Sunteți pe pagina 1din 103

Mihaela Ghi

Horia Mitrofan

Picturi murale
CIMEC Institutul de Memorie Cultural, 2007

Mural Painting
in Old Transylvanian Wooden Churches

n vechi biserici de lemn din Transilvania

PICTURI MURALE N VECHI BISERICI DE LEMN DIN TRANSILVANIA

Un pretext excelent pentru a ajunge n cele mai neumblate cotloane ale Transilvaniei l ofer bisericile romneti din lemn pictate. Vechimea lor coboar pn n inima secolelor XVIII-XIX. Prin insolit i expresivitate, picturile care le mpodobesc se ndeprteaz n bun msur de prescripiile canoanelor bisericeti, evocnd n schimb, adesea, plastica modernist. Acest gen de pictur este ntlnit n mai multe zeci de sate care par a cptui pe interior - chiar dac nu neaprat riguros centura muntoas a Carpailor.

MURAL PAINTINGS IN OLD TRANSYLVANIAN WOODEN CHURCHES

Porfirie de la Feisa, 1852 Evanghelist An Evangelist Deag, judeul Mure Deag, Mure county

To get into Transylvanian places that virtually nobody ever heard of, you have an excellent pretext: the painted Romanian wooden churches. The concerned mural paintings, which date back to the 18th and the 19th centuries, are both weird and expressive: they significantly depart from the church imagistic prescriptions, while instead strongly reminding of modernist art. The hide-outs of those relics are several tens of villages which seem to coat although not quite rigorously the Carpathians mountains belt at its interior.

Primul cercettor romn (i timp de aproape 40 de ani, adic pn prin 1970, singurul !) care s-a preocupat de lcaurile de lemn ale acelor locuri a fost un matematician: Atanasie Popa din Cluj. Articolele sale dezvluiau arta pn atunci complet ignorat a unui careu de ai ai vechii picturi romneti: Ioan Pop din Ungurai, Iosif Perso, parohul Elciului, Urs Broin, preot din toboru, i mai ales inimitabilul Dimitrie Ispas din Gilu. ns pe lng acetia, cel puin nc vreo 15 zugravi, muli dintre ei anonimi, par s fi fost integrai n originala micare artistic.

The first Romanian scholar (and for almost 40 years - until the late nineteen-sixties - the sole one !) who expressed interest in the wooden churches of this region has been a mathematician: Atanasie Popa from Cluj. His papers revealed the art, utterly ignored before him, of an ancient Romanian painting quadruplet of aces: Ioan Pop from Ungurai, Iosif Perso, priest of Elciu, Urs Broin, priest of toboru, and above all, the unparalleled Dimitrie Ispas from Gilu.

Nonetheless, 15 more painters at least - many of which remained anonymous - seem to have been integrated in this fine arts movement.

Sfnta Marina lovete n diavol Pua, judeul Slaj

Ioan Pop din Ungurai, 1800 Saint Marina hits the devil Pua, Slaj county

Iosif Perso, 1831 Pilda celor zece fecioare. Fecioare nebune The Parable of the Ten Virgins. Foolish Virgins Voivodeni, judeul Slaj Voivodeni, Slaj county Ceea ce ne uimete n primul rnd la aceste picturi este de excesul de stilizare i de decorativism. Realitatea vizibil este att de distorsionat n acele imagini, nct ajungi s te ntrebi dac zugravii lor nu erau cumva nite mucalii - un fel de Ion Creang ai vizualului. Nu este mai puin surprinztor s descoperi cum, aceiai zugravi, excelau atunci cnd pe chipurile personajelor sacre reprezentau expresii de ndoial, de deziluzie, ori chiar de derut. Erau uitate tririle imperturbabile, abstracte, ale canoanelor bizantine, ori gesturile patetice caracteristice barocului, adoptat de catolicismul din acele vremuri. Formal, acestor picturi li se pot gsi unele corespondene n maniera goticului liniar-narativ, cea n care fuseser pictate mai multe biserici de zid din Transilvania medieval (secolul al XIV-lea). Dar nu pot fi neglijate nici trimiterile ctre ambientul de nelinite i derizoriu pe care-l creau (mult mai trziu - n primele decenii ale secolului al XX-lea!) pictorii expresioniti de felul unui Kokoschka, Munch sau Modigliani. Anonim, pe la 1800 Anonymous, around 1800 Dubl reprezentare a lui Iona vrsat pe pmnt din pntecele chitului Double image of Jonah spewed out by the great fish Dobricu Lpuului, judeul Maramure Dobricu Lpuului, Maramure county

In the first place, those paintings are puzzling the spectator by their abundance of stylization and decorativism. The images distort the visible reality to such an extent, that one may suspect the artist to be an actual mocker - some kind of Jerome K. Jerome of the visual art. Nor it is less surprising to discover how accurate the same painters could be, when their sacred characters countenance mirrored doubt, disillusion, or even dismay. There seemed to be forgotten the unperturbed, abstract attitudes characteristic to the Byzantine art, or the pathetic gestures that the catholic church cherished in its Baroque paintings. In terms of formal look, there is a certain correspondence with the linear-narrative Gothic art preserved in several stone churches painted in Medieval (14th century) Transylvania. But there are also noticeable suggestions of a derisory and anxious ambiance, like the one created (much later - in the first decades of the 20th century !) by expressionist painters like Kokoschka, Munch or Modigliani.

Cltoriile pe care noi, modeti turiti mic-burghezi, le-am fcut ntr-acolo ne-au prut a fi, de fiecare dat, o permanent provocare: ce surprize avea s ne rezerve urmtoarea biseric? Nu era timp de plictiseal. Ce-i drept, erau i surprize deprimante: de 50 de ani s-a drmat biserica aia; a ars, acum vreo civa ani; au mutat-o la ora i au repictat-o; am vzut-o, e undeva ntre blocuri, lng stadion; n-avei voie s intrai dect dac avei aprobare de la Episcopie. De cele mai multe ori ns oamenii locului - preoi parohi, paracliseri, ori pur i simplu ngrijitori ai lcaului ne ntmpinau mndri de patrimoniul pe care-l aveau spre pstrare i ne ndeamnau ca, prin intermediul fotografiilor pe care le facem, s ncercm s popularizm acele valori.

Trips across those Transylvanian lands always seemed to us, ordinary middle-class tourists, a never-ending challenge: what surprise shall meet us at the next church? No time to get bored! There were yet, to be honest, sad surprises too: its been 50 years since that church has been dismantled: it burned down, a few years ago: they transferred it to town and they painted it; I saw it recently, somewhere surrounded by blocks of flats, next to the stadium; you are not allowed to enter, unless youve got a permit from the Archdiocese. Yet in most instances local people priests, bell-ringers, or just simple care-takers were welcoming us, proud of the patrimony they had been entrusted with. Moreover, they urged us to do all our best for promoting, by means of pictures we were taking, those valuable monuments.

S nu uitm c, adesea, bisericile de care vorbim se afl n ctune izolate, n zone mai srace, departe de drumurile tradiional turistice ale Romniei. Semee totui pe vrfuri de deal, ele oglindesc demnitatea, mndria i sensibilitatea artistic a ranului romn. Lcaurile n care se mai oficiaz nc sunt, de regul, cel mai bine conservate. Altele sunt pstrate i ngrijite ca mici muzee ale satului, chiar dac n decurs de un an doar civa cltori le calc pragul: muli dintre acetia sunt strini, mai bine informai i mai interesai de tezaurul cultural i artistic al rii noastre. Din nefericire, exist i cazuri cnd indrila este rupt, acoperiul spart, iar intemperiile deterioreaz de la an la an, din ce n ce mai mult, picturi a cror strlucire original nu va mai putea fi nicicnd reconstituit.

One must not forget that in many instances, the churches we are speaking about occur in isolated rural communities, within areas for which poverty is a rather general standard, far away from the traditional tourist roads of Romania. Still their bell-towers bold appearance on hill-tops seems to epitomize the Romanian peasants dignity, pride and sense of beauty. The best preserved edifices are, as a general rule, those where religious service is still held. Others are conserved and looked after like small museums of the village, even though only few people come to visit them during one year: many such visitors are foreigners, much more interested and better informed about Romanias cultural and artistic heritage. Unfortunately, there are also instances when the shingle is damaged, the roof is broken and rainfall wrecks out, year after year, paintings whose original gleam will never recover.

Transilvania rmne - n ciuda tuturor vicisitudinilor enumerate - singurul teritoriu al Europei unde se mai pstreaz nc zeci de biserici din lemn pictate n perioada secolelor al XVIII-lea i al XIX-lea. Acestui fenomen plastic par s-i lipseasc totui, cel puin deocamdat, nite puni de comunicare: ntre publicul din zilele noastre i vechii zugravi cu viziunile lor adeseori contrariante. Iar umilii autori ai acestui album - nimerindu-se pe undeva pe la mijloc - s-au riscat s ncerce s fac oficiul de P.R.

Transylvania remains beyond all recorded detrimental circumstances the only territory of Europe where tens of wooden churches painted during the 18th and the 19th centuries are still preserved. Yet - at least for the moment being - this art phenomenon seems to lack some efficient communication channels: between the public of our time, and the old masters, whose visions are sometimes so disconcerting. As for the humble authors of this album who happened to be, by chance, somewhere in-between they only ventured to attempt taking up a P.R. position.

Iosif Perso, 1806 Moartea i Lenea The Death and the Indolence Dragu, judeul Slaj Dragu, Slaj county

BORZA

Data construciei: 1758 (apare n inscripia de pe ancadramentul intrrii) Nu se cunosc nici numele autorului picturii murale, nici data execuiei acesteia. Monument istoric cod SJ-II-m-A-05023 Judeul SLAJ

Wooden church built in the year 1758 (date indicated by the inscription carved on the door frame) The date of the painting and the artist name are unknown Historical monument code SJ-II-m-A-05023 SLAJ county

Cina cea de tain

The Last Supper

Prinderea lui Isus

The Betrayal of Christ

Isus adus n faa lui Pilat Jesus before Pilate

Isus adus n faa lui Irod

Jesus before king Herod

CUBLEU

Data construciei: secolul al XVIII-lea Pictura mural realizat de Urs Broin, nu cu mult nainte de anul 1787 Monument istoric, cod SJ-II-m-B-05046

Wooden church built in the 18th century Mural painting by Urs Broin, shortly before 1787 Historical Monument, code SJ-II-m-B-05046

Judeul SLAJ

SLAJ county

ncununarea lui Isus cu spini The Crowning with Thorns

Batjocorirea lui Isus


Observai personajul aflat n colul din dreapta-jos, care i ureaz Fii sntos !

The Mocking of Christ


Notice the character at the bottom-right corner, who says I wish you good health !

Biciuirea lui Isus The Flogging of Christ

DOMNIN

Data construciei: 1753 (apare ca inscripie pe masa de piatr a altarului) Pictura mural realizat n anul 1812, autor necunoscut Monument istoric cod SJ-II-m-A-05050 Judeul SLAJ

Wooden church built in the year 1753 (date carved on the stone slab of the altar) Walls painted in 1812 by an anonymous artist Historical monument code SJ-II-m-A-05050 SLAJ county

Prinderea lui Isus

The Betrayal of Christ

Punerea lui Isus n Mormnt The Deposition of Christ

Sfnta Maria Egipteanca

Saint Mary of Egypt

PUA

Data construciei: 1730 Pictura mural realizat de Ioan Pop din Ungurai n anul 1800 Monument istoric, cod SJ-II-m-A-05092

Wooden church built in the year 1730


Mural painting by Ioan Pop from Ungurai, 1800 Historical monument, code SJ-II-m-A-05092

Judeul SLAJ

SLAJ county

Presupus autoportret al pictorului Presumed self-portrait of the painter

Pilda celor zece fecioare. Fecioare nebune

The Parable of the Ten Virgins. Foolish Virgins

SRBI

Data construciei: 1707 (apare n inscripia cioplit deasupra intrrii) Nu se cunosc nici autorul, nici data execuiei picturii murale din naos. Pereii altarului i ai pronaosului au fost pictai de Dimitrie Ispas din Gilu n anul 1824. Monument istoric, cod SJ-II-m-B-05111 Judeul SLAJ

Wooden church built in the year 1707 (date indicated in the inscription carved above the church entrance) The author and the date of the nave and iconostasis painting are unknown. The narthex and the chancel walls have been painted by Dimitrie Ispas from Gilu in 1824. Historical monument, code SJ-II-m-B-05111 SLAJ county

Isus n potir (reprezentare simboliznd mprtania)

Jesus in the chalice (Eucharist imagery)

Pilda celor zece fecioare. Fecioare nelepte

The Parable of the Ten Virgins. Wise Virgins

Sfntul Ioan Evanghelistul Saint John the Evangelist

SOLOMON

Data construciei: secolul al XVIII-lea Pictura mural realizat de Iosif Perso, paroh al Elciului, 1845 Monument istoric, cod SJ-II-m-B-05114

Wooden church built in the 18th century Mural painting by Iosif Perso, priest of Elciu, 1845 Historical monument, code SJ-II-m-B-05114

Judeul SLAJ

SLAJ county

Pilda celor zece fecioare. Fecioare nebune

The Parable of the Ten Virgins. Foolish Virgins

Iona este vrsat pe pmnt din pntecele chitului

Jonah is spewed out by the great fish

DNGU MIC

Data construciei incert (1764?); adus pe actualul amplasament n anul 1802 Pictura mural realizat n anul 1802 de Dimitrie Ispas din Gilu i de tefan Monument istoric, cod CJ-II-m-B-07592 Judeul CLUJ

Wooden church whose building date is uncertain (1764?). Transferred to the current location in 1802 Mural painting by Dimitrie Ispas from Gilu and by tefan, 1802 Historical monument, code CJ-II-m-B-07592 CLUJ county

Heruvim

Cherubim

Splarea picioarelor ucenicilor lui Isus Washing of the Feet

Drumul spre Golgota

Simon of Cyrene helps Jesus carry His Cross

intuirea lui Isus pe cruce

The Nailing of Christ to the Cross

Rstignirea

The Crucifixion

GRBU DEJULUI

Data construciei: secolul al XVIII-lea Nu se cunosc nici numele autorului picturii murale, nici data execuiei acesteia. Monument istoric, cod CJ-II-m-B-07620 Judeul CLUJ

Wooden church built in the 18th century The date of the painting and the artist name are unknown Historical monument, code CJ-II-m-B-07620 CLUJ county

nvierea lui Lazr

The Raising of Lazarus

Sfntul Evanghelist Luca Saint Luke the Evangelist

nvierea. Maria Magdalena l vede pe Isus

The Resurrection. Mary Magdalene sees Jesus

DOBRICU LPUULUI

Data construciei: secolul al XVIII-lea Pictura mural a fost realizat, cel puin n parte, undeva ntre anii 1793-1811. n naos i respectiv n pronaos au lucrat doi zugravi diferii, ambii rmai anonimi. Pictura din naos prezint un stil puternic influenat de cel al zugravului Radu Munteanu din Ungureni. Monument istoric, cod MM-II-m-A-04568

Wooden church built in the 18th century At least part of the mural painting dates back to the period 1793 - 1811. Two different artists, both unknown, have painted the nave and the narthex walls respectively. The style of the nave paintings bears many similarities to that of Radu Munteanu from Ungureni. Historical monument, code MM-II-m-A-04568

Judeul MARAMURE

MARAMURE county

Pcatul originar. Detaliu: Eva The temptation of the serpent. Detail: Eve

Lot i fiicele sale fug din Sodoma


Observai sticla pe care o duce una din fiice, aluzie la episodul n care fetele i vor mbta tatl ca s se mperecheze cu el.

Lot and his daughters flee from Sodom


Notice the bottle carried by the second daughter, an allusion to the episode when the girls will inebriate their father in order to have intercourse with him.

David vede capul lui Avesalom David sees the head of Absalom

Cina cea de tain

The Last Supper

Rugciunea lui Isus n Grdina Ghetsimani

Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane

Iuda napoiaz arginii trdrii

Judas returns the silver coins

Drumul spre Golgota

Simon of Cyrene helps Jesus carry His Cross

Rstignirea Sfntului Petru The Martyrdom of the apostle Peter

Judecata de Apoi. Detaliu

The Last Judgement. Detail

Observai diavolul care l trage de urechi pe unul din pctoi. Notice the devil who gives an ear pull to a sinner.

Judecata de Apoi. Detaliu: Femeia care i suduie brbatul. The Last Judgement. Detail: The woman who curses at her man.

Judecata de Apoi. Detaliu.

The Last Judgement. Detail.

Arhanghelul Mihai i bogatul nemilostiv The Archangel Michael tormenting the soul of a pitiless rich man

LIBOTIN

Data construciei: 1671; adus pe actualul amplasament n anul 1811 Pictura mural realizat n anul 1811, autor necunoscut Monument istoric, cod MM-II-m-A-04596 Judeul MARAMURE

Wooden church built in the year 1671 Transferred to the current location in 1811 Walls painted in 1811 by an anonymous artist Historical monument, code MM-II-m-A-04596 MARAMURE county

Adam i Eva Pcatul originar

Adam and Eve - the temptation of the serpent

Tierea capului Sfntului Ioan Boteztorul

Beheading of Saint John the Baptist

Rugciunea lui Isus n Grdina Ghetsimani

Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane

Drumul spre Golgota Simon of Cyrene helps Jesus carry His Cross

intuirea lui Isus pe cruce

The Nailing of Christ to the Cross

ROGOZ

Data construciei: 1663, nlocuind o biseric mai veche incendiat cu doi ani nainte de ctre nvlitorii ttari. Pictura mural realizat n anul 1785 de ctre Radu Munteanu din Ungureni, asistat de Nicolae Man de la Poiana Porcului. A mai intervenit, n anul 1834, un pictor rmas anonim. Monument istoric, cod MM-II-m-A-04618

Wooden church built in 1663, in order to replace the one burned by Tartars two years before. The church walls have been painted in 1785 by Radu Munteanu from Ungureni, assisted by Nicolae Man from Poiana Porcului. Additional interventions were made by an unknown painter in 1834. Historical monument, code MM-II-m-A-04618

Judeul MARAMURE

MARAMURE county

Rstignirea

The Crucifixion

Rstignirea. Detaliu

The Crucifixion. Detail

Adam i Eva Pcatul originar

Adam and Eve - the temptation of the serpent

Adam i Eva sunt izgonii din rai

The Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise

Adam i Eva muncind pe pmnt

Adam and Eve labor for their food

UNGURENI

Data construciei: secolul al XVIII-lea Cea mai mare parte a picturii murale (ntreg naosul i o parte din pronaos) a fost realizat de ctre popa Ion, naintea anului 1782. n pictura pronaosului au mai intervenit ulterior Radu Munteanu din Ungureni (n 1782) i Buda Procopie (pe la 1824-1826). Monument istoric, cod MM-II-m-A-04788

Wooden church built in the 18th century

Most of the mural painting (that of the nave and of some parts of the narthex) has been completed by the priest Ion before 1782. Subsequent painting of the narthex has been completed by Radu Munteanu from Ungureni (in 1782) and by Buda Procopie (around 1824-1826). Historical monument, code MM-II-m-A-04788 MARAMURE county

Judeul MARAMURE

nvierea Pogorrea n iad The Resurrection Anastasis (Descent into Limbo)

Heruvim

Cherubim

Lupta lui David cu Goliat David slaying Goliath

BUNGARD

Data construciei incert (1711? 1760?) Nu se cunosc nici numele autorului picturii murale, nici data execuiei acesteia. Monument istoric, cod BN-II-m-A-01626 Judeul BISTRIA-NSUD

Wooden church whose building date is uncertain (1711? 1760?) The date of the painting and the artist name are unknown Historical monument , code BN-II-m-A-01626 BISTRIA-NSUD county

Samarineanca la fntn The Samaritan woman at the well

Cina cea de tain

The Last Supper

ncununarea lui Isus cu spini The Crowning with Thorns

Batjocorirea lui Isus The Mocking of Christ

Drumul spre Golgota Simon of Cyrene helps Jesus carry His Cross

Proorocul Ilie se nal la Ceruri

Ascension of Elijah

RUNCU SALVEI

Data construciei incert (1757?) Zaharie Apitis din Sineft este menionat drept autor al picturii murale originale. Pictura actual este rezultatul interveniei zugravului Vasile Hojda n anul 1784. Monument istoric, cod BN-II-m-A-01691 Judeul BISTRIA-NSUD

Wooden church whose building date is uncertain (1757?) Reportedly, the author of the original painting is Zacharias Apitis from Sineft. The present-day painting is due to the intervention of Vasile Hojda, in 1784. Historical monument, code BN-II-m-A-01691 BISTRIA-NSUD county

Intrarea lui Isus n Ierusalim

Entry into Jerusalem

Isus adus n faa lui Caiafa

Jesus before Caiaphas

Punerea lui Isus n Mormnt

The Deposition of Christ

SRATA

Data construciei: 1755 Pictura mural realizat n anul 1755, autor necunoscut

Wooden church built in the year 1755 Walls painted in 1755 by an anonymous artist

Monument istoric, cod BN-II-m-A-01694

Historical monument, code BN-II-m-A-01694

Judeul BISTRIA-NSUD

BISTRIA-NSUD county

Intrarea lui Isus n Ierusalim

Entry into Jerusalem

Mironosiele la Mormnt The Holy Women at the Tomb

Necredina apostolului Toma Christ and Doubting Thomas

Rstignirea Sfntului Simon

The Martyrdom of the apostle Simon

BIA

Data construciei: 1723 (apare ca inscripie deasupra uii naosului) Pictura mural realizat n anul 1775, autor necunoscut Monument istoric, cod MS-II-m-A-15604 Judeul MURE

Wooden church built in the year 1723 (date carved above the entrance of the nave) Walls painted in 1775 by an anonymous artist Historical monument, code MS-II-m-A-15604 MURE county

ncununarea lui Isus cu spini The Crowning with Thorns

Biciuirea lui Isus

The Flogging of Christ

Mironosiele la Mormnt The Holy Women at the Tomb

Rstignirea Sfntului Petru The Martyrdom of the apostle Peter

Rstignirea Sfntului Andrei The Martyrdom of the apostle Andrew

CUCI

Data construciei: secolul al XIX-lea Pictura mural realizat n anul 1834, din semntura pictorului se mai cunote doar ...de la Feisa. Monument istoric, cod MS-II-m-B-15640

Wooden church built in the 19th century Mural painting dating from 1834. From the painters signature, only the name of its place of origin, Feisa, has been preserved. Historical monument, code MS-II-m-B-15640

Judeul MURE

MURE county

Prinderea lui Isus. Detaliu The Betrayal of Christ. Detail

Mironosiele la Mormnt. Detaliu

The Holy Women at the Tomb. Detail

Cina cea de tain

The Last Supper

DMBU

Data construciei: secolul al XVIII-lea

Wooden church built in the 18th century Mural painting by Pop Nicolae, 1796 Historical monument , code MS-II-m-B-15651

Pictura mural realizat de Pop Nicolae Zugrav, 1796


Monument istoric, cod MS-II-m-B-15651

Judeul MURE

MURE county

Judecata de Apoi. Chipul unei pctoase The Last Judgement. Image of a sinner

Coborrea de pe cruce

Descent from the Cross

Prinderea lui Isus

The Betrayal of Christ

OROIU

Data construciei: 1784 (an inscripionat pe ambele ancadramente de ui) Nu se cunosc nici numele autorului picturii murale, nici data execuiei acesteia Monument istoric, cod MS-II-m-A-15740 Judeul MURE

Wooden church built in the year 1784 (date indicated by inscriptions carved on both door frames) The date of the painting and the artist name are unknown Historical monument, code MS-II-m-A-15740 MURE county

Rstignirea

The Crucifixion

Iuda napoiaz arginii trdrii

Judas returns the silver coins

Spnzurarea lui Iuda

The hanging of Judas

Pilda celor zece fecioare. Fecioare nebune The Parable of the Ten Virgins. Foolish Virgins

PORUMBENI

Data construciei incert (1749? 1841?) Nu se cunosc nici numele autorului picturii murale, nici data execuiei acesteia. Monument istoric, cod MS-II-m-A-15755 Judeul MURE

Wooden church, building date is uncertain (1749? 1841?) The date of the painting and the artist name are unknown Historical monument, code MS-II-m-A-15755 MURE county

Sfntul Gheorghe ucide balaurul

Saint George and the Dragon

Apostoli

Apostles

Rstignirea

The Crucifixion