :

Major depressive disorder (MDD) (also known as recurrent

depressive disorder, clinical depression, major depression, unipolar depression, or unipolar disorder) is a mental disorder characterized by an all-encompassing low mood accompanied by low self-esteem, and by loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities Definition source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Major_depressive_disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Synonym: MAJOR DEPRESSION Context: Major depression significantly affects a person's family and personal relationships, work or school life, sleeping and eating habits, and general health. Its impact on functioning and well-being has been equated to that of chronic medical conditions such as diabetes. A person having a major depressive episode usually exhibits a very low mood, which pervades all aspects of life, and an inability to experience pleasure in activities that were formerly enjoyed. Depressed people may be preoccupied with, or ruminate over, thoughts and feelings of worthlessness, inappropriate guilt or regret, helplessness, hopelessness, and selfhatred. In severe cases, depressed people may have symptoms of psychosis. These symptoms include delusions or, less commonly, hallucinations, usually unpleasant. Other symptoms of depression include poor concentration and memory (especially in those with melancholic or psychotic features), withdrawal from social situations and activities, reduced sex drive, and thoughts of death or suicide. Context source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Major_depressive_disorder Context : The term unipolar depression is used to distinguish it from depression which occurs within the context of bipolar disorder, a disorder in which a person experiences alternating periods of depression and mania Context source http://depression.about.com/od/mooddisordertypes/g/unipolar.htm Area of use: Medicine

Commentary : A major depressive episode is characterized by the presence of a severely depressed mood that persists for at least two weeks. Episodes may be isolated or recurrent and are categorized as mild (few symptoms in excess of minimum criteria), moderate, or severe (marked impact on social or occupational functioning). An episode with psychotic featurescommonly referred to as psychotic depressionis automatically rated as severe. If the patient has had an episode of mania or markedly elevated mood, a diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made instead.[115] Depression without mania is sometimes referred to as unipolar because the mood remains at one emotional state or "pole". Designation status : Official

46. Termen:HIPOCONDRIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/index-medical/adictie Definiie : Generalitati Hipocondria, cunoscuta popular ca ipohondrie, este o teama permanenta de a suferi de o boala grava. O persoana cu aceasta tulburare tinde sa

interpreteze gresit senzatiile normale, functiile organismului uman si simptomele usoare, ca pe o boala cu evolutie fatala.

Sursa definiiei: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/index-medical/adictie. Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: sindrom psihopatologic Hiponim: sindrom asteno-hipocondric Context : Persoanele cu hipocondrie sunt ingrijorate, in mod special, de un anumit sistem de organe (cum ar fi sistemul cardiac sau sistemul digestiv). Evaluarea medicala completa si asigurarea facuta de catre medicul specialist ca totul este normal nu elimina temerile bolnavului. Sau, in cazul in care le elimina, peste cateva zile apar alte temeri legate de alt organ.

Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Sanatatea-mentala/hipocondriaipohondria_5 Context : Vizitele la medic vor fi planificate, obiectivul terapeutic nu este vindecarea, ci controlarea simptomelor. Vor fi tratate de catre psihiatru afectiunile psihiatrice asociate. Pacientul va fi sustinut psihologic sa-si mute atentia de pe simptomele hipocondriace. Analizele de laborator vor fi recomandate numai daca apar simptome obiectivabile somatic.

Tratamentul psihiatric va combina tratamentul psihofarmacologic adecvat si psihoterapia, inclusiv tratamente de grup psiho-educationale menite sa-i informeze pe pacienti despre realitatea clinica a diferitelor afectiuni reclamate de acestia. Se urmareste comutarea atribuirii unor semnificatii gresite senzatiilor cenestezice, distragerea atentiei de pe auto-observarea propriului corp. Formele cu debut acut de boala, cu afectiuni asociate, fara tulburari de personalitate asociate au un prognostic mai bun. Alti factori de prognostic bun sunt nivelul socio-economic mai ridicat, absenta convingerii delirante de boala, absenta beneficiului secundar, care se poate constitui si la hipocondriac cu timpul. Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatmedical.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/ Hipocondria

Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Simptomele hipocondriei includ: - preocuparea deosebita fata de o boala serioasa - interpretarea gresita a simptomelor organice - absenta halucinatiilor sau psihozei - suferinta clinica sau afectare functionala. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : HYPOCHONDRIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source :. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypochondriasis Definition : Hypochondriasis, hypochondria (sometimes referred to as health phobia or health anxiety) refers to excessive preoccupation or worry about having a serious illness Definition source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypochondriasis

Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: Hypochondriasis manifests in many ways. Puri B. K, Laking P.J, Treasaden I.H, (2000) states that hypochondrisis can manifest at any age, but usually between the ages of 20 and 30 years, occurring marginally more in males in contrast to other somatoform disorders which are more common in women. Some people have numerous intrusive thoughts and physical sensations that push them to check with family, friends and physicians. Other people are so afraid of any reminder of illness that they will avoid medical professionals for a seemingly minor problem, sometimes to the point of becoming neglectful of their health when a serious condition may exist and go undiagnosed. Again, some people are afraid of getting a disease because they have a disease. Yet, some others live in despair and depression, certain that they have a lifethreatening disease and no physician can help them. Some consider the disease as a punishment for past misdeeds.[ Context source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypochondriasis Context : This disorder has not been well studied with respect to race and ethnicity. More information is needed, too, with regard to its relationship to other medical disorders needing better definition (eg, neurasthenia, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome). Context source http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/290955-overview Area of use: Medicine Commentary : If a person is ill with a medical disease such as diabetes or arthritis, there will often be psychological consequences, such as depression. Some even report being suicidal. In the same way, someone with psychological issues such as depression or anxiety will sometimes experience physical manifestations of these affective fluctuations, often in the form of medically unexplained symptoms. Common symptoms include headaches; abdominal, back, joint, rectal, or urinary pain; nausea; fever and/or night sweats; itching; diarrhea; dizziness; or balance problems. Many people with

hypochondriasis accompanied by medically unexplained symptoms feel they are not understood by their physicians, and are frustrated by their doctors repeated failure to provide symptom relief. Common to the different approaches to the treatment of hypochondriasis is the effort to help each patient find a better way to overcome the way his/her medically unexplained symptoms and illness concerns rule her/his life. Current research makes clear that this excessive worry can be helped by either appropriate medicine or targeted psychotherapy.

Designation status : Official

47. Termen:ARAHNOFOBIA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dex-online.ro/arahnofobie/cauta/ Definiie : Team patologic fa de pianjeni Sursa definiiei: http://dex-online.ro/arahnofobie/cauta/.

Corespondent englez: arachnophobia Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: fobie Context : Arahnofobia este denumirea stiintifica a fricii de paianjeni. Este cea mai comuna fobie de vietuitoare pentru care pentru multe persoane are efecte mai mult sau mai putin intense. Diferiti oameni sufera in mod diferit - fapt care nu poate fi inteles ca o reactie rationala de catre cei care nu sufera de fobii. Persoana in cauza reactioneaza intens la cel mai mic semn al fobiei cauzate de animal. Fobiile pot fi cauzate de multe animale, insa paianjenii sunt cauza cea mai des intalnita. Fobiile nu au legatura cu persoanele mai fricoase sau cu cele cu un IQ sub medie. Persoanele care sufera o forma mai serioasa nu pot intra intr-o camera inainte ca o alta persoana sa verifice spatiul de paianjeni. Frica de paianjeni are o istorie indepartata, incepand cu primii ani ai erei noastre, cand zone din Abissiania au fost abandonate din cauza unei "ciumi a paianjenilor". In cazul oamenilor primitivi, frica de paianjeni nu este intalnita regulat. In timp ce africanii au in general o frica de paianjeni mari, in cazul indienilor amazonieni, aceasta fobie nu se intalneste. Indienii Piaroa chiar mananca paianjenii mai mari, considerandu-i o delicatesa. Ei nu sunt singurii care apreciaza astfel de placeri gastronomice. In decursul istoriei europene sunt dovezi care atesta ca diferiti indivizi iubeau aceste vietati intr-atat incat se delectau si cu gustarea lor. Autorul francez Reaumur povesteste de o tanara care manca totii paainjenii pe care ii gasea

Sursa contextului: http://www.studentie.ro/campus/ARAHNOFOBIA___FRICA_ DE_PAIANJENI/c-727-a-20640

Context : Tratamentul cel mai des folosit in acesta avesiune este cel comportamental. Acesta implica un amestec de educatie si experienta, cei mai multi arahnofobi (majoritatea oamenilor) au putine cunostinte legate de paianjeni, invatarea ajutand suferindul sa-si foloseasca propria gandire pentru a cotraataca emotivitatea crescuta. Sursa contextului: http://www.studentie.ro/campus/ARAHNOFOBIA___FRICA _DE_PAIANJENI/c-727-a-20640 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Arahnofobia (frica de paianjeni) numara cele mai multe victime in randul femeilor (peste 50%), dar nu-i iarta nici pe barbati (10%). Nu conteaza ca este vorba despre un paianjen minuscul sau despre unul urias, prezenta lor ii face pe arahnofobi panicati, ii ia ameteala si nu mai pot respira Statutul desemnarii : neoficial

Term : ARACHNOPHOBIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arachnophobia Definition : is a specific phobia, the fear of spiders and other arachnids such as scorpions Definition source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arachnophobia Nota bene: from the Greek: , archn, "spider" and , phbos, "fear") Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: The fear of spiders can be treated by any of the general techniques suggested for specific phobias. As with all phobias, the strength of the associations means

the individual must not actively pursue the consequences, and outsiders should not in any way undermine and "play" with the phobia in the meantime.

Context source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arachnophobia Context : This fear of spiders can dictate where someone chooses to live, go on vacation, work or what sports or hobbies are enjoyed. Symptoms may include excessive sweating or clamminess, rapid breathing, rapid heartbeat, nausea and dizziness. Context source http://www.phobiascured.com/arachnophobia.htm Area of use: Medicine Commentary : The alternative view is that the dangers, such as from spiders, are overrated and not sufficient to influence evolution. Instead, inheriting phobias would have restrictive and debilitating effects upon survival, rather than being an aid. For some communities such as in Papua New Guinea and South America (except Chile, Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina), spiders are included in traditional foods. This suggests arachnophobia may be a cultural, rather than genetic trait.

Designation status : Official

48. Termen:DEFICIENT DE ATENTIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.copilul.ro/copii-6-11-ani/sanatate-scolari/ADHD-AttentionDeficit-Hyperactivity-Disorder-a500.html Definiie : ADHD sau deficitul de atentie reprezinta un "defect" neurologic, datorat structurii particulare si chimiei creierului si se manifesta prin incapacitatea copilului de a se concentra pe o sarcina sau activitate, hiperactivitate este foarte dinamic si deseori actioneaza fara sa gandeasca, temperament dificil sau abilitati sociale scazute. Sursa definiiei: http://www.copilul.ro/copii-6-11-ani/sanatate-scolari/ADHDAttention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorder-a500.html. Corespondent englez: attention deficit disorder Concept generic: boala

Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiponim: deficit senzorial Context : Tot mai multi copii romani sufera de sindromul deficientei de atentie tot mai multi copii romani nu se pot concentra mult timp la acelasi lucru, sunt agitati, simptome ale unei boli despre care multi parinti nici nu stiu ca exista. Este vorba despre sindromul ADHD, pe care parintii il confunda cu manifestarile unui copil foarte vioi, arata Pro Tv. Evolutia bolii poate fi descoperita sau oprita doar printr-un control medical, iar peste 10% din copiii consultati zilnic pleaca acasa cu acest diagnostic. Mai mult de jumatate dintre adulti sufera de ADHD si pentru ca este o boala ereditara, va fi mostenita cu certitudine de unul dintre copii. Romania este deasupra mediei europene ca numar de bolnavi de ADHD. Sursa contextului: http://www.ziare.com/articole/sindrom+deficienta+atentie Context : Cercetrile arat c 80 la sut din copii diagnosticai cu ADHD continu s prezinte caracteristicile i n adolescen i 67 la sut continu s aib caracteristicile n perioada adult. Unele caracteristici asociate cu sindromul ADHD pot fi privite i ca atribute pozitive pe care elevii le aduc n experiena lor colar. Acestea pot fi rezumate dup cum urmeaz: Abilitatea de a vedea n mare i o bun atenie la detaliu Creativitate i inventivitate Asumarea riscului poate duce la descoperiri importante Abilitate de a procesa informaiile i de a face observaii mai cuprinztoare Nivel ridicat de energie Abiliti bune pentru negociere Intuiie i reacie Abilitate de hiper-concentrare

Sursa contextului: http://ro.scips.eu/disabilities/adhdadd.html Arie de utilizare : medicina

Comentariu: Caracteristici ce au impact asupra procesului de nvare i a celui de predare. Zone poteniale ale dificultii pentru elevii cu sindrom ADHD pot include: Lipsa de atenie ntrerupi de propriile gnduri sau visare cu ochii deschii, trecnd repede la o nou tem de conversaie nainte de a termina una i producnd o lucrare care are o calitate variabil. Impulsivitate - o dificultate a vorbirii interioare, terminnd propoziiile altora i/ sau ntrerupnd Memorie pe termen scurt abilitate precar de a lua notie, nelegere cu ntrziere i anticipare ceea ce duce la inabilitatea de a nva din greeli sau din experienele anterioare. Adaptare independent Oscilaii ale dispoziiei mergnd de la un comportament fr astmpr i zvpiat pn la cderea pe gnduri (afectnd lucrul la curs i repetarea pentru examene). Slab organizare i management al timpului. Asumarea riscului Rezolvarea problemelor Relaii interpersonale i emoionale elevii pot prea sociabili dar prieteniile pot fi superficiale Probleme asociate cu medicaia acestea pot afecta somnul. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attention_deficit_hyperactivity_disorder

Definition : Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or AD/HD or ADD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder. It is primarily characterized by "the coexistence of attentional problems and hyperactivity, with each behavior occurring infrequently alone" and symptoms starting before seven years of age. Definition source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attention_deficit_hyperactivity _disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: ADHD is the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children, affecting about 3 to 5 percent of children globally and diagnosed in about 2 to 16 percent of school aged children. It is a chronic disorder with 30 to 50 percent of those individuals diagnosed in childhood continuing to have symptoms into adulthood. Adolescents and adults with ADHD tend to develop coping mechanisms to compensate for some or all of their impairments. It is estimated that 4.7 percent of American adults live with ADHD. Context source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attention_deficit_hyperactivity _disorder Context : study published in The Lancet in 2007 found a link between childrens ingestion of many commonly used artificial food colors, the preservative sodium benzoate and hyperactivity. In response to these findings, the British government took prompt action. According to the Food Standards Agency, the food regulatory agency in the UK, food manufacturers are being encouraged to voluntarily phase out the use of most artificial food colors by the end of 2009. Following the FSAs actions, the European Commission ruled that any food products containing the Southampton Six (The contentious colourings are: sunset yellow FCF (E110), quinoline yellow (E104), carmoisine (E122), allura red (E129), tartrazine (E102) and ponceau 4R (E124)) must display warning labels on their packaging by 2010. In the US, little has been doneto curb food manufacturers use of specific food colors, despite the new evidence presented by

the Southampton study. However, the existing US Food Drug and Cosmetic Act had already required that artificial food colors be approved for use, that they must be given FD&C numbers by the FDA, and the use of these colors must be indicated on the package. This is why food packaging in the USA may state something like. Context source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attention_deficit_hyperactivity _disorder Area of use: Medicine Commentary : ADHD may be seen as one or more continuous traits found normally throughout the general population. It is a developmental disorder in which certain traits such as impulse control lag in development. Using magnetic resonance imaging of the prefrontal cortex, this developmental lag has been estimated to range from 3 to 5 years. A diagnosis of ADHD does not, however, imply a neurological disease. ADHD is classified as a disruptive behavior disorder along with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder and antisocial disorder. ADHD has three subtypes: Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive Most symptoms (six or more) are in the hyperactivity-impulsivity categories. Fewer than six symptoms of inattention are present, although inattention may still be present to some degree.

Predominantly inattentive The majority of symptoms (six or more) are in the inattention category and fewer than six symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present, although hyperactivity-impulsivity may still be present to some degree. Children with this subtype are less likely to act out or have difficulties getting along with other children. They may sit quietly, but they are not

paying attention to what they are doing. Therefore, the child may be overlooked, and parents and teachers may not notice symptoms of ADHD. Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive Six or more symptoms of inattention and six or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present. Most children with ADHD have the combined type. Designation status : Official

48. Termen:SOMNABULISM Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://sanatate.ele.ro/Psihologie/Somnambulismul_--a9197.html Definiie : Somnambulismul se manifesta prin comportamente complexe si automate, si presupune scularea din pat in timpul uneia dintre etapele cele mai profunde ale somnului, somnul lent profund. Somnambulii se trezesc aproape intotdeauna in timpul primei jumatati a noptii, in special la doua ore dupa ce au adormit.

Sursa definiiei: http://sanatate.ele.ro/Psihologie/Somnambulismul_--a9197.html. Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiponim: tulburare a somnului Sinonim: crize de isterie

Context : In majoritatea cazurilor, somnambulii se limiteaza la plimbarea prin propria camera. Atunci cand ies, adesea merg la bucatarie. In aceste cazuri rare, ei pot iesi din casa si chiar conduce masina.

Sursa contextului: http://sanatate.ele.ro/Psihologie/Somnambulismul_--a9197. html

Context: : Episoadele de somnambulism se caracterizeaza prin urmatoarele: Persoana in cauza nu are nicio amintire asupra a ceea ce a facut, nici chiar ca sa trezit in timpul noptii; Episoadele sunt scurte, de cateva minute, dar pot fi si mai lungi in unele cazuri (pana la 30 minute); Somnambulul pare treaz, are ochii deschisi (dar nu tine bratele intinse inainte, cum vedem in filme). El este capabil sa raspunda la ordine sau la intrebari printr-un limbaj monosilabic (da si nu). Acesta pare plictisit de intrebari si se enerveaza daca impingem interogatoriul prea departe.

Sursa contextului: http://sanatate.ele.ro/Psihologie/Somnambulismul_--a9197. html Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Care sunt cauzele? Genetice: Principala cauza a somnambulismului este de ordin genetic. Studiile au aratat ca in cazul gemenilor identici riscul ca ambii sa sufere de somnambulism este de 6 ori mai ridicat decat in cazul gemenilor non-identici.

Factori declansatori: Exista anumiti factori care declanseaza episoadele de somnambulism, fara sa se stie exact de ce: stresul, privarea de somn, efort fizic excesiv sau neobisnuit. Tulburari neurologice: Anumiti cercetatori studiaza posibilitatea ca

somnambulismul sa aiba cateva mecanisme in comun cu epilepsia. In anumite forme de epilepsie se manifesta de asemenea plimbarile nocturne. Tulburari psihologice In cazul somnambulilor la care boala si-a facut aparitia dupa varsta de 20 ani, cauzele pot fi de ordin psihologic, un traumatism de exemplu. Acestea nu sunt de vina insa pentru somnambulismul copiilor. Anumite medicamente Tratamentul cu medicamente psihotrope, in special cele cu litiu, pot declansa episoade de somnambulism la persoanele predispuse. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : Sleepwalking ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/SOMNABULISM

Definition : Sleepwalking, also known as somnambulism, is a sleep disorder belonging to the parasomnia family. Sleepwalkers arise from the slow wave sleep stage in a state of low consciousness and perform activities that are usually performed during a state of full consciousness. These activities can be as benign as sitting up in bed, walking to the bathroom, and cleaning, or as hazardous as cooking, driving, extremely violent gestures, grabbing at hallucinated objects,[3] or even homicide.[4][ Definition source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/SOMNABULISM Generic concept : disease Context: There are some drugs that can be prescribed for sleepwalkers such as a low dose benzodiazepine, tricyclic antidepressants, and clonazepam. However, for most sleepwalkers, many experts advise putting away dangerous items and locking doors and windows before sleep to reduce risks of harmful activity. Good sleep hygiene and avoiding sleep deprivation is also recommended. There are conflicting viewpoints on whether it is harmful to wake a sleepwalker. Some experts say that sleepwalkers should be gently guided back to bed without waking them. Others counter that idea and state that waking a sleepwalker may result in their disorientation, but it is not harmful

Context source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/SOMNABULISM

Context : The 19th-century German chemist and parapsychologist Baron Karl Ludwig von Reichenbach made extensive studies of sleepwalkers and used his discoveries to formulate his theory of the Odic force. Sleepwalking has been found as a theme in many dramatic works. It is a major plot element in the classic silent German Expressionist film Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari (English title: The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari). In Shakespeare's Macbeth, Lady Macbeth sleepwalks because of her overwhelming guilt and insanity. Sleepwalking is also central for Charles Brockden Brown's 1799 novel Edgar Huntly, Or, Memoirs of a Sleepwalker and in Heinrich Von Kleist's play The Prince of Homburg. In the film version of Harry Potter and the Half Blood Prince, Luna Lovegood claims that she sleepwalks at night and, as a result, wears her shoes to bed. Also, in the Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban film Harry Potter uses this as an excuse as to why he was out of bed after hours, when he was really looking for Peter Pettigrew on the Marauder's Map. A sleepwalking murder is the main subject of the 2009 movie In My Sleep. Italian composer Vincenzo Bellini's opera La Sonnambula is named after its heroine, a sleepwalker. In Dario Argento's Phenomena (1985), the protagonist, Jennifer Corvino (Jennifer Connelly), witnesses a murder while sleepwalking. In the film adaptation of Silent Hill, the protagonist's daughter suffers from sleepwalking. In the House episode "Role Model", a woman has sexsomnia (sexual intercourse with her ex-husband while sleepwalking) and becomes pregnant. In the movie Step Brothers, the main characters, Brennan and Dale, both sleepwalk. In the 1947 Disney animated short "Sleepy Time Donald", Donald Duck is a prolonged sleepwalker, and Daisy Duck steers him away from many hazards. In the film Donnie Darko, the character Donnie Darko sleep walks and in one scene awakens in a golf course; he believes that his sleep walking is caused by an outside party or supernatural force. Dr. John William Polidori, a friend of Lord Byron's, earned his medical degree from the University of Edinburgh in 1815 with a treatise on sleepwalking. He was present at the famous gathering at the Villa Diodati on 16 June 1816 when Byron issued a challenge to

him, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Mary Godwin and Claire Clairmont to write a ghost story. Polidori wrote "The Vampyre", the first vampire story in English.

Context source http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/SOMNABULISM Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Sleepwalking has attracted a sense of mystery, but it had not been seriously investigated and diagnosed until the last century. Sleepwalking was initially thought to be a dreamer acting out a dream. For example, in one study published by the Society for Science & the Public in 1954, this was the conclusion: "Repression of hostile feelings against the father caused the patients to react by acting out in a dream world with sleepwalking, the distorted fantasies they had about all authoritarian figures, such as fathers, officers and stern superiors." This same group published an article twelve years later with a new conclusion: "Sleepwalking, contrary to most belief, apparently has little to do with dreaming. In fact, it occurs when the sleeper is enjoying his most oblivious, deepest sleepa stage in which dreams are not usually reported." More recent research has discovered that sleepwalking is actually a disorder of NREM (non-rapid eye movement) arousal. Acting out a dream is the basis for a REM (rapid eye movement)

sleep disorder called REM Behavior Disorder (or REM Sleep Behavior Disorder, RSBD). More accurate data about sleep is due to the invention of technologies such as the electroencephalogram (EEG) by Hans Berger in 1924 and BEAM by Frank Duffy in the early 1980s. Designation status : Official 50. Termen:BULIMIA NERVOASA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Bulimie-si-anorexie--tulburari-dealimentatie/bulimia-nervoasa-hiperfagie_10 Definiie : Bulimia este tulburare de alimentatie, caracterizata de un consum alimentar excesiv. O persoana cu bulimie mananca o cantitate mare de alimente intr-o perioada scurta de timp, pentru ca apoi sa-si provoace varsaturi, sa se supuna unui exercitiu fizic exagerat, sa consume laxative, diuretice sau alte medicamente in scopul unei eliminari fortate a alimentelor. Persoanele afectate de bulimie sunt obsedate de propriul aspect fizic si nu au respect de sine

Sursa definiiei: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Bulimie-si-anorexie--tulburari-dealimentatie/bulimia-nervoasa-hiperfagie_10. Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : grup nominal Hiperonim: bulimie Sinonim: hiperfagie

Context : Etiologia bulimiei nu este cunoscuta dar pare sa aiba legatura cu istoricul familial, influentele sociale (idealul unei siluete perfecte), precum si cu anumite tipuri de personalitate (care tind la perfectionism). Un risc crescut de aparitie a bolii o constituie existenta unui parinte, sora sau frate care are bulimie, insa, aceasta poate fi doar una din cauze. Evenimente stresante precum divortul, schimbarea domiciliului, decesul unei persoane apropiate, pot declansa boala la persoanele predispuse.

Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Bulimie-si-anorexie--tulburaride-alimentatie/bulimia-nervoasa-hiperfagie_10 Context : Inainte de toate, bulimia este greu de identificat, din cauza faptului ca persoana afectata va evita sa vorbeasca despre problema pe care o are. In plus, persoanele care sufera de bulimie prezinta o greutate corporala normala, spre deosebire de persoanele anorexice, care prezinta un corp mult prea slabit. De cele mai multe ori, afectiunea este identificata de anturaj. Familia si prietenii sunt cei care trebuie sa apeleze cat mai repede la un tratament de specialitate. Trecerea timpului, fara luarea de masuri, duce la agravarea problemei. In cazul bulimiei nervoase, se va apela fie la medicul de familie, fie la psiholog, psihiatru sau la orice alt medic, fie generalist, fie specializat pe probleme de nutritie. Inainte de un tratament medicamentos, bulimia se vindeca prin intermediul unei consilieri psihologice. Se impune apoi o consiliere nutritiva, prin stabilirea unei diete, a unor alimente care vor fi consumate, a orelor la care se va lua masa si cantitatea care va fi consumata. In ceea ce priveste consilierea psihologica, pacientul trebuie convins ca problema lui este vindecabila si ca totul se rezuma la timp si la o atitudine pozitiva. Persoana afectata de bulimie nu trebuie discriminata, dimpotriva, ea

trebuie sustinuta si incurajata in permanenta. O atitudine optimista poate schimba radical situatia initiala. Specialistii mai recomanda si terapia de grup. Desi initial, aceasta poate fi privita ca o experienta inhibatoare, rezultatele arata dimpotriva ca persoanele se pot vindeca mai usor atunci cand cunosc si alte persoane care trec prin aceleasi probleme ca si ei. Pacientului ii vor fi prescrise cele trei mese obligatorii pe zi, insa supravegheate in ceea ce priveste alimentele si cantitatea consumata. Medicatia consta in general in antidepresive, oferite doar cu prescriptie medicala si pe baza de reteta. Acestea ajuta la diminuarea depresiei care insoteste de cele mai multe ori episoadele de exces alimentar.

Sursa contextului: http://www.stilfeminin.ro/diete-si-fitness/Bulimia-nervoasahiperfagie-simptome-si-tratament.html Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Persoanele cu bulimie pot avea o greutate corporala normala, pot fi subponderale sau supraponderale. Majoritatea bulimicilor au o greutate normala. Apetitul exagerat cu infulecare in secret, precum si negarea acestei probleme este frecvent intalnita.Toate aceste elemente fac ca diagnosticul bulimiei sa fie greu de realizat. Nu exista teste de laborator care sa puna diagnosticul de bulimie. Persoanele cu aceasta tulburare cauta ajutor medical pentru alte simptome care insotesc boala, precum fatigabilitatea sau probleme aparute la nivelul stomacului datorate varsaturilor repetate. Diagnosticul se bazeaza pe istoricul medical si examenul clinic general. Se poate efectua o evaluare a sanatatii mentale pentru a vedea daca exista si alte afectiuni psihiatrice (precum depresia). Alte teste de laborator sunt utile pentru a evalua statusul nutritional

si, de asemenea, sunt utile in diagnosticul diferential cu alte boli. Detectia precoce a bulimiei este importanta pentru recuperare. Un diagnostic precoce si un tratament corect al acesteia reduc riscul aparitiei complicatilor pe termen lung sau al decesului in cazurile mai grave. Din pacate nu exista un screening de rutina pentru tulburarile de alimentatie. Ascunderea simptomelor acestei boli este frecventa, ceea ce face diagnosticul si mai dificil; de cele mai multe ori, o persoana apropiata pacientului remarca problema si cauta solutii pentru rezolvarea acesteia. Deseori, bulimia si complicatiile acesteia debuteaza cu mult inaintea diagnosticului.

Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : BULIMIA NERVOSA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.thefreedictionary.com/BULIMIA+NERVOSA Definition : Bulimia nervosa is a serious and sometimes life-threatening eating disorder affecting mainly young women. People with bulimia, known as bulimics, consume large amounts of food (binge) and then try to rid themselves of the food and calories (purge) by fasting, excessive exercise, vomiting, or using laxatives. The behavior often serves to reduce stress and relieve anxiety. Because bulimia results from an excessive concern with weight control and self-image, and is often accompanied by depression, it is also considered a psychiatric illness. Definition source: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/BULIMIA+NERVOSA Nota bene: New Latin b l mia nerv sa : b l mia, bulimia + nerv sa, feminine of nerv sus, nervous

Generic concept : disease Hyperonym: eating disorder Context: Bulimia nervosa is a serious health problem for over two million adolescent girls and young women in the United States. The bingeing and purging activity associated with this disorder can cause severe damage, even death, although the risk of death is not as high as for anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder that leads to excessive weight loss. Binge eating may in rare instances cause the stomach to rupture. In the case of purging, heart failure can result due to loss of vital minerals such as potassium. Vomiting causes other serious problems, including acid-related scarring of the fingers (if used to induce vomiting) and damage to tooth enamel. In addition, the tube that brings food from the mouth to the stomach (the esophagus) often becomes inflamed and salivary glands can become swollen. Irregular menstrual periods can also result, and interest in sex may diminish. Context source: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/BULIMIA+NERVOSA Context : These cycles often involve rapid and out-of-control eating, which may stop when the bulimic is interrupted by another person or the stomach hurts from overextension, followed by self-induced vomiting or other forms of purging. This cycle may be repeated several times a week or, in more serious cases, several times a day, and may directly cause:

Chronic gastric reflux after eating


Dehydration and hypokalemia caused by frequent vomiting Electrolyte imbalance, which can lead to cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac arrest, and even death

Esophagitis, or inflammation of the esophagus

Oral trauma, in which repetitive insertion of fingers or other objects causes lacerations to the lining of the mouth or throat

Gastroparesis or delayed emptying Constipation Infertility

Enlarged glands in the neck, under the jaw line

Calluses or scars on back of hands due to repeated trauma from incisors

Constant weight fluctuations Context source http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Bulimia+nervosa Area of use: Medicine Commentary : There is little data on the prevalence of bulimia nervosa inthe-large, on general populations. Most studies conducted thus far have been on convenience samples from hospital patients, high school or university students. These have yielded a wide range of results: between 0.1% and 1.4% of males, and between 0.3% and 9.4% of females. Studies on time trends in the prevalence of bulimia nervosa have also yielded inconsistent results. According to Gelder, Mayou and Geddes (2005) bulimia nervosa is prevalent between 1 and 2 per cent of women aged 1540 years. Bulimia nervosa occurs more frequently in developed countries (Gelder, Mayou and Geddes 2005). Yea r

Country

Sample size and type

Incidence

Australia 200 1,943 adolescents (ages 15 1.0 6.4% female 8 17) % mal

e 200 6

Portugal

2,028 high school students

0.3% female

0.8 Brazil 200 4 1,807 students (ages 719) % mal e 200 2,509 female adolescents (ages 4 1322) 0.4 Hungary 200 3 580 Budapest residents % mal e 199 8 3.6% female 1.3% female

Spain

1.4% female

Australia

4,200 high school students

0.3% combined

0.2 USA 199 6 1,152 college students % mal e Norway 199 19,067 psychiatric patients 0.7 7.3% female 1.3% female

% 5 mal e 0.1 Canada 199 5 8,116 (random sample) % mal e 0.7 Japan 199 5 2,597 high school students % mal e 0.4 USA 199 2 799 college students % mal e There are higher rates of eating disorders in groups involved in activities which idealize a slim physique, such as dance,[40] gymnastics, modeling, cheerleading, running, acting, rowing and figure skating. Bulimia is more prevalent among Caucasians. Exposure to mass media also appears to have an effect: a survey of 1518 year-old high schoolgirls in Nadroga, Fiji found the self-reported incidence of purging rose from 0% in 1995 (a few weeks after the introduction of television in the province) to 11.3% in 1998. 5.1% female 1.9% female 1.1% female

Designation status : Official

51. Termen:TULBURARE DE SOMATIZARE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.sfatmedical.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/Tulburarea_de_ somatizare Definiie : Tulburarea de somatizare este o tulburare cronica polisimptomatica care se insoteste de o semnificativa diminuare a functionarii normale a individului, precum si de solicitarea frecventa a serviciilor medicale. Sursa definiiei: http://www.sfatmedical.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/Tulburarea

_de_somatizare. Corespondent englez: somatization disorder Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: somatizare Hiponim: discomfort somatic Sinonim: Briquets syndrome Context : Tulburare de somatizare poate coexista cu alte afectiuni, circa 2/3 din acesti pacienti prezentand si alte simptome psihiatrice, o jumatate din ei alte boli psihice (tulburare anxioasa, abuz de substante psiho-active, tulburare de stres post-traumatica). Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatmedical.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/ Tulburarea_de_somatizare Context : Tulburarile de somatizare pacientele prezinta in antecedente operatii chirurgicale, preocuparea pentru tratamente medicamentoase si chirurgicale devenind un stil de viata. Clasic, pacientele se pling de dismenoree, senzatie de nod in git, respiratie dificila, varsaturi, senzatie de arsura la nivelul organelor genitale, uneori amnezie. De cele mai multe ori, in familie se regasesc persoane care sufera de afectiuni reale cu simptomatologie asemanatoare. Hipocondria este preocuparea excesiva pentru ingrijirea propriului corp, motivata de o spaima de boala si caracterizata de o perceptie si o reactivitate crescuta. Este insotita de atacul de panica. Simularea este producerea intentionala a simptomatologiei, diferita fata de toate afectiunile de pina acum, ce erau cu manifestari inconstiente, neintentionate, nemotivate de obtinerea unor beneficii. Simularea mai poarta numele de sindromul Munchausen si poate include manifestari precum automutilarile, hemoragiile, febra, convulsiile, scopul fiind obtinerea unor beneficii mai mult sau mai putin evidente", completeaza dr. Crumpei. Sursa contextului: http://www.ziaruldeiasi.ro/ghidul-pentru-sanatate/nevrozele-opalarie-mare-sub-care-se-ascund-multe-afectiuni-psihiatrice~ni4c33

Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Pacientul cu tulburare de somatizare beneficiaza de tratament daca se afla in grija unui singur medic, care trebuie sa-i asigure un orar regulat (lunar) de vizite. Cand bolnavul frecventeaza mai multi medici va avea ocazia sa-si dezvolte excesiv tendinta de a produce simptome somatice. Medicul curant poate fi chiar medicul de familie, care trebuie sa-i ofere ocazia de a-si expune simptomele, dar in cadrul unor vizite scurte, in care interviul sa fie precedat de o examinare tintita pe simptomul/ simptomele acuzate "in premiera" de pacient. Examenele de laborator care s-ar impune trebuie in general evitate. Metodele cele mai indicate sunt psihoterapia individuala sau de grup. Pacientului trebuie sa i se limiteze contactul cu medicul in afara vizitelor regulate preprogramate. Consultatia la psihiatru nu trebuie sa marcheze sfarsitul relatiei terapeutice cu medicul de familie, ci doar sa constituie o reevaluare a schemei terapeutice. Uneori poate fi nevoie de administrarea unui tratament medicamentos psihotrop, indeosebi cand coexista cu afectiuni depresive/anxioase, dar acesta trebuie atent administrat si monitorizat intrucat acest gen de pacient tinde sa utilizeze medicable intr-o maniera proprie, incalcand prescriptiile medicale. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : SOMATIZATION DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000955.htm Definition : Somatization disorder is a long-term (chronic) condition in which a person has physical symptoms that involve more than one part of the body, but no physical cause can be found Definition source: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000955.htm Generic concept: disease Grammatical category: noun

Context: The disorder usually begins before age 30 and occurs more often in women than in men. The disorder is more common in people with irritable bowel syndrome and chronic pain. In the past, this disorder was thought to be related to emotional stress. The pain was dismissed as being "all in their head." However, patients who have a somatization disorder seem to experience pain or other symptoms in a way that increases the level of pain. Pain and worry create a cycle that is hard to break. People who have a history of physical or sexual abuse are more likely to have this disorder. However, not every person with a somatization disorder has a history of abuse. As researchers study the connections between the brain and body, there is more evidence that emotional well-being affects the way in which people perceive pain and other symptoms

Context source: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000955.htm Context : While there is no known way to prevent the acquisition of somatization disorder, those who are prone to it should benefit from greater awareness of the condition. This can be obtained by going to counseling or other psychological conventions. In addition, having a good relationship with a health care provider is very beneficial. With early knowledge of the disorder, patients will be well aware of how to deal with stressors, which could help keep the symptoms from becoming more severe Context source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somatization_disorder Area of use: Medicine Commentary : The goal of treatment is to help you learn to control your symptoms. Having a supportive relationship with a health care provider is the most important part of treatment.

You should have only one primary care provider, to avoid having too many tests and procedures.

Schedule regular appointments to review your symptoms and how you are coping. The health care provider should explain any test results. Finding a mental health provider who has experience treating somatization disorders with talk therapy (psychotherapy) can be helpful. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), a kind of talk therapy, can help you deal with your pain. During therapy, you will learn:

To recognize what seems to make the pain worse To develop methods of coping with the symptoms To keep yourself more active, even if you still have pain

If you have depression or an anxiety disorder, it may respond to antidepressant medications. You should not be told that your symptoms are imaginary. Many health care providers now recognize that real physical symptoms can result from psychological stress. Designation status : Official 52. Termen:DEPRESIE EXOGENA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.adevarul.ro/societate/sanatate/medicina_clasica/Antidepres ivele-cu_dus_si_intors_0_160784358.html Definiie : http://www.ziare.com/articole/depresie+sezoniera Sursa definiiei:. Depresia "exogena" (ce vine din afara, de cauze externe) Unele depresii au sau par a avea o relatie cauzala directa cu diverse "suparari" sau

dezamagiri suferite. Acest tip de depresie trece de obicei odata cu disparitia circumstantelor din cauza carora a aparut sau cu adaptarea individului la acestea. Corespondent englez:exogenous depression Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: depresie Context : Cum se manifesta bolile psihice, moduri in care apar Paranoidul ca structura, inainte de a deveni psihotic (schizofrenie paranoida) e frustrat mereu, se simte amenintat din toate directiile, la randul sau persecuta pe toata lumea apoi i se raspunde cu aceeasi moneda si cercul se inchide. De aici frustrarea paranoicului, frustrarea produce in timp depresie reactiva exogena (nu endogena, care apare oricum si nu are lagatura cu nici o frustrare). Depresia exogena provine din epuizarea creierului de mediatori chimici (serotonina, noradrenalina) datorita actiunii prelungite a factorilor stresori (pe care singuri ni-i provocam si-i mentinem Sursa contextului: http://www.roportal.ro/discutii/ftopic21405.html&mode= threaded&pid=877455 Context : Exist dou categorii de antidepresive: clasice (triciclice) i, mai bine suportate, antidepresivele moderne (inhibitoare ale captrii serotoninei). Toate sunt eficace n ambele tipuri de depresie (exogen, adic reactiv, i endogen, adic fr cauz aparent). Depresia exogen poate s rspund bine i la alte medicamente, cum ar fi sedativele i anxioliticele. Sursa contextului: http://www.adevarul.ro/societate/sanatate/medicina_clasica/ Antidepresivele-cu_dus_si_intors_0_160784358.html Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Boala depresiva este caracterizata printr-o schimbare a dispozitiei constand intr-un sentiment de tristete, suparare, ce poate varia de la deznadejde pana la disperare. Schimbarea de stare este pregnanta, poate persista zile, luni, chiar ani de zile iar frecvent se asociaza cu devieri de comportament, atitudine si gandire. Depresia este

intalnita in 35-40% din cazurile care ajung la un consult psihiatric, incidenta fiind intre 45-65 de ani cu un maxim la 55-60 de ani. Ea poate fi determinata de factori constitutionali, denumindu-se depresie endogena-caracteristic este agravarea dimineata, sau poate fi declansata de factori externi-depresia exogena, aceasta din urma neavand o perioada de agravare specifica. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial

Term : EXOGENUS DEPRESSION ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.thefreedictionary.com/exogenous+depression Definition : an inappropriate state of depression that is precipitated by events in the person's life (to be distinguished from normal grief) Definition source: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/exogenous+depression Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Synonym: reactive depression Context: Doctors treat exogenous and endogenous depression similarly. Treatment depends upon the individual, and usually involves a combination of medication (such as antidepressants) and psychotherapy (or "talk" therapy). In more severe or resistant depression, electroconvulsive therapy may be employed.

Context source: http://www.ehow.com/facts_5586142_exogenous-depression_.html Context : An individual may experience both endogenous and exogenous depression simultaneously. In fact, it may be difficult to distinguish between endogenous and exogenous depression because many people suffering from depression have been subject to recent stressful events, whether or not they also have a chemical imbalance. According to John McManamy of Depression and Bipolar Web, doctors treating depression are more likely to view it as an "interaction between genes, environment, past experiences, and biology," possibly triggered by stressful events Context source http://www.ehow.com/facts_5586142_exogenous-depression Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Exogenous depression is a short term illness, as opposed to endogenous depression, which is a chronic or life long condition. Designation status : Official 53. Termen:DEPRESIE ENDOGENA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.eva.ro/sanatate/medicina-preventiva/totul-despre-depresiearticol-3985.html Definiie : Acest tip de depresie nu este intotdeauna cauzat de un eveniment stresant din viata, ci mai repede poate fi vorba de un dezechilibru al reactiilor chimice ale creierului. Acest tip de depresie apare cel mai adesea din cauza problemelor legate de familie Sursa definiiei: http://www.eva.ro/sanatate/medicina-preventiva/totul-despredepresie-articol-3985.html.

Corespondent englez: Endogenous depression Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: depresie Context : Depresia este o stare mentala caracterizata prin tristete patologica, durere morala, pesimism, autodevalorizare, dezinteres, anxietate la care se asociaza o incetinire psihomotorie (bradipsihie, akinezie, abulie etc.) si simptome somatice (constipatie, anorexie etc.). Au fost descrise numeroase forme de depresie in functie de aspectul clinic (intensitatea anxietatii, preponderenta simptomelor somatice) si de etiologie (depresie endogena, depresie de involutie, depresie mascata, depresie nevrotica, depresie post-partum, depresie psihogena, depresie somatogena Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/arhiva_medicala/depresie+ endogena Context : Depresia endogena nu este intotdeauna cauzata de un eveniment stresant din viata, ci mai repede poate fi vorba de un dezechilibru al reactiilor chimice ale creierului. Acest tip de depresie apare cel mai adesea din cauza problemelor legate de familie. Cred ca poti sa o indulcesti tot cu medicamente. Daca nu sunt eficiente cele doua pe care le iei, roaga-l pe medicul tau sa ti le schimbe. Mie depresia mi-a disparut aproape in totalitate abia dupa 4-5 luni de efectin. Sursa contextului: http://forum.romedic.ro/prod/depresia_endogena_08305.html Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : ENDOGENOUS DEPRESSION ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endogenous_depression

Definition : Endogenous depression is a mood disorder that affects some people from birth and is believed to be a genetic condition. A sufferer is prone to become depressed on the advent of traumatic events, exhaustion or when under high levels of stress and may not be aware of the disorder until confronted by symptoms of depression for the first time Definition source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endogenous_depression Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: People who don't respond to medication are also called as endogenous depression. There is not exact cause or specific reason or event that depression is endogenous. It is considered to be genetic in origin. Endogenous depression directly affect on life style. But don't worry this type of depression is treated by medication. Context source: http://www.indepression.com/endogenous-depression.html Context : Symptoms of Endogenous depression Click to Check: Low mood Inability to experience pleasure
Hopelessness

Context source http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/e/endogenous_depression/intro Area of use:Medicine Commentary : The treatment for endogenous depression is fundamentally identical to the treatment of non-endogenous depression. Although psychotherapy is not usually prescribed, knowledge of techniques to deal with stress and anxiety may be beneficial to the patient. Designation status : Official

54. Termen:TULBURARE DE PERSONALITATE BORDELINE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburari-psihice tulburarea-de-personalitate-borderline_91 Definiie : Tulburarea de personalitate borderline poate fi o conditie medicala suparatoare, atat pentru pacient cat si pentru cei din jurul sau. Pacientul cu personalitate borderline are dificultati in controlarea emotiilor si este deseori in stare de revolta probabil datorita unor experiente traumatice in copilarie sau unor disfunctionalitati cerebrale

Sursa definiiei: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburari psihice/tulburarea-de-personalitate-borderline_91. Corespondent englez: Bordeline personality disorder Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : grup nominal Hiponim: stari bordeline Sinonim: stare-limita Context : Tulburarea de personalitate borderline afecteaza felul in care persoana se vede pe sine, felul in care relationeaza cu ceilalti si felul in care se comporta.

Pacientul are sentimentul unei nesigurante fata de cine este el. Acest lucru inseamna ca imaginea de sine a acestuia sufera schimbari rapide si repetate. Uneori se poate vedea ca fiind foarte rau, iar alte ori sa se simta ca si cum nu ar exista deloc. O imagine de sine instabila poate duce la schimbari frecvente ale locului de munca, prietenilor, scopurilor, valorilor si identitatii de gen. De obicei pacientul are relatii agitate. Poate avea relatii de tip dragoste-ura cu ceilalti. Poate idealiza la un moment dat pe cineva pentru ca apoi sa se schimbe dramatic si brusc in furie si ura, din cauza unor greseli marunte sau a unor neintelegeri minore. Acest lucru se intampla intrucat persoanele cu aceasta tulburare accepta cu dificultate zonele gri pentru ele lucrurile sunt ori albe ori negre. Spre exemplu, in ochii unei persoane cu tulburare de personalitate borderline, cineva poate fi ori bun ori rau. Si aceeasi persoana poate parea buna intr-o zi si rea in urmatoarea. Alte semne si simptome ale tulburarii de personalitate borderline sunt: - comportamente impulsive si riscante, cum ar fi condus periculos, relatii sexuale neprotejate, joc de noroc compulsiv si abuzul de droguri ilicite - emotii puternice care se schimba in mod frecvent - episoade intense dar scurte de anxietate sau depresie - manie nemotivata, uneori ajungand pana la confruntare fizica - dificultati in controlarea emotiilor si impulsurilor - comportament suicidar - teama de a ramane singur. Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/tulburarea-de-personalitate-borderline_91 Context : Personalitatea se formeaza in timpul copilariei. Este modelata atat de tendinte mostenite cat si de factorii de mediu, sau de experientele din copilarie. Exista anumiti factori legati de dezvoltarea personalitatii care pot creste riscul de aparitie a tulburarii de personalitate borderline.

Acestia sunt: - predispozitia ereditara: prezenta afectiunii la un membru al familiei mama, tata sau frate creste riscul de aparitie la alti membrii - abuzul in copilarie: multe persoane cu aceasta tulburare afirma ca au suferit un abuz fizic sau sexual in copilarie - neglijarea: unele persoane cu aceasta tulburare descriu deprivare severa, neglijare si abandon in timpul copilariei. De asemeni, personalitatea borderline este mai frecventa la femei decat la barbati. Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/tulburarea-de-personalitate-borderline_91 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Nu exista un drum sigur de recuperare din tulburarea de personalitate borderline. Afectiunea pare mai grava la tinerii adulti si se amelioreaza cu varsta. Multe persoane cu aceasta afectiune isi gasesc echilibrul si stabilitatea la varsta de 30-40 ani. Cu varsta tumultul interior descreste si pacientul poate sustine relatii iubitoare si avea cariere de succes. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial

Term : BORDELINE PERSONALITY DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borderline_personality_disorder Definition : Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a personality disorder described as a prolonged disturbance of personality function in a person (generally over the age of eighteen years, although it is also found in adolescents), characterized by depth and variability of moods Definition source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borderline_personality_disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: Onset of symptoms typically occurs during adolescence or young adulthood. Symptoms may persist for several years, but the majority of symptoms lessen in severity over time, with some individuals fully recovering. The mainstay of treatment is various forms of psychotherapy, although medication and other approaches may also improve symptoms. While borderline personality disorder can manifest itself in children and teenagers, therapists are discouraged from diagnosing anyone before the age of 18, due to adolescence and a still-developing personality. There are some instances when BPD can be evident and diagnosed before the age of 18. The DSM-IV states: "To diagnose a personality disorder in an individual under 18 years, the features must have been present for at least 1 year." In other words, it is possible to diagnose the disorder in children and adolescents, but a more conservative approach should be taken. There is some evidence that BPD diagnosed in adolescence is predictive of the disease continuing into adulthood. It is possible that the diagnosis, if applicable, would be helpful in creating a more effective treatment plan for the child or teen. Context source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borderline_personality_disorder

Context : Treatment includes psychotherapy which allows the patient to talk about both present difficulties and past experiences in the presence of an empathetic, accepting and non-judgemental therapist. The therapy needs to be structured, consistent and regular, with the patient encouraged to talk about his or her feelings rather than to discharge them in his or her usual self-defeating ways. Sometimes medications such as antidepressants, lithium carbonate, or antipsychotic medication are useful for certain patients or during certain times in the treatment of individual patients. Treatment of any alcohol or drug abuse problems is often mandatory if the therapy is to be able to continue. Brief hospitalization may sometimes be necessary during acutely stressful episodes or if suicide or other self-destructive behavior threatens to erupt. Hospitalization may provide a a temporary removal from external stress. Outpatient treatment is usually difficult and long-term - sometimes over a number of years. The goals of treatment could include increased self-awareness with greater impulse control and increased stability of relationships. A positive result would be in one's increased tolerance of anxiety. Therapy should help to alleviate psychotic or mood-disturbance symptoms and generally integrate the whole personality. With this increased awareness and capacity for self-observation and introspection, it is hoped the patient will be able to change the rigid patterns tragically set earlier in life and prevent the pattern from repeating itself in the next generational cycle Context source http://www.stanford.edu/~corelli/borderline.html Area of use: Medicine Commentary : As with other mental disorders, the causes of BPD are complex and not fully understood. One finding is a history of childhood trauma, abuse or neglect, although researchers have suggested diverse possible causes, such as a genetic predisposition, neurobiological factors, environmental factors, or brain abnormalities. There is evidence that suggests that BPD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are closely related. Evidence further suggests that BPD might result from a

combination that can involve a traumatic childhood, a vulnerable temperament and stressful maturational events during adolescence or adulthood. Designation status : Official 55. Termen:PSIHOZA REACTIVA SCURTA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa: http://www.psihoterapia.eu/index.php?option=com_content&task=view& id=172&Itemid=44 Definiie : forma de psihoza caracterizata de debut brusc, confuzie, perplexitate, durata scurta a simptomatologiei Sursa definiiei: http://www.psihoterapia.eu/index.php?option=com_content&task =view&id=172&Itemid=44. Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : grup nominal Hiperonim: psihoza Context : Psihoza reactiva scurta urmeaza unui eveniment stressant din viata pacientului si simptomele dureaza mai putin de 1 luna. Intotdeauna exista un eveniment cauzator identificabil. Semnele si simptomele in psihoza reactiva scurta sunt similare cu cele din schizofrenie si tulburarile bipolare. Simtomele afective sunt in general obisnuite.

Pacientul prezinta de obicei: - incoerenta

- delir - halucinatii - comportament dezorganizat sau catatonic - tulburari emotionale, cu treceri rapide de la o stare la alta Sursa contextului: task=view&id=232&Itemid=400 Context : Gelu Vlain - Psihoza reactiv Gelu Vlain - Psihoza reactiv Psihoza reactiva de Gelu Vlain starea ta m-a distrus pe mine edulcoratul cnd beam vodka i mncam parizer cu muncitorii cnd tu mi vorbeai despre ginsberg i ********************* fidel castro starea ta mult invidiatule mi-a distrus nchisoarea n care-mi tram existena pisici perverse i femei mutilate starea ta a distrus monotonia-sistem i-a dat natere unui poem. Sursa contextului: http://www.archeus.ro/lingvistica/CautareDex?query= PSIHOZ%C4%82 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Cuvntul psihoz a fost folosit pentru prima dat de Ernst von Feuchtersleben, n anul 1845, ca o alternativ pentru demen i manie, avnd rdcinile de la cuvntul psyche (minte) i -osis (condiie anormal sau boal). Termenul a fost folosit pentru a se distinge tulburrile care se credeau a fi ale minii, fiind opus nevrozei, despre care se credea c provine dintr-o afeciune a sistemului nervos. Diviziunea psihozelor majore n psihoz maniaco-depresiv (numit acum tulburare bipolar) i demen praecox (numit acum schizofrenie) a fost fcut de Emil Kraepelin. El a ncercat s creeze o sintez a variatelor tulburri mentale identificate n secolul 19 de ctre psihiatrii acelor vremuri, prin gruparea mpreun a afeciunilor, bazndu-se pe clasificarea simptomelor comune. Kraepelin a folosit termenul de 'psihoz maniacodepresiv' pentru a descrie ntregul spectru al tulburrilor de stri sufleteti, ntr-un sens

mult mai larg dect este folosit n ziua de azi. n clasificarea lui Kraepelin, acesta ar include depresia clinic 'unipolar', ca i tulburarea bipolar i alte tulburri de dispoziie, cum ar fi ciclotimia. Acestea sunt caracterizate de probleme cu controlul dispoziiei i de faptul c episoadele psihotice apar asociate cu tulburri de stare, iar pacienii vor avea perioade frecvente de funionare normal ntre episoadele psihotice, chiar i fr medicamentaie Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : BRIEF REACTIVE PSYCHOSIS ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001529.htm Definition : Brief reactive psychosis is a sudden, short-term display of psychotic behavior, such as hallucinations or delusions, that occurs with a stressful event Definition source: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001529.htm Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Context: Brief reactive psychosis is triggered by extreme stress (such as a traumatic accident or loss of a loved one), and is followed by a return to the previous level of function. The person may or may not be aware of the strange behavior. This condition most often affects people in their 20s, 30s, and 40s. People who have personality disorders are at greater risk for having a brief reactive psychosis. Context source: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001529.htm Context : By definition, psychotic symptoms go away on their own in less than 1 month. In some cases, however, brief reactive psychosis can be the beginning of a more chronic psychotic condition, such as schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Antipsychotic drugs can help decrease or stop the psychotic symptoms. Talk therapy may also help you cope with the emotional stress that triggered the problem.

Context source http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001529.htm Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Symptoms of brief reactive psychosis may include the following: Disorganized behavior False ideas about what is taking place (delusions) Hearing or seeing things that aren't real (hallucinations) Strange speech or language The symptoms are not due to alcohol or other drug abuse and they last longer than a day, but less than a month. Designation status : Official

56. Termen:TULBURARE BIPOLARA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburari-psihice/ tulburarea-bipolara_29 Definiie : Persoanele care au schimbari extreme de dispozitie, de la depresii severe pana la episoade maniace, ar putea suferi o tulburare bipolara. In cursul episoadelor maniace persoanele care sufera de tulburarea bipolara tin sa

aiba o dispozitie euforica, sa fie hiperactivi, agitati si fara sa simta necesitatea somnului. Adesea acestia cheltuiesc sume mari de bani, ceea ce duce la aparitia problemelor financiare severe. In cursul episoadelor depresive, persoanele care sufera de aceasta tulburare sunt tristi, se simt fara speranta, vinovati si/sau fara valoare si au un nivel scazut de energie. Tulburarea bipolara este o boala care afecteaza si apropiatii bolnavilor. Sursa definiiei: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/tulburarea-bipolara_29. Corespondent englez: bipolar disorder Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : grup nominal Hiponim: depresie bipolara Context : Tulburarea bipolara de tipul I este forma "clasica" a acestei afectiuni, in care pacientii au episoade de manie si depresie periodic.

Tulburarea bipolara de tipul II: Reprezinta forma in care bolnavii nu dezvolta manie severa dar trec prin episoade mai blande de hipomanie care alterneaza cu depresie. Tulburarea bipolara ciclica rapida Se poate vorbi despre tulburare bipolara ciclica rapida cand pacientii manifesta un numar mai mare de 4 episoade maniace sau depresive. Cand este vorba de perspectivele pe termen lung legate de pacientii cu tulburare bipolara, este foarte important de subliniat evolutia bolii cu si fara tratament. Fara un tratament adecvat, boala tine sa se agraveze in

timp, episoadele maniace si depresive devin din ce in ce mai severe. De asemenea episoadele tind sa fie din ce in ce mai frecvente. Pe de alta parte cand este urmat un tratament adecvat, pacientii cu tulburari bipolare pot avea o viata normala si productiva. In mare parte, terapia va ajuta la reducerea frecventei si severitatii episoadelor maniace si/sau depresive, pentru ca pacientii sa se poate bucura de viata.

Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/tulburarea-bipolara_29 Context : tulburarea bipolara cunoscuta pana nu demult sub denumirea de psihoza maniaco-depresiva,a fost separata de Kraepelin in 1889 de celelalte psihoze Sursa contextului: http://www.slideshare.net/1Leu/tulburarea-bipolara Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Este important ca tulburarile bipolare sa fie tratate cat mai curand si sub supraveghere medicala. Majoritatea celor care sufera de tulburari bipolare pot realiza o stabilizare a schimbarilor de dispozitie si a simptomelor asociate cu acestea, urmand un tratament adecvat. Tulburarile bipolare sunt afectiuni recurente in care este necesara terapia pe termen lung. Pentru a controla boala pe termen lung o combinatie intre medicatie si un tratament psihosocial reprezinta cea mai buna schema de tratament. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : BIPOLAR DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bipolar_disorder Definition : Bipolar disorder or manic-depressive disorder, also referred to as bipolar affective disorder or manic depression, is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a

category of mood disorders defined by the presence of one or more episodes of abnormally elevated energy levels, cognition, and mood with or without one or more depressive episodes. Definition source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bipolar_disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: Bipolar disorder is a condition in which people experience abnormally elevated (manic or hypomanic) and, in many cases, abnormally depressed states for periods of time in a way that interferes with functioning. Not everyone's symptoms are the same, and there is no simple physiological test to confirm the disorder. Bipolar disorder can appear to be unipolar depression. Diagnosing bipolar disorder is often difficult, even for mental health professionals. What distinguishes bipolar disorder from unipolar depression is that the affected person experiences states of mania and depression. Often bipolar is inconsistent among patients because some people feel depressed more often than not and experience little mania whereas others experience predominantly manic symptoms. Additionally, the younger the age of onsetbipolar disorder starts in childhood or early adulthood in most patientsthe more likely the first few episodes are to be depression.[6] Because a bipolar diagnosis requires a manic or hypomanic episode, many patients are initially diagnosed and treated as having major depression

Context source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bipolar_disorder Context: Bipolar Disorder Spotlight10

Results of another study from the huge STEP-BD program reveal that women whose bipolar disorder gets worse during the premenstrual period are likely to have more episodes - mostly depressive episodes - and a shorter time between episodes than women whose symptoms don't get worse. Overall, the first group had more - and worse hypo/manic and depressive episodes during the year-long study. I myself haven't experienced bipolar flares before menstruation, but I know one woman whose mania and psychosis get severely worse at that time. Female readers - does (or did) your bipolar disorder get worse during the premenstrual period? Context source http://bipolar.about.com/ Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Bipolar disorder can cause suicidal ideation that leads to suicidal attempts. One out of 3 people with bipolar disorder report past attempts of suicide or complete it, and the annual average suicide rate is 0.4%, which is 10 to 20 times that of the general population. The standardized mortality ratio from suicide in BD is between 18 and 25 Designation status : Official 57. Termen:TULBURARI DISOCIATIVE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.scritube.com/sociologie/psihologie/Tulburari-disociative13247 Definiie : imposibilitatea de a integra normal amintirile, perceptiile, identitatea sau constiinta.este o categorie ce include tulburari caracterizate prin simptome disociative, care nu satisfac criteriile necesare pentru diagnosticarea uneia dintre tulburarile anterioare; este o categorie utilizata pentru a cuprinde: elemente legate de derealizare, in lipsa depersonalizarii, starile comatoase neasociate cu o conditie medicala generala, starile disociative care apar la subiectii supusi unor proceduri de persuasiune,

sindromul Ganser (are ca si caracteristica raspunsul alaturi) atunci cand nu apare asocierea cu fuga sau amnezia disociativa, transa disociativa. Sursa definiiei: http://www.scritube.com/sociologie/psihologie/Tulburari Corespondent englez: DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Context : Tema comuna impartasita de tulburarile disociative (sau conversivE) este o pierdere partiala sau completa a unei integrari normale intre amintirile trecutului, constientizarea identitatii si a senzatiilor imediate si controlul miscarilor corporale. Exista, in mod natural, un grad considerabil de control constient asupra amintirilor si senzatiilor ce pot fi selectate pentru atentia imediata si asupra miscarilor ce vor fi executate. In tulburarile disociative se presupune ca aceasta capacitate de a exercita un control constient si selectiv este afectata, intr-un grad care poate varia de la o zi la alte, sau chiar de la o ora la alte. De obicei este foarte dificil sa evaluam gradul in care unele pierderi a functiilor pot sa fie sub control voluntar. Sursa contextului: http://www.medicultau.com/boli-si-tratamente/boli/tulburariledisociative.php Context : Fiecare om traieste ocazional experienta disocierii fara a fi rupt de realitate. De ex. o persoana care conduce automobilul spre o anumita directie si, la un moment dat, sa realizeze ca nu-si reaminteste multe aspecte din perioada in care conducea, datorita preocuparilor legate de grijile personale, unui program de la radio sau unei conversatii cu un pasager. Perceptia durerii poate fi disociata sub hipnoza. Cu toate acestea alte forme de disociere perturba sensul sinelui persoanei si memoria evenimentelor vietii. CInd memoria este prost integrata apare amnezia disociativa. Cind identitatea este fragmentata impreuna cu memoria apar amnezia completa sau tulburarile disociative de identitate. Cind trairea si perceperea sinelui sunt tulburate, apar tulburarile de depersonalizare Sursa contextului: http://www.scritube.com/sociologie/psihologie/Tulburari-

disociative13247.php Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Tulburarile disociative sunt de obicei asociate cu stress coplesitor, care poate fi generat de evenimente traumatizante de viata, accidente sau dezastre traite direct sau la care s-a asistat ca martor sau de conflicte interioare de nesuportat care forteaza mintea sa separe informatiile si sentimentele incompatibile sau de neacceptat Statutul desemnarii : Oficial

Term : DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissociative_disorder Definition : Dissociative disorders[1] are defined as conditions that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity and/or perception. The hypothesis is that symptoms can result, to the extent of interfering with a person's general functioning, when one or more of these functions is disrupted Definition source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissociative_disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: Since dissociative disorders seem to be triggered as a response to trauma or abuse, treatment for individuals with such a disorder may stress psychotherapy,

although a combination of psychopharmacological and psychosocial treatments is often used. Many of the symptoms of dissociative disorders occur with other disorders, such as anxiety and depression, and can be controlled by the same drugs used to treat those disorders. A person in treatment for a dissociative disorder might benefit from antidepressants or antianxiety medication. Context source: http://www.nami.org/Content/ContentGroups/Helpline1/ Dissociative_Disorders.htm Context : Since the 1980s, the concept of dissociative disorders has taken on a new significance. They now receive a large amount of theoretical and clinical attention from persons in the fields of psychiatry and psychology. Dissociative disorders are a group of psychiatric syndromes characterized by disruptions of aspects of consciousness, identity, memory, motor behavior, or environmental awareness. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) includes 4 dissociative disorders and one category for atypical dissociative disorders. These include dissociative amnesia (DA), dissociative identity disorder (DID), dissociative fugue, depersonalization disorder, and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS).

Context source: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/294508-overview Area of use:Medicine Designation status : Official

58. Termen:CONFABULATIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://seiza.weblog.ro/2009/01/30/confabulatia/ Definiie : Confabulatia: producerea unor false amintiri despre sine sau despre realitatea inconjuratoare. Apare in diverse boli psihice, in unele stari de depresie, in intoxicatiile cu substante psihoactive Sursa definiiei: http://seiza.weblog.ro/2009/01/30/confabulatia/. Corespondent englez: confabulation Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : Tulburare de memorie constnd din redarea unor evenimente pe care bolnavul nu le-a trit. Confabulaia are valoarea unei supliniri a lacunelor mnestice din cadrul psihozei Korsakov i face parte din imaginaie. Confabulaia apare n parafrenie,

psihoz presenil, etc. Se vor trata afeciunile care au produs afeciunea n funcie de fiecare n parte. Sursa contextului: http://www.comarion.ro/retete_naturiste/index.php?value= Confabulatie.&detalii=Tratamente Context : Confabulatia consta ntr-o productie mnezica compensatoare, bolnavul relatnd fapte imaginare fata de care el are convingerea realitatii acestora rezultnd false amintiri si fabulatii. Cercetarile asupra memorie n conditiile unei atentii voluntare cu un grad optim de concentrare arata ca n general, n urma unei activitati de nvatare retinem: 10% din ce citim, 20% din ce auzim, 30% din ce vedem, 50% din ce vedem si auzim simultan, 80% din ceea ce spunem, 90% din ceea ce spunem si aplicam n urma nvatarii de tip logic si activ Sursa contextului: http://facultate.regielive.ro/cursuri/psihologie/semiologia_ memoriei-6989.html Arie de utilizare : medicina

Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term :CONFABULATION ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confabulation Definition : In psychology, confabulation is the spontaneous narrative report of events that never happened. It consists of the creation of false memories, perceptions, or beliefs about the self or the environmentusually as a result of neurological or

psychological dysfunction. When it is a matter of memory, confabulation is the confusion of imagination with memory, or the confused application of true memories. Confabulations are difficult to differentiate from delusions and from lying. Definition source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confabulation Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: Berlyne (1972) defined confabulation as "...a falsification of memory occurring in clear consciousness in association with an organically derived amnesia". He distinguished between: "momentary" (or "provoked") confabulationsfleeting, and invariably

provoked by questions probing the subject's memory, sometimes consisting of "real" memories displaced in their temporal context. "fantastic" (or "spontaneous") confabulationscharacterized by the

spontaneous outpouring of irrelevant associations, sometimes bizarre ideas, which may be held with firm convicti Context source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confabulation Context : Various forms of confabulation, including denial of illness (e.g., paralysis, blindness), and conditions that often give rise to these disorders, such as cerebral disconnection, disinhibitory states, incomplete information reception, and"gap filling" are discussed. On the basis of clinical observation and a review of a number of studies, it appears that confabulatory states frequently are associated with cerebral damage that involves the right hemisphere, notably, the frontal (often bilaterally) and parietal lobesareas intimately involved in arousal, attention, information regulation, and integration

Context source: http://brainmind.com/Confabulation.html Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Within personal relationships, confabulation may be difficult to detect. Regardless of its biological or psychological etiology, simple lies and purposeful deception are included in the confabulation differential, as well as deep rooted psychopathological disturbance and early-stage dementia. The historical background of the confabulating individual rarely provides supporting evidence for their "fables", however tangentially related. Fables may be embellished beyond any possible evidentiary support and will usually ultimately reveal the disorder if appropriate investigations are applied. Those with long term relationships are most likely to recognize the disorder most quickly. Confabulations usually involve harmless matters, unlike the paranoid and psychotic delusions expressed in defense of abnormal actions of serious criminal actions. Designation status : Official 59. Termen:TULBURARE DE PESONALITATE DE TIP DEPENDENT Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa: http://www.personalitate.psihologia.info.ro/index.php?option=com_ content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=80 Definiie : Tulburarea de personalitate de tip dependent se caracterizeaza prin dependenta psihologica de alte persoane. Sursa definiiei: http://www.personalitate.psihologia.info.ro/index.php?option= com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=80. Corespondent englez: DEPENDENT PERSONALITY DISORDER Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : grup nominal Hiperonim: Hiponim:

Sinonim:

Context : Criteriile diagnostice in tulburarea de personalitate de tip dependent sunt: Dificultati in a lua decizii legate de viata de zi cu zi, avand nevoie de sfaturi in exces si reasigurare din partea altora Nevoia ca altii sa isi asume responsabilitatea pentru domeniile principale ale vietii Dificultati in exprimarea dezacordului datorita fricii de pierdere a sprijinului sau aprobarii celorlaltora Dificultati in initierea de proiecte sau in a face diverse lucruri de unul singur, datorita lipsei de incredere in sine, in propria judecata sau in propriile abilitati Se straduieste excesiv sa obtina aprobarea si suportul altora, chiar oferindu-se sa faca diverse lucruri neplacute Se simte inconfortabil si neajutorat atunci cand este singur datorita temerilor excesive ca nu isi va putea purta singur de grija Cuata urgent o alta relatie ca sursa de suport si ingrijire atunci cand pierde o relatie Este preocupat in mod nerealist de temeri sa nu fie lasat singur Sursa contextului: http://www.personalitate.psihologia.info.ro/index.php?option= com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=80 Context : Cauzele exacte ale tulburarii de personalitate de tip narcisist sunt necunoscute, dar exista o serie de factori etiologici posibili: Temperament suprasensibil Educatie inadecvata din partea parintilor

Valorizarea de catre parinti ca mijloc de reglare a propriei stime de sine Admiratia excesiva neechilibrata de feedback realist Ingrijire defectuoasa parentala Laudele excesive Invatarea comportamentului manipulativ de la parinti

De obicei persoanele cu tulburare de personalitate de tip narcisist nu apeleaza la psihoterapie Sursa contextului: http://www.personalitate.psihologia.info.ro/index.php?option= com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=34&Itemid=53 Arie de utilizare : medicina

Comentariu: Persoana care sufer de o astfel de tulburare manifest nencredere fa de propriile sale posibiliti de a executa anumite aciuni. Aceast nencredere se poate extinde i asupra propriilor opinii pe care cel n cauz nu i le susine, nu le argumenteaz i nici nu se ghideaz conform acestora. Avand o slab stim de sine i ncredere n sine, persoana triete nu numai nevoia aprobrii, ci i pe cea a acceptrii de ctre ceilali, mai ales cnd acetia sunt oameni influeni. Mai mult dect att, individul prezint o continu cutare a suportului unei persoane investite (din punct de vedere moral, profesional, social) fr de care se simte ameninat i invalidat. Cel investit cu for i influenta nu numai ca este cutat dar, odat gsit, este asaltat de ctre persoana eu tulburare dependent spre a-i capacita atenia, acceptarea i sprijinul. Pentru a-i atinge scopul, personalitile dependente investesc timp i energie considerabile, ofer dovezi de loialitate i i pun la dispoziie ntreaga lor disponibilitate i deplin fidelitate nu numai

pentru a-i dovedi ataamentul fa de cel investit, ci i pentru c are nevoie ca alii s-i asume responsabilitatea problemelor i aciunilor pe care le ntreprinde. Persoana dependent prezint o chinuitoare nehotrre, nu numai n privina unor decizii eseniale, ci i n probleme curente, uneori banale, cotidiene. Trebuie fcut precizarea c aici nu este vorba numai de pruden i team de a nu grei (manifestri ntlnite la obsesiv), ci de o incapacitate deliberativa per se, ca o trstur valid a personalitii dependentului i nu ca o consecin logic a altor trsturi. Sursa context: http://www.scribd.com/doc/33412400/Tulburarea-de-PersonalitateDependenta Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : Dependent personality disorder ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dependent_personality_disorder Definition : Dependent personality disorder (DPD), formerly known as asthenic personality disorder, is a personality disorder that is characterized by a pervasive psychological dependence on other people. This personality disorder is a long-term (chronic) condition in which people depend too much on others to meet their emotional and physical needs Definition source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dependent_personality_disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun phrase Hyperonym: Hyponim:

Synonym: asthenic personality disorder Context: World Health Organization The World Health Organization's ICD-10 lists dependent personality disorder as F60.7 Dependent personality disorder. It is characterized by at least 3 of the following: 1. encouraging or allowing others to make most of one's important life decisions; 2. subordination of one's own needs to those of others on whom one is dependent, and undue compliance with their wishes; 3. unwillingness to make even reasonable demands on the people one depends on; 4. feeling uncomfortable or helpless when alone, because of exaggerated fears of inability to care for oneself; 5. preoccupation with fears of being abandoned by a person with whom one has a close relationship, and of being left to care for oneself; 6. limited capacity to make everyday decisions without an excessive amount of advice and reassurance from others. Associated features may include perceiving oneself as helpless, incompetent, and lacking stamina. Includes: asthenic, inadequate, passive, and self-defeating personality (disorder)

It is a requirement of ICD-10 that a diagnosis of any specific personality disorder also satisfies a set of general personality disorder criteria

Context source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dependent_personality_disorder Context : Psychotherapy is sometimes used in conjunction with medication as a treatment for dependent personality disorder. However, the medication is usually used to

treat another mental health condition, such as depression or generalized anxiety, rather than the dependent personality disorder itself. The most common medications used for treatment are antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications. These help people cope with the depression and anxiety that is often a part of the disorder, as well as other symptoms such as panic attacks. One of the most difficult issues that doctors face in prescribing medications is that many people with dependent personality disorder are at high risk of substance abuse and addiction. Medications are therefore prescribed only when absolutely necessary, and habit-forming medications are never prescribed Context source http://www.brighthub.com/mental-health/depression-mood/articles /86514.aspx Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Clinical interest in dependent personality disorder has existed since Karl Abraham first described it. As a disorder, the personality type first appeared in a United States Department of War technical bulletin in 1945 and later in the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1952 (American Psychiatric Association, 1952) as a subtype of passive-aggressive personality disorder. Since then, a surprising number of studies have upheld the descriptive validity of dependent personality traits, viewed as submissiveness, oral character traits, oral dependence, or passive dependence, or as a constellation of both pathological and adaptive traits under the rubric http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dependent_personality_disorder Designation status : Official 60. Termen:TULBURARE DE PERSONALTATE HISTRONICA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/tulburarea-histrionica-de-personalitate-teatralismul_7439

Definiie : Tulburarea histrionica de personalitate (teatralismul) este diagnosticata in special la femei si se manifesta prin dorinta permanenta de a atrage atentia celor din jur. Comportamentul acestor pacienti solicita constant aprobarea sau atentia celorlalti, sunt autodramatice, teatrale, egocentrice, cu tenta sexuala in situatii inadecvate inclusiv in relatii sociale si profesionale.

Barbatii si femeile cu personalitate histrionica se confrunta cu o emotivitate excesiva, astfel, au tentinta de a privi lucrurile intr-o maniera emotionala. De asemenea, pacientii cu aceasta tulburare sunt caracterizati ca fiind persoane impresionante, pline de viata si energie, si se evidentiaza prin farmecul, entuziasmul si deschiderea lor, prin abilitatea dezvoltata de a flirta. Sursa definiiei: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/tulburarea-histrionica-de-personalitate-teatralismul_7439: Corespondent englez: HISTRONIC PERSONALITY DISORDER Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Grup nominal Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : Criteriile de diagnostic DSM IV pentru tulburarile de personalitate histrionica sunt urmatoarele: Pattern pervaziv de excesiva emotionalitate si de cautare a atentiei, inceput in perioada de adult tanar si prezent in contexte diverse, indicat din cinci (sau mai multe) din urmatoarele:

1. se simte inconfortabil in situatii in care nu este in centrul atentiei; 2. interactiunea cu altii se caracterizeaza adesea prin comportament nepotrivit de seductiv sau de provocator din punct de vedere sexual; 3. manifesta expresii emotionale rapid schimbatoare si superficiale; 4. se foloseste constant de aspectul fizic pentru a atrage atentia asupra sa; 5. are un stil de a vorbi care este excesiv de impresionist si de lipsit de amanunte; 6. manifesta dramatizare de sine, teatralitate si expresie exagerata a emotiilor; 7. este sugestionabil, cu alte cuvinte usor influentat de altii sau de circumstante; 8. considera relatiile pe care le are drept mult mai intime decat sunt. Sursa contextului: http://www.eva.ro/psihologie/autocunoastere/personalitateahistrionica-articol-20946.html Context : De regula, persoanele cu tulburare histrionica nu recunosc ca ar avea nevoie de tratament, fapt care face dificila stabilirea si urmarea unui plan de tratament. Cu toate acestea initiativa de a apela la un specialist ar putea apartine si persoanei cu tulburare histrionica de personalitate daca sufera de o depresie majora in urma unei pierderi sau relatii recent incheiate sau a altor probleme care le provoaca suferinta. Psihoterapia este, in general, tratamentul de electie in cazul tulburarilor histrionice de personalitate. Scopul tratamentului este de a ajuta pacientul sa descopere motivatiile individuale si temerile asociate cu gandurile si comportamentul sau, dar si de a ajuta pacientul sa se raporteze la cei din jur intr-un mod pozitiv, mai putin egocentric. Medicatia este recomandata pentru a trata simptomele depresiei si anxietatii, in cazul in care acestea se manifesta. Majoritatea persoanelor cu aceasta tulburare nu intampina dificultati in stabilirea relatiilor sociale sau cele profesionale; problemele apar cand vine vorba despre relatii intime, care necesita o implicare profunda.

Comportamentul suicidar poate fi intalnit si la persoanele care sufera de personalitate histrionica. Aceasta tendinta se poate manifesta atunci cand pacientul doreste sa atraga atentia prin gestul sau. De regula, actul sinuciderii este planificat, motiv pentru care gandurile si modul de actiune ale persoanei cu personalitate histrionica trebuie tratate cu seriozitate. Pentru ca si automutilarea este o actiune caracteristica histrionicului, si acest aspect ar trebui urmarit si luat in calcul pe parcursul terapiei. Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/tulburarea-histrionica-de-personalitate-teatralismul_7439 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Tulburarile de personalitate reprezinta modele de comportament stabile si profund inradacinate in structura psihica a persoanei, care se manifesta ca niste raspunsuri rigide declansate intr-o serie de situatii sociale si personale; acestea constituie deviatii extreme si importante de la modul in care un individ mediu din cadrul unei culturi percepe , simte, gandeste si stabileste relatii cu ceilalti"(O.M.S., Sursa context: http://www.eva.ro/psihologie/autocunoastere/personalitateahistrionica-articol-20946.html Statutul desemn arii : Oficial Term : HISTRONIC PERSONALITY DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histrionic_personality_disorder Definition : Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) is defined by the American Psychiatric Association as a personality disorder characterized by a pattern of excessive

emotionality and attention-seeking, including an excessive need for approval and inappropriate seductiveness, usually beginning in early adulthood. These individuals are lively, dramatic, enthusiastic, and flirtatious. They may be inappropriately sexually provocative, express strong emotions with an impressionistic style, and be easily influenced by others. Associated features may include egocentrism, self-indulgence, continuous longing for appreciation, and persistent manipulative behavior to achieve their own needs.

Definition source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histrionic_personality_disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun phrase Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: Because of the lack of research support for work on personality disorders and long-term treatment with psychotherapy, the empirical findings on the treatment of these disorders remain based on the case report method and not on clinical trials. On the basis of case presentations, the treatment of choice is psychotherapy and/or cognitive-behavioral therapy, aimed at self-development through resolution of conflict and advancement of inhibited developmental lines. Group therapy can assist individuals with HPD to learn to decrease the display of excessively dramatic behaviors, but must be closely monitored because it may provide the person with an audience to play to (perform for), thus giving opportunity to perpetuate histrionic behavior.

Family therapy Medications Alternative therapies Cognitive behavioral therapy Context source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histrionic_personality_disorder Context : Histrionic personality disorder can affect a person's social or romantic relationships and how a person reacts to losses or failures. People with this disorder are also at higher risk than the general population to suffer from depression. Context source: http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/personality_disorders/hic_ histrionic_personality_disorder.aspx Area of use:Medicine Commentary : The cause of this disorder is unknown, but childhood events such as deaths in the immediate family, illnesses within the immediate family which present constant anxiety, divorce of parents and genetics may be involved. Histrionic Personality Disorder is more often diagnosed in women than men; men with some quite similar symptoms are often diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder. Little research has been conducted to determine the biological sources, if any, of this disorder. Psychoanalytic theories incriminate authoritarian or distant attitudes by one (mainly mother) or both of the parents of these patients, or love based on expectations from the child that can never be fully met. Designation status : Official 61. Termen:TULBURARE DE DEPERSONALIZARE Limba termenului: Romn

Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Sanatatea-mentala/tulburarea-dedepersonalizare_6242 Definiie : Depersonalizarea este o senzatie ca lucrurile din jur nu sunt reale, sau senzatia ca persoana se priveste pe sine din afara corpului. Sentimentele de depersonalizare pot fi foarte deranjante si pot face pacientul sa se simta ca si cum ar pierde contactul cu realitatea sau prezinta senzatia ca traiste intr-un vis. Multe persoane au o experienta de depersonalizare la un moment de-a lungul vietii. Dar cand aceste senzatii de depersonalizare continua sa apara, sau nu dispar complet nicicand, se considera ca persoana sufera de tulburare de depersonalizare. Aceasta tulburare poate fi severa si interfera cu relatiile cu cei din jur, munca si alte activitati. Sursa definiiei: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Sanatatea-mentala/tulburarea-dedepersonalizare_6242. Corespondent englez: DEPERSONALIZATION DISORDER Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Grup nominal Hiperonim: depersonalizare Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : Sentimentele de depersonalizare pot: - apare fara un factor declansator; - apare dupa un eveniment amenintator de viata, cum ar fi un accident sau un atac; - fi declansate de teama de a nu mai avea inca o experienta de depersonalizare. In cazul tulburarii de depersonalizare, aceste senzatii nu sunt determinate de droguri, alcool sau alte afectiuni medicale. Totusi, episoadele pot fi declansate de stres sau traume si deseori apar alaturi de alte afectiuni psihice cum ar fi anxietatea, depresia

sau schizofrenia. In unele cazuri, ele apar brusc, fara o cauza aparenta. In timp ce cauza tulburarii de depersonalizare nu este pe deplin inteleasa, se pare ca exista o legatura cu echilibrul anumitor substante chimice din creier (neurotransmitatori). Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Sanatatea-mentala/tulburareade-depersonalizare_6242 Context : Studiile arata ca perioade tranzitorii de derealizare/depersonalizare sunt descrise de pana la 70% din populatie. Mai mult, depersonalizarea se descrie intr-o multitudine de afectiuni psihiatrice (schizofrenie, depresie, anxietate, tulburare obsesivcompulsiva, manie), neurologice (epilepsie, migrena, tumori cerebrale, encefalita), metabolice (hipoglicemie, hipoparatiroidism, hipotiroidism, intoxicatia cu monoxid de carbon sau cu mescalina), sau in situatii speciale (oboseala extrema, deprivare senzoriala, socuri emotionale). Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatmedical.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/ Tulburarea_de_depersonalizare Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Tratamentul tulburarii de depersonalizare poate include: 1. Consilierea psihologica. Aceasta ajuta la intelegerea motivelor pentru care apare tulburarea de depersonalizare si ajuta pacientul sa nu se mai gandeasca la simptome pentru ca acestea sa dispara. Tulburarea de depersonalizare poate fi ameliorata si atunci cand consilierea ajuta la ameliorarea altor afectiuni, cum ar fi depresia; 2. Medicatia. Desi nu exista medicamente create special pentru tratamentul tulburarii de depersonalizare, exista medicamente folosite in general pentru tratarea anxietatii si depresiei si care pot fi eficiente. Unele dintre acestea sunt fluoxetina, clomipramina si clonazepam. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial

Term : DEPERSONALIZATION DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.minddisorders.com/Del-Fi/Depersonalization-disorder.html Definition : Depersonalization is a state in which the individual ceases to perceive the reality of the self or the environment. The patient feels that his or her body is unreal, is changing, or is dissolving; or that he or she is outside of the body Definition disorder.html Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun phrase Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: Depersonalization disorder is classified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4th Edition, text Revision, also known as the DSM-IV-TR as one of the dissociative disorders. These are mental disorders in which the normally well-integrated functions of memory, identity, perception, and consciousness are separated (dissociated). The dissociative disorders are usually associated with trauma in the recent or distant past, or with an intense internal conflict that forces the mind to separate incompatible or unacceptable knowledge, information, or feelings. In depersonalization disorder, the patient's self-perception is disrupted. Patients feel as if they are external observers of their own lives, or that they are detached from their own bodies. Depersonalization disorder is sometimes called "depersonalization neurosis source: http://www.minddisorders.com/Del-Fi/Depersonalization-

Context source: http://www.minddisorders.com/Del-Fi/Depersonalizationdisorder.html Context : The word depersonalization itself was first used by Henri Frdric Amiel in The Journal Intime. The July 8, 1880 entry reads: "I find myself regarding existence as though from beyond the tomb, from another world; all is strange to me; I am, as it were, outside my own body and individuality; I am depersonalized, detached, cut adrift. Is this madness?" Context source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Depersonalization_disorder Area of use: Medicine Commentary : A person suffering from depersonalization disorder experiences subjective symptoms of unreality that make him or her uneasy and anxious. "Subjective" is a word that refers to the thoughts and perceptions inside an individual's mind, as distinct from the objects of those thoughts and perceptions outside the mind. Because depersonalization is a subjective experience, many people who have chronic or recurrent episodes of depersonalization are afraid others will not understand if they try to describe what they are feeling, or will think they are "crazy." As a result, depersonalization disorder may be underdiagnosed because the symptom of depersonalization is underreported

Designation status : Official

62. Termen:TULBURARE DE COMPORTAMENT Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/arhiva_medicala/tulburare+comportament Definiie : Este o tulburare psihica caracterizata prin alternanta a crizelor de excitatie (manie) si a episoadelor depresive (melancolie). Psihoza maniacodepresiva se manifesta, in general, dupa varstele de 30-40 ani. Ea ar putea fi determinata de ereditate, constitutia psihica (subiect picnomorf, adica de conformatie robusta), profilul psihologic sau de o dereglare a centrilor cerebrali ai starii de spirit. Rasturnarile de situatie, de natura fizica sau psihica, de o importanta mare (soc emotional, soc chirurgical, sarcina, menopauza etc.), chiar schimbarea anotimpurilor pot fi, de asemenea, factori declansanti. Simptome si semne Subiectul trece periodic prin crize de manie sau de melancolie, intrerupte de faze normale. Accesul se traduce atat pe plan psihic, cat si pe plan fizic: stare de spirit trista sau euforica, idei delirante, tulburari de comportament alimentar si ale greutatii corporale, insomnie si, mai ales, tendinta la sinucidere... Sursa definiiei: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/arhiva_medicala/tulburare+

comportament. Corespondent englez: CHARACTER DISORDER Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Grup nominal Hiperonim: Hiponim: terapie comportamentala Sinonim: Context : Tulburarea de comportament se manifesta prin comportament persistent in directia violarii drepturilor celorlalti si a regulilor sociale de baza. Copiii cu tulburare de comportament au de obicei probleme cu regulile, fie cu legea, fie la scoala, intrand in conflict cu legea si unii din ei devin "clienti" ai inchisorilor sau scolilor de corectie.

Sursa contextului: http://www.eva.ro/psihologie/situatii-si-sfaturi/cum-semanifesta-tulburarea-de-comportament-articol-22286.html Context : Ce este tulburarea de comportament?Tulburarea de comportament se refera la un grup de probleme comportamentale si emotionale la tineri. Copiii si adolescentii cu aceasta tulburare au dificultati in a urma regulile si in a se comporta in societate in mod acceptabil. Adesea sunt priviti de catre alti copii si adulti ca fiind rai sau delincventi, fara ca acesti sa isi dea seama ca este vorba despre o afectiune mentala.Cauzele tulburarii de comportament la copil si adolescentCauzele tulburarilor de comportament la copii si adolescenti sunt multiple, incluzand leziunile cerebrale, abuzul in copilarie, vulnerabilitatea genetica, esecul scolar si experientele de viata traumatice.Simptomele tulburarii de comportament la copil si adolescentCopiii si adolescentii cu tulburari de comportament pot prezenta unele din urmatoarele simptome:agresivitate fata de oameni si animale- intimidarea sau amenintarea altora- initierea

batailor- cruzime fata de oameni si animale- furt- viol- distrugerea deliberata de bunuripornirea de incendii- spargeri in casa altor persoane- fuga de acasa- chiulul de la scoalaminciuni Tratament si psihoterapie pentru tulburarile de comportamentCopiii cu asemenea tulburari de comportament necesita o evaluare complexa, pentru ca in multe situatii tulburarile de comportament se asociaza cu tulburarea bipolara, anxietate, abuz de diverse substante, ADHD, dificultati de invatare, tulburari ale gandirii.Copiii si adolescentii care nu sunt tratati dezvolta probleme aditionale in perioada de adult, cu comportament de tip antisocial, incapacitatea de a-si mentine o slujba, probleme de relatie. Tratamentul copiiilor cu tulburari de comportament include psihoterapia, care are scopul de a invata copilul cum sa isi exprime furia in mod adecvat. La unii copii poate fi necesara medicatia. Tratamentul este in general dificil si de durata.

Sursa contextului: http://integrareacopiilor.blogspot.com/2009/03/ce-estetulburarea-de-comportament.html Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Cand tulburarea de comportament devine boala... Pentru a vorbi de tulburare de comportament ca boala, copilul sub 18 ani trebuie sa prezinte:

episoade de agresiune fata de oameni sau animale (repede, intimideaza, agreseaza pe cei din jur, sare la bataia adesea, poarta cutit sau alte arme albe, este crud cu alte persoane sau cu animale, fura sau forteaza pe cineva pentru a intretine relatii sexuale);

episoade de distrugere a proprietatii (in mod deliberat distruge lucruri, strica, murdareste, cu intentia de a distruge, lucruri care nu sunt proprietatea sa);

obisnuieste sa minta, pacaleasca sau sa fure;

violeaza regulile in mod consecvent. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial

Term : CHARACTER DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/character+disorder Definition : a chronic, habitual maladaptive and socially unacceptable pattern of behavior and emotional response Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/character+ disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: personality disorder Context: Personality and character disorders are not the same thing. Our personality defines the stylistic way we tend to interact, while our character is defined by the level of social conscientiousness and virtue in our personality. When personality or character traits present major obstacles to functioning in a healthy way, they might constitute a disorder.

Context source: http://counsellingresource.com/features/2008/09/10/what-is-acharacter-disorder/ Context : Personality disorder, also called character disorder, mental disorder that is marked by deeply ingrained and lasting patterns of inflexible, maladaptive, or antisocial behaviour. A personality disorder is an accentuation of one or more personality traits to the point that the trait significantly impairs an individual's social or occupational functioning. Personality disorders are not, strictly speaking, illnesses, since they need not involve the disruption of emotional, intellectual, or perceptual functioning. In many cases, persons with a personality disorder do not seek psychiatric treatment for such unless they are pressured to by relatives or by a court" Encyclopedia Britannica. Context source: http://www.ptypes.com/overviews.html Area of use: Medicine Designation status : Official

63. Termen:TULBURARE EXPLOZIVA INTERMITENTA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa: http://www.sfatmedical.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/Tulburarea_ exploziva_intermitenta Definiie : Tulburarea exploziva intermitenta consta intr-un comportament episodic violent care nu este datorat unei cauze organice sau altui diagnostic psihiatric Sursa definiiei: http://www.sfatmedical.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/Tulburarea _exploziva_intermitenta. Corespondent englez: INTERMITTENT EXPLOSIVE DISORDER Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Grup nominal Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : Tulburarea are urmatoarele caracteristici: cateva episoade distincte de incapacitate de a rezista impulsurilor agresive, rezultand in acte agresive serioase sau in distrugere de proprietate (bunuri) gradul de agresivitate exprimat in cursul episoadelor este mult disproportionat fata de orice stresori psiho-sociali precipitanti

episoadele agresive nu pot fi explicate mai bine de o alta tulburare mintala si nu se datoreaza efectelor fiziologice directe ale unei substante (de ex., un drog de abuz, un medicament) sau ale unei conditii medicale generate (de ex., traumatism cerebral, boala Alzheimer) Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatmedical.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/Tulburarea_ exploziva_intermitenta Context : Diagnosticul diferential al tulburarii explozive intermitente are in central atentiei agresivitatea care poate surveni si in alte afectiuni. Astfel, acest diagnostic se pune numai dupa ce sunt excluse alte afectiuni, ca deliriumul (in acest caz apare o perturbare de comportament) . Se distinge de dementa, de modificari a personalitatii datorita unei conditii medicale generale, tip agresiv care este diagnosticata cand episoadele agresive sunt datorate unuor efecte fiziologice directe ale unei conditii medicale generale, (ca in cazul unui traumatism cerebral), in cazuri destul de rare aceasta violenta poate aparea la persoanele cu epilepsie frontala si de lob temporal (epilepsie complexa partial). Explozii violente de comportament pot surveni de asemenea in asociere cu intoxicatia sau sevrajul de o substanta (cel mai des incriminate fiind alcoolul, cocaina si alte stimulante, barbiturice, inhalante) se efectueaza teste in urina sau sange pentru depistarea lor. Sursa contextului: http://www.romedic.ro/tulburarea-exploziva-intermitenta Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Tratamentul in tulburarea exploziva intermitenta cuprinde asocierea intre farmacoterapie si psihoterapie particularizandu-se astfel dupa fiecare caz in parte. Pentru aparitia unui rezultat satisfactator se pot utiliza diverse clase de medicamente dintre care antagonisti ai receptorilor -adrenergici, anticonvulsivante (carbamazepina, fenitoina, litiu), medicamente serotoninergice (buspironul, trazodonul) si SSRI (fluoxetina) . Benzodiazepinele pot sa agraveze aceasta conditie prin efectul dezinhibitor. Alte masuri include psihoterapia suportiva, Terapia de grup fixarea de limite si terapie familiala daca pacientul este un copil sau adolescent. trebuie folosita cu prudenta daca

bolnavul ar putea ataca alti membri ai grupului. Din punct de vedere al evolutiei se cunoaste ca odata cu trecerea timpului severitatea episoadelor poate creste. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial

Term : INTERMITTENT EXPLOSIVE DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/intermittent-explosive-disorder/DS00 Definition : Intermittent explosive disorder is characterized by repeated episodes of aggressive, violent behavior in which you react grossly out of proportion to the situation. Road rage, domestic abuse, and angry outbursts or temper tantrums that involve throwing or breaking objects may be signs of intermittent explosive disorder (IED). People with intermittent explosive disorder may attack others and their possessions, causing bodily injury and property damage. Later, people with intermittent explosive disorder may feel remorse, regret or embarrassment. If you have this anger disorder, treatment may involve medications and psychotherapy to help you control your aggressive impulses Definition source: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/intermittent-explosivedisorder/DS00730 Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun phrase Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym:

Context: Intermittent explosive disorder was originally described by the eminent French psychiatrist Esquirol as a "partial insanity" related to senseless impulsive acts. Esquirol termed this disorder monomanies instinctives , or instinctual monomanias . These apparently unmotivated acts were thought to result from instinctual or involuntary impulses, or from impulses related to ideological obsessions. People with intermittent explosive disorder have a problem with controlling their temper. In addition, their violent behavior is out of proportion to the incident or event that triggered the outburst. Impulsive acts of aggression, however, are not unique to intermittent explosive disorder. Impulsive aggression can be present in many psychological and nonpsychological disorders. The diagnosis of intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is essentially a diagnosis of exclusion, which means that it is given only after other disorders have been ruled out as causes of impulsive aggression. Patients diagnosed with IED usually feel a sense of arousal or tension before an outburst, and relief of tension after the aggressive act. Patients with IED believe that their aggressive behaviors are justified; however, they feel genuinely upset, regretful, remorseful, bewildered or embarrassed by their impulsive and aggressive behavior. Read more: Intermittent explosive disorder - children, causes, DSM, therapy, withdrawal, drug, person, people http://www.minddisorders.com/Flu-Inv/Intermittentexplosive-disorder.html#ixzz1I1ywheXn Context disorder.html Context : Treatment is achieved through both cognitive behavioral therapy and psychotropic medication regimens. Therapy aids in helping the patient recognize the impulses in hopes of achieving a level of awareness and control of the outbursts, along with treating the emotional stress that accompanies these episodes. Multiple drug regimens are frequently indicated for IED patients. Tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and source: http://www.minddisorders.com/Flu-Inv/Intermittent-explosive-

sertraline appear to alleviate some pathopsychological symptoms; the reasons for such will be explained further in the subsequent section. GABAergic mood stabilizers and anticonvulsive drugs such as gabapentin, lithium, carbamazepine, and divalproex seem to aid in controlling the incidence of outbursts. Anxiolytics help alleviate tension and may help reduce explosive outbursts by increasing the provocative stimulus tolerance threshold, and are especially indicated in patients with comorbid obsessive-compulsive or other anxiety disorders Context source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intermittent_explosive_disorder Area of use:Medicine Commentary : IED is characterized by violent behaviors that are impulsive as well as assaultive. One example involved a man who felt insulted by another customer in a neighborhood bar during a conversation that had lasted for several minutes. Instead of finding out whether the other customer intended his remark to be insulting, or answering the "insult" verbally, the man impulsively punched the other customer in the mouth. Within a few minutes, however, he felt ashamed of his violent act. As this example indicates, the urge to commit the impulsive aggressive act may occur from minutes to hours before the "acting out" and is characterized by the buildup of tension. After the outburst, the IED patient experiences a sense of relief from the tension. While many patients with IED blame someone else for causing their violent outbursts, they also express remorse and guilt for their actions. Designation status : Official

64. Termen:ABREACTIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.srdp.ro/abreactied.html Definiie : Descarcare emotionala prin care subiectul se elibereaza de afectul legat de amintirea unui eveniment traumatic, permitandu-i astfel sa nu devina sau sa ramana patogen. Abreactia, ce poate fi provocata in cursul psihoterapiei, mai ales sub hipnoza, producand astfel un efect de catharsis, poate avea loc si in mod spontan, separata printr-un interval mai scurt sau mai lung de traumatismul initial Sursa definiiei: http://www.srdp.ro/abreactied.html. Nota bene : Din fr. abr'eaction Corespondent englez: ABREACTION Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : In psihologia analitica jungiana abreactia reprezinta retrairea dramatica a unui moment traumatizant, o recapitulare emotiva a acestuia in stare de veghe sau de transa hipnotica, o repovestire care "depotentializeaza afectivitatea experientei traumatice, pana cand aceasta inceteaza sa mai aiba o influenta ravasitoare". Sursa contextului: http://www.psihoterapie.net/dictionar/a/abreactia.html Context : Abreactia care poate fi provocata in cursul psihoterapiei, mai ales in stare de hipnoza provoaca astfel un efect de catharsis. Abreactia poate avea loc si in mod spontan, separata printr-un interval mai scurt sau mai lung de traumatismul initial. Inceputul utilizarii abreactiei se leaga de teoria lui Freud asupra traumei si de primele

experimente psihanalitice. Jung avea o alta parere decat Freud privind abreactia si in privinta eficacitatii utilizarii abreactiei. Consideratiile privind utilizarea (si inadecvarea) abreactiei il vor conduce pe Jung la definirea propriei sale metode si la clarificarea rolului jucat de transfer in cadrul curei psihanalitice. Jung a descoperit ca in sine abreactia este insuficienta, nefolositoare sau daunatoare. La aceeasi parere in ceea ce priveste abreactia avea sa ajunga mai tarziu si Freud. Jung a identificat scopul tratamentului mai degraba in integrarea disocierilor legate de trauma decat in abreactia traumei. In opinia lui Jung aceasta re-experienta ar trebui sa releveze aspectul bipolar al nevrozei, astfel incat persoana sa se poata reconecta la continutul pozitiv sau prospectiv al complexului si prin aceasta sa readuca afectul sub control. Aceasta s-ar putea realiza pe baza relatiei cu terapeutul, relatie care consolideaza personalitatea constienta a pacientului astfel incat complexul autonom sa reintre sub autoritatea EULUI. Abreactia este o forma de PUNERE IN SCENA, ce poate fi utilizata intr-o ANALIZA. Abreactia detine o importanta centrala in alte terapii, de exemplu in terapia primara. Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : ABREACTION ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.thefreedictionary.com/abreaction Definition : To release (repressed emotions) by acting out, as in words, behavior, or the imagination, the situation causing the conflict. Definition source: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/abreaction Nota bene: Translation of German abreagieren : ab-, away + reagieren, to react Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim:

Synonym: catharsis, katharsis Context: Early in his career, psychoanalyst Carl Jung expressed interest in abreaction, or what he referred to as "trauma theory", but later decided it had limitations concerning the treatment of neurosis. Jung stated that: "though traumata of clearly aetiological significance were occasionally present, the majority of them appeared very improbable. Many traumata were so unimportant, even so normal, that they could be regarded at most as a pretext for the neurosis. But what especially aroused my criticism was the fact that not a few traumata were simply inventions of fantasy and had never happened at all". Jung believed that the skill, devotion and self-confidence regarding the way the analyst did his work was much more important to the patient than the rehashing of old traumatic emotions

Context source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abreaction Context : abreaction is an unpleasant response that may occur during trance. It is usually triggered as repressed uncomfortable memories are brought to conscious awareness during trance. This may happen at any time during hypnosis as the subject is accessing areas of the mind that are normally beyond conscious awareness, but it is more likely to occur during regression. Many therapists attempt to induce an abreaction in their patients as a form of therapy, to help them release unconscious emotional energy. This can yield remarkable results. Other therapists prefer to look at a traumatic experience from a disassociated position, allowing more recently gained wisdom to change the way that an event affects their life. So what happens if your client has an abreaction? Initially you will need to make sure that your client is abreacting, sometimes a client will cry after a moment of insight. An abreaction is typically an uncomfortable situation, you should

recognize it as distress, usually accompanied by tears. To deal with an abreaction it is important to remember that it is simply a response to an experience. You can immediately ease the client by gaining rapport and leading them to a more comfortable place. You can do this with a simple script such as the one outlined below. "You are crying, and although I am not sure exactly what you are feeling right now, as the tears run down your face you can understand that your subconscious mind knows that it is safe for you to have this experience. It is not important to make sense of these feelings here and now, just be comfortable that you can trust yourself and feel whatever it is you need to feel and then, with a great sense of relief, be happy that you have been able to do so. A wonderful sense of release and calm can wash over you as you recognize a remarkable step forward in the healing process." Using such a script will enable you to pace your client to a more comfortable place and give them a positive outlook of the experience. Context source: http://www.mindworks.uk.com/website/abreaction.htm Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Abreaction therapy is a form of psychotherapy in which abreaction is used to assist a patient suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder by re-living the experience in a controlled environment. Hypnosis is often used as a tool for recall in abreaction therapy. The efficacy of this therapy has been likened to "lancing a boil". Exposing the wound releases the "poison" and allows the wound to heal. In the same way that the lancing process is painful, re-living the trauma can be highly distressing for the patient, and memories of the pain can be physically felt. Designation status : Official 65. Termen:DEPRESIE ANACLITICA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.drandrei.ro/index.php?page=Un%20concept&path=continut/

concept.php Definiie : Rene Spitz introduce notiunea de depresie anaclitica, definita ca un ansamblu de dezordini fizice si psihice care se instaleaza progresiv la sugarul separat de mama sa dupa ce a avut o relatie cel putin satisfacatoare in prima luna de viata. Daca mama revine la copilul sau ori se gaseste un inlocuitor eficient si acceptabil pentru copil pana la sfarsitul perioadei critice situate intre sfarsitul lunii a treia si sfarsitul celei de-a cincea luni de dupa abandon, tulburarile psiho-afective pot sa dispara, ramanand de recuperat retardul somatomotor, reversibil de asemenea prin aparitia unei motivatii si a spiritului de autoconservare.

Sursa definiiei: http://www.drandrei.ro/index.php?page=Un%20concept&path= continut/concept.php. Corespondent englez:ANACLITIC DEPRESSION Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Grup nominal Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : Depresia anaclitica este un fenomen descris la copiii foarte mici, privati de afectiunea si atentia materna. Relatiile interpersonale cu parintii au un rol pivotal in dezvoltarea individului si a tipului de relatii pe care le va stabili ulterior cu alti indivizi de-a lungul vietii. Multe din datele interne ale fiecaruia individ se capata in cadrul acestora relatii primare. De exemplu, stima de sine. Daca unui copil i se repeta, sub diverse moduri, mai mult sau mai putin explicite, ca el sau ea nu este capabil de a face un

lucru cum trebuie, daca este criticat tot timpul, daca este in permanenta comparat cu cei care au performante mai bune (parintii sau fratii mai mari) sau daca pur si simplu nu este lasat a se descurce singur in diverse situatii potrivite vrstei, atunci copilul respectiv va dezvolta o nencredere n sine, se va ndoi toata viata de propriile lui capacitati de a face fata, de a se descurca. Iar relatiile pe care le va stabili cu alti indivizi, de-a lungul vietii, vor fi probabil de tip dependent, submisiv, in care va fi tentat sa atribuie celorlalti o pricepere, putere si importanta mai mare decat lui nsusi. Un alt exemplu este cel al copiilor care au crescut privati de o minima afectiune. La rndul lor, adulti fiind, vor fi incapabili sa ofere altora afectiune. Copiii care au fost abuzati psihic, fizic sau sexual, vor deveni niste adulti cu o stima de sine scazuta, mpovarati de grave sentimente de vinovatie, ura si neputinta, bntuiti de depresii permanente sau periodice, incapabili de a construi relatii armonioase cu parteneri lor. Unii vor deveni la rndul lor niste abuzatori, nefiind capabili de a relationa dect n jurul ideii de suferinta, de umilinta a celuilalt, dupa modelul relatiei cu proprii parinti.

Sursa contextului: http://www.psihogen.ro/relatiile-interpersonale-in-dezvoltareapsihologica.html Context : Hospitalismul - depresie anaclitica (pana la 18 luni) (anaklinein - in greaca semnifica sprijin).A Lapidar Bowlby convoaca etapele hospitalismului in cei 3D Disperare / Descurajare / Detasare. papetarie Oamenii nefericiti nu au dreptul de-a avea copii. Eczema copilului - constata Spitz - e in legatura uneori cu ostilitatea pe care o resimte mama fata de el si pe care o deghizeaza in anxietate. Miscarile - cervicale / manuale / de mers. Copilul sub 6 luni nu are non-REM si ca atare el intra direct in REMul nictimeral din orice stare prezumata - veghe / plans. ghiozdane Reflexe inconditionate / conditionate. Unii copiii crescuti in inchisoare de catre mama lor se dezvoltau mult mai

bine in raport cu cei crescuti in Centrele de Plasament unde se acuza o crasa penurie de afectivitate. Hormonul de crestere e secretat doar in reprizele hipnagogice. Fazele Hospitalismului - revolta (hipno-patiile) / abandonul (plansul) / apatia / indiferenta. birotica Copilului mic dati-i jucarii mari - Verneil. Prin joc - apare prin iterarea activitatii - pruncul cauta realitatea iar adultul via experienta ludica doreste sa evadeze din ea. 1 - 4 luni (jucarii cromatizate / profone) 4 - 8 luni (jucarii dexterogene) 8 - 12 luni (jucarii noncasabile) Pana la 7 luni pruncul nu suporta prezenta altui copil ci cauta exclusiv adultul. La 4 luni pruncul doarme 18 ore pe zi. Mai bine sa gresim aratand prea multa iubire decat prea putina - Getz. Spre 12 luni copilul doarme mai mult noaptea si mai putin ziua. Sursa contextului: http://athos-club.blogspot.com/2009/12/hospitalismul-depresieanaclitica-pana.html Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial

Term : ANACLITIC DERESSION ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hospitalisme Definition : Hospitalism (or anaclitic depression in its sublethal form) was a pediatric diagnosis used in the 1930s to describe infants who wasted away while in hospital. The symptoms could include retarded physical development, and disruption of perceptual-motor skills and language. It is now understood that this wasting disease was mostly caused by a lack of social contact between the infant and its caregivers. Infants in

poorer hospitals were less subject to this disease since those hospitals could not afford incubators which meant that the hospital staff regularly held the infants. Definition source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hospitalisme Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Hospitalism Context: The concept of anaclitic depression was introduced in 1946 by psychiatrist Ren Spitz to refer to children who became depressed after being separated from their mothers for a period of three months or longer during the second six months of life. Since these children had no one to "lean on" for the nurturance they required, Spitz coined the term anaclitic (leaning upon) depression to identify their condition. Without an adquate mother substitute, the children exhibited a number of physical and psychological symptoms. They were socially withdrawn and suffered from weight loss, sleeplessness, retarded psychomotor development, and a greater-than-average incidence of physical illness. After three months, some developed physical rigidity. In those children who were reunited with their mothers within six months, the condition was completely reversed, and they were restored to normal emotional health. However, children who continued without adequate mothering did not improve, eventually exhibiting further signs of deterioration, including agitation, mental retardation , or lethargy. In the most extreme cases, their depressed state led to death from marasmus, a condition in which a child wastes away from starvation. The clinical recognition of anaclitic depression as a reaction to maternal separation helped stimulate interest in mothering as an important behavioral and developmental factor in infants. Context source: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2602/is_0000/ai_260200003

Context : Anaclitic depression has two very different definitions in psychological literature. Both of these have to do with attachment, but a different population group is affected in each type. One type of anaclitic depression is a term not very much used anymore, and concerns itself with what happens if attachment to a caregiver is disrupted for a long period of time during the first year of life. The other may be more likely to occur in an adult therapeutic setting or in adult relationship settings, when a person forms extremely depend attachments on others.

In anaclitic depression of the first type, the term evolved after observations were done on children in orphanage or hospital settings, who lost a caregiver for an extended period of time. Even if these children were well cared for and had their physical and medical needs met, most of them began to have strong losses or failure to progress developmentally. This is because the children had no opportunity to bond with a single and consistent caregiver. The studies done on this issue tended to show that losses could be regained if a single caregiver, like a mother, was reunited with a child before six months had passed. Beyond that point, some children exhibited retardation, social problems or in the worst cases would suffer a decline so significant that they might have failure to thrive Context source http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-anaclitic-depression.htm Area of use: Medicine Designation status : Official

66. Termen:TULBURARE DE PERSONALITATE DE TIP ANTISOCIAL Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburari-psihice/ tulburarea-de-personalitate-antisociala_104 Definiie : Tulburarea de personalitate antisociala este o conditie in care persoana arata lipsa de consideratie fata de lege si de drepturile celor din jur. Persoanele cu tulburare de personalitate antisociala tind sa minta sau sa fure si nu-si indeplinesc obligatiile profesionale si cele de parinte. Termenii sociopat sau psihopat sunt uneori folositi pentru a descrie o persoana cu tulburare de personalitate antisociala. Debutul adolescentei reprezinta o perioada critica pentru dezvoltarea tulburarii de personalitate antisociala. Oamenii care cresc intr-un mediu abuziv sau in care sunt neglijati prezinta cel mai mare risc, iar adultii care prezinta aceasta tulburare au avut debutul simptomelor de conduita inainte de varsta de 15 ani. Tulburarea de personalitate

antisociala este de trei ori mai frecventa la barbati decat la femei si este mult mai prevalenta in populatia din inchisoare decat in populatia generala. Tulburarea de personalitate antisociala este o conditie cronica si reprezinta una dintre cele mai dificil de tratat tulburari de personalitate. Totusi, psihoterapia si unele medicamente pot ajuta la ameliorarea simptomelor. In multe cazuri, simptomele tulburarii de personalitate antisociala descresc odata cu inaintarea in varsta. Sursa definiiei: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice /tulburarea-de-personalitate-antisociala_104. Corespondent englez: ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : GRUP NOMINAL Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : Caracteristicile persoanelor cu tulburare de personalitate de tip antisocial sunt: - Furtul sau minciuna constante - Dificultati permanente sau recurente cu legea - Tendinta de a viola drepturile si granitele altora (proprietatea, fizic, sexual, emotional, legal) - Abuzul de substante - Comportament agresiv, adesea violent, inclinatia de a se implica in diverse lupte sau batai - Disforie, dispozitie persistent agitata sau depresiva - Dispret fata de siguranta propriei persoane sau a altora - Diagnostic de tulburari de comportament in copilarie

- Farmec superficial - Lipsa de remuscari atunci cand ii raneste pe altii - Impulsivitate - Incapacitatea de a-si face sau mentine prietenii - Probleme cu autoritatea sau figurile autoritare Sursa contextului: =comcontent&view=article&id=51&Itemid=79 Context : Cauzele tulburarii de personalitate de tip antisocial nu sunt cunoscute, dar se pare ca un rol il au factorii genetici. De asemenea istoricul familial (unul din parinti antisocial) creste riscul. Se pare ca exista de asemenea o conexiune intre tulburarea de personalitate de tip antisocial si deprivarea materna in primii cinci ani de viata. Mamele copiilor cu tulburare de personalitate de tip antisocial sunt adesea alcoolice si au tendinte impulsive. Sursa contextului: http://www.personalitate.psihologia.info.ro/index.php?option= com_content&view=article&id=51&Itemid=79 Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.mentalhealth.com/dis/p20-pe04.html Definition : Antisocial Personality Disorder is a condition characterized by persistent disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. Deceit and manipulation are central features of this disorder. For this diagnosis to be given, the individual must be at least 18,

and must have had some symptoms of Conduct Disorder (i.e., delinquency) before age 15. This disorder is only diagnosed when these behaviors become persistent and very disabling or distressing. Definition source: http://www.mentalhealth.com/dis/p20-pe04.html Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun phrase Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: Diagnostic Criteria: Three or more of the following are required: Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeatedly lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults Reckless disregard for safety of self or others Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another Since these antisocial behaviors are commonly observed in children and adolescents, this disorder is only diagnosed if these antisocial behaviors persist into adulthood (i.e., if age is 18 or older). The diagnosis of Antisocial Personality requires that there was evidence of delinquency (Conduct Disorder) with onset before age 15 years. This is in contrast to the (non-DSM-IV) diagnosis of being a psychopath which

does not require a prior diagnosis of Conduct Disorder. The diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder is not made if the occurrence of antisocial behavior occurs exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia or a Manic Episode Context source: http://www.mentalhealth.com/dis/p20-pe04.html Context : Millon's subtypes Theodore Millon identified five subtypes of antisocial behavior. Any antisocial individual may exhibit none, one or more than one of the following:

covetous antisocial - variant of the pure pattern where individuals feel that life has not given them their due.

reputation-defending antisocial - including narcissistic features risk-taking antisocial - including histrionic features nomadic antisocial - including schizoid, avoidant features malevolent antisocial - including sadistic, paranoid features.

Context source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antisocial_personality_disorder Area of use: Medicine Commentary : To date there have been no controlled studies reported which found an effective treatment for ASPD, although contingency management programs, or a reward system, has been shown moderately effective for behavioral change.[15] Some studies have found that the presence of ASPD does not significantly interfere with treatment for other disorders, such as substance abuse,[16] although others have reported contradictory findings.[17] Schema therapy is being investigated as a treatment for antisocial personality disorder, as well as medicinal marijuana treatments.[18 Designation status : Official

67. Termen:ANHEDONIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Sanatatea-mentala/anhedonia-incapacitateade-a-simti-placere_82 Definitie : Anhedonia este incapacitatea unei persoane de a simti placerea in cursul unor experiente care ar trebui sa determine placere. A fost pentru prima data definita in secolul al 19-lea, dar a fost ignorata pana in anii 1980, deoarece oamenii de stiinta erau preocupati de alte simptome evidente ale depresiei ca si lipsa concentrarii, oboseala, somnul si pofta de mancare dereglate, ganduri sinucigase. Anhedonia este acum recunoscuta ca unul dintre principalele simptome ale depresiei si cercetarile care se fac dezvaluie noi legaturi intre creier si depresie Sursa definitiei: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Sanatatea-mentala/anhedoniaincapacitatea-de-a-simti-placere_82. Corespondent englez:ANHEDONIA Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : Depresia afecteaza unul din cinci oameni, care se afla in acelasi moment al vietii lor si este o afectiune cu potential fatal datorita riscului mare de sinucidere. Depresia poate fi datorata unui eveniment trist ca moartea unei persoane apropiate, o boala psihica sau un dezechilibru in chimia creierului. Nu orice sufera de

depresie sufera si de anhedonie. Este rar intalnita in depresia usoara, dar creaza probleme serioasa la cei care sufera de depresie severa. Anhedonia poate persista dupa ce persoana s-a vindecat de depresie, dar de obicei se vindeca o data cu ea. actioneaza doar partial pe simptomele anhedoniei Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Sanatatea-mentala/anhedoniaincapacitatea-de-a-simti-placere_82. Context : pacienta a vorbit despre cum depresia si anhedonia i-a afectat viata. Dupa cateva episoade de boala in adolescenta, la 31 de ani a fost diagnosticata cu depresie majora. A ajuns in aceasta situatie dupa mai multe evenimente neplacute: divort, schimbarea domiciliului de la un capat la altul al tarii, sanatate precara, probleme financiare si amenintarea permanenta de a fi evacuata. Condusa de nevoia de a mentine in limite cat mai normale vietile celor doi copii si ajutata de antidepresive si de consiliere psihologica a reusit sa-si imbunatateasca starea. Anhedonia ei a avut mai multe forme si inca sufera partial de ea. Inca nu poate sa se bucure de proprile realizari si ale copiilor ei, care partial i se datoreaza. Unul dintre cele mai grele momente a fost atunci cand si-a ascultat cantaretul preferat si starea ei nu s-a schimbat cu nimic desi asculta muzica pe care a placut-o toata viata. Cu timpul a invatat sa traiasca cu simptomele ei si informatiile care i se ofera o ajuta atunci cand se simte deprimata. Chiar poate spune ca pana acum a fost o boala invizibila. Daca cercetarile vor dovedi ca depresia este cauzata de schimbari in creier, acest lucru va ajuta la indepartarea stigmatului care este atasat ei. Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Sanatatea-mentala/anhedoniaincapacitatea-de-a-simti-placere_82 Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Antidepresivele

Term : ANHEDONIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anhedonia Definition : is defined as the inability to experience pleasure from activities formerly found enjoyable, e.g. hobbies, exercise, social interaction or sexual activity. Anhedonia can be a characteristic of mental disorders including mood disorders, schizoaffective disorder, schizoid personality disorder and schizophrenia. Affected schizophrenic patients describe themselves as feeling emotionally empty. Definition source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anhedonia Nota bene: Greek - an-, "without" + hdon, "pleasure Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: As a clinical symptom in depression, anhedonia rates highly in making a diagnosis of this disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) describes a "lack of interest or pleasure" but these can be hard to tell apart given that people become less interested in things which do not give them pleasure. The DSM criterion of weight loss is probably related to it and many depressed people with this symptom describe a lack of enjoyment of food. People suffering from anhedonia in association with depression generally feel good in the morning and unhappy in the evenings and can portray any of the non-psychotic symptoms and signs of depression Context source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anhedonia

Context : People with anhedonia have an incredibly flat mood. They can't react properly or feel anything. There is no variation of mood, making it difficult to take things forward. It is best described by examples. An anhedonic mother gains no joy from playing with her baby, a footballer isn't excited when he scores the winning goal, a teenager is left unmoved by passing her driving test. Anhedonia places a great strain on relationships and is usually accompanied by a loss of sex drive. Context source http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/special_reports/depression/anhedonia.htm Area of use:Medicine Commentary : Lizzie Gardiner, a writer and single mother from South London, spoke to NetDoctor about how depression and anhedonia affected her life. After several short bouts of the illness in her teenage years, Lizzie was hit by a major depression at the age of 31. It was brought on by a series of events: the break-up of her marriage, a move from one end of the country to another, bad health, financial problems and the threat of eviction. Driven by the need to keep the lives of her two children as normal as possible, antidepressants and psychological treatment helped Lizzie through. She didn't know about anhedonia then, but has since taken part in the Institute of Psychiatry's research. Lizzie's anhedonia took many forms and partly remains with her. She still can't gain pleasure from her own achievements or see that her children are a credit to her as well as to themselves http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/special_reports/depression/anhedonia.htm Designation status : Official One of her darkest moments was when she sat down to listen to Elgar's Enigma variations. To her horror, she felt unmoved by the music she had always loved. Lizzie has learned to live with her symptoms, and says being given information and reassurance helped when she was depressed. 'Up to now it has been an invisible illness,' she said. 'If the research can show physical evidence that depression is caused by changes in the brain, it will be immensely helpful in removing the stigma that is attached to it

68. Termen:TULBURARE POST-TRAUMATICA DE STRES Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.romedic.ro/tulburarea-post-traumatica-de-stress Definitie : Tulburarea post-traumatica de stress are aceleasi caracteristici ca si cea acuta, numai ca se intinde pe o durata mult mai mare de timp (cel putin trei luni) si presupune o afectare persistenta si marcata a vietii persoanei in toate domeniile importante ale vietii sale. Sursa definitiei: http://www.romedic.ro/tulburarea-post-traumatica-de-stress. Corespondent englez: POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Grup nominal Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : Simptomele acestei tulburari pot aparea si la sase luni distanta de la evenimentul traumatic. Tabloul tipic al tulburarii a fost descris pentru prima data la veteranii razboiului din Vietnam. Sursa contextului: http://www.romedic.ro/tulburarea-post-traumatica-de-stress Context : Cercetarile asupra stresului posttraumatic au debutat cu mai mult de jumatate de veac urma, cel de-al doilea razboi mondial . Toate descrierile acestui fenomen includeau totdeauna un sir de elemente comune: tulburari de somn, vise cu cosmaruri, depresii, excitabilitate crescuta. Kardiner da pentru prima data o descriere complexa a simptomaticii acestui fenomen: 1) excitabilitate si iritabilitate; 2) reactie nestapta la excitanti brusti; 3) fixarea pe circumstantele evenimentului traumatic; 4) fuga de realitate;

5) predispozitia pentru reactii agresive necontrolate. Sursa contextului: http://www.e-scoala.ro/psihologie/stresul_posttraumatic.html Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Psihoterapia ajuta pacientii cu TSPT sa identifice si sa stabileasca relatii benefice, cu rol de suport si siguranta, care au o importanta vitala procesul de recuperare. Desi au fost experimentate diverse strategii terapeutice pentru TSPT (terapia psihodinamica, interventie criza), terapia cognitiv-comportamentala care pune un accent deosebit pe metode variate de expunere, a fost cea mai atent studiata si s-a dovedit a avea rezultatele cele mai promitatoare. Datele obtinute din aceste studii indica faptul ca expunerea intensiva ajuta la reducerea trasaturilor distinctive ale TSPT (de ex: simptomele intruzive si reactivitatea fiziologica), precum si a unei mari parti din anxietatea generala care o oteste. Totusi, studiile nu indica faptul ca expunerea ar avea un efect semnificativ asupra simptomelor negative" ale TSPT (evitarea, retragerea sociala, dificultatile interpersonale, neadaptarea ocupationala, paralizia emotionala) si nici asupra unor anumite aspecte privind controlul furiei. Desi expunerea poate diminua teama si hiper-activarea" maladaptativa, ea nu se adreseaza deficitelor de aptitudini de baza, nu ajuta la restabilirea relatiilor deteriorate si nici nu unatateste controlul furiei. acest context unii autori au sugerat ca este necesar un program de tratament comportamental care sa tinteasca ariile disfunctionale specifice folosind strategii comportamentale si faze de tratament diferite, adresindu-se simptomelor multiple si complexe asociate cu aceasta tulburare. Astfel, folosirea expunerii a fost combinata cu antrenarea managementul anxietatii generale, terapia cognitiv-comportamentala de grup si antrenarea abilitatilor sociale, obtinandu-se rezultate benefice pentru tratamentul TSPT Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA

Source : http://www.medicinenet.com/posttraumatic_stress_disorder/article.htm Definition : Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an emotional illness that that is classified as an anxiety disorder and usually develops as a result of a terribly frightening, life-threatening, or otherwise highly unsafe experience. Definition source: http://www.medicinenet.com/posttraumatic_stress-disorder.htm Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun phrase Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) usually results from prolonged exposure to a traumatic event or series thereof and is characterized by longlasting problems with many aspects of emotional and social functioning. Statistics regarding this illness indicate that approximately 7%-8% of people in the United States will likely develop PTSD in their lifetime, with the lifetime occurrence (prevalence) in combat veterans and rape victims ranging from 10% to as high as 30%. Somewhat higher rates of this disorder have been found to occur in African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans compared to Caucasians in the United States. Some of that difference is thought to be due to higher rates of dissociation soon before and after the traumatic event (peritraumatic), a tendency for individuals from minority ethnic groups to blame themselves, have less social support, and an increased perception of racism for those ethnic groups, as well as differences between how ethnic groups may express distress. In military populations, many of the differences have been found to be the result of increased exposure to combat at younger ages for minority groups. Other important facts about PTSD include the estimate of 5 million people who suffer from PTSD at any one time in the United States and the fact that women are twice as likely as men to develop PTSD.

Context source: http://www.medicinenet.com/posttraumatic_stress_disorder/htm Context : There is evidence that susceptibility to PTSD is hereditary. For twin pairs exposed to combat in Vietnam, having a monozygotic (identical) twin with PTSD was associated with an increased risk of the co-twin having PTSD compared to twins that were dizygotic (non-identical twins). Recently, it has been found that several singlenucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) interact with childhood trauma to predict severity of adult PTSD. These findings suggest that individuals with these SNPs who are abused as children are more susceptible to PTSD as adults. This is particularly interesting given that FKBP5 SNPs have previously been associated with peritraumatic dissociation (that is, dissociation at the time of the trauma), which has itself been shown to be predictive of PTSD. Furthermore, FKBP5 may be less expressed in those with current PTSD. Another recent study found a single SNP in a putative estrogen response element on ADCYAP1R1 (encodes pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type I receptor or PAC1) to predict PTSD diagnosis and symptoms in females. Incidentally, this SNP is also associated with fear discrimination. The study suggests that perturbations in the PACAP-PAC1 pathway are involved in abnormal stress responses underlying PTSD. Context source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Posttraumatic_stress_disorder Area of use: Medicine Designation status : Official 69. Termen:TULBURARE EMOTIONALA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romania Context : Tulburarile emotionale juvenile pot ascunde boli psihice grave Parintii de azi sunt atat de ocupati sa isi faca o situatie materiala cat mai buna, incat uita sa mai comunice cu propriul copil, iar cei mici pot dezvolta tulburari emotionale pe care adultii le cred trecatoare. In realitate, un copil cu o astfel de afectiune trebuie tratat

imediat pentru ca mai tarziu poate suferi de boli psihice grave sau, mai rau, poate avea ganduri sinucigase de la o varsta frageda Sursa contextului: http://www.prescolar.ro/sanatate/sfaturi/sf053.htm Context : Tulburari emotionale postnatale. Depresia postpartum - DPP Orice femeie insarcinata sau care a dat nastere unui copil in ultimul an sau a avut o intrerupere de sarcina, un avort spontan sau a intrerupt alaptatul recent, poate suferi emotional, indiferent de cate sarcini fara probleme a avut inainte sau de cum s-a adaptat rolului de mama. Multe femei insa nu trec niciodata prin astfel de stari. Sursa contextului: http://www.parinti.com/Tulburariemotionalepostnatale DepresiapostpartumDPP-articol-172.html Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial

Term : EMOTIONAL DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.thefreedictionary.com/emotional+disorder Definition : any mental disorder not caused by detectable organic abnormalities of the brain and in which a major disturbance of emotions is predominant Definition source: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/emotional+disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun phrase Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: affective disorder, emotional disturbance, major affective disorder

Context : The conception of emotional disorder to be sketched here offers a descriptive framework for identifying and connecting several key elements of emotional disorder. To the extent that this conception goes beyond conceptual analysis it may smack of armchair psychology, but at least it does not speculate heavily on underlying etiological questions.4 Even so, we should note that whereas some emotional disorders may involve problems caused by emotions, others may only be problems with emotions, that is, emotional effects of cognitive, attentional, or perhaps ultimately neurophysiological causes. Context source http://userwww.sfsu.edu/~kbach/emotion.html Area of use: Medicine Designation status : Official

70. Termen:TULBURARE DE INVATARE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.calificativ.ro/Tulburarile_de_invatare-a18552.html Definiie : Tu Tulburarea de invatare reprezinta o afectiune neurologica ce interfereaza cu capacitatea unei persoane de a ingloba si prelucra informatii. Tulburarile se pot manifesta in diferite feluri: -tulburari de citire; -tulburari de scriere; -tulburari de compunere a unor texte; -tulburari matematice.lburarile de invatare Sursa definiiei: http://www.calificativ.ro/Tulburarile_de_invatare-a18552.html.

Corespondent englez : LEARNING DISORDER Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Grup nominal Hiperonim: Hiponim: tulburare de citire Sinonim: Context : Tulburarile de invatare nu pot fi vindecate, dar persoanele cu astfel de afectiuni pot invata sa compenseze lipsurile si slabiciunile pe care le au. In privinta cauzelor care determina aparitia acestei tulburari neurologice se poate spune doar ca exista teorii care sustin mostenirea genetica. Cu toate acestea, factorul psihologic si educational are o pondere foarte mare in gravitatea aceste boli. De cele mai multe ori problemele se pot observa in momentul in care copilul intra in clasa I si modul sau de dezvoltare este mult mai incet decat al celorlalti copii. Sursa contextului: http://www.calificativ.ro/Tulburarile_de_invatare-a18552.html Context : Terminologia este usor diferita in cele doua manuale de diagnostic , DSM (Learning Disorders ) iar in ICD (Specific Developmental Disorders of Scholastic Skills - ). Manifestarile descrise in cadrul acestor entitati erau denumite anterior ( dislexii, disgrafii, discalculii) terminologie care astazi se considera ca defineste o simptomatologie bine circumscrisa cu debut brusc la o persoana care a achizitionat limbajul scris, citit ; exista totusi autori care continua sa utilizeze acesti termeni considerindu-i adecvati si pentru copilul aflat in procesul dezvoltarii ariilor de limbaj. Acesti copii, in marea lor majoritate , au un QI intre 75-80 si 90. Aceste dificultati se pot manifesta numai in ariile mentionate sau le po 212f57c t cuprinde pe toate. Evolutia este in general satisfacatoare, defectul disparand in timp, numai in formele severe in care exista si tulburari senzoriale, copiii necesita orientare catre scolile speciale. Sursa contextului: http://www.scritube.com/sociologie/psihiatrie/TULBURARIDE-DEZVOLTARE-A-ABIL31254.php

Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : LEARNING DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_disability Definition : Learning disability (sometimes called a learning disorder or learning difficulty), is a classification including several disorders in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors. The unknown factor is the disorder that affects the brain's ability to receive and process information. This disorder can make it problematic for a person to learn as quickly or in the same way as someone who is not affected by a learning disability. People with a learning disability have trouble performing specific types of skills or completing tasks if left to figure things out by themselves or if taught in conventional ways Definition source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_disability Nota bene: Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun phrase Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: Learning disabilities fall into broad categories based on the four stages of information processing used in learning: input, integration, storage, and output. Input: This is the information perceived through the senses, such as visual and auditory perception. Difficulties with visual perception can cause problems with recognizing the shape, position and size of items seen. There can be problems with

sequencing, which can relate to deficits with processing time intervals or temporal perception. Difficulties with auditory perception can make it difficult to screen out competing sounds in order to focus on one of them, such as the sound of the teacher's voice. Some children appear to be unable to process tactile input. For example, they may seem insensitive to pain or dislike being touched.

Integration: This is the stage during which perceived input is interpreted, categorized, placed in a sequence, or related to previous learning. Students with problems in these areas may be unable to tell a story in the correct sequence, unable to memorize sequences of information such as the days of the week, able to understand a new concept but be unable to generalize it to other areas of learning, or able to learn facts but be unable to put the facts together to see the "big picture." A poor vocabulary may contribute to problems with comprehension.

Storage: Problems with memory can occur with short-term or working memory, or with long-term memory. Most memory difficulties occur in the area of short-term memory, which can make it difficult to learn new material without many more repetitions than is usual. Difficulties with visual memory can impede learning to spell. Output: Information comes out of the brain either through words, that is, language output, or through muscle activity, such as gesturing, writing or drawing. Difficulties with language output can create problems with spoken language, for example, answering a question on demand, in which one must retrieve information from storage, organize our thoughts, and put the thoughts into words before we speak. It can also cause trouble with written language for the same reasons. Difficulties with motor abilities can cause problems with gross and fine motor skills. People with gross motor difficulties may be clumsy, that is, they may be prone to stumbling, falling, or bumping into things. They may also have trouble

running, climbing, or learning to ride a bicycle. People with fine motor difficulties may have trouble buttoning shirts, tying shoelaces, or with handwriting. Context source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_disability

Context : Learning disorders affect how a person understands, remembers and responds to new information. People with learning disorders may have problems Listening or paying attention Speaking Reading or writing Doing math Context source : http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/learningdisorders.html Area of use: Medicine Designation status : Official 71. Termen:TULBURARE SCHIZOAFECTIVA Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.romedic.ro/tulburare-schizoafectiva Definiie : Tulburarea schizoafectiva este caracterizata prin evolutia concomitenta, simultana a simptomelor afective si schizofrenice, posibila si alternand dar tot cu caracter mixt, chiar si in eventualitatea oscilatiilor afective spre polii extremi, fie ai depresiei, fie ai maniei Sursa definiiei: http://www.romedic.ro/tulburare-schizoafectiva. Corespondent englez: SCHIZOAFFECTIVE DISORDER

Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Grup nominal Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : Tulburarea schizoafectiva din datele care se cunosc este mai putin frecventa decat schizofrenia. Prevalenta pe durata intregii vieti este mai mica de 1%, incidenta fiind aceasi la ambele sexe. Etiologie: Unii pacienti pot sa fie diagnosticati eronat, ei fiind defapt bolnavi de schizofrenie cu simptome ce afecteaza starea de dispozitie marcat sau pot avea o tulburarea de dispozitie cu simptome psihotice marcate. In familiile schizoafectivilor prevalenta schizofreniei este crescuta, dar prevalenta tulburarilor de dispozitie este mai mica. Pattern familial: Exista dovezi concrete referitoare la riscul crescut de schizofrenie al rudelor de gradul 1 ale persoanelor cu tulburare schizoafectiva. De asemenea, exista studii referitoare la riscul crescut al rudelor celor cu tulburare schizoafectiva de a avea tulburari afective. Elemente specifice culturii, etatii si sexului: Tulburarea schizoafectiva, tipul bipolar se pare ca este mai frecventa la adultii tineri, iar tulburarea schizoafectiva, tipul depresiv, este mai frecventa la adultii mai in varsta in comparatie cu schizofrenia. De asemenea, se presupune ca tulburarea schizoafectiva apare mai frecvent la femei. Sursa contextului: http://www.romedic.ro/tulburare-schizoafectiva Context : Tipuri de tulburare schizoafectiva:

tipul bipolar:-in cazul in care tulburarea cuprinde un episod maniacal sau mixt (sau un episod maniacal sau mixt si episoade depresive majore) ; tipul depresiv:- in cazul in care tulburarea cuprinde numai episoade depresive ma

Sursa contextului: http://www.romedic.ro/tulburare-schizoafectiva

Arie de utilizare : medicina

Comentariu: Criterii de diagnostic:

O perioada neintrerupta de evolutie a bolii, in cursul careia la un anumit moment dat, sa apara un episod fie depresiv major, fie maniacal sau mixt, concomitent cu simptome care indeplinesc criteriul A pentru schizofrenie (deliruri, halucinatii, comportament dezorganizat) ;

de specificat, ca in cursul episodul depresiv major sa se intalneasca si o alta conditie: dispozitia depresiva, deprimanta; in aceasi perioada a bolii au existat deliruri sau halucinatii pe o perioada de cel putin doua saptamani, dar in absenta altor simptome afective evidente; simptomele care satisfac criteriile pentru un episod afectiv sunt prezente pe o perioada destul de lunga de timp pe parcursul perioadelor active si reziduale de boala;

aceasta afectiune nu se datoreaza efectelor fiziologice directe folosirii unei substante (de exemplu: droguri, medicamente) sau datorita unei afectiuni medicale generale existente. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : SCHIZOAFFECTIVE DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schizoaffective_disorder Definition : Schizoaffective disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a mental disorder characterized by recurring episodes of elevated or depressed mood, or of

simultaneously elevated and depressed mood, that alternate with, or occur together with, distortions in perception. Definition source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schizoaffective_disorder Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun phrase Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: Late adolescence and early adulthood are the peak years for the onset of schizoaffective disorder, although it has been diagnosed (very rarely) in childhood. Schizoaffective disorder is a mental illness characterized by recurring episodes of mood disorder and psychosis. Psychosis is defined by paranoia, delusions and hallucinations. Mood disorders are defined by discrete periods of clinical depression, mixed episodes and manic episodes. Individuals with the disorder may experience psychotic symptoms before, during or (commonly) after their depressive, mixed or manic episodes. The illness tends to be difficult to diagnose since the symptoms are similar to other disorders with prominent mood and psychotic symptoms like bipolar disorder with psychotic features, recurrent depression with psychotic features and schizophrenia. By contrast, in schizoaffective disorder, as it is presently defined, psychosis must also occur during periods without mood symptoms. In schizophrenia, mood episodes have been thought to be absent or less prominent than in schizoaffective disorder. Since these differences can be difficult to detect, a firm diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder may thus require an extended period of observation and treatment. Untreated, the individual with schizoaffective disorder may experience delusions. It should be noted that delusions in schizoaffective disorder are acute manifestations of an active psychosis and are not personality traits; that is, they go away when the psychosis subsides. Manifestations of delusions include the individual being convinced that he or she is Jesus or the Antichrist, has some special purpose or destiny (such as to save the world), or is being monitored,

watched or persecuted by something (commonly government agencies), when in reality they often are not. Individuals may also feel extremely paranoid. Other delusions may include the belief that an external force is controlling the individual's thought processes. (See thought insertion.) Hallucinations involving all five senses can also occur in untreated or undertreated schizoaffective disorder. That is, the individual may see, hear, smell, feel or taste things that aren't there. For example, the individual may see overt visual hallucinations such as monsters, the devil or more subtle ones such as shadowy apparitions. Individuals may hear voices or, in some cases, music. Things may look or sound different. Individuals may also experience strange sensations. These hallucinations may worsen when the individual is intoxicated. The untreated individual may quickly change their mind about their romantic partner, friends or family if they hear something negative being said about them; as a result they may attack or, conversely, isolate themself from the person or group until they regain normal thoughts. Comorbid or co-occurring anxiety disorders may also play a role in the subjective experience of schizoaffective disorder and thus may shape the individual's delusional thought content. For example, the individual may feel anxious, have trouble swallowing, and then believe that outside forces are controlling their throat functions. They may also suffer from various phobias which may also manifest as delusions. There may be a decline in work or school functioning during episodes of illness. As stated above, individuals with schizoaffective disorder may withdraw socially and become isolated. The untreated individual may sleep too much, or be unable to sleep. Difficulties with executive function may also be a problem for individuals with schizoaffective disorder. This may include difficulties with concentration, attention, logical reasoning and impulse control. Without treatment, the individual with schizoaffective disorder may further worsen in their delusional thought processes. With comprehensive treatment, many individuals with schizoaffective disorder may recover much, most or even all of their functionality. Context source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schizoaffective_disorder

Context : The prognosis for patients with schizoaffective disorder is thought to lie between that of patients with schizophrenia and that of patients with a mood disorder. That is, the prognosis is better with schizoaffective disorder than with schizophrenic disorder but worse than with a mood disorder alone. Individuals with the bipolar subtype are thought to have a prognosis similar to those with bipolar type I, whereas the prognosis of people with the depressive subtype is thought to be similar to that of people with schizophrenia. Overall, determination of the prognosis is difficult.

The incidence of suicide is estimated at 10% (Williams, 1998). Also consider difference in suicide attempts among different ethnic groups. Caucasian individuals have a higher rate of suicide than African Americans. Persons who immigrated to a country have higher suicide rates then people born in that country. In regards to gender, women attempt suicide more than men, but men complete suicide more often.

Schizoaffective disorder affects more women than men, but this appears to be influenced the fact that more women are in the depressive subtype as compared with the bipolar subtype. A poor prognosis in patients with schizoaffective disorder is generally associated with a poor premorbid history, an insidious onset, no precipitating factors, a predominant psychosis, negative symptoms, an early onset, an unremitting course, or their having a family member with schizophrenia Context source http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/294763-overview Area of use: Medicine

Commentary : The term schizoaffective psychosis was introduced by the American psychiatrist Jacob Kasanin in 1933 to describe an episodic psychotic illness with predominant affective symptoms, that was thought at the time to be a good-prognosis schizophrenia. Kasanin's concept of the illness was influenced by the psychoanalytic teachings of Adolf Meyer and Kasanin postulated that schizoaffective psychosis was caused by "emotional conflicts" of a "mainly sexual nature" and that psychoanalysis "would help prevent the recurrence of such attacks." He based his description on a case study of nine individuals. Other psychiatrists, before and after Kasanin, have made scientific observations of schizoaffective disorder based on assumptions of a biological and genetic etiology of the illness. In 1863, German psychiatrist Karl Kahlbaum (1828 1899) described schizoaffective disorders as a separate group in his vesania typica circularis. Kahlbaum distinguished between cross-sectional and longitudinal observations. (Cross-sectional refers to observation of a single, specific episode of the illness, for example, one episode of psychotic depression; while longitudinal refers to long-term observation of many distinct episodes [similar or different] often occurring over the span of years.) In 1920, psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin (18561926), the founder of contemporary scientific psychiatry, observed a "great number" of cases that had characteristics of both groups of psychoses that he originally posited were two distinct and separate illnesses, dementia praecox (now called schizophrenia) and manic depressive insanity (now called bipolar disorder and recurrent depression). Kraeplin acknowledged that "there are many overlaps in this area", that is, the area between schizophrenia and severe mood disorders.[38] In 1959, psychiatrist Kurt Schneider (18871967) can be said to have been the first to begin to conceptualize the different forms that schizoaffective disorders can take since he observed "concurrent and sequential types".[36] (The concurrent type of illness he referred to is a longitudinal course of illness with episodes of mood disorder and psychosis occurring predominantly at the same time; while his sequential type refers to a longitudinal course predominantly

marked by alternating mood and psychotic episodes.)[37] Schneider described schizoaffective disorders as "cases in-between" the traditional Kraepelinian dichotomy of schizophrenia and mood disorders. Designation status : Official 72. Termen:DISTIMIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Depresia---tristetea-patologica/distimia_100 Definiie : Distimia este o forma usoara, dar cronica de depresie. Simptomele distimiei dureaza, de regula, cel putin doi ani si deseori mai mult decat atat, in special cand tulburarea apare in copilarie. Desi simptomele distimiei pot fi de intensitate mai mica decat cele ale depresiei, ea poate afecta mai grav viata pacientului pentru ca dureaza mai mult. In cazul distimiei, pacientul isi pierde interesul pentru activitatile de fiecare zi, se simte fara speranta, nu este productiv si are incredere scazuta in sine. In general, distimia il impiedica sa-si traiasca viata din plin, iar calitatea generala a acesteia poate fi scazuta. Distimia mai este cunoscuta si sub numele de tulburare distimica, depresie cronica sau depresie minora. Sursa definiiei: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Depresia---tristetea-patologica/ distimia_100. Corespondent englez: DYSTHYMIC DISORDER Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : Semnele si simptomele distimiei cuprind:

- pierderea interesului pentru activitatile zilnice - tristete - pierderea apetitului - foame exagerata - lipsa de speranta - probleme de somn - lipsa de energie - oboseala - stima de sine scazuta - probleme de concentrare a atentiei - probleme in luarea unor decizii - autocriticism - iritabilitate - manie - lipsa productivitatii - evitarea activitatilor sociale - sentimente de vinovatie Simptomele distimiei apar si dispar de-a lungul unei perioade de mai multi ani, iar intensitatea lor se poate schimba de-a lungul timpului. Dar in general, pacientului ii este greu sa fie vesel chiar si cu ocazii fericite si poate fi caracterizat de cei din jur ca fiind o persoana posaca. Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Depresia---tristetea-patologica/ distimia_100 Context : Spitalizarea nu este de obicei necesara si tratamentul in distimie este medicamentos si psihoterapeutic: psihoterapie interpersonala, psihoterapie cognitiva si comportamentala. Sursa contextului: http://www.psihoterapia.eu/index.php?option=com_content&

task=view&id=236&Itemid=612 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Complicatiile pe care distimia le poate determina sau cu care se poate asocia sunt: - reducerea calitatii vietii - depresia majora - comportament suicidar - abuz de substante - dificultati de relationare - conflicte familiale - izolare sociala - probleme scolare sau profesionale - scaderea productivitatii. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial

Term : DYSTHYMIC DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Definition : Dysthymic Disorder is a chronic condition characterized by depressive symptoms that occur for most of the day, more days than not, for at least 2 years. In

children, the mood may be irritable rather than depressed, and the required minimum duration is only 1 year Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: First-degree biological relatives of individuals with disorder have elevated rates of Dysthymic Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder compared with the general population. Dysthymic Disorder is more common in the first-degree biological relatives of individuals with Major Depressive Disorder Context source: http://www.mentalhealth.com/dis/p20-md04.html Context : The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association, characterizes dysthymic disorder. The essential symptom involves the individual feeling depressed for the majority of days and parts of the day for at least two years. Low energy, disturbances in sleep or in appetite, and low self-esteem typically contribute to the clinical picture as well. Sufferers have often experienced dysthymia for many years before it is diagnosed. People around them come to believe that the sufferer is 'just a moody person'. Note the following diagnostic criteria:

1. During a majority of days for two years or more, the adult patient reports depressed mood or appears depressed to others for most of the day. 2. When depressed, the patient has two or more of: 1. decreased or increased appetite 2. decreased or increased sleep (insomnia or hypersomnia)
3. Fatigue or low energy

4. Reduced self-esteem 5. Decreased concentration or problems making decisions 6. Feels hopeless or pessimistic 3. During this two-year period, the above symptoms are never absent longer than two consecutive months.
4. During the first two years of this syndrome, the patient has not had a major

depressive episode.
5. The patient has not had any manic, hypomanic, or mixed episodes. 6. The patient has never fulfilled criteria for cyclothymic disorder. 7. The depression does not exist only as part of a chronic psychosis (such as

schizophrenia or delusional disorder). 8. The symptoms are often not directly caused by a medical illness or by substances, including drug abuse, or other medications. 9. The symptoms may cause significant problems or distress in social, work, academic, or other major areas of life functioning. People suffering from dysthymia aren't always well capable of coping with their everyday lives. Dysthymics who cope well with daily life tend to follow particular routines that provide certainty. In children and adolescents, mood can be irritable, and duration must be at least one year, in contrast to two years needed for diagnosis in adults. Context source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dysthymia Area of use: Medicine Commentary : There is little research on the treatment of Dysthymic Disorder. Generally, research is showing that the medications that are effective in treating Major Depressive Disorder are also effective in Dysthymic Disorder. Individuals with this disorder respond to tricyclic antidepressants, MAOI antidepressants (classical and

reversible), and SSRI antidepressants (of which the best current evidence is for fluoxetine). Supportive psychotherapy and psychoeducation (teaching patients and their families about this illness) significantly improve patient compliance and family cooperation Designation status : Official

73. Termen:TULBURARE DE OPOZITIE Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.psihiatriepentrutoti.ro/afectiuni.php#Tulburarea%20de%20 Definiie : Copilul cu tulburare de opozitie are urmatoarele trasaturi clinice: un copil cu varsta mai mica de 18 ani (de obicei cu varsta mai mica de 9 ani), adesea greu de

controlat, care nu respecta regulile parintilor legate de orarul mesei, mersul la culcare sau pregatirea pentru scoala , cu frecvente crize de incapatanare , uneori chiar agresiv. In procesul neurodezvoltarii exista o perioada fiziologica intre varsta de 3 si 5 ani denumita criza de opozitie. Diagnosticul de tulburare de opozitie se stabileste pe anumite criterii bine definite si atunci cand acest comportament opozitionist se permanentizeaza, creste ca severitate, sau modifica profund relationarea cu ceilalti (parinti, educatori, profesori, colegi, prieteni Sursa definiiei: http://www.psihiatriepentrutoti.ro/afectiuni.php#Tulburarea%20 Corespondent englez: OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Grup nominal Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : TULBURAREA DE OPOZITIE 1.Epidemiologie Prevalenta variaza ntre 1.7 - 9.9% cu o medie de 5,5%. Vrsta de debut se considera a fi de 6 ani. n DSM IV apare o prevalenta de 2-16%. Sursa contextului:

http://www.scritube.com/sociologie/psihologie/TULBURAREA-OPOZITIE84161.php Context : Copilul cu tulburare de opozitie are urmatoarele trasaturi clinice: un copil cu varsta mai mica de 18 ani (de obicei cu varsta mai mica de 9 ani), adesea greu de controlat, care nu respecta regulile parintilor legate de orarul mesei, mersul la culcare sau pregatirea pentru scoala , cu frecvente crize de incapatanare , uneori chiar agresiv. In procesul neurodezvoltarii exista o perioada fiziologica intre varsta de 3 si 5 ani denumita criza de opozitie. Diagnosticul de tulburare de opozitie se stabileste pe anumite criterii bine definite si atunci cand acest comportament opozitionist se permanentizeaza, creste

ca severitate, sau modifica profund relationarea cu ceilalti (parinti, educatori, profesori, colegi, prieteni). Sursa contextului: http://www.psihiatriepentrutoti.ro/afectiuni.php Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oppositional_defiant_disorder Definition : Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is described by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) as an ongoing pattern of disobedient, hostile and defiant behavior toward authority figures which goes beyond the bounds of normal childhood behavior. People who have it may appear very stubborn. Definition source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oppositional_defiant_disorder Generic concept: disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: One of the key factors in the development and maintenance of the negative behaviors associated with oppositional defiant disorder results is reinforcement, whether intentional or not, of the unwanted behaviors. The most effective way of treating disruptive behavior disorders is behavioral therapies
[3]

Behavioral therapy for children

and adolescents focuses primarily on how problematic thoughts or behaviors may accidentally get "rewarded" within a young person's environment. These rewards or reinforcements often contribute to an increase in the frequency of these thoughts and

behaviors. Behavior therapies can be applied to a wide range of psychological symptoms among adults, adolescents, and children. In behavioral therapy, therapists encourage children and adolescents to try new behaviors and not to allow negative "rewards" to dictate the ways in which they act. Furthermore, therapists may work with parents to discontinue ways in which they are unintentionally reinforcing negative behaviors. Other approaches to the treatment of oppositional defiant disorder, include parent training programs, individual psychotherapy, family therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and social skills training. According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, treatments for ODD are tailored specifically to the individual child, and different treatments are used for pre-schoolers and adolescents. An approach developed by Russell Barkley uses a parent training model and begins by focusing on positive approaches to increase compliant behaviours. Context source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oppositional_defiant_disorder Context : All children are oppositional from time to time, particularly when tired, hungry, stressed or upset. They may argue, talk back, disobey, and defy parents, teachers, and other adults. Oppositional behavior is often a normal part of development for two to three year olds and early adolescents. However, openly uncooperative and hostile behavior becomes a serious concern when it is so frequent and consistent that it stands out when compared with other children of the same age and developmental level and when it affects the childs social, family and academic life. In children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), there is an ongoing pattern of uncooperative, defiant, and hostile behavior toward authority figures that seriously interferes with the youngsters day to day functioning. Symptoms of ODD may include: Frequent temper tantrums Excessive arguing with adults Often questioning rules

Active defiance and refusal to comply with adult requests and rules Deliberate attempts to annoy or upset people Blaming others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior Often being touchy or easily annoyed by others Frequent anger and resentment Mean and hateful talking when upset Spiteful attitude and revenge seeking Context source: http://aacap.org/page.ww?name=Children+with+Oppositional+ Defiant+Disorder&section=Facts+for+Families Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Common features of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) include excessive, often persistent anger, frequent temper tantrums or angry outbursts, and disregard for authority. Children and adolescents with this disorder often annoy others on purpose, blame others for their mistakes, and are easily annoyed. In addition, these young people may appear resentful of others and when someone does something they don't like they often take revenge on them. In order for a child or adolescent to qualify for a diagnosis of ODD these behaviors must cause considerable distress for the family and/or interfere significantly with academic or social functioning. Interference might take the form of preventing the child or adolescent from learning school material or making friends, or placing him or her in harmful situations. These behaviors must also persist for at least six months. Designation status : Official 74. Termen:SOMNAMBULISM Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia

Sursa : http://www.romedic.ro/somnambulismul Definiie : Somnambulismul sau mersul in somn este o tulburare de somn care se incadreaza in cadrul parasomniilor. Parasomniile reprezinta tulburari ale somnului caracterizate prin evenimente comportamentale si fiziologice anormale ce apar in asociere cu somnul si cu etapele acestuia; adica inseamna activarea sistemelor fiziologice la ore inadecvate pe parcursul ciclului somn- veghe, o stare alternanta a constientei, in care fenomenele de somn si veghe sunt combinate. Toate aceste fenomene pot aparea fie in timpul somnului cu miscare rapida a ochilor (REM), fie in timpul perioadelor de somn fara miscare rapida a ochilor (NREM), sau in orice perioada a somnului fara a se putea specifica cu exactitate. Sursa definiiei: http://www.romedic.ro/somnambulismul. Corespondent englez: SLEEPWALKING DISORDER Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : Studiile au aratat ca somnabulismul apare mai frecvent la gemenii monozigoti si cu o frecventa de 10 ori mai mare in cazul in care in familie este o ruda de gradul intai care are un istoric de somnambulism. Mersul in somn poate apare in caz de stres, febra, un orar al somnului neregulat, insomnie, deficit de magneziu, in cazul cansumului de anumite substante: alcool, droguri. In cazul consumului de medicamente, ca cele din clasa sedativelor hipnotice (droguri inductoare de somn), antidepresive, neuroleptice, tranchilizante majore, stimulante, unele antibiotice, medicamente impotriva bolii Parkinson, anticonvulsivante, antihistaminice. Poate aparea in relatie cu unele stari fiziologice ca de exemplu in timpul sarcinii si a menstruatiei. La fel, se considera ca unele afectiuni medicale pot duce la aparitia somnambulismului ca de exemplu in:

aritmii, migrene, febra, refluxul gastroesofagian, hipertiroidie, tulburari psihice ca stresul post traumatic, atacul de panica. Sursa contextului: http://www.romedic.ro/somnambulismul Context : Somnambulismul apare mai frecvent in timpul copilariei si in perioada preadolescenta cu un varf al incidentei maxime in jurul varstei de 11-12 ani, dar nefiind exclusa intalnirea afectiunii la varsta adulta. Se pare ca nu este cunoscuta o predilectie anume pentru o anumita rasa, iar frecventa de aparitie intre sexe este relative egala. Se observa o aparitie mai frecventa a episoadelor in care intalnim violenta la barbati, iar la femei este mai frecvent mancatul in timpul somnului (date culese in urma analizarii comportamentelor in timpul esantioanelor clinice) . In copilarie apare mai frecvent la femei, iar la maturitate la barbati. Sursa contextului: http://www.romedic.ro/somnambulismul Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Intre 2% si 4% dintre europenii adulti sunt somnambuli Intre 2% si 4% dintre adultii din Europa sunt somnambuli, iar unul din trei s-a ranit deja sau a ranit pe altcineva in timpul plimbarilor nocturne, potrivit unui studiu recent. Studiul a fost realizat de cercetatorii elvetieni si prezentat luni, la Berlin, la Societatea Europeana de Neurologie.

Somnambulismul este mult mai frecvent decat se credea, a afirmat Claudio Bassetti, de la Spitalul Universitar din Zurich, citat intr-un comunicat al organizatorilor. In plus, la varsta adulta, riscul de a se rani pe sine sau alte persoane creste. Mai pot aparea comportamente sexuale deviante, potrivit specialistului. Somnambulii se pot plimba dezbracati, avea raporturi sexuale sau chiar isi pot viola partenerul in somn. Nu toti somnambulii fac rau, asigura dl Bassetti, care recomanda totusi luarea unor masuri pentru a evita ranirile. Cauzele somnambulismului nu sunt cunoscute. El apare uneori ca

urmare a unor boli, cum ar fi Parkinson sau epilepsia; in acest caz, medicamentele pot fi eficiente. mai mult http://www.ziare.com/articole/somnambulism Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : SLEEPWALKING DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/guide/sleepwalking-causes Definition : Sleepwalking is a sleep disorder that causes people to get up and walk during their sleep. Definition source: http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/guide/sleepwalking Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: Episodes of sleepwalking typically occur when a person is in the deep stages of sleep. The sleepwalker is unable to respond during the event and does not remember sleepwalking. In some cases, sleepwalking is associated with incoherent talking. Context causes Context : Sleepwalking can occur at any age but is most common in children, with the first episodes usually between the ages of four and eight years. The peak of sleepwalking behavior occurs at about 12 years of age. Between 10 and 30% of children have had at least one episode of sleepwalking. Sleepwalking disorder is seen in only 1 5% of children and occurs more frequently in boys. Adults who sleepwalk typically have source: http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/guide/sleepwalking-

a history of sleepwalking that stems back to childhood. Sleepwalking events occur in approximately 17% of adults while sleepwalking disorder occurs in about 0.5%. Context source http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Sleepwalking-disorder.html Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Medical conditions that have been linked to sleepwalking include: Arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms) Fever Gastroesophageal reflux (food or liquid regurgitating from the stomach into the food pipe) Nighttime asthma Nighttime seizures (convulsions)

Obstructive sleep apnea (condition in which breathing stops temporarily while sleeping) Psychiatric disorders, for example, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic attack, or dissociative states, such as multiple personality disorder Designation status : Official

75. Termen:TULBURARE DE PERSONALITATE DE TIP SCHIZOTIPAL Limba termenului: Romn Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburari-psihice/ tulburarea-de-personalitate-schizotipala_92 Definiie : Tulburarea de personalitate schizotipala este o conditie serioasa in care pacientul are foarte putin sau deloc relatii apropiate cu semenii sai. Aceste persoane au tendinta mai mult de a se inchide in sine decat de a interactiona cu ceilalti, si dezvolta anxietate extrema in situatii sociale

Sursa

definiiei:

http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburari-

psihice/tulburarea-de-personalitate-schizotipala_92. Corespondent englez: SCHIZOID PERSONALITY DISORDER Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Grup nominal Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : mod clasic, persoanele cu personalitate schizotipala sunt niste singuratici care au putine relatii apropiate sau nu au deloc. Ei prezinta anxietate sociala, deseori asociata cu lipsa increderii in ceilalti si mai degraba cu inabilitatea de a comunica, decat cu o imagine de sine negativa. Ei se vad ca straini si singuratici, si aceasta izolare le provoaca durere pe masura ce se desprind si mai mult de relatiile cu ceilalti si se retrag fata de lumea exterioara. Deseori persoanele cu personalitate schizotipala au un mod particular de a vorbi, si vorbesc fara sfarsit despre subiecte tangente cu discutiile in desfasurare. Se pot imbraca intr-un mod particular si au un mod ciudat de a vedea lumea din jurul lor. Deseori au idei neobisnuite, cum ar fi credinta in extraterestrii sau in al saselea simt. Uneori cred ca pot influenta in mod magic gandurile, actiunile si emotiile altor oameni. In adolescenta, semnele personalitatii schizotipale pot debuta ca preferinte pentru activitati solitare sau prezenta unui grad inalt de anxietate sociala. Copilul poate avea rezultate scolare slabe sau sa nu fie integrat in grupul de colegi si din acest motiv devine deseori subiect al ironiei si agresivitatii celorlalti. Simptomele tulburarii de personalitate schizotipala includ: - interpretarea incorecta a evenimentelor externe ca avand o semnificatie personala - gandire, credinte si comportamente ciudate - credinta in abilitati speciale, cum ar fi telepatia

- alterari perceptuale, in unele cazuri iluzii somatice incluzand dureri fantoma sau alte distorsiuni ale simtului tactil - vorbire idiosincretica, vorbire vaga si cu tendinta de a devia de la subiect - suspiciune sau idei paranoide - aplatizare emotionala sau raspunsuri emotionale inadecvate - lipsa prietenilor apropiati in afara membrilor familiei - anxietate sociala excesiva sau persistenta care nu se amelioreaza in timp. Personalitatea schizotipala poate fi usor confundata cu schizofrenia, care se caracterizeaza prin psihoza intensa, o stare mintala severa caracterizata prin pierderea contactului cu realitatea. Persoanele cu personalitate schizotipala pot avea episoade psihotice scurte cu delir si halucinatii, dar care nu sunt atat de pronuntate, frecvente si intense ca in cazul schizofreniei. Ambele afectiuni, impreuna cu tulburarea de personalitate schizoida, apartin tulburarilor numite general spectrul schizofrenic. Personalitatea schizotipala cade in mijlocul acestui spectru, cu tulburarea de personalitate schizoida in capatul mai usor si cu schizofrenia in cel mai sever. Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/tulburarea-de-personalitate-schizotipala_92 Context : Persoanele cu personalitate schizotipala au risc crescut de: - a dezvolta schizofrenie - suferi de depresie majora - tulburare de anxietate, caracterizata prin ingrijorari prelungite - distimie, o forma de depresie usoara care dureaza mai mult de doi ani - tulburarea de panica, caracterizata prin izbucniri de teama asociata cu simptome somatice (tahicardie, transpiratie, senzatie de moarte iminenta) - fobie sociala, caracterizata prin anxietate coplesitoare si autoconstientizare excesiva in

situatii sociale obisnuite - tulburarea de personalitate evitanta caracterizata printr-un pattern pervaziv de inhibitie sociala si sentimente de inadaptare Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/tulburarea-de-personalitate-schizotipala_92 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Deoarece personalitatea tinde sa devina de neschimbat pe masura ce omul inainteaza in varsta, e bine ca pacientul sa solicite tratament pentru tulburarea de personalitate cat mai curand posibil. Pacientii cu personalitate schizotipala cel mai probabil solicita tratament doar indemnati de prieteni sau rude. Persoanele din jurul pacientului pot sugera in mod delicat ca acesta sa se prezinte la medic, pentru inceput la medicul de familie sau direct la psihiatru. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial

Term : SCHIZOID PERSONALITY DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schizoid_personality_disorder Definition : Schizoid personality disorder (SPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, sometimes sexually apathetic, a tendency towards a solitary lifestyle, secretiveness, and emotional coldness.[1] SPD is not the same as schizophrenia, although they share some similar characteristics such as detachment or blunted affect and there is increased prevalence of the disorder in families with schizophrenia. Definition source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schizoid_personality_disorder Generic concept : disease

Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: The term schizoid was coined in 1908 by Eugen Bleuler to designate a natural human tendency to direct attention toward one's inner life and away from the external world, a concept akin to introversion in that it was not viewed in terms of psychopathology. Bleuler also labeled the exaggeration of this tendency the schizoid personality. Since then, studies on the schizoid personality have developed along two separate paths; firstly, the descriptive psychiatry tradition which focuses on overtly observable, behavioral, and describable symptoms which finds its clearest exposition in the DSM-IV revised, and secondly, the dynamic psychiatry tradition which includes the exploration of covert or unconscious motivation and character structure as elaborated by classic psychoanalysis and object-relations theory. The descriptive tradition began in Ernst Kretschmers (1925) portrayal of observable schizoid behaviours which he organized into three groups of characteristics: 1. unsociability, quietness, reservedness, seriousness, and eccentricity 2. timidity, shyness with feelings, sensitivity, nervousness, excitability, and fondness of nature and books 3. pliability, kindliness, honesty, indifference, silence, and cold emotional attitudes. In these characteristics one can see the precursors of the DSM-IV division of schizoid character into three distinct personality disorders, though Kretschmer himself did not conceive of separating these behaviours to the point of radical isolation, considering them instead as simultaneously present as varying potentials in schizoid individuals. For Kretschmer the majority of schizoids are not either oversensitive or cold, but they are oversensitive and cold at the same time in quite different relative

proportions, with a tendency to move along these dimensions from one behavior to the other. The second path, that of dynamic psychiatry, began with observations by Eugen Bleuler (1924) who observed that the schizoid person and schizoid pathology were not things to be set apart. In 1940 W. R. D. Fairbairn presented his seminal work on the schizoid personality in which most of what is known today about schizoid phenomena can be found. Here Fairbairn delineated four central schizoid themes; firstly, the need to regulate interpersonal distance as a central focus of concern; secondly, the ability to mobilize self-preservative defenses and self-reliance; thirdly a pervasive tension between the anxiety-laden need for attachment, and the defensive need for distance, which manifests in observable behavior as indifference; and fourthly an overvaluation of the inner world at the expense of the outer world.[51] Following Fairbairn, the dynamic psychiatry tradition has continued to produce rich explorations on the schizoid character, most notably from writers Nannarello (1953); Laing (1960); Winnicott (1965); Context source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schizoid_personality_disorder Context : In response to stress, individuals with this disorder may experience very brief psychotic episodes (lasting minutes to hours). If the psychotic episode lasts longer, this disorder may actually develop into Delusional Disorder or Schizophrenia. Individuals with this disorder are at increased risk for Major Depressive Disorder. Other Personality Disorders (especially Schizotypal, Schizoid, and Avoidant) often co-occur with this disorder Context source: http://www.mentalhealth.com/dis/p20-pe02.html Area of use: Medicine Commentary : There is some evidence to suggest that there is an increased prevalence of schizoid personality disorder in relatives of people with schizophrenia or schizotypal personality disorder. Unloving or neglectful parenting is hypothesized to play a role Designation status : Official