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Cazan Ionu- Laureniu An II, grupa a II-a LLR-LLS

PROIECT DIDACTIC
- Scenariu teoretic

Denumirea temei Disciplina

Substantivul n limba German Instruire difereniat corelat cu metode de nvare activartici ative Limba german Aceast tem constituie dovada im lementrii! a trans unerii elementelor de coninut ale cursurilor arcurse n cadrul Proiectului "#ormarea continu a rofesorilor de $im%a rom&n! en'le( )i france( n societatea cunoa)terii*! o oca(ie de a demonstra c ceea ce am nvat este a lica%il+ $ecia susinut demonstrea( c munca difereniat cu elevii n funcie de particularitile lor de vrst i individuale este hotrtoare n procesul instructiv-educativ, iar utilizarea metodelor activ-participative este eficient. rocesele didactice tre!uie s in cont de faptul c elevii difer ntre ei din punctul de vedere al aptitudinilor, al ritmului de nvare, al "radului de nele"ere al fenomenelor, al capacitii de nvare, al motivaiei. #ocmai de aceea se impune ca elevii cu capaciti de nvare s fie instruii pe "rupe, dar cu teme difereniate. $iferenierea n nvare are ca scop eliminarea unor lacune n cunotintele i deprinderile elevilor i atin"erea performanelor minimale acceptate, dar i m!o"irea i aprofundarea cunotintelor elevilor capa!ili de performane. ornind de la aceste considerente, am a!ordat tema muncii difereniate corelat cu utilizarea metodelor activ-participative, deoarece acestea aduc cu si"uran succesul colar. %i-am propus s prezint o serie de modaliti de aplicare n cadrul orei de lim!a romn a acelor strate"ii didactice ce realizeaz activizarea elevilor, deoarece nvarea activ i determin pe elevi s-i formeze propria lor nele"ere a materialului i propria perspectiv. Am fost preocupat de "sirea unor metode active de nvare eficiente i a unor mi&loace de nvmnt care s asi"ure eficiena ma'im. Lecia este dovada vie c proiectul urmat a fost !enefic cursantului (profesorului) * a contri!uit la m!untirea pre"tirii profesionale a acestuia.

Argumentarea alegerii temei n contextul propunerii de proiect

Competene specifice vizate

+., alctuirea unor propoziii i fraze corecte din punct de vedere "ramatical ,.- sesizarea corectitudinii utilizrii cate"oriilor "ramaticale nvate .ocul didactic /Al! sau ne"ru0, ce va fi utilizat pentru reactualizarea cunotinelor elevilor are rolul de a imprima activitii didactice un caracter dinamic i atr"tor, va induce o stare de destindere care s previn monotonia i o!oseala i s fortifice ener"iile intelectuale ale elevilor. Captarea ateniei va fi realizat tot printr-un ,oc didactic * /1rmeaz indicaiile i descoper cuvntul cheie0 i are rolul de a strni interesul elevilor i curiozitatea, astfel nct s lucreze i s participe cu plcere. entru desfurarea leciei se va folosi ca resurs procedural conversaia pe mar"inea unor enunuri scrise de profesor la ta!l. Am recurs la aceast metod ntruct este o metod care invit elevii s realizeze o incursiune n propriul univers co"nitiv i s fac o serie de cone'iuni care s faciliteze dezvluirea de noi aspecte ale realitii. E-erciiul este o alt metod de nvare la care se va face apel, ntruct pe !aza repetrii sistematice a unei activiti intelectuale se formeaz deprinderi. Clasa va fi mprit n atru 'ru e de elevi cu ritmuri de lucru diferite. 234"rup de elevi cu ritm lent de nvare5 2+, 2,4"rupuri de elevi cu ritm mediu de nvare5 2-4"rupul elevilor cu ritm rapid de nvare. 6iecare "rup de elev va primi sarcini de lucru diferentiate, n funcie de nivelul su, de capacitile intelectuale ale elevilor. %unca independent va fi m!inat astfel cu activitile de cooperare, de nvare n "rup. 78nvarea n "rup e'erseaz capacitatea de decizie i de iniiativ, d o not mai personal muncii, dar i o complementaritate mai mare aptitudinilor i talentelor, ceea ce asi"ur o participare mai vie, mai activ, susinut de foarte multe elemente de emulaie, de stimulare reciproc, de cooperare fructuoas.0 (Ioan Cerghit,1997, p. 54) Am recurs la metodele interactive de "rup ntruct sunt modaliti moderne de stimulare a nvarii i dezvoltrii personale, sunt instrumente didactice care favorizeaz interschim!ul de idei, de e'periene, de cunotine. #ipul de strate"ie utilizat va fi cel euristic - de ela!orare a cunotinelor prin efort propriu de "ndire, folosind pro!lematizarea, descoperirea, dialo"ul euristic, avnd ca efect stimularea creativitii. rin metodele activ-participative utilizate (e'plicaia, conversaia, e'erciiul, descoperirea, o!servarea) va fi meninut interesul elevilor, va fi stimulat "ndirea critic i spiritul de iniiativ, va fi creat atmosfera propice de nvare. Aceste metode vor favoriza activitatea de e'plorare personal i interaciunea cu ceilali cole"i.

Strategie didactic motivare i descriere

Activitatea de nvare va fi or"anizat att frontal, ct i individual i e 'ru e, deoarece m!inarea tuturor acestor trei forme sporete eficiena procesului de nvmnt.

esurse utilizate! inclusiv tehnologice, dac este cazul

Resurse. a+ rocedurale - strategii de nvare4 activitate frontal, activitate pe "rupe, activitate independent. - metode i procedee4 conversaia, e'erciiul, e'plicaia, o!servarea, &ocul didactic. %+ materiale4 manualul, ta!la ma"netic, creta, caietele elevilor, cartonae ne"re i al!e (pentru 9eactualizarea cunotinelor), plan cu litere (pentru Captarea ateniei), diverse materiale didactice pentru fiecare din cele patru "rupe4
3.2rupa3 -Aaz cuburile4 ase cu!uri avnd nscrise pe fiecare fa cte un ver! la anumite timpuri ver!ale, cutie n care se afl cu!urile i foaia cu sarcina de lucru5 +.2rupa + - Cutiua cu surprize 4 cutie, diverse o!iecte nvelite n hrtie de cadou (mainu, ursule, cheie, soldel, min"iu, m"ru, telefon, "r"ri, oricel), foaia cu sarcina de lucru5 ,.2rupa , - Imagineaz-i4 cutiua n care se afl foaia cu sarcinile elevilor, !ilee cu situaia ima"inat5 -.2rupa - - Gsete verbele la viitor4 cutie, diverse ver!e pe suport ma"netic.

c+

resurse )i mana'ementul tim ului 4 - spaiu de lucru4 sala de clas: - capaciti normale de nvare ale elevilor - cunotinele lor anterioare5 - timpul4 ;< de minute.

"rezentare succint a scenariului didactic propriu-zis

/+ 0oment or'ani(atoric - 3= rofesorul pre"tete materialele necesare leciei, asi"ur disciplina i ordinea n clas. >oteaz a!senele. 1+ 2erificarea temei - -= >umete civa elevi care citesc selectiv e'erciiile avute ca tem:. 6ace unele corecturi i o!servaii acolo unde este cazul. ?levii numii citesc rezolvarea e'erciiilor, iar ceilali intervin, se corecteaz dac este cazul. 3+ 2erificarea cuno)tinelor anterioare - ,= 9esurse4 &oc didactic 7Al! sau ne"ru@Adevarat sau fals0, cartonae ne"re i al!e. 6orma de or"anizare4 individual. rofesorul citete cte o propoziie referitoare la ver!, elevii tre!uind s arate prin ridicarea unui cartona (al! pentru adevrat sau ne"ru pentru fals) dac enunurile despre ver! sunt adevrate sau false. ?nunurile profesorului4 o Au!stantivul are trei "enuri "ramaticale 4 Adevrat o Au!stantivele compuse cu /-mann0 pota vea forme diferite la plural 4 Adevarat o 6iecare su!stantiv are diferite forme de caz 4 Adevarat

o Au!stantivul un are "enitiv 4 6als 4+ Ca tarea ateniei - += 9esurse4 .oc didactic - Urmeaz indicaiile i descoper cuv ntul cheie , plan cu litere. 6orma de or"anizare4 individual. rofesorul arat un carton A; cu un ta!el n care se afl diverse litere amestecate. Cere elevilor s urmreasc paii spui de el i descoper astfel cuvntul cheie al leciei dup indicaiile date. Bezi Ane'a 3. Indicaiile profesorului4
$escoper litera aflat la +$. $escoper litera aflat la 3A. $escoper litera aflat la ,C. $escoper litera aflat la -A. $escoper litera aflat la 3C. $escoper litera aflat la -$.

?levii urmresc indicaiile profesorului i descoper cuvntul cheie * titlul leciei * Au!stantivul n lim!a "erman. 5+ Anunarea temei noi )i a o%iectivelor - 3= rofesorul anun tema leciei i o!iectivele propuse #ema leciei4 Au!stantivul n lim!a "erman. La sfritul leciei toi elevii vor fi capa!ili4
D3 - s: identifice cele trei "enuri "ramaticale5 D+ - s decline su!stantive simple5 D, - s alctuiasc enunuri simple cu su!stantive5

?levii ascult cu atenie noua tem i o!iectivele, noteaz titlul leciei n caiete. 6+ Diri,area nvrii+ O%inerea erformanei 378 D!inerea performanei o vom realiza prin prezentarea temei detaliat, prin e'emple uoare i simple pentru ca elevii s nelea" uor i s nu ai! dificulti n procesul de instruire. Apoi dup ce vom sta!ili mi&loacele de !az ale lec iei vom trece la noiuni i e'ercii mai dificle. Bom "rada astfel nivelul de dificultate. e fiecare nivel vom avea itemi diferi i, n acest mod elevii vor acumul puin cte puin. 9+ Evaluarea erformanei * ;= rofesorul propune un scurt test formativ care va fi rezolvat individual de elevi. 3. Identific su!stantive simple i va alctui enunuri simple cu acestea. +. $eclinm cteva su!stantive ,. Au!liniaza su!stantivele Biele #auser Eurden zerstort. a) leca-vom de ndat dac nu avem ce face. !) $ac mai ntrziem mult, o s vin ploaia i o s ne ude. :+ Asi'urarea reteniei * ,= rofesorul comenteaz mpreun cu elevii eventualele erori aprute la testul formativ. ;+ Asi'urarea transferului * 3= #ema pentru acas4 e'erciiile , i F, p. ,,. ?'erciiile cer elevilor s recunoasc i s analizeze su!stantive la "enul masculin i s compun o naraiune de cinci rnduri folosind su!stantive pe care acestia le considera ca fiind inteli"i!ile. Autoevaluarea scenariului Acenariul propus, !azat pe instruirea difereniat aduce

propus

cteva !eneficii att pentru elevi, ct i pentru profesor4 toi elevii vor participa la activitile propuse la clas i vor fi implicai n rezolvarea sarcinilor (fiecare elev va fi implicat n activitate i va avea ceva de realizat)5 fiecare elev va reui s rezolve sarcina propus i profesorul va ti cum@cnd s-i spri&ine pe cei care au nevoie de a&utor suplimentar5 toi elevii vor primi spri&inul necesar atunci cnd vor avea nevoie5 colectivul clasei va fi un colectiv nche"at, iar elevii vor lucra mpreun i se vor spri&ini unii pe alii n nvare prin cooperare5 activitatea cadrului didactic va deveni mai eficient i va economisi timp n predare pentru c nu va fi nevoie s revin frecvent asupra coninuturilor sau s realizeze pro"rame de pre"tire suplimentar pentru elevii care au lacune n nvare. 1tilizarea metodelor active propuse, centrate pe elev, contri!uie la dezvoltarea intelectual a elevilor, la participarea elevilor la toate etapele leciei5 metodele de predare-nvare alese n funcie de o!iective i coninut au rolul de a strni curiozitatea i interesul elevilor. #ehnicile sunt relevante, varietatea tehnicilor folosite de profesor este mare, cu multe schim!ri n modul de lucru raportat la coninuturile predate i la momentele orei. Aarcinile de lucru sunt proiectate astfel nct s i a&ute pe elevi s i clarifice nele"erea i s inspire investi"aia continu, au valoare educativ.

A<E=A /

lana cu litere $in acest ta!el, elevii vor tre!ui sa alineze cuvintele astfel nct s rezulte su!stantive.

$ECT>RE I+ #rom aristeia ?@eroic deedsA to aristobios ?C@ristian 'ood lifeA+ Structure of $eo%ulf& 3. (Lines 3 - G;). #he "enealo"H (thula) of the $anish dHnastH from AcHld Acefind to Iroth"ar. II. (Lines GJ - 3GGK). CeoEulfLs fi"ht Eith 2rendel and his mother. III. (Lines 3GGG - +3FF). CeoEulfLs return to IH"elac, Min" of the 2eats. IB. (Lines ++<< - ,3G+). CeoEulfLs rei"n, fi"ht Eith the dra"on, death and !urial. Bistorical %acC'round+ T@e DEATS (Geatas or !ederas).

Nin" IrethelLs son, Iere!eald, is accidentallH Milled !H his !rother, IaethcHn. IaethcHn succeeds to his heart!roMen father as Min". Ie is Milled !H Dn"entheoE, Min" of the AEedes, Eho is Milled, in his turn, in a !attle of retaliation into Ehich the 2eats are led !H IaetcHnLs !rother, IH"elac, the Min" of the 2eats at the time of the action in the first, second, and third part of the poem. IH"elac "ets Milled in a Ear Eith the 6ranMs, and, as CeoEulf, IrethelLs "randson, refuses the croEn in favour of Ieardred, IH"elacLs son and successor, Ieardred !ecomes Min". Ie is Milled !H Dnela, Min" of the AEedes, !ecause he had offered shelter to ?anmund and ?ad"ils, after their unsuccessful revolt a"ainst the usurper AEedish Min". CeoEulf succeeds to Ieardred. T@e SEEDES ("#eon or "c$l%ingas&' Dn"entheoE is the earliest mentioned Min". After his death at the hands of Oulf and ?ofor, tEo 2eats, his son, Dhthere, !ecomes Min". After his death, Dnela, his !rother, usurps the ri"hts to succession of ?anmund and ?ad"ils, DhthereLs sons. Ie invades the 2eats, !ecause the tEo princes had taMen refu"e there, and Mills Ieardred, their host and protector. In this campai"n, ?anmund is Milled !H Oeohstan, Oi"lafLs father, a Oae"mundin" in the service of the AEedish Min". CeoEulf invades AEeden, Mills Dnela, alloEin" ?ad"ils, the ri"htful heir to the AEedish throne, to succeed. Ie also alloEs Oi"laf, OeohstanLs son, to "et !acM the land that had !een confiscated from his father for havin" Milled ?anmund, the ri"ht successor. T@e DA<ES ((ene, "c$ldingas). As the poem initiallH striMes the P9edeemerP theme, the thula !e"ins Eith AcHld Acefin", a "lorious Min", Eho had !rou"ht the $anes fame and prosperitH after a period of Pdire distressP. Iis son too, CeoE, is sent !H 2od Pto comfort the $anesP. Iealfdene and Iroth"ar folloE in strai"ht descent. Iroth"ar sees CeoEulf as a "odsend, the e'pected 9edeemer from 2rendelLs plunderin"s. CeoEulfLs victorH over the monster is accompanied !H the Pfittin" taleP of Ieremod, Eho, unliMe CeoEulf, had fallen into the poEer of fiends, and had !een defeated !attlin" Eith "iants, !rin"in" much miserH on his peopleLs heads. #his is the condition of the AEedes !efore the providential arrival of AcHld as a Pa EaifP, !rou"ht to the shore on a ship loaded Eith treasures. O tional essaF to ic4 PChristian 9efur!ishin" of a"an 2ermanic %atter in )eo#ul%.P O tional researc@ t@eme4 )eo#ul% is one more Pparadi"matic medieval historical narrativeP (see the course-!ooM, pp. ,+,-), castin" the plot into the scheme of salvation. #he !e"innin" is an e'ample of tHpolo"ical encodin"4 the foundation of the $anesL historical hearth under Iroth"ar, throu"h the !uildin" of the centre of their social life, Ieorot, the mead-hall. #he creation and destruction of Ieorot are slotted Eithin sacred historH4 2od maMin" the universe and the fall throu"h Cain. #he connection !etEeen Pheaven and earthP is realised !H 2rendel, CainLs descendant. NnoEin" of his imminent death, CeoEulf asMs Oi"laf (his onlH su!&ect Eho had stood !H him, out of "ratitude, in the same EaH as CeoEulf had helped Iroth"ar, !ecause he had settled his fatherLs, ?c"theoELs, de!t !H paHment) to !rin" him the Ppriceless, shimmerin" stonesP the dra"on had !een hoardin". Ie saHs4 Ponce I@ have set eHes on such a store, it Eill !e@ more easH for me to die, to a!andon@ the life and land that have so lon" !een mine.P OhH, do Hou thinM, does CeoEulf feel comforted at the si"ht of the "ems, althou"h heLs "oin" to lose them to"ether Eith his life Q Can Hou find an alle"orical correlative of the "ems in *he +evelation Ehich mi"ht serve as an e'planation Q
3+ DeoffreF C@aucer

3. In the reli"ious plaHs and in the romances, the maMin" of the chivalrous Mni"ht or of the pious Chrsitian identitH is depersonalized and transcendental or transhistorical. In the late 3-th c. Oilliam Lan"land, .ohn 2oEer and 2eoffreH Chaucer historicize the self. It is located Eithin a hierarchical societH, and inflected accordin" to class, ranM, education, etc.

Lan"land is more orthodo' in his handlin" of the estates satire convention, Ehile, in Chaucer, the characters pull aEaH from their strict hierarchical and stereotHped location, su!vertin" it throu"h self-fashionin" (the self-constructed identitH). +. #he Pendless MnotP of the le"itimatin" companH includes, in $anteLs Commedia, Iomer, Iorace, Dvid, Lucan, Bir"il - and $ante. In ,e +oman de la +ose, #i!ullus, 2allus, Catullus, Dvid, 2uillaume de Lorris - and .ean de %eun. #he 2eneral rolo"ue to #he Canterbur$ *ales, Chaucer saHs his companH consists of Pa reve, and a miller,@ a somnour, and a pardoner also,@ A maunciple, and mHself. P EssaF to ic. IoE do Bir"ilian shadoEs reflect on "enre Q +. %orton O. Cloomfield4 *he pilgrimage is a -e$ metaphor %or li%e %rom the religious sphere' !e are all pilgrims on the #a$ to the heavenl$ cit$, and ever$ .ourne$, but especiall$ a religious one re%lects the basic pattern o% e/istence' !e are all homeless, e/iled %rom paradise, loo-ing %or a return to our true home #hich is heaven, o% #hich the earthl$ paradise #as the %oreshado#ing . 9uth %ohl4 Characteristics of an estates satire4 3. an enumeration of the estates or social and occupational classes. +. a lament over the shortcomin"s of the estates5 each fails in its dutH to the rest. ,. the divine oridnation of the estates and the necessitH of !ein" satisfied Eith oneLs station. -. su""estion of remedies for restorin" the estates to the ri"ht EaHs. EssaF to ic. $ecide Ehether *he General 0rologue fits into the Ppil"rima"eP reli"ious form or in that of the estates satire.

Gi%lio'ra @F. 1ver$man and 2edieval 2iracle 0la$s' ?dited !H A.C. CaEleH, ..%. $ent.(Drion u!lishin" 2roup, 3FK-) eter $avison, opular Appeal in ?n"lish $rama to 3G;<. (%acmillan, 3FG+). *he Cambridge Chaucer Companion. ?dited !H iero Coitani and .ill %ann. (Cam!rid"e 1niversitH ress.) Geo%%re$ Chaucer' *he Canbterbur$ *ales' ?dited !H Lee atterson (D'ford, +<<K). 4+ DeofreF C@aucer ?IIA - #he medieval frame of mind e'pressed in the pil"rima"e motif maps out a movement of the soul from phHsical re!irth - of ve"etation, in sprin" - toEards spiritual redemption, from secular to reli"ious, and, in point of "enre, from reverdie to ne'ative reverdie. 6or instance, ChaucerLs Canterbur$ *ales opens in the reverdie "enre and closes Eith the arsonLs sermon on the seven deadlH sins, preachin" the denial of the !odH, the su!limation of its natural heat, desires and fertilitH4 et invenetis re%rigerium animabus vestris. #he reformed ChristianLs tree consists of the PstationsP on the EaH to Aalvation4 contrition, confession, Love of 2od. #he tensions !etEeen !odilH desires and rational control are emplotted Eithin three models4 3) #he arson proposes the thorou"h repression of the !odH, his source !ein" Acriptural commandments and ima"erH. +. #he Nni"ht tells a tale Ehich reveals his aEareness of historical chan"e4 it is !ased on a contemporarH (CoccaccioLs) refur!ishin" of an ancient source (Atatius). Chaucer com!ines the romance and the mirror of rinces in his usual manner of mi'in" up "eneric conventions. As the ideal ruler, #heseus teaches the tEo #he!an princes, competin" for ?milHLs love, to restrain their li!idinal, unrulH and violent impulses. Iis rule Hields an overlaH of civilisation over rude nature4 !uildin" an amphitheatre in the Eoods, ela!oratin" codes for militarH confrontation

(tournaments and trial !H divine &ustice, instead of !eastlH Erestlin") and for love (social !ond in marria"e, tamin" the Amazons, marria"e decided !H the proof of valour, and cast into a spiritual pattern4 folloEin" the e'ample of the 6irst %over, Ehich !onded the elements of the universe into a coherent Ehole). ,. #he %illerLs PchurlishP variant of love as unlaEful competition, adulterH, set in the loE life of a fa%liau. Iis tale echoes a folM son" (reverdie) of the earlH 3-th centurH. EssaFs to ic4 >atural desire overrulin" social ta!oos in *he 2iller3s *ale and Alison4 )et#een 2arch and April4 #hen t#igs begin to lea% out4 *he little bird has its #ill4 5n its birdsong to sing4 I live in love-longing4 6or the seemliest o% all things4 "he ma$ m$ bliss bring74 I am in her po#er 8'''& I am entirel$ #orn out %or #ooing,4 #ear$ as #ater in a troubled pool'4 ,est an$one deprive me o% m$ mate4 !hom I have desired a long time4 It is better to su%%er sorel$ %or a #hile . - A !lazon or coat of arms Eas painted on the shield and seEn on his coat of arms, !anner or on the trappin"s of his horse as si"ns of reco"nition, as !oth Eere covered in armour. #he !lazon Eas the medieval manLs PidentitH cardP. #he literarH Mind !earin" its name is the rhetorical device of PdescriptioP4 descri!in" a ladHLs phHsical features Ehich sHm!olise her moral virtues. #he name of the inn, P#a!ard InnP, defines it as a meetin" place of individuals representative for their social classes. IoEever, ChaucerLs set of P!lazonsP in the rolo"ue, shot throu"h Eith ironH and innuendo, is completed, as a means of characterisation, !H the pil"rimsL self-fashionin" (their oEn vieEs of themselves) and Eith their tales Ehich are MeHed to the teller. EssaF to ic4 Characterise one of the pil"rims !H correlatin" the a!ove (ChaucerLs !lazon, the pil"rimLs prolo"ue and tale). oint out conver"in" or diver"in" elements. - P#he complete te't of P#he ardonerLs #aleP in fact presents us Eith three plots. As a frameEorM, there is the situation in the tavern, Eith the Iost and the pil"rims, as part of the seRuence of the #ales. AecondlH, there is the plot or storH of the ardoner himself - the situation in Ehich Ee find him, his revelations a!out himself. his tale-tellin" and the amusin" close Ehen he meets his match in the Iost. 6inallH, there is the storH Ehich he tells itself, Eith its tau"ht plot structure - succinct, suspenseful, and movin" su!tlH to its conclusion. P (CarrH Apurr, "tud$ing 0oetr$, al"rave %acmillan, +<<J4 KK). art of the *aleLs comple'itH lies in its dou!le meanin" structure, conflictin" Eith each other. #he old man Eho taMes the three revellers to the tree hidin" the treasure and MnocMin" on the earth to !e interred, Eishin" to die, em!odies the ethos of the medieval moralitH plaHs, Eith morose $eath as constant reminder of the uselessness of riches and of a "ood life and as drive to self-annihilation of the !odH. #he three revellers, unitin" in a chivalric !ond in order to fi"ht $eath em!odH the rival ethos of the laH !rotherhood of the aristocracH. Coth are revealed as outdated fictions, !earin" no relationship to the realities of fourteenth-centurH ?n"land4 $eath Eas not an a!straction !ut the la"ue, human desires to en&oH life and competitive instincts could not !e suppressed !H the idealisin" fictions of the superhuman chivalrous Mni"ht. EssaF to ic4 analHse the plot of some other tale usin" CarrH Apurr as a model.

$ecture 1+ T@e $iterature of t@e 0iddle A'es+ En'land under t@e <orman and Planta'enet Cin's ?/766-/4:5A+

F+K. Athelstan4 re' totius Critanniae. PI, Athelstan, Min" of the ?n"lish.P. F;F. ?d"ar, re' An"liae. 3,<;. ?dEard I 4 ?dEard re' totius Critanniae. (chan"in" names of the PvictorsP4 from Critish to ?n"lish, and from ?n"lish to an alliance of Critons and >ormans a"ainst the ?n"lish). I+a+ 0ediaeval Romance (33;<-3J<<). >arratives of chivalric love and adventures advertisin" the values and constructin" the identities of the elite courtlH culture. ?tHmolo"H4 mettre en romanz4 to translate (the matter of AntiRuitH) into vernacular 6rench. .ean 9enart (Guillaume de (ole)4 Pune novele choseP (interpolatin" lHric stanzas into the narrative). Sources4 #he matter of 9ome (+oman de *hebes, +oman d31neas, +oman de *roie ). #he matter of Critain (3. romances "rafted on the Arthurian central stocM, ori"inatin" in 2eoffreH of %onmouthLs 9istoria +egum )ritanniae. +. Dral Celtic culture (such as the storH of Nin" %arM and Sueen Iseut). - 9omances as part of translatio studii and translatio imperii (from 2reece and 9ome to 6rance and ?n"land). - IistorH is no lon"er vieEed Eithin the scheme of salvation, !ut as secular dHnastic historH4 %onmouth connected the 9omanized Criton Min" Arthur to the 9oman imperial line ("randson of ?neas), mHthicallH connected, in its turn, to #roH) and recounted an alliance !etEeen Nin" Arthur and earlH >ormans. - #he ethos of chivalrH Eas summed up iconicallH !H the Ppentan"leP (AolomonLs toMen of PtruthP, the &ustice of his title4 a fi"ure in Ehich each line touches all the other four, either !H crossin" or !H &oinin" at the ends). Its moral si"nification is intrinsic ri"ht to title or chivalrous entitlement, throu"h the capa!ilities or e'ercise of chivalrous virtues, as theH are descri!ed in "ir Ga#a$ne and ther Greene :night4 #he five fives4 five Eits, five fin"ers, five Eounds that Christ "ot on the Cross, the five &oHs of %arH, the Pheaven-RueenP) in her son (her ima"e is painted on his inside shield) and the five virtues of fanMness (truthfulness), felloEship, cleanness, courtesH, and pitH. I+ %+ Reli'ious drama+ /+ 0iracle laFs (since 3K--, mHsterH plaHs). Dri"inatin" in Latin litur"ical plaHs (chanted Latin dialo"ues added to the service of the %ass at ?aster and Christmas), and dramatizin" sacred historH from the Creation to the Last .ud"ement. erformed as a procession of a'eants4 dramatizations of Ci!lical persons and episodes in houses !uilt on four Eheels or in carts. #he !alconH represented Ieaven, Ehile "apin" &aEs counterfeited the entrance to hell. 1+ 0oralities4 ersonified vices and virtues, conflictin" Eithin the soul of %an. #ive Eits (1ver$man- late 3;thc.) *here is no emperor, -ing, du-e, ne baron, *hat o% God hath commission As hath the least priest in the #orld being 8'''& 6or preisthood e/ceeds all other thing7 *o us 9ol$ "cripture the$ do teach' And convert men %rom sin heaven to reach;

God hath to them more po#er given *han to an$ angel that is in heaven' !ith %ive #ords he ma$ consecrate, God3s bod$ in %lesh and blood to ma-e And handles his 2a-er bet#een his hands *he priest binds and unbinds all bands' EssaF to ic4 P#he AnatomH of a LiterarH Character4 #he %edieval 9omance Suester.
3+ DeoffreF C@aucer

3. In the reli"ious plaHs and in the romances, the maMin" of the chivalrous Mni"ht or of the pious Chrsitian identitH is depersonalized and transcendental or transhistorical. In the late 3-th c. Oilliam Lan"land, .ohn 2oEer and 2eoffreH Chaucer historicize the self. It is located Eithin a hierarchical societH, and inflected accordin" to class, ranM, education, etc. Lan"land is more orthodo' in his handlin" of the estates satire convention, Ehile, in Chaucer, the characters pull aEaH from their strict hierarchical and stereotHped location, su!vertin" it throu"h self-fashionin" (the self-constructed identitH). +. #he Pendless MnotP of the le"itimatin" companH includes, in $anteLs Commedia, Iomer, Iorace, Dvid, Lucan, Bir"il - and $ante. In ,e +oman de la +ose, #i!ullus, 2allus, Catullus, Dvid, 2uillaume de Lorris - and .ean de %eun. #he 2eneral rolo"ue to #he Canterbur$ *ales, Chaucer saHs his companH consists of Pa reve, and a miller,@ a somnour, and a pardoner also,@ A maunciple, and mHself. P EssaF to ic. IoE do Bir"ilian shadoEs reflect on "enre Q +. %orton O. Cloomfield4 *he pilgrimage is a -e$ metaphor %or li%e %rom the religious sphere' !e are all pilgrims on the #a$ to the heavenl$ cit$, and ever$ .ourne$, but especiall$ a religious one re%lects the basic pattern o% e/istence' !e are all homeless, e/iled %rom paradise, loo-ing %or a return to our true home #hich is heaven, o% #hich the earthl$ paradise #as the %oreshado#ing . 9uth %ohl4 Characteristics of an estates satire4 3. an enumeration of the estates or social and occupational classes. +. a lament over the shortcomin"s of the estates5 each fails in its dutH to the rest. ,. the divine oridnation of the estates and the necessitH of !ein" satisfied Eith oneLs station. -. su""estion of remedies for restorin" the estates to the ri"ht EaHs. EssaF to ic. $ecide Ehether *he General 0rologue fits into the Ppil"rima"eP reli"ious form or in that of the estates satire.

Gi%lio'ra @F. 1ver$man and 2edieval 2iracle 0la$s' ?dited !H A.C. CaEleH, ..%. $ent.(Drion u!lishin" 2roup, 3FK-) eter $avison, opular Appeal in ?n"lish $rama to 3G;<. (%acmillan, 3FG+). *he Cambridge Chaucer Companion. ?dited !H iero Coitani and .ill %ann. (Cam!rid"e 1niversitH ress.) Geo%%re$ Chaucer' *he Canbterbur$ *ales' ?dited !H Lee atterson (D'ford, +<<K). 4+ DeofreF C@aucer ?IIA

- #he medieval frame of mind e'pressed in the pil"rima"e motif maps out a movement of the soul from phHsical re!irth - of ve"etation, in sprin" - toEards spiritual redemption, from secular to reli"ious, and, in point of "enre, from reverdie to ne'ative reverdie. 6or instance, ChaucerLs Canterbur$ *ales opens in the reverdie "enre and closes Eith the arsonLs sermon on the seven deadlH sins, preachin" the denial of the !odH, the su!limation of its natural heat, desires and fertilitH4 et invenetis re%rigerium animabus vestris. #he reformed ChristianLs tree consists of the PstationsP on the EaH to Aalvation4 contrition, confession, Love of 2od. #he tensions !etEeen !odilH desires and rational control are emplotted Eithin three models4 3) #he arson proposes the thorou"h repression of the !odH, his source !ein" Acriptural commandments and ima"erH. +. #he Nni"ht tells a tale Ehich reveals his aEareness of historical chan"e4 it is !ased on a contemporarH (CoccaccioLs) refur!ishin" of an ancient source (Atatius). Chaucer com!ines the romance and the mirror of rinces in his usual manner of mi'in" up "eneric conventions. As the ideal ruler, #heseus teaches the tEo #he!an princes, competin" for ?milHLs love, to restrain their li!idinal, unrulH and violent impulses. Iis rule Hields an overlaH of civilisation over rude nature4 !uildin" an amphitheatre in the Eoods, ela!oratin" codes for militarH confrontation (tournaments and trial !H divine &ustice, instead of !eastlH Erestlin") and for love (social !ond in marria"e, tamin" the Amazons, marria"e decided !H the proof of valour, and cast into a spiritual pattern4 folloEin" the e'ample of the 6irst %over, Ehich !onded the elements of the universe into a coherent Ehole). ,. #he %illerLs PchurlishP variant of love as unlaEful competition, adulterH, set in the loE life of a fa%liau. Iis tale echoes a folM son" (reverdie) of the earlH 3-th centurH. EssaFs to ic4 >atural desire overrulin" social ta!oos in *he 2iller3s *ale and Alison4 )et#een 2arch and April4 #hen t#igs begin to lea% out4 *he little bird has its #ill4 5n its birdsong to sing4 I live in love-longing4 6or the seemliest o% all things4 "he ma$ m$ bliss bring74 I am in her po#er 8'''& I am entirel$ #orn out %or #ooing,4 #ear$ as #ater in a troubled pool'4 ,est an$one deprive me o% m$ mate4 !hom I have desired a long time4 It is better to su%%er sorel$ %or a #hile . - A !lazon or coat of arms Eas painted on the shield and seEn on his coat of arms, !anner or on the trappin"s of his horse as si"ns of reco"nition, as !oth Eere covered in armour. #he !lazon Eas the medieval manLs PidentitH cardP. #he literarH Mind !earin" its name is the rhetorical device of PdescriptioP4 descri!in" a ladHLs phHsical features Ehich sHm!olise her moral virtues. #he name of the inn, P#a!ard InnP, defines it as a meetin" place of individuals representative for their social classes. IoEever, ChaucerLs set of P!lazonsP in the rolo"ue, shot throu"h Eith ironH and innuendo, is completed, as a means of characterisation, !H the pil"rimsL self-fashionin" (their oEn vieEs of themselves) and Eith their tales Ehich are MeHed to the teller. EssaF to ic4 Characterise one of the pil"rims !H correlatin" the a!ove (ChaucerLs !lazon, the pil"rimLs prolo"ue and tale). oint out conver"in" or diver"in" elements. - P#he complete te't of P#he ardonerLs #aleP in fact presents us Eith three plots. As a frameEorM, there is the situation in the tavern, Eith the Iost and the pil"rims, as part of the seRuence of the #ales. AecondlH, there is the plot or storH of the ardoner himself - the situation in Ehich Ee find him, his revelations a!out himself. his tale-tellin" and the amusin" close Ehen he meets his match in the Iost. 6inallH, there is the storH Ehich he tells itself, Eith its tau"ht plot structure - succinct, suspenseful, and movin" su!tlH to its conclusion. P (CarrH Apurr, "tud$ing 0oetr$, al"rave %acmillan, +<<J4 KK). art of the *aleLs comple'itH lies in its dou!le meanin" structure, conflictin" Eith each other. #he old man Eho taMes the three revellers to the tree hidin" the treasure and MnocMin" on the earth to !e interred, Eishin" to die, em!odies the ethos of the medieval moralitH plaHs, Eith morose $eath as constant reminder of the uselessness of riches and of a "ood life and as drive to self-annihilation of the !odH. #he three revellers, unitin" in a chivalric !ond in order to fi"ht $eath em!odH the rival ethos of the laH !rotherhood of the aristocracH. Coth are revealed as outdated fictions, !earin" no relationship to the realities of fourteenth-centurH ?n"land4 $eath Eas not an a!straction !ut the la"ue, human desires to en&oH life and competitive instincts could not !e suppressed !H the idealisin" fictions of the superhuman chivalrous Mni"ht. EssaF to ic4 analHse the plot of some other tale usin" CarrH Apurr as a model.

$iterature and Culture ?5-6A+ T@e Renaissance and t@e Reformation of t@e C@urc@ I. #he ?arlH #udor and the ?liza!ethan A"e 3-G;-3;<F. IenrH BII 3;<F-3;-K. IenrH BIII 3;-K-3;,,. ?dEard BI 3;;,-3;;G %arH I 3;;G-3J<, ?liza!eth I - #he 9eformation of the Church and Iumanism EorMed at cross purposes, radical forms of rotestantism, such as Calvinism, renderin" man completelH dependent on divine 2race and draEin" a "loomH picture of man as stained !H the ori"inal sin, Ehile humanists, such as .uan Luis Bives (*he 6able o% 2an) disseminated an ima"e of man as the para"on of the chain of !ein", endoEed Eith reason and memorH, capa!le to !uild a civilization, and assertin" neE values, such as love of life, thrst of MnoEled"e and of fame, free Eill, personal merit. Coth, hoEever, caused a crisis of authoritH4 the autonomous individual relied onlH on reason and e'perience or on his oEn secular means of salvation throu"h steadH EorM and a moral life. - %an displaced 2od at the centre of the universe, the theocentric a"e Hielded to the lo"ocentric (the centralitH of reason and discourse). Leonardo da Binci=s Bitruvian fi"ure esta!lished hu"e analo"ies !etEeen various parts of the human !odH and !etEeen the !odH of man and the universe4 the len"th of a manLs outspread arms is eRual to his hei"ht, the ma'imum Eidth of the shoulders is a Ruarter of a manLs hei"ht, etc. %athematical proportions informed the construction of literarH EorMs, such as etrarch=s sonnet seRuence or %ilton=s 0aradise ,ost, art seeMin" an alliance Eith science instead of reli"ion. - #he do"matic spirit of the %iddle A"es Eas countered !H a relativistic, sceptic and ironic spirit. #he Copernican revolution and the clashin" Ci!lical commentaries issued from various sides of the historical scene em!ittered !H reli"ious Ears had !red a distrust !oth of the senses that could "et false impressions and of the mind=s capacitH to reach truths of universal and eternal validitH. ?verHthin" Eas su!mitted to rational e'amination and put up for de!ate. #he mi'ture of "eneric conventions (tra"ical, comical, pastoral, political, mHthical) and the dou!le plottin" helped multiplH the perspectives on the dramatic situation. - olHdore Ber"il (Anglica 9istoria) and ?dEard Iall (*he Union o% the *#o <oble 6amilies o% ,ancaster and =or-) removed historH from the theocratic, Ci!lical frame, usin" rei"ns as the !asic units of narrative. Le"endarH fi"ures, such as Crut, Eere discarded, and issues of political philosophH * le"itimacH, the ri"ht to rule * Eere taMen up. - #he secularization of the concept of MnoEled"e implied4 the critical e'amination of !eliefs (Cacon=s theorH of idols), the reliance on e'perience and e'perimentation and the neE finalitH of the acRuisition of MnoEled"e4 to !enefit manMind, to increase the comforts of everHdaH life, to ensure domnation over nature throu"h hard EorM rather than the medieval search for eli'irs or the practice of necromancH (6rancis Cacon=s 3;F, 7 raise of NnoEled"e0 and Chirtsopher %arloEe=s (octor 6austus at a!out the same time)

- De%ate on t@e nature of no%ilitF after t@e Ear of t@e Roses 4 IenrH %edEallLs plaH 6ulgens and ,ucrec TLucresU, performed at Cardinal %ortonLs Lam!eth alace at Christmas, 3-FK. #he linear and episodic plot of medieval drama is redeploHed on tEo levels, the su!plot functionin" as a metadramatic comment (the laHin" in the a!Hss of the main plot)4 u!lius Cornelius, no!le !H !irth, and 2aius 6laminius, enno!led throu"h his oEn achievements, compete for the love of Aenator 6ul"ensLs dau"hter, Lucrece. #he conflict taMes the form of a de!ate !H the Aenate. In

loE life4 the rivalrH of Aervant A and servant C over .oan, Pthe floEer of the frHin" penP. #he matter is to !e settled !H a tournament in the manner of ... hi"h chivalrH. - ?rasmus and #homas %orus attempt a reformation of societH throu"h the Pmirror of princesP (?ramsus Erote a ane"Hricus to ArchduMe hilip the 6air, Eith the hidden a"enda of settin" !efore him the e'ample of the ideal sovere"in, Ehile %ore Erote a utopian romance, in the Pconte philosophiRueP "enre, founded !H lato Eith his +epublic). ?rasmus and %orus modulate the $ialo"ue into intellectual drama. Utopia consists of #he $ialo"ue of Counsel, pleadin" for the philosopher enterin" the princesL council, and CooM II, the $iscourse of 9aphel IHthlodaH on the Pideal state of a CommnEealthP on the ima"inarH island of rince 1topus. - P@ases in t@e @istorF of t@e En'lis@ sonnet ?/6t@ centurFA+ 9enaissance poetics developed an alle"orical theorH of poetrH draEin" on 6lorentine neolatonism and other esotericisms. .ohn Iarin"ton, Apologie %or 0oetrie (3;F3)4 TAllegorising> is necessar$ in order to conceal the deep m$steries o% learning, as, in pro%ane #its, science is corrupted li-e good #ine in a bad vase. 2eor"e uttenham, Arte o% 1nglish 0oesie (3;GF). It #as poets #ho %irst brought culture to the primitive #orld, as priests and ministers o% the hol$ m$steries ''' historiographers, astronomers, philosophists and metaph$sicians' hilip AidneH, *he (e%ence o% 0oetr$4 (#he poet) cites not authorities o% other histories, but even %or his entr$ calls the s#eet muses to inspire unto him a good invention ''''the poet3s persons and doings are but pictures #hat should be, and not stories #hat have been ''' allegoricall$ and %igurativel$ #ritten . #he etrarchan sonnet4 Dctave (ei"ht lines rhHmin" a!a!) and a Aestet (si' lines rhHmin" cdecde). #he Pdivine proportionP of the sonnet form is frau"ht Eith reli"ious sHm!olism4 the Cross and the #rinitH. I+ T@omas EFatt Imitation and transformation of the etrarchan form4 three Ruatrains rhHmin" a!!a V a couplet Ehich sums up the main idea or reaches a conclusion, liMe that of a sHllo"istic ar"ument. In the folloEin" sonnet, in neo- latonic manner, sensuous love (Aphrodita andemos), consummated in the sphere of muta!ilitH and corruption, Hields to intellectual love ( lotinusLs Aphrodita 1rania, of intellectual archetHpes)4 6areEell Love, and all thH laEs for ever. #hH !aited hooMs shall tan"le me no more. Aenec, and lato call me from thH lore. #o perfect Eealth mH Eith for to endeavour. In !lind error Ehen I did persevere. #hH sharp repulse, that pricMeth aHe so sore4 #au"ht me in trifles that I set no store, Cut scape forth thence4 since li!ertH is lever. #herefore, fareEell4 "o trou!le Houn"er hearts, And in me claim no more authoritH. Oith idle Houth "o use thH propertH4 And thereon spend thH manH !rittle darts. 6or, hitherto thou"h I have lost mH time4 %e lust no lon"er rotten !oEs to clime. II+ P@ili SidneF4 Aonnet K- of his sonnet seRuence, Astrophil and "tella +ecusatio4 re&ection of a tradition ( etrarchan ornamental poetrH (the conventional !lazon of streotHpical comparisons) and proposal of a neE form. I never dranM of A"anippe Eell, >or ever did in shade of #empe sit5 And %uses scorn Eith vul"ar !rains to dEell5

oor laHman I, for sacred rites unfit. Aome do I hear of oetsL furH tell, Cut 2od Eot, Eot not Ehat theH mean !H it5 And this I sEear !H !lacMest !rooM of hell, I am no picM-purse of anotherLs Eit. IoE falls it then that Eith no smooth an ease %H thou"hts I speaM, and Ehat I speaM doth floE In verse, and that mH verse !est Eits doth please Q 2uess Ee the cause4 LOhat, is it thus Q 6ie no. LDr so QL %uch less. LIoE then QL Aure thus it is4 %H lips are sEeet, inspired Eith AtellaLs Miss. #he rhHme scheme is a!a! V the final epi"rammatic couplet. #he speaMer sEerves aEaH from the common sacred places of ancient 2reeM poetrH (A"anippe and #empe), and the latonic vieE of poets seized Eith irrational poetic furH and divine inspiration. Imitators de"rade lo"os as speech and thou"ht (P2od EotP4 2od MnoEs) to dead matter, clichWs, conventions (the PEhatP 4 puns, liMe Eot@Ehat, Eere a favourite 9enaissance trope, defined !H uttenham as speech Ehose meanin" courses in !oth directions). #he sonnet is an e'ample of anti-lan'ua'e4 the reversal of a pre-e'istin" tHpe of discourse or mode of encodin". #he speaMer replaces the A"anippe Eell Eith the !lacM !rooM of hell (as a re!el a"ainst tradition, he is a Aatan fi"ure - the Arch-9e!el a"ainst divine authoritH, and the natural floE of Eater Eith the floE of his verse (>atureLs Eorld is !razen, artLs is "olden, he saHs in Arcadia), the !ooMish sources Eith his oEn e'perience, latonic love Eith reRuited, !odilH love. #he use of epanodos (repetition of Eords in reverse order) is an appropriate trope to conveH all these transformations of the model. III+ Eilliam S@aCes eare. Aonnet CXBI. #he sonnet as archite't (literarH EorM draEin" on other, non-literarH discourses). Let me not to the marria"e of true minds Admit impediments5 love is not love Ohich alters Ehen it alteration finds, Dr !ends Eith the remover to remove4 D, no, it is an ever-fi'ed marM, #hat looMs on tempests and is never shaMen5 It is the star to everH EandLrin" !arM, Ohose EorthLs unMnoEn, althou"h his hei"ht !e taMen. LoveLs not #imeLs fool, thou"h rosH lips and cheeMs Oithin his !endin" sicMleLs compass come5 Love alters not Eith his !rief hours and EeeMs, Cut !ears it out even to the ed"e of doom. If this !e error and upon me proved, I never Erit, nor no man ever loved. PAdmit impedimentsP echoes the marria"e service in the An"lican raHer CooM. #he speaMer ascri!es his intellectual love for the fair Houth a reli"ious meanin" and status !ut, at the same time, he redirects the discourse of the Church. 6or, unliMe the Church, Ehich ali"ns the love of the !odH and spiritual love, AhaMespeareLs sonnet seRuence constructs the tEo in perfect anta"onism4 intellectual love for the fair Houth versus se'ual love for the $arM LadH. #he tEo are fi"ures for the li!idinal and noetic drives Eithin the poetLs self, pulled into different directions, also alle"orised as a Ear !etEeen the !aser elements, earth and Eater, and the upEard drive of air and fire. #he ne"ative and concessive forms su""est the denial of some previous statement to the contrarH5 here, the refutation of conventional !lasons (ProsH lips and cheeMsP) and set motifs, such as unreRuited love (PalterationP, PremoverP). 1nliMe AidneH, Ehose recusatio is e'plicit, AhaMespeare e'pects his reader to !e conversant Eith literarH themes and conventions

and to reco"nise his implicit critiRue thereof. Ie draEs on the neE astronomH of the Copernican universe Ehich had displaced tolemHLs Cosmographia. #he >orthern Atar Eas noE the relia!le astronomical referent4 #he central vieEin" position of the eHe lined up Eith the first meridian is lost to the correct use of instruments (measurements Eith Ruadrant and se'tant. AhaMespeareLs carto"raphic ima"ination assimilates love to the sphere of mathematics, "eometrH, astronomH disciplines of the PtrueP minds, !oth stron" and faithful, constant. A dou!le meanin"-structure is active in the poem4 Ehat is said and Ehat is implied. Dn the literal level, love is said to endure as an archetHpe, Ehile the "enerations of lovers "o in time to their doom. It is onlH throu"h (marMs of ) art that love is rendered immortal. EssaF to ic4 9ead the folloEin" tEo sonnets and decide Ehether ApenserLs sonnet is an e'ample of etrarchan discourse or of anti-discourse (anti-lan"ua"e). aH attention to4 form (Pdivina proportioP), rhHmin" scheme, thou"ht content, ima"erH. 6rancesco etrarca Aonnet CCCXIX A-au mistuit ca um!ra destrmat zilele mele4 n-am "ustat din !ine dect o clip i-i pstrez n mine "ustul amar i dulce de-altdat. D, lume efemer i-n"mfat Y ? or! acela ce se-ncrede-n tine5 8n time m-am pierdut i-acum m ine fptura ei su! lespezi n"ropat. $ar sufletul TLauraLsU, ce nc mai triete i va tri mereu, dei e moart, m lea" tot mai strns de el. ovar mi-e doar un "nd i el m-ncrunete4 s tiu a vrea ce col de rai o poart i cum arat vlul ce-o-nfoar. (9omanian version !H ?ta Coeriu). ?dmund Apenser (from Amoretti, a sonnet seRuence) After lon" storms and tempests sad assaH, Ohich hardlH I endured heretofore4 in dread of death and dan"erous dismaH, Eith Ehich mH sillH !arM Eas tossed sore4 I do at len"th descrH the happH shore, in Ehich I hope ere lon" for to arive5 fair soil it seems from far and frau"ht Eith store of all that dear and daintH is alive. %ost happH he that can at last achieve the &oHous safetH of so sEeet a rest4 Ehose least deli"ht suffices to deprive remem!rance of all pains Ehich him oppressed. All pains are nothin" short that "ain eternal !liss. - S@aCes eare and t@e comic tradition+ $i'@t! romantic! darC comedies and romances+ AupplementarH !i!lio"raphH4 #he Cam!rid"e Companion to AhaMepearean ComedH. ?dited !H Ale'andere Le"att (Cam!rdi"e 1niversitH ress4 +<<+). - Characteristics4 . revival of classical rhetorical and dramatic models. -th c. $onatus transfers elements of tra"ic plots to comedH4 comedH as pro"ress from PMnot of errorP to happH resolution throu"h

ana"norisis (reco"nition of true nature of events and human character). 1nliMe the coarse humour and characters of fa!liau', AhaMespeareLs comedies shoE a Ehole human communitH ethicallH reconstructed in the end. olitical strife (echoin" the recent confrontation Eith Apain) and the inhuman treatment of servants (alludin" to the !randin" of slaves) are indirectlH critiRued in *he Comed$ o% 1rrors, Ehose happH end !rin"s reconcilitation and reco"nition of a universal human nature (PliMe !rother and !rotherP). lautus intersperses the plot Eith recitative and music. *he *aming ... is a plaH Eithin a plaH, *he *empest includes, !esides ArielLs son"s, a dum! shoE and a masRue, 2easure %or 2easure, a son", A 2idsummer''' a lot of son"s and ends Eith a &i". Iorace recommends a !lend of entertainment and didacticism, a reformin" a"enda underpinnin" all these plaHs. *he *aming o% the "hre#4 Natharina reco"nizes her position as one of the disposessed Eomen of her societH, economicallH dependent on her hus!and, Eith no means of her oEn in a Eorld committed to commercial values, in Ehich courtship and proposal assume the form of !iddin" at an auction. Ier Eill !roMen, she is reduced to a selfless o!&ect in a series, liMe the manufactured "oods of earlH capitalist Italian cities4 Pcomforta!le as other household NatesP. A 2idsummer <ight3s (ream4 #itania reco"nises her fall from di"nitH, lHin" amon" mortals, Ehile Cottom reco"nises his ina!ilitH to apprehend anHthin" that transcends the senses (Ehat he sees, tastes, touches ...) It is not the Phard-handedP Eeaver !ut the poet Eho can latonicallH shuttle !etEeen heaven and earth, Eeave a!stractions and the empirical Eorld into ima"es (fear ima"es as a !ear in a !ush, as #eseus saHs, "ive a ha!itation and a name to airH nothin"s, "ive a shape to impalpa!ale forms !odied forth !H the ima"ination). 2easure %or 2easure4 An"elo reco"nises his failure in the test4 as the $uMe had anticipated, his moral upri"htness had !een that of a PseemerP and poEer had corrupted his PpurposeP. *he *empest7 Cali!an reco"nises his mistaMen choice (of PmastersP) and values ("oods droppin" from heaven instead of EorM on nature), Ehile rospero reco"nises his darMer side, his irrational furH, the passions Ehich rince 9eason, in Aenecan fashion, must repress in man. - miscellaneitH as a principle of construction. 9enaissance aspiration toEards universalism4 compendium of forms or "enus universum, dealin" Eith life in a holistic EaH. #he mi'ture of "enres alloEs of multiple perspectives on the plot. Com!ination of comic, tra"ic, moral, mHtholo"ical, political, topical and romantic elements. *he *aming o% the "hre# pits the LordLs amour courtois a"ainst etrucchioLs tamin" "ame and fortune hunt. A 2idsummer <ight3s (ream alludes to the SueenLs addiction to entertainments includin" shoEs of the Eild man civilized !H the Imperial Bestal, the mHth of her ChastitH, the decaH of art from learnin" to !e""in" and cheap entertainments performed !H nonprofessionals, the appallin" conditions of performin" (improper scenerH, female parts and even thin"lH roles plaHed !H !oHs and men, political terror inhi!itin" the actors), #heseus Eei"hin" art in the scales of political poEer (appreciatin" the homa"e paid to him !H commoners paralHsed Eith fear !efore his ma&estH more than the self-possessed e'ercises in rhetorical encomium amon" his courtiers). 2easure %or 2easure opposes Nin" .amesLs political philosophH to %achiavelliLs unscrupled machinations. *he *empest undertaMes an A"rippian critiRue of %achiavelliLs and %ontai"neLs vieEs of natives in the >eE Oorld. - the framin" device Ehich imposes order on different strands of the plot or some privile"ed perspective. 6or instance, the superioritH of ?n"lish values (courtliness, appreciation of art in the form of art collection and patrona"e of dramatic representation, moral reconstruction throu"h nurture, culture, instead of tamin", etc.) over Italian commercialism in *he *aming o% the "hre#. $iterature and Culture+ 9-: S@aCes eareHs PlaFs+ I+ Comedies+ AupplementarH Ci!lio"raphH4 *he Cambridge Companion to "ha-espeare3s Comedies' ?dited !H Ale'ander Le"att (Cam!rid"e4 +<<+). - $i'@t Comedies 8*he *aming o% the "hre#& - Romantic Comedies 8A 2idsummer <ight3s (ream&

- DarC Comedies 82easure %or 2easure& - Romances 8*he *empest&' 6eatures4 . %i'ture of literarH Minds, tendin" toEards the 9enaissance all-inclusiveness of the genus universum, dealin" Eith life completelH. %iscellaneitH as a principle of construction, !rin"in" to"ether comic, tra"ic, moral, !i!lical, political, topical or romantic elements. 6or instance4 topical allusions to the tEo cHcles of court festivities4 the sacred season clima'in" in the #Eelve >i"hts around Christmas, and the summer cHcle, of ve"etation, Ehen the Sueen Eould tour the countrH and !e cele!rated at ma&or aristocratic courts as the vir"in PBestal throned !H the OestP (D!eron in A 2idsummer ...)5 #he Pchan"elin"P Indian !oH (i.e. an u"lH !oH su!stituted for a fair one !H the fairies) in A 2idsummer... maH !e an allusion to the African princes !rou"ht to London to !e educated so as to serve as interpreters and instead sold !H Lord .. IaEMins in the Indies for "in"er, su"ar and pearls (Aee AnthonH %iller, P%atters of AtateP). #he mechanics maMin" a verH poor shoE of DvidLs P Hramus and #his!eP reflect on the sta"in" conditions imposed !H the uritanical opposition to all entertainments and festivities4 female parts plaHed !H !oHs, durin" daH time, Eith almost no scenerH at all, destroHin" the dramatic illusion throu"h the laHin" !are of devices. - a framin" device imposes a unifHin" perspective on multiple plots. It maH also serve as a metadramatic element4 the scene in ?n"land, Eith the LordLs courtlH manners and moral reformation of a drunMard throu"h the Putile dulciP of art serves as an implied critiRue of the commercial values and sava"e Eife-tamin" plot in ItalH, Ehich is a PplaH Eithin a plaHP. - 9hetorical model4 Aelius $onatus, a -th c. "rammarian, Eho descri!es the comic plot (PDn ComedHP) in terms similar to AristotleLs definition of tra"edH in his 0oetics4 from the PMnot of errorP to happH resolution throu"h reco"nition of past events. Natarina reco"nizes her status that of a Eoman in a manLs Eorld, Eith no means of her oEn, entirelH dependent on him for her e'istence, and hence her su!mission and relinRuishin" of a Eill of her oEn. - 2easure %or 2easure plaHs the political philosophH of Nin" .ames, recentlH croEned, Eho, in his )asilicon (oron (*he 0rincel$ Gi%t) stresses the Min"Ls personal responsi!ilitH toEards his su!&ects and the necessitH for the Min" himself to provide an e'ample and to prove his ri"ht to rule others !H suppressin" his oEn Paffections and unreasona!le appetitesP, harmonisin" the inner and the pu!lic self, a"ainst %achiavelliLs model set up in his rince, of the $uMe of 9oma"na enforcin" the laE Eith a help of a ruthless minister and afterEards sacrificin" him. AhaMespeareLs $uMe of Bienna sees to it that the tra"ical tEist the plot mi"ht have taMen !ecause of his su!stitute, immoral An"elo, Ehom he is puttin" to the test and proves to !e a PseemerP, finds a happH resolution. - #he romances evolved out of the medieval saintsL lives, Eith the 9enaissance %a"nificent %an replacin" the patron saint. AhaMespeare created an aestheticised version, in Ehich an artist fi"ure performs an ?ucharist of sorts, a moral transformation of the flaEed selves, a reco"nition of true values. *he *empest uses various sources (reports of voHa"es to the >eE Oorld, Cali!an !ein" the ana"ram of PCari!P, the first tri!e discovered !H the ?uropeans), %ontai"neLs essaH PDf Canni!alsP, A"rippaLs occult philosophH of the hierarchH in the universe, ran"in" from nature, the elements, throu"h the celestial to the noetic, popular sources, such as commedia dellLarte in order to e'plore the plot of the imposition of the superior order of culture over that of nature, unfoldin" from Casti"lioneLs 3J c. Courtier to ?dEard hillipsL 0re%ace to *heatrum 0oetarum (3JK;). rospero releases the spirit imprisoned in nature (Ariel, Ppinin"P in a pine) and reforms the Pmonster Eith four le"s and tEo mouthsP, made of Cali!an and a drunMard ?uropean and restores (edifies spirituallH) all the Pmen of sinP, reachin" to the top of societH, in the plaH. #he distinctions are moral, overridin" the race, class and "ender divisions. ArielLs dum! shoE functions as an anti-masRue, Ehile rospero sta"es a Eeddin" masRue for %iranda and his spiritual son, 6erdinand. 1+ Bistorical PlaFs+ - $eveloped from the medieval political moralities, Ehose su!&ect Eas tHrannH and insurrection.

9enaissance political concepts (the Min"Ls responsi!ilities to his su!&ects, the necessitH to solve conflicts throu"h de!ates in arliament instead of overt militarH conflict) clash Eith the medieval EorldvieE ( rovidential, theocratic Min"). AhaMespeare contri!uted to the shapin" of the #udor mHth, created !H olHdore Bir"il, an Italian humanist, and ?dEard Iall (a historian of the Oar of the 9oses). - #he episodic plot of the reli"ious plaH splits into parallel units. #he e'istence of a foil (6alstaff for rince IenrH, for instance) creates depth of effect. - Characters are comple', evolvin", sometimes fusin" several role models (6alstaff as #emptin" $evil, Lord %isrule of medieval carnival, Bice in moralities, the !ra""art soldier, the malcontent) 3+ Tra'edies+ - hilip AidneH imposes a political desi"n on tra"edies4 to maMe Min"s fear to !e tHrants and tHrants to manifest their tHrannical humours. AhaMespeareLs tra"edies are often a cross of histories and tra"edies proper (tra"edies inspired from old chronicles, 9oman historH, the near historH of the Ears Eith the #urMs). - As %anutius Aldus had printed AristotleLs 0oetics in 3;<G, Ehich 9o!ortello and Castelvetro had commented in mid-centurH, an aEareness of formal alon"side rhetorical models reaches ?n"lish poeticians. AidneH stresses the importance of discoverH (ana"norisis) in a tra"edH, the chan"e from i"norance to MnoEled"e. ?dmund comes to reco"nize the superioritH of no!ilitH over ruthless nature, the Min" finallH acRuires true MnoEled"e of his su!&ects and the countrH he had ruled, Ehich had onlH !een a map for him till then (Nin" Lear), AntonH and Cleopatra reco"nize there are values hi"her than the individual and their mutual infatuation, Dthello re"ains his faith in the Eorth of 9oman virtus and cultural P?iMonesP, etc. - #he character construction is a matter of ne"otiation !etEeen self-re"ard and pu!lic ratification. #heH appear to !e different persons to different people and often under"o a crisis of identitH (PCan anH!odH tell me Eho I amP, Lear asMs at the climactic point of his tra"ic destinH). - #he character is stretched to include opposite features (the sceptical and the pious Iamlet), the main conflict !ein" usuallH an inner one, !etEeen selves pulled in different directions. - AhaMespeare=s tra"edies put cultural narratives to the test4 Dld IamletLs invocation of the Catholic sacraments and Oitten!er"-educated IamletLs mention of his Caconian PHouthfulP, empirical e'perience, Dld IamletLs sin"le com!at !etEeen the leaders of the armH and the manipulations of %achiavellian diplomacH at the court under his usurper and murderer, Atoic retreat from the Eorld and dedication to learnin", as in Iamlet, instilled !H the Eritin"s of ?rasmus, Ehich Eere tau"ht in "rammar schools , %ontai"neLs fideism (the unrelia!ilitH of perception, the a!sence of universal criteria of &ud"ement, suspended &ud"ement on Ruestions of truth and MnoEled"e) and IamletLs spiritual malaise (nothin" is !ut merelH seems) rotestant theses on the in!orn sinfulness of man as a result of the 6all and Calvinist !elief in rovidence and election (Iamlet and 6ortin!ras !ein" each otherLs elected hero), contemporarH sermons on manLs dou!le nature (an"el and !east, the !odH and the soul !ein" divided !H the 6all), echoed !H IamletLs soliloRuH on man as para"on of creation and PRuintessence of dustP, farmersL almanacs, !allads and other popular prints. Iis plaHs are a compellin" picture of the 9enaissance man, Eho had emer"ed from medieval do"matism and Eas puttin" everHthin" to the test of rational e'amination, Eith his oEn self in trial. - "eneric hH!riditH. 9amlet includes a dum! shoE, an au!ade, an ele"H, an epitaph, a sHllo"istic ar"ument (IamletLs #o !e or not to !e ...), a !allad, son"s ... EssaF to ic. 3. ?liza!ethan miscellaneitH4 A AtudH in $ramatic Atructure. +. AhaMespeareLs characters at the intersection of pu!lic and private. $iterature and Culture+ Course ; and /7+ T@e Restoration and <eoclassicism in En'land

3JJ<4 9eturn of Charles II to ?n"land after CromEellLs rotectorate and his sonLs inconclusive one-Hear rule. 9e-etsa!lishment of An"licanism in the place of the uritansL res!Hterianism. 3JJ<-3JG;4 Charles Atuart II 3JG;-3JGG4 .ames Atuart II 3JGG4 #he 2lorious 9evolution4 the onset of the constitutional or parliamentarian monarchH (Min"-in- arliament). 3JGF-3K<+ Oilliam III of Dran"e and %arH II (died 3JF-), the dau"hter of .ames II 3K<+-3K3- Anne (her sister). 3K3--3K+K4 2eor"e I of Ianover 3K+K-3KJ< 2eor"e II Attitudes #here Eas a feelin" that the Civil Oar had !een caused !H the error of educatin" too manH people a!ove their proper status. #he Corporation Act of 3JJ+ for!ade dissentin" ministers to Meep schools or teach in them. #he a"e Eas MnoEn as the Pa"e of reasonP, Het the concept of PreasonP Eas not $escartesLs autonomous facultH of the mind emancipated from the !odH of sense (or even the neoplatonic, 9enaissance rince 9eason pullin" man into a direction different from that of his senses), !ut a philosophH of the contents of the mind as derived from sense impressions (#homas Io!!es) and from their processin" (.ohn LocMe). As if coloured !H the recent !loodH events, the ima"e of man in Io!!esLs ,eviathan is that of a creature "overned !H primal desires and fear, inclined toEards Earfare and folloEin" oneLs appetite. #he e'ercise of political poEer is necessarH to suppress these a""ressive impulses, and the ori"in of poEer is the social contract (a"reement !etEeen the ruler, to ensure his su!&ectsL safetH, and the ruled, to cede a part of their freedom to him). . #he o!session Eith the !eastlH in man favours the revival of the classical satirical modes (PsatireP comes from PsatHrP, a hH!rid creature, half "oat half man, and Eas ori"inallH a form of a!use addressed !H people from the peripherH to prominent citizens). Auch Eas the c@aracter ro'ress. a sMetchH portrait of a lifeLs spirallin" doEn into error and failure. .ohn Oilmot, ?arl of 9ochester4 A "at$r against 2an-ind. Iis tar"et is the man Ehose reason leaves !ehind the li"ht of >ature, of Ehat he can perceive throu"h his oEn senses. %etaphHsical philosophHsin" carries him aEaH to eternal >i"ht and maMes him re"ret, in old a"e, the fact that he had Easted his life aEaH in pain and dou!ts (allusion to the soul-searchin" introspection of the "uilt-ridden uritanic conscience). . #he present is criticized from the perspective of a precursor, some past, indisputa!le authoritH. %odern tHpes are correlated Eith ancient. .ohn $rHden maps the contemporarH ?'clusion Crisis (the attempt to e'clude .ames II from succession, for havin" converted to Catholicism, in favour of the $uMe of %onmouth, the ille"itimate son of Charles II) onto a Ci!lical precedent ( ? "amuel 4 In Absalom and Achitophel, a satirical poem and a political alle"orH - Charles II appears as Nin" $avid, %onmouth as A!salom, and Ahaftes!urH, his ill-adviser, as Achitophel - modulated into a verse satire of le'itimatism supportin" a sta!le "overnment. . #he amoralitH of the 9estoration comedH in the neElH reopened theatres, constructin" man as a lustful animal and opposin" aristocratic "lamour and Eit to the narroE-mindedness and reli"ious an'ietH of the 9epu!licans (the supporters of CromEellLs CommonEealth) EorMed liMe a si"n of reco"nition amon" the courtier-plaHEri"hts of the si'ties and seventies. #he political plot (usuallH alludin" to usurpation, restoration and the anta"onisms !etEeen Court and CitH, 9oHalists and 9epu!licans, CitH and CountrH) and the love plot (shoEin" adulterH as a necessarH spur to reneEed passion, ed"ed off !H marria"e and ha!it) are intertEined, as in $rHdenLs 2arriage-a-la 2ode and Aphra CehnLs "ir 0atient 6anc$.

$ooCin' %acC to t@e scene of Iar+

Jo@n 0ilton4 0aradise ,ost, 3JJK. An epic on theodi-e (the &ustice of 2od, !ut actuallH a political alle"orH of recent events. As a former supporter of re"icide and as CromEellLs Latin AecretarH for 6orei"n #on"ues, %ilton attacMs a!solutism in the e'ercise of poEer and supports the idea of free Eill. AatanLs creE had fallen, not !ecause of some inherent fault or lacM (theH shared in the ?mpHrean su!stance), !ut for not !oEin" and suin" for "race. 2od had overcome them throu"h sheer force (he possessed the thunder) and !H !anishin" them from Ieaven to Iell had !ecome a #Hrant4 Psole re"ainin" holds the #HrannH of IeavenP. #he overt approval of the fallen an"els can !e seen in the description of their democratic de!ate (unliMe the chorus of laudes the an"els sin" to 2od all the time), in the !uildin" of andemonium Ehich displaHs Eealth, science and aesthetic taste. #he re!el-an"el is the artist fi"ure. Ohile Ieaven is the scene of ruler Eorship, ?den is a literarH paradise of arcadian, pastoral topoi4 1niversal an, 2races, the P?ternal Aprin" of #heocritusLs 9ours. In P#he verseP, prefaced to the second edition of aradise Lost, %ilton e'plains that the measure if ?n"lish heroic Berse, Eithout rhHme, as that of Iomer and Bir"il, recoverin" the ancient li!ertH a"ainst the modern !onda"e of rhHme. In point of "enre, the epic is a mi' of several "eneric conventions (epic, tra"edH, comedH, pastoral, oratorH, au!ade, de!ate ...), in the manner of the 9enaissance genum universum. Samuel Gutler, 9udibras, 3JJ,. A mocM-heroic poem in octosHlla!ic couplets, treatin" of morallH disreputa!le characters and events in epic stHle. #he prota"onist is !orroEed from ApencerLs 6airie @ueene, !ein" a parodic instead of a serious version of hHpocrisH. #he fratricide Ear appears, in retrospect, to have !een causeless ( men %ell out, the$ -ne# not #h$), Ea"ed !H fanatics disputin" over Pdame 9eli"ionP, convinced that theH possessed the onlH truth, a host of Perrant saintsP decidin" Pall controversH !H@ infalli!le artillerHP).#he Eriter remarMs in his note-!ooMs that the a!undance of heroic literature Eas not &ustified in an a"e of civil madness, settin" Crother a"ainst Crother, of humans descended to distracted do"s and sicM monMeHs. ApencerLs alle"orH of the cardinal virtues in a monarch-centred le"endarH frame is turned on its head in this mocM-heroic and mocM-chivalric plot. Jo@n DrFden In 0re%ace to "atires, 3JF,4 $isputin" the "eneric unitH of 0aradise ,ost and deplorin" its lacM of ?ase and 2race. Dptin" for modern science and neoclassic respect for formalitH, ur!anitH and ele"ance in An 1ssa$ o% (ramatic 0oes$ (3JJG)and in the prefaces to his plaHs. 2ac 6lec-noe4 a mocM-heroic on the coronation ceremonH of %ac 6lecMnoe (#homas AhadEell), the son of 9ichard 6lecMnoe, a verH !ad poet of the Interre"num (the artistic !reaMdoEn of the historical void of CromEellLs daHs is a collateral tar"et), commissioned to taMe over the throne of the P9ealm of >on-AenseP and to maintain the sacred cult of $ullness. AndreI 0arvell4 fusin" metaphHsical Eit and virtuositH of conceits and the formal ri"our of classical literarH Minds. A !alanced political attitude as Eell (he had !een CromEellLs minister !ut did not EithdraE from politics after the 9estoration, !ein" elected to arliament.). A 9oratian 5de on Crom#ell3s +eturn %rom Ireland. Inspired !H IoraceLs ode on DctavianLs victorH at Actium. #rHin" to detach himself from the PpartH-colourLd %ind of the OarP. #he Min" had !ehaved Eith unfailin" di"nitH (Ie nothin" common did or mean@ 1pon that memora!le scene), let not that sacrifice !e lost in further anarchH. CromEell is slotted Eithin unfavoura!le frames4 Pthe Oars and 6ortunes AonP, DdHsseus or Aeneas in the underEorld, a Caesar to 2aul, an Ianni!al to ItalH. T@e risin' mFt@ of Im erial Gritain Jo@n Drained4 "reetin" the return of Charles II as the !e"innin" of an a"e of &ustice, peace and imperial and cultural "randeur, liMe that of 9oman Au"ustus (first centurH of the Christian era) in Astraea +edu/4 !hen the .oint gro#th o% arms and arts %oreshe#4 *he #orld a monarch, and that monarch =ou' Ale'anderLs 6east4 a !aroRue ode, Eith refrains and mHtholo"ical references, !rin"in" to"ether the conRuerin" fi"ure, of semi-divine !irth (Ale'ander) and that of the artist (his musician, #imotheus), Eho can EorM up the Min" into Passumin" the 2odP, a "od-liMe posture. Ale-ander Po e, !indsor 6orest, Eritten after the eace of 1trecht and foretellin" an a"e of Eorld dominance for the Min"dom, !ut also of peace, Ehen death scenes Eill onlH !e reserved

for huntin"4 *he shad$ 1mpire shall retain no *race4 5r !ar or )lood, but in the "$lvan ChaceA' 6ather *hames #ould be Athe !orld3s great 5racle in *imes to Come . $adF 0arF EortleF 0onta'u, ,etters. Construction of the Drient (Constantinople) as a site of profusion and confusion (#he risin" citH in Confusion fair), Pma"nificentlH formed irre"ularP, of sensuous indul"ement of life (music, gardens, #ine and delicate eating& in contrast Eith Eestern rationalitH (tormenting our brains), studH of sciences and political schemin". T@e critiKue of social life+ Ale-ander Po e4 *he +ape o% the ,oc-. A mocM-epic in heroic couplets (iam!ic pentametres rhHmin" in pairs). A trivial incident - the Ruarrel !etEeen tEo Catholic families, the eters and 6ermors, caused !H Lord peterLs removal of a locM of Ara!ella 6ermorLs hair. ope is lau"hin" them !acM into common sense and a realisation of the ridicule of their overeactin" to such minor offence. - 2rand stHle and a supernatural machinerH of sHlphs, nHmphs, "nomes and salamenders are emploHed for the description of the Houn" ladHLs cosmetics, dressin" ta!le and menain"less dailH routine of dressin" upo, !alls, and card-plaHin". Ara!ella vanishes under 9oman poet %artialLs Celinda, praHin" for her ravished locMs. Ahe is a parodic neo-tHpe, on Ehose ta!le the Ci!le is lost amon" puffs, poEders, patches and !illet-dou'. #he CaronLs attempt on her locM assumes the proportion of a heroic !attle Ehich necessitates a sacrifice of former trophies ("loves, !illet-dou'...) on a !urnin" pHre. Life at Sueen AnneLs Iampton Court is an affair of "ossip (PEho "ave the Call, or paid the Bisit lastP), sin"in", lau"hin", dancin", the (eu'ma (&u'taposition on the same level of unliMelH elements) effectin" a rhetorical critiRue of the discrepancH !etEeen shalloE realitH and imperial "randour Ehich, as the ei"hteenth centurH Eore on, Eas increasin" !ecomin" disappointin" pretense4 5ne spea-s the glor$ o% the )ritish @ueen,4 And one describes a charming Indian "creen. #he mocC-@eroic "enre @andles t@emes! scenes! r@etorical sc@emes c@aracteristic of t@e e ic cor us. Iere is opeLs parallel to AarpedonLs speech to 2laucus in IomerLs Iliad (the same tHpe of ar"ument4 since death is ine'ora!le, let 2laucus and Arpedon at least leave a famous name !ehind5 since !eautH must decaH, let Celinda consider the incident in "ood humour, or else, sheLll die a maid.) P@iloso @ical PoetrF Ale-ander Po e4 1ssa$ on 2an. #he four verse epistles !uild on the neE science (>eEton) and philosophH of the universe (natural theolo"H, $eism, the illuminist !elief in the !est of all possi!le Eorlds) as a perfect machine displaHin" the Eisdom of the Creator !ut also left to its oEn devices in Ehich anH minor distur!ance could desta!ilize the Ehole. Io!!es and Cooper, #hird ?arl of Ahaftes!urH are appealed to in order to !alance the tEo opposite tendencies in man4 Aelf-Love and Aocial Love (manLs si'th sense, the virtue to seeM also the othersL happiness not onlH his oEn). $eism serves as a philosophical support of the status Ruo, social sta!ilitH and conservative politics. 2erse Poetics Ale-ander Po e4 1ssa$ on Criticism 9ecommendin" Pcritic learnin"P, a MnoEled"e of ancient (Iorace, Lon"inus) and contemporarH 6rench poetics (Coileau). Oritin" accordin" to method4 accordin" to previous models (the EaH the ancients copied nature) and in order to o!&ectifH Pan ima"e of the mindP. oetrH that is aEare of its position in the historH of culture and its location Eithin a literarH tradition. A humanlH revised portrait of the poet (no lon"er mediatin" !etEeen earth and heaven)4 P!e sure Hour oEn reach to MnoEP. A Ioratian cult of proportion, of the ri"ht relation of each part of a literaH structure to the Ehole4 <o single parts uneBuel$ surprise,4 All comes united to the admiring e$es74 <o monstruous height, or breadth, or length appear;4 *he #hole at once is bold and regular' AHmmetrH or the ri"ht ratio are perceived as natural, Ehile lacM of proportion is unnatural, monstrous.

T@e Rise of t@e <ovel Associated Eith the rise of !our"eois individualism and the neE rhetoric of the ?nli"htenment Ehich Eas li!eratin" individuals from their political chains, promotin" intellectual curiositH, the pro"ress of civilization. #he end of Ci!lical fundamentalism associated Eith uritanism. #he 9oHal AcademH, chartered !H Charles II in 3JJ+, sendin" neE messa"es in their hilosophical #ransactions4 Ee have more need of severe, full and punctual #ruth, than of romances and pane"Hrics. >eEton, 9o!ert CoHle (phHsicists) and LaErence 9ooMe (mathematician) contri!uted to the creation of the scientific discourse and Eere pointed out as models of hoE to Meep a travel &ournal, Ehich had displaced the romance of the errant Mni"ht. 1nliMe romances, the novel displaHs coherent su!&ectivitH (centred on characters), cohesive structure (plot), cohesive ethics (theme). %ichael %cNeon (*he 5rigin o% the 1nglish <ovel' CDEE-CFGE) esta!lishes the folloEin" correspondences !etEeen epistemolo"ical, social and "eneric chan"e4 Luestions of trut@ Luestions of virtue Denre 9omance (idealism) aristocratic ideolo"H 9omance >aive empiricism pro"ressive ideolo"H >ovel ?'treme scepticism conservative ideolo"H Aatire Lennard $avis (6actual 6ictions) defines the novel in opposition to the romance "enre. #he oppositional pairs include4 distant, idealised past or heroic versus recent settin"5 close to the structure and characterisation of epic forms@ modelled on historH and &ournalism5 settin" in remote lands and hi"h life@rootin" in national life, the prota"onist is not a tHpe !ut an individual movin" throu"h a contemporarH social environment su!&ect to the laEs of pro!a!ilitH and cause and effect relations. ?mpiricist philosophH had fuelled a model of individual identitH as cumulation of mental e'periences throu"h time and place. Cervantes, often Ruoted !H ei"hteenth-centurH novelists, had mana"ed to compromise the self-reliant reflector. In a Collection o% Ho$ages pu!lished at the time, the P9omantic elementsP , such as those occurrin" in the !ooMs of chivalrH in Apain, are said to Pplease the unthinMin" part of manMindP, the prota"onists !ein" PCrains infected !H false ima"esP. #he ra'matic spirit of the a"e surfaces in $aniel $efoeLs An 1ssa$ upon 0ro.ects (3JFK) Eho even coins a name for the a"e4 the ro&ectin" A"e. As it Eas also the a"e of intense colonization the art of Ear reaches Pthe hi"hest perfection of human MnoEled"eP #he episode of 2ulliver e'tollin" ?n"landLs martial arts at the "iantsL court is one of AEiftLs freRuent ironic reversal of $efoeLs defence and enforcement of a timelH a"enda of middle class politics4 the true-!red merchant is Pthe most intelli"ent man in the EorldP, as he e'periences at first hand the neE life of trade, travellin" and stocM e'chan"e. #he dates of 9o!inson CrusoeLs arrival on the island and leavin" it are si"nificant4 it is !H livin" alone that he condemns himself to isolation. Iis parrotin" of the a!solute Min" e'ertin" a!solute poEer over his su!&ects Eho happen to !e animals - cats do"s, parrots - is a political allusion to contemporarH events around the ?'clusion Crisis. #he leave of the island is possi!le as soon as 9o!inson reco"nises in 6ridaH a man of capacities similar to his. Oilliam $ampierLs A <e# Ho$age +ound the !orld (3JFK)4 e'otic places Het plainness of stHle to ensure Pthe truth and sinceritH of mH relationP #he report on the voHa"e is dedicated to the 9oHal AocietH and its ma"azine for MnoEled"e of the forei"n parts, the EriterLs desi"n !ein" to Pinform not to amuseP, re"ardless of ornaments and Meepin" characters Eithin the ran"e of pro!a!ilitH. ?verH merchant voHa"e is a Ppro&ectP, not &ust an economic !ut an enli"htenin" e'perience of the Eorld as Eell4 Pconversin" Eith all parts of the MnoEn EorldP. ?ssaH topic4

3. #he mocM tradition of Eit in Au"ustan poetrH +. IdentifH the features that marM off a novel of the earlier ei"hteenth-centurH in li"ht of the a!ove. $iterature and Culture+ //!/1+ #he 9ise of the ?n"lish >ovel (continued) #he school of amatorF and romance fiction, caterin" for the earlH mass marMet, is less concerned Eith top politics - Au"ustan or anti-Au"ustan -, focusin" on the private life of the individual. Its sources Eere !oth the hedonistic erotic tradition of the privile"ed classes, for instance, 6antomima7 5r, ,ove in a 2aze, )eing a "ecret 9istor$ o% an Amour )et#een *#o 0ersons o% Condition (3K+;), !H Eli(a BeFIood, and the anti-he"emonic ethos of the risin" middle class, Ehere the representation of se' life carries distinctions of class and "ender, as in Samuel Ric@ardsonHs epistolarH novels, 0amela (3K-3)and Clarissa (3K-G). As Eell as $efoe, 9ichardson maMes no distinction !etEeen the discursive functions of &ournalism and fiction. Ie sets out from a pra"matic a"enda, that of teachin" Houn" Eomen in service hoE to Erite letters conversation and correspondence !ein" the favourite social "ames at the time - and of furtherin" 9ichard AteeleLs desi"n on an anti-Ahaftes!urH class ethics4 talent and virtue are sooner to !e found amon" the representatives of the middlin" classes, Ehereas the aristocrats are often afflicted Eith de"eneracH and other taints of the !lood. amela, a maid in service, resists her aristocratic masterLs se'ual assault and imprisonment, finallH mana"in" to Ein his admiration to the point that he proposes marria"e to her despite the social "ap !etEeen them. It is !H readin" her letters that he falls in love Eith her4 the desire for her !odH maMes room for an appreciation of her mind and moral puritH. 1nliMe $efoeLs novels, Eith their linear plot line of the prota"onistsL pro"ress in a reco"nisa!lH contemporarH social settin", the epistolarH novel consists of discrete narrative units - letters -, the Ehole plot desi"n !ecomin" apparent onlH at the end, in retrospect. #he focus is on the prota"onistLs inner life4 thou"hts, feelin"s, motives. Letter Eritin" is the medium Ehere!H psHchic interioritH is rendered into a narrative, an o!&ectified form pu!liclH consumed. #his is a female Eish-fulfilment plot, Het interioritH is su!ordinated to the social and political drama. ?ven clothes are e'pressive of character4 amelaLs decision to discard her mistressLs "arments and put on her hum!le, homespun dress is the correlative of her ethical choice4 to stand up for her moral values a"ainst aristocratic a!use (she is imprisoned in her masterLs Lincolnshire house) and de!aucherH. T@e Au'ustan Ideal >nder Stress+ #he civic corruption and cultural decline under the first tEo Ianoverian Min"s, 2eor"e I and 2eor"e II, and especiallH, durin" the P9o!inocracHP (9o!ert OalpoleLs rime %inistrH) caused a !rou"ht a!out a divorce !etEeen poEer and the intellectual elite. A civic, humanist tradition of thou"ht emer"ed, in opposition to the Au"ustan esta!lishment. #he leaders of opinion Eere Biscount IenrH Colin"!roMe and Oilliam ulteneH, Eith support from *he Cra%tsman periodical, founded in 3K+;. Ohereas 9enaissance and !aroRue literature had EorMed Eith hu"e analo"ies and fi"ures of similitude, neoclassic r@etoricians of the Io!!ist school (Io!!esLs ,eviathan) tooM an interest in differences and dissimilitudes, as theH served the analHtic and reasonin" functions of the mind4 $istin"uishin", and $iscernin", and .ud"in" !etEeen thin" and thin". 2ood .ud"ement Eas to !e preferred over 2ood Oit or 2ood 6ancH. Accordin" to 2eor"e CerMeleH or to philosophers of the associanist psHcholo"H school ($avid Iume, $avid IartleH), Rualities onlH !ecome apparent !H comparison. #ravellin" to other parts of the Eorld "uarantees an un!iased, fresh and discriminatin" perception. %ontesRuieu uses the convention of tEo ersiansL ,etters to advance his oEn satirical assault on aris. Boltaire shoEs his appreciation of the ?n"lish EritersL focus on action and ideas in his 1nglish

,etters. 2.C. Lichten!er", a contemporarH 2erman philosopher, shoEs a similar appreciation of the ?n"lish scene in his >ote!ooMs, Ehere everH!odH has a ri"ht to e'ercisin" and e'pressin" their individual poEer of &ud"ement. erception and &ud"ement, measurin" and comparin" maMe the true philosopher. Gulliver3s *ravels, !H Jonat@an SIift, is a "eneric mi'4 philosophical fa!le and political alle"orH, travelo"ue, personal memoir, the true historH, the life and adventure, the pastoral convention of usin" one Eorld in order to comment on another. It su!verts the Au"ustan mHth as Eell as its discursive tradition. It mocMs $efoeLs praise of the merchant hero and coloniser of Eild lands, narroElH focused on the !are necessities of life, !our"eois ethos of PLa!ourP, construction of character as an inventorH of o!&ects, o!session Eith facts and plain stHle. In CooM IB, 2ulliver confesses his Pdesi"n to discover some small island uninha!ited Het sufficient !H mH La!our to furnish me Eith >ecessities of life Ehich I Eould have thou"ht a "reater happiness than to !e 6irst %inister in the politest court of ?uropeP. 2ulliver travels from countrH to countrH, his phHsical relation to his host people chan"in" permanentlH4 he is a "iant in the dEarfsL land, a dEarf in the "iantsL, the plaH Eith perspectives servin" the satirical purpose of the plaH Eith a philosophical hHpothesis4 Is man a rational animal Q In a centurH dominated !H $eism or >atural hilosophH and Apinozian monism, the phHsical situation affects the moral character. 2iant 2ulliver plaHs the role of the reasona!le and peaceful councillor, as the representative of a hi"her civilisation (the oEner of the Eatch, the instrument that sets order on the chaotic floE of life), Ehile the Lilliputians are EarliMe and sava"e. In Cro!din"na", the phHsical relation is reversed. $iminutive 2ulliver praises EeaponrH - $efoeLs utmost Ppro&ectP - and Earfare, Ehile the "iants shoE for!earance and common sense. #he satirical onslau"ht on the alliance !etEeen science and politics durin" 2ulliverLs visit to the 6lHin" Island and the AcademH of La"ado is stron"lH reminiscent of the 6rench ?nli"htenmentLs critiRue of the ancient re"ime. #he shadoEs con&ured on the island of sorcerers and ma"icians (Crutus, Aocrates, #homas %ore) function as an inde' of AEiftLs oEn alle"iance to an ethos of resistance to poEer. >niformitarian sFc@olo'F and satirical universalism An important shift in the epistemolo"ical frameEorM of the mid-centurH Eas effected !H $avid IumeLs *reatise o% 9uman <ature and other philosophical essaHs. Accordin" to Iume, !eliefs are determined not !H reason !ut !H sentiment. Iuman culture is "enerated out of the passions. %anMind are the same in all times and places, the principles and sprin"s of human nature operate in a constant manner. Iuman nature remains the constant universal in the historical process. IumeLs philosophH of character underpins BenrF #ieldin'Hs narrative techniRue4 the presence of an omniscient, e'tradie"etic (Eho does not intrude into the chronodie"etic plot) narrator, identical Eith the author, commentin" on his fictional universe from a hi"her standin", usin" "enerics (statements claimin" universal validitH) and emphasisin" the fact that humans are impelled !H the same emotional drives and emotions in a Aomerset villa"e as at the roHal court. #he foundlin" plot - #om .ones is introduced to the scene of action as a !ase!orn and finallH revealed to !e the sRuireLs nepheE - is also an inde' of a sceptical attitude to social distinctions of class and ranM. #he drift aEaH from politics is accompanied !H a stron"er focus on the status of the artist. In Ahaftes!urHLs Characteristics o% 2en, 2anners, 5pinions, the true poet is defined as a master or architect, emulatin" the craft of the Aoverei"n Artist of 1niversal lastic >ature (the 2od of the $eists, the perfect en"ineer) Eho forms coherent Eholes. 6ieldin"Ls *om Iones is the fictional counterpart of contemporarH neoclassic, alladian architecture. Aophie, the female prota"onist, is a Bitruvian fi"ure, an em!lem of Eisdom, as her name su""ests, Ehich matches her Eell-proportioned !odH4 her outside !espeaMs her inside4 it is a !eautiful frame, the 9eader !ein" ur"ed to ima"ine the fine proportion of her arms and the sHmmetrH of her lim!s. #he novel itself is perfectlH !alanced Eith its ei"hteen !ooMs preceded !H prefaces Ehich develop a metafictional, narrator plot4 6ieldin" e'pounds the principles of his narrative invention, slottin" it Eithin the tradition of satirical Eit from the AntiRuitH to his oEn daHs and of the mocM-

heroic in verse and prose, satirises the 9estoration character pro"ress and the poetics of the "othic and the su!lime, discusses "eneric conventions and comments on characters and the action.

T@e encFclo aedic novel and t@e sc@ool of sentiment+ CH the time $aurence Sterne set doEn to Erite his *ristram "hand$ (3K;F-JK), IumeLs *reatise o% 9uman <ature (3K,F) and $avid IartleHLs 5bservations o% 2an (3K-F) had launched their critiRue of reason and the autonomous su!&ect. #he mind of man is su!&ect to ar!itrarH associations Ehich later manifest themselves as necessarH connections, even the present, sin"le impressions are apt to stir vi!rations of former percepts and enter an associative structure Ehich is free from lo"ical restraints. #he su!&ect is not the a"ent of thou"ht !ut rather the site of chance associations, fuelled !H readin"s, conversation, !H the constitutive order of culture. $on Sui'ote, Eho lives out the life of Armado, a hero of medieval romance in the incon"ruous earlH modern Eorld, is #ristramLs favourite literarH fi"ure. As there are no universal and eternal truths in a universe of chance and randomness, the omniscient, heterodie"etic narrator maMes room for the homodie"etic narrator (overlap of the author, narrator and prota"onist fi"ure), reflectin" !oth on the "enesis of his selfhood and on the pro"ress of his discourse. 1ncle #o!HLs Ear memories are &ust reminiscences of his readin" treatises on militarH fortifications, his ho!!H-horse or idJemaitresse, correspondin" to nothin" in the real Eorld. #he record of the self-o!servin" mind replaces the sa"e discourse on the education or shapin" of personalitH (Oalter AhandHLs *ristapaedia, in imitation of XenophonLs :irupaideia). #he tEo orders are, hoEever, set in opposition4 the operation of settin" the clocM (the order of culture) !locMs the !iolo"ical "eneration of the !a!H. #he chronodie"etic plot is a discontinuous and anachronistic one, movin" forEard and !acMEard in time, Ehile the narration plot (the time #ristan sits at his desM Eritin" the !ooM) is a continuous, Pstrai"ht-draEn lineP, stirrin" associations Eith the autonomous sphere of artefacts4 moral rectitude in Cicero, the shortest line draEn from one point to another in Archimedes, the laE of "ravitation (Bol. BI Chap. XL). #he narrative discourse draEs on the manifold of 3Gth centurH culture, emulatin" the contemporarH encHclopaedic Eritin" of the Count of Cuffon. #he novelist himself defines it in Ch. +3 as a !a!!le of discourses4 phHsical, metaphHsical, phHsiolo"ical, polemical, mathematical, esoteric, mechanical, !io"raphical, chemical, o!stretical .... At the same time, it is e'pressive of the neE spirit of an a"e settin" a prize on feelin"s rather than on reason. Adan AmithLs *heor$ o% 2oral "entiments (3K;F) ela!orated on IumeLs philosophH of the psHche as the !asic and common "round of human nature. Iumans are a!le to reco"nize their oEn sufferin"s in others, men of feelin" and Eomen of sentiment can perceive the affective "round of their common humanitH. In a Eorld "overned !H chance and randomness, it is onlH human sHmpathH that can maMe a difference. $iscourses of reason Eill never !rin" people to"ether, !ecause theH cannot reach a co"nitive consensus a!out thin"s. #heir perceptions or emotional response are coloured !H chan"in" moods, ha!its or pre&udices. All human attempts to control the life of societH and of the individual fail pitifullH, the onlH solution !ein" mutual sHmpathH and cultural creativitH. #he novel is self-reflective, an earlH piece of metafiction. #ristram, the character-narrator, creates not onlH a role for himself and a voice as narrator !ut also an ima"ined relationship Eith his readers, a complete site of the communication act4 author-narrative-reader. Ohereas his father is una!le to control his sonLs life - !irth, namin", etc. - , #ristram mana"es to control the reception of his narrative, in Ehich everHthin" is carefullH ela!orated and functional, includin" the "raphical aspect. *ristram "hand$ partaMes of the tradition of learned Eit !ut its poetics can also !e linMed to that of Charles ChurchillLs paper, P>onsense Clu!P, encoura"in" spontaneitH, di"ressiveness, free associative plaH and authorial self-consciousness.

Ohereas Aterne is a conservatist from a political perspective (#ristram fears the Critish mi"ht lose their li!erties !ecause of 6rench politics or 6rench invasions), BenrF 0acCen(ie is more sensitive to the in&ustice of a tHrannical Eorld. *he 2an o% 6eeling (3KK3) is a provincial "entleman reduced to the condition of poEerless Het sHmpathetic o!server of social e'ploitation and crueltH. AndreI Ga-ter (1nBuir$ into the <ature o% the 9uman "oul , 3K;F), Jo@n Gond (1ssa$ on the Incubus, 3K;,) and painter BenrF #useli ranMed amon" the representatives of a counter?nli"htenment epistemolo"H Ehich maH !e called Pthe darM side of the ?nli"htenmentP. #heH speculated on the revelatorH nature of dreams and other manifestations of the unconscious, havin" a lo"ic of their oEn, lettin" out the truth a!out the human soul Ehich is suppressed or denied. #he other end of the a"e of reason is marMed !H the rise of the 2othic novel and !H the onset of the Pa"e of sensi!ilitHPor pre-romanticism in the last decades of the ei"hteenth centurH. #he literature of sensi!ilitH, pu!lished from the seventies to the end of the centurH, is a sHm!iosis !etEeen personal, self-consciousness and the social. Iumanitarian issues, such as the sufferin" of slaves or of the dispossessed, rendered topical !H the revolutionarH events in 6rance, amount to more than Ahaftes!urHLs social love or rational !enevolence. #heH are meant to secure an emotional appeal and support the 9ousseauistic philosophH of manLs alienation in a corrupt societH. %an is !orn "ood, it is social and institutionalized forms of life that distort his nature. #he solution is solitarH life, EithdraEal. Aocial alienation is a""ravated, accordin" to the reli"ious school of %ethodist dissent, !H the a!sence of 2od in a universe latelH represented as machinerH. .ohn OesleHLs 3K,G 9$mn is no lon"er celle!ratorH5 it is an e'pression of e'istential dread, of metaphHsical crisis. In his *reatise o% 9uman <ature, Iume had reha!ilitated passions4 aesthetic passions are the life!lood of tra"edH. Aufferin" has the poEer to refine the soul. oetic arts assume a polemical tone, measurin" the aesthetic force of ima"ination or sufferin" a"ainst Au"ustan Eit for PCan "enius shield the vulnera!le heart QP (Iannah %ore, "ensibilit$7 a 0oetical 1pistle.) ?dmund CurMeLs 0hilosophical 1nBuir$ into the 5rigin o% 5ur Ideas o% the "ublime and the )eauti%ul (3K;F) is an anti-classicalist aesthetics recommendin" the comple'ities of o!scuritH and am!i"uitH, the su!limitH that !affles the mind, the irre"ularitH of the picturesRue, individualitH of stHle. Characteristic moods and themes4 darM settin"s, apocalHptic visions and plaintive tones (?dEard Zoun", <ight *houghts), the praise of ne"ative feelin"s, such as fear (Oilliam Collins, 5de to 6ear), nostal"ic vieE of the countrHside, Ehere capitalist developments had destroHed traditional EaHs of communal life (Dliver 2oldsmith, *he (eserted Hillage), praise of nature and the demonizin" of empires, cities and other seats of civilisation (Oilliam CoEper, *he *as-), sHmpathH for the illiterate and anonHmous villa"e dEellers, meditation inspired !H the si"ht of tom!s, ruins and other si"hts of threshold states or an interplaH of presence and a!sence Ehich alloEs the ima"ination to e'ert its inventive poEer and fill in Ehat is missin". (#homas 2raH 1leg$ !ritten in a Countr$ Church$ard.), ima"inative reconstruction of the historical heroic past romantic scenerH and the inspired ancient poetrH of the heart (.ames %acpherson, 6ingal, an Ancient 1pic 0oem, composed b$ 5ssian, son o% 6ingal&' #iction T@e Dot@ic <ovel Clara Reeve (*he 5ld 1nglish )aron) and Borace Eal ole (*he Castle o% 5tranto) redirect literarH tradition !H shapin" the readershipLs taste for the supernatural Ehich had !een !anished from the a"e of reason. #heH Erite, as Oalpole confesses in his 3KJ- novel, in spite of rules, critics and philosophers. Automatic Eritin", dream Eorlds, hH!riditH (mi'ture of modern and ancient romance, of "othic and comedH, of lords and domestics) are the definin" features. T@e Jaco%in <ovel #he 6rench 9evolution polarises the political scene in ?n"land, dividin" it !etEeen supporters (#he 9evolution AocietH) and detractors (#he Association for reservin" Li!erties a"ainst 9epu!licans and Levellers). *he +ights o% 2an !H #homas aine and 0olitical Iustice

!H Oilliam 2odEin e'pound a political philosophH derivin" from the ideolo"H of the ?nli"htenment Ehich had prepared the "round for the 9evolution. .aco!in novels (Caleb !illiams, !H Oilliam 2odEin) are novels of ideas, usuallH in the first person, Ehich inte"rate character and plot in li"ht of the necessitarian doctrine4 the character of man ori"inates in the social circumstances and the life of institutions. EssaF to ic4 Aelect one 3Gth c. novel and Erite a criticism of its plot, characters and narrative structure in li"ht of the paradi"matic picture provided !H the lectures. $iterature and Culture+Course /3 Romanticism. 6rance, the "reat influencer of the neoclassic a"e, came to !e re"arded as an enemH after 3KF, Ehen it declared Ear on ?n"land. #he Critish literati turned to 2ermanH for philosophical and aesthetic models, theH themselves (especiallH ?dEard Zoun", %acpherson and CHron) !ein" much admired and emulated there.#he earlH romantics Eere still under the spell of 6rench politics and philosophH, especiallH 9ousseau (the critiRue of institutions, the cult of sensi!ilitH and ima"ination, the interest in primitive cultures as a MeH to an understandin" of modern Eestern civilization, the philosophH of escapism, EithdraEal from societH) and Count BolneH (+uins, 5r, *he +evolutions o% 1mpire, 3KF3), the ideolo"ist of the 6rench 9evolution, Eith his critiRue of the class sHstem and of institutionalised reli"ion. Oilliam ClaMe &oined the sectaries of the ?n"lish 9evolution - 9anters, %u""letonians, #he Church of the >eE .erusalem, 1niversalists - maMin" up an autodidact, minoritH culture, Ehose ideolo"H Eas class Ear and antinomian politics (a"ainst the laE, a"ainst the political and cultural esta!lishment). In 3KF+ 9o!ert AoutheH pu!lished an article a"ainst corporeal punishment, in 3KFG Aamuel #aHlor Colerid"e Eas Eritin" a"ainst the "overnment and a"ainst the prison sHstem, Ehile Oilliam OordsEorth Eas driven out of Alfo'den under the suspicion of su!versive politics, in 3G<- ClaMe Eas tried for sedition. ,$rical )allads, a volume of poems pu!lished &ointlH !H Colerid"e and OordsEorth in 3KFG to Ehich a 0re%ace !H OordsEorth Eas added in the 3G<< edition, is still im!ued Eith the pre-romantics spirit4 a defence of the hum!le, dispossessed mem!ers of societH, communion Eith the phHsical universe Ehich har!ours 2od, humans and the rest of creation in a pantheistic unitH. #he Ear Eith 6rance, the 9ei"n of #error in 6rance, the mass e'ile of 6rench Catholic cler"Hmen to ?n"land durin" the campai"n of de-Christianization, Ehat Eas seen as >apoleonLs !etraHal of the ideals of the 9evolution, the collapse of the 9epu!lic of 9eason and 6raternitH Eere the reason EhH AoutheH, Colerid"e and OordsEorth chan"ed sides, turnin" conservatists after 3G<<. OordsEorth e'plains his shift of political alle"iance in 3G<; in a passa"e of *he 0relude, a lon" poem Ehose final version came out in 3G;<. >apoleon summonin" the ope to !e croEned ?mperor is seen as Pan opera phantomP, a mere actor on the sta"e of historH. It maH !e said, therefore, that hi"h 9omanticism is conservative, sceptical a!out the efficiencH of a!rupt chan"e. It is especiallH the novelists, Oalter Acott and .ane Austen, Eho "ive ima"inative support to ?dmund CurMeLs or"anic vieE of historH in +e%lections on the 6rench +evolution7 improvements should !e "radual, the respect for historical forms of culture and "overnment need not implH opposition to chan"e4 an open societH Eill accept professional talent and social pro"ress across class !arriers. As the 9e"encH (the future 2eor"e IB !ecame rince 9e"ent on account of his fatherLs insanitH) in ?n"land Eas an intellectuallH shalloE a"e, amoral and politicallH a!usive, the Houn"er romantics - .C. AhelleH and %arH AhelleH, Lord 2.2. CHron, .ohn Neats - em!race radical politics, revivin" the .aco!in ideolo"H and the revolutionarH ethos (support for the Luddite or machine-!reaMersL movement and of the li!eration Ears a!road). EarlF Romanticism+ Eilliam GlaCe Inde!ted to .aMo! C[hme (3;K;-3J+-), Ehose philosophH Eas a mi'ture of Na!!alistic, 2nostic and alchemical elements and Eho anticipated Ie"elLs concept of Au%hebung (su!lation)4

tEo contraries can !e united in a hi"her sHnthesis. Accordin" to him, "ood and evil meet in 2od. ClaMe ela!orated his personal mHtholo"H as a sHnchretic construct, draEin" on Oilliam IurdLs studies of comparative reli"ion and mHth in A <e# Universal 9istor$ o% the +eligious +ites. Iis Ceulah, for instance, is a place Ehere Contraries are eRuallH true. 9omantic ironH, runnin" from Achellin" to NierMe"aard, re&ected the tHrannH of reason (operatin" Eith !inaries, dissectin" and dissociatin" the manifold of e'istence into a!stract oppositions) in favour of a dialectic vieE of the Ear of oppositions as the verH "round of creation. In Ierusalem, one of his prophetic poems, Los, the Apirit of #ime saHs PI must create a sHstem or !e enslaved !H another %anLs@ I Eill not reason and compare5 mH !usiness is to create.P 6rom BolneH, he !orroEed the prophetic voice and visionarH ima"erH, the critiRue of the class sHstem and the idea that institutionalised reli"ion is a fraud, thrivin" on superstitions. 2ods are nothin" !ut o!&ectified human needs. late 3+3 of *he 2arriage o% 9eaven and 9ell4 the ancient poets animated all sensi!le o!&ects Eith "ods and "eniuses, adornin" them Eith the properties of Eoods, rivers, mountains, laMes, cities, nations till a sHstem Eas formed Ehich riesthood tooM advanta"e of4 theH a!stracted the mental deities from their o!&ects and enslaved the vul"ar minds. *he "ongs o% Innocence and 1/perience (3KGF and 3KF-) fi"ure a drama of the fall of man from an ?den presided over !H a secularised divinitH Ehose attri!utes are %ercH, itH, eace and Love, Eith love overridin" class, a"e, "ender and race divisions, to the present institutionalised societH shot throu"h Eith oppositions4 tHrannical Church, militarised and Earrin" courts, e'ploitation, class division and economic in&ustice. #he poems in the tEo cHcles form oppositional pairs, for instance, the spirit of *he (ivine Image in the first is reversed !H *he 9uman Abstract in the second. America, 1urope and *he "ong o% ,os (Africa and Asia) are steps toEards an all-inclusive epic of revolutionarH universalism, spreadin" forth from the hearth of *he 6rench +evolution. oetrH uses mHth to serve a political a"enda of social and political li!eration. Its support is !oth visual and "raphical, ima"e and Eord !ein" printed to"ether from a copper plate. Drc (a name derived from Latin Drcus for Iell) is an arch-re!el, a %iltonic ener"H, !oth political and aesthetic, !oth of the sense and the spirit, the oetic 2enius from Ehich the !odH or outEard form of man is derived. #he !odH is not material, it is that portion of the divine soul Ehich is discerned !H the senses. Ie assaulted all the concepts of the ?nli"htenment and all the canons of neoclassic art. All +eligions are 5ne and *here is no <atural +eligion4 tEo tractates Eritten a"ainst $eism, the empiricist-scientist school of LocMe and >eEton. NnoEled"e comes from that same facultH Ehich creates poetrH, philosophH and reli"ion, humans are not separate atoms !ut mem!ers one of another, parts of the reunited archetHpal %an4 in 2ilton, the national poet fi"ure casts off the herita"e of the rationalist ?nli"htenment and in him are mer"ed the se'es as Eell as the human and the divine (.esus). 2iant Al!ion MnoEs a fallen condition !ecause of the fall of the planetarH spirits (Hala, or, the 6our Koas) into "nomes, sHlphs, fairies ( opeLs divine a"encH inha!itin" the elements) and further into creatures discerned !H the perverted, four senses. It is throu"h the re!irth of the ima"ination that Al!ion can !e redeemed as Ierusalem, the Min"dom of the spirit. #he prophetic !ooMs ela!orate on the rover!s of Iell in *he 2arriage o% 9eaven and 9ell, Ehere all forms of ener"H are positivelH valued4 PActive ?vil is !etter than assive 2oodP, P#he tH"ers of Erath are Eiser than the horses of instructionP. #he political mechanism of oppressive poEer is the cHcles of authoritative rule, Ehose archetHpe is the 2od of the Dld #estament, the 2iver of the LaE, and re!ellion44 #iriel !ein" oppressed !H his father, Iar, and, in his turn, oppressin" his dau"hter, Iela ( *iriel). 1rizen the tHrant a"ainst Ehom Los re!els, Los, in his turn, chainin" Drc ( *he )oo- o% Urizen). It is the decision to put an end to the cHcles of violence and oppression that has a redeemin" force4 Los taMin" pitH on 1rizen, the repentin" an"els of the colonies in America, castin" doEn their sceptres of authoritH. In proto-e'istentialist fashion, !ein" precedes essence (it is actin" that shapes out personhood, not some in!orn essence). Atatements a"ainst neoclassic aesthetics (imitation of 2reeM and 9oman models) are also a critiRue of the seats of poEer (Camp, Court, the 1niversitH)4 Annotations to "ir Ioshua +e$nolds'

Bi'@ Romanticism CarrHin" forth IumeLs critiRue of LocMeLs sensationist theories, Immanuel Nant develops a theorH of the mind as constructive and creative rather than passive in the composition of e'perience. IoEever, the mind is in and of the Eorld. #he o!server is a crucial part of the o!served. #he schemata (such as the ideas of time and space) represent the meetin" place of a!stract cate"ories and the manifold of e'perience. #he self emer"es in a dialo"ue, over time, Eith the phHsical universe and the processes of culture. >ature is incomplete in the a!sence of the o!servin" eHe, !ut it too serves as an instruction lesson. #he o!&ect of e'perience is thus Phalf perceived and half createdP (OordsEorth, ,ines !ritten Above *intern Abbe$). Ohereas Ie"elLs 0henomenolog$ o% the "pirit had provided the model for the developmental self, for spiritual auto!io"raphH, NantLs epistemolo"H had eliminated the dualism nature@mind. #he poet creates mental narratives as he "oes around the o!&ects of the natural Eorld, and the e'perience of revisitin" places alloEs him to compare past and present selves, to !ecome aEare of his historical mode of e'istence in the Eorld. >eoclassic spatial poetics Hields to romantic temporal art. revious e'periences "ive !irth to mental patterns Ehich serve to shape the present perception of the Eorld. #heH are a priori structures (OordsEorth in *he 0relude4 the first creative sensi!ilitH Ehich is not lost or, the reason EhH the child is 6ather to the %an - in Intimations o% Immortalit$& Ehich ensure the mindLs relative autonomH from the immediate o!&ect of the senses. A.#. Colerid"e Eas even more committed to the counter-revolutionarH 2erman culture Ehich, from .aco!in in 3G<< had turned thorou"hlH conservative !H 3G3;. Ie dreE attention to the conspirational EorMin" class or"anisations (in *he Courier, Dcto!er, 3G3-) Ehich Eere threatenin" national sta!ilitH and culture (the ha!its and customs enshrined !H CurMe and Ierder) and attacMed the neE school of political economH (mainlH contri!uted !H the Acott ?nli"htenment) in *he 6riend, claimin" that education and reli"ion (clerisH, an enli"htened cler"H mediatin" !etEeen people and court and state) could do more to improve societH than le"islation. In his 3G3< >ote!ooM, he defines NanLt philosophical revolution as the shift from ApinozaLs ontosophH (accordin" to Ehat e'ists, !e"innin" Eith Pit isP) toEards anthropol"H (accordin" to man, !e"innin" Eith PI amP). #he departure point is no lon"er in the material, o!&ective Eorld, !ut in the perceivin" mind. In )iographia ,iteraria (3G3;) he also shoEs the difference !etEeen his poet and those of OordsEorth in ,$rical )allads4 OordsEorthLs characters are taMen from sense impressions, immediate or remem!ered, clearlH distin"uished from the mind of the o!server, enriched !H the ima"ination Ehere the common vieE had !edimmed all the lustre, Ehile his method Eas supernatural4 !e"innin" in separation from nature, from somethin" conceived !H the mind and demandin" Eillin" suspension of dis!elief. Ie comes closer to 2eor"e CerMeleH Eho, in his (ialogues, saHs that Pall realitH is mental, Ee do not perceive o!&ects !ut Rualities (colours, forms, sounds) Ehich are relative to the perceiverP. In Cio"raphia Literaria, he distin"uishes three forms of ima"ination correspondin" to triad of sensi!ilitH, ima"ination and &ud"ement4 6ancH has onlH reproductive function, recom!inin" sense impressions. #he primarH ima"ination is productive, has an active poEer, the mind re-creatin" the Eorld of the senses throu"h perception. AecondarH ima"ination has an aesthetic poEer4 it dissolves the actual forms and produces neE ones resem!lin" nothin" in the real Eorld. D!&ects are transformed into materials for a possi!le act of co"nition. It is throu"h this secondarH ima"ination that the oet stands ne't to 2od, creatin" out of nothin". Iis conversation poems (*he 1olian 9arp, 6rost at 2idnight' (e.ection7 An 5de ) esta!lish a communication from mind to mind, a circularitH of the spirit Ehich leaves nature out. >eoclassicism and 9omanticism in oppositional pairs4 empiricist and materialist transcendental and idealist enli"htened cosmopolitanism national and personal mHtholo"ies sHstem and sta!ilitH revolutionarH or apocalHptic ima"ination understandin", reason ima"ination, an'ietH of !ecomin" pa"an and classical culture Christian culture (election, revelation, ?ucharist)

mirror of realitH formalitH, set forms collective and social universalizin"

lamp of "enius or"anic form private and individual historicizin"

EssaF to ics4 . IdentifH tEo companion poems (treatin" the same theme in the mirror) in ClaMeLs Aon"s of Innocence and ?'perience. . Aelect tEo poems !H OordsEorth and Colerid"e, respectivelH, and compare Ehat Colerid"e calls the PnaturalP (poetrH !ased in sense impressions) and the Psupernatural methodP. (renderin" the truth of out inEard nature). $iterature and Culture+ $ecture /4+ Bi'@ Romanticism ?continuedA Politics PercF GFss@e S@elleF! 0arF S@elleF! Deor'e Dordon GFron and Jo@n Meats denounce the carnivalesRue a"e of the 9e"encH, the "overnmentLs incompetence, its ina!ilitH to deal Eith povertH and unemploHment, the rince 9e"entLs amoralitH, the fashiona!le societHLs Eorship of commercial values and indul"in" in cheap entertainments, the loE cultural and intellectual standards. .ohn Neats (Letter of 3G3F)4 P#he unlucMH termination of the 6rench 9evolution put a stop to the rapid pro"ress of free sentiments in ?n"land and "ave our Court hopes of turnin" !acM to the despotism of the 3Jth centurH.P Ie thou"ht of the Eorld as a PvalleH of soul maMin"P, the site of manLs stru""le for perfection, in opposition to the medieval concept of the voHa"e of the soul toEards union Eith "od. Iis reEritin" of Alain ChartierLs 3-+- ,a )elle (ame "ans 2erc$ redeploHs the mHth of the Mni"htLs seduction !H the fairH Eorld Eithin the contemporarH conte't of seduction Pin a lan"ua"e stran"eP4 the attraction e'erted !H the 6rench 9evolutionLs ideas and the su!seRuent disappointment. . C. AhelleH (3G3F PAonnet4 ?n"landP)4 Prulers do neither see, nor feel, nor MnoE, !ut leach-liMe to their faintin" countries clin".P Lord 2. 2. CHron !rid"ed the "ap Colerid"e had draEn pu!lic attention to as separatin" the clerisH (defendin" the Church and Atate) from the freemasonrH of the EorMin" class trHin" to overthroE them (P#he 6riendP). Ie com!ined li!ertarian re!ellion and the cult of leadership !H aristocratic, e'ceptional leaders Eho stand up a"ainst authoritH and stiflin" conventions. #he CHronic hero is a cross of the oversensitive Houn" man and the "othic villain. It is disappointment Eith a shalloE societH that causes the prota"onist to re!el and associate himself Eith the forces of anarchH in loE life and delinRuent circles. CHron repeatedlH condemns the earlier romantics for havin" recanted their revolutionarH commitment ( Hision o% Iudgement, Ehere he also defends re"icide, or, (on Iuan, Ehere %ilton is praised for his constant opposition to #HrannH4 he did not praise the Aon after maMin" the father taMe the !lame for tHrannH - an allusion to 2eor"e IB succeedin" to his father). %arH AhelleHLs later romantic "othic (6ran-enstein) alludes to the darMer side of the 6rench 9evolution, her tar"et !ein" the secret orders of the 2erman Illuminati and the 9osicrucians (?... ClarH, #he 9ise of Aupernatural 6iction. 3KJ+-3G<<. Cam!rid"e, 3FF;) Eho had !een trHin" the confiscate the 9evolution. #he former order, founded !H Adam Oeishaupt, a rofessor at the 1niversitH of In"oldstadt (Ehere 6ranMenstein passes, in his dream of creatin" a perfect !reed of man, passes from traditional alchemH to modern e'periments in "alvanism) had disseminated perfectionist theories seeMin", in fact, Eorld domination. 6ranMenstein Eas apparentlH modelled on .ohann Nonrad $ippel, a 2erman alchemist, the oEner of 6ranMenstein Castle, Eho used to plunder "raves for his e'periments. Auch e'periments Eere "oin" a"ainst the natural order of thin"s, treatin" or"anic life as if it Eere dead matter, surpassed !H machines. #he 9osicrucians, seeMin" the eli'ir of life (%arie 9o!erts, Gothic Immortals' 6iction o% the )rotherhood o% the 9ol$ Cross, 9outled"e, 3FF<), Eere also trHin" to improve societH !H creatin"

social anarchH. #he 9osicrucian hero, a com!ination of the heretic and the fallen, Eas e'pected to "ive up on familH ties, and even to contemplate fratricide and re"icide. Carl 2rosse ( 9orrid 2$steries&7 PEe shall receive Hou Eith open arms Ehen human societH re&ects HouP. Bictor 6ranMenstein, Eho e'chan"es the 9osicrucian eli'ir Ruest for the illuminizin" MnoEled"e creates a monster, a Creature standin" outside Creation Eho helps dissolve all his familH ties. #he attempt to create a neE societH artificiallH ends in disaster. %arH AhelleH Earns a"ainst the dan"er that supermen (such as 2od-plaHin" Colerid"e or those trHin" to seize poEer for its oEn saMe) represent for societH, Ehile pressin" home a political a"enda of repu!lican li!erties and a!olition of class, race and "ender privile"es. #he romantic conservatists Eere draEin" on ?dmund CurMeLs or"anic philosophH of historH, stressin" the importance of historic accumulation. #he peaceful, lovin" !our"eois familH, the ethic of care and domestic affections, the ideolo"H of the polis as familH underpin .ane AustenLs novels centred on marria"e and the !our"eois home. E istemolo'F+ Ohereas >eEton had conceived of the universe as a clocM Eound up !H the Creator, the science around the turn of the centurH saE the universe as alive, under"oin" mHsterious and natural, or"anic "roEth. #he evolutionarH thou"ht, prompted !H Louis Leclerc, Count de Cuffon, saE life as rollin" throu"h all thin"s, from loEer to hi"her forms (see 2oetheLs 1rpflanze). Lui"i 2alvaniLs e'periments Eere, therefore, perceived as "oin" a"ainst nature. Poetics .C. AhelleH4 (e%ence o% 0oetr$. #he creative ima"ination of the earlier romantics "ives EaH to epistemolo"H. %etaphors are vehicles for MnoEled"e. #he concepts of philosophH are, in fact, metaphors. #he lan"ua"e of poetrH is an interpretation of the Eorld, metaphors revealin" the !efore unapprehended relations of thin"s. #he relation !etEeen perception and e'pression (the EaH the mindLs response to the Eorld assumes lin"uistic "uise4 mind - lan"ua"e) taMes prioritH over the perception of the Eorld (mind - Eorld), the ma&or su!&ect of the earlier romantic poetrH. In the later romantics, Ee come upon instances of self-refle'ivitH (the te't !ein" aEare of its "eneric features and maMin"). #heirs Eas a Nantian-!ased poetics, ascri!in" the poetic facultH an a priori structure that !e"ets conscious perception. Dr, the mind can onlH maMe sense of the Eorld at a removal from it. #he Eritin" or speaMin" moment is distanced from the moment of direct e'perience. 6or instance, the em!edded narrative frames in 5z$mandias, AhelleHLs comment on poetic lan"ua"e in "onnet4 the alle"orH of life (the painted veil) is to !e preferred, !ecause actual life is disappointin" - Psi"htless, drearP, a perpetual vacillation !etEeen 6ear and Iope, a form of e'istential an'ietH. .ohn Neats uses a dou%le tem oral sc@eme4 the transitorH historical Eorld of actual e'perience is em!edded Eithin a narrative frame4 *he 1ve o% "t' Agnes, ,a )elle (ame "ans 2erc$ . ?ven "ods can fall, as in 9$perion or *he 6all o% 9$perion, as the pro"ress of the temporal Eorld, in Meepin" Eith the neE evolutionarH theories (Cuffon, ?rasmus $arEin), cannot !e arrested. It is onlH throu"h memorH (Apollo is assisted !H %nemosHne, the "oddess of memorH, acRuirin" PMnoEled"e enormousP), that the artist is !orn and it is onlH throu"h him that the Eorld can !e saved in an unperisha!le form (5de on A Grecian Urn). CHronLs artist is the P$andH latelH on mH travelsP, the free-floatin" nonconformist, fleein" the vul"ar !our"eois Eorld and the marMet of commercial art. Caudelaire Eas to maMe the aesthetic dandH into the hero of the modern times. #he intense aEareness of form is also reflected !H the return to set and difficult "eneric and prosodic forms4 sonnets, philosophical odes, Apenserian stanzas in *he 1ve o% "t' Agnes (tEo pentameter Ruartraits rounded off Eith a he'ameter). RevolutionarF versus anti-Jaco%in fiction+ 0+ S@elleF vs+ Austen . "othic romance, of political and philosophical scope romantic comedH of manners e'ploration of social evil throu"h invention novels of epistemolo"H, of education

perfectionism under the form of political reform "radual or"anic "roEth of an open societH focus on the !odH politic focus on the familH "othic revolutionarH a"enda conservatist ethic4 preservation of linMs Eith the past (old mansions, chapels), attacM on the revolutionarH ideolo"H em!edded in the "othic "enre three I-narrators (effect4 ideolo"ical filtered inEard speech and thou"ht (6I$) influence on the reader) narrator mediatin" the drama of consciousness EssaF to ics. - Orite an essaH in Ehich Hou compare and contrast the EaH of art and nature in a Neats poem. - ApplH the oppositional pairs a!ove to a comparative discussion of 6ran-enstein and a novel !H .ane Austen. - 9ead a poem (or a fra"ment) !H CHron and maMe a list of the CHronic heroLs salient features.

Evenimente instructionale si elaborarea scenariilor didactice Evenimentele instruc!ionale" nu trebuie con#undate cu momentele lec!iei" tradi!ionale (chiar dac$ intervin %n asemenea momente). &lt#el spus, cele 'ece evenimente instruc!ionale propuse de (.). *agn+ (1975) nu sunt 'ece p$r!i de lec!ie", ci mai degrab$ #enomene motiva!ionale care, odat$ declan,ate de c$tre pro#esor, trebuie s$-,i p$stre'e e#ectul cel pu!in p.n$ la s#.r,itul lec!iei. /uccesiunea evenimentelor instruc!ionale trebuie s$ asigure un cumul progresiv de motiva!ie a %nv$!$rii (care se va repercuta po'itiv asupra vite'ei asimil$rii, dac$ admitem c$ ritmul %nv$!$rii este dependent, %ntre altele, ,i de nivelul motiva!iei intrinsece a acesteia). 0n acest #el, putem spera la o accelerare general$ a ritmurilor de %nv$!are. Scenariul didactic sau structura unei lec!ii este1 a. 2 descriere anticipat$ a #elului %n care va #i des#$,urat$ pas cu pas activitatea didactic$, ast#el %nc.t obiectivele stabilite s$ #ie %ndeplinite cu succes3 b. 4n instrument e#icace de evitare a ha'ardului din activitatea didactic$ real$3 c. 5emers ce solicit$ cadrului didactic imagina!ie ,i creativitate, capacitate de detaliere anticipativ$, g.ndire prospectiv$ ,i ra!iune. (.). *agn+ a #olosit ,i termenul de film general, prin care %n!elegea succesiunea

temporal$ a evenimentelor motiva!ionale1 1. captarea ateniei tuturor cursan!ilor p.n$ la s#.r,itul activit$!ii presupune preg$tirea unei st$ri de concentrare, de interes, necesare recept$rii con!inutului. &ceasta se poate reali'a prin elemente surpri'$, prin descoperirea treptat$ a unui material didactic, prin mi6loace audio-vi'uale, un scurt dialog etc. (olul acestui moment este de a diri6a subiec!ii spre ceea ce urmea'$ s$ %nve!e. *agn+ recomand$ apelul la interesele elevului; desigur, nu putem prevedea un coninut standard pentru asemenea ntrebri, interesele elevilor fiind foarte diferite de la un moment la altul.

7ro#esorul %ncepe activitatea %ntr-un mod care evit$ demobili'area sau stresul. ( Ce-a!i avut de preg$tit pentru a'i8" este unul din debuturile tipic demobili'atoare). 0n principiu, este vorba de a declan,a principalele elemente motiva!ionale (aten!ia, interesul #a!$ de ceea ce se %nt.mpl$, dorin!a de activitate, activismul propriu-'is) la #iecare cursant %n parte. Elaborarea procedeelor de captare a aten!iei nu este o opera!ie simpl$. 2. anunarea temei i enunarea obiectivelor (pe %n!elesul cursan!ilor) urm$re,te

sporirea randamentului cursan!ilor prin cointeresare ,i #inalitatea activit$!ii. Cursantul trebuie s$ cunoasc$ tipul de per#orman!$ care va #i #olosit, ca indiciu c$ %nv$!area a #ost reali'at$. Cursantului nu trebuie s$ i se cear$ s$ ghiceasc$ ce este %n mintea pro#esorului s$u, el trebuie s$ #ie in#ormat. 3. reactualizarea celor nvate anterior %nseamn$ a #acilita %n!elegerea noului con!inut. )ai poart$ denumirea de idei ancor, legtur-ancor, cunotineancor, av.nd ca scop structurarea con!inuturilor mai multor activit$!i de %nv$!are pe tema dat$, reamintirea in#orma!iilor sau deprinderilor anterioare. &cest moment poate contribui la aplicarea %n situa!ii noi a cuno,tin!elor dob.ndite anterior, m$rind motiva!ia pentru %nv$!are ,i #acilit.nd trans#erul de la o activitate la alta, o accesare rapid$ a capacit$!ilor anterioare. 4. prezentarea noului coninut i a sarcinilor de nvare trebuie #oarte bine sistemati'at$ %n a,a #el %nc.t s$ se reali'e'e #$r$ abu' de cuvinte, de verbali'are inutil$, printr-un vocabular %n!eles de to!i cursan!ii. &lt#el spus, li se pot promite satis#ac!ii legate de motivele, interesele ,i, uneori, chiar colectivul clasei, dac$ vor reali'a obiectivele ,i sarcinile activit$!ii didactice.
)en!ion$m c$ trebuie evitate condi!ion$rile prin sanc!iuni negative.

5. conducerea (dirijarea) nvrii presupune anga6area e#ortului personal al

cursan!ilor, repre'ent.nd momentul esen!ial al activit$!ii pe care o des#$,oar$ cadrul didactic %mpreun$ cu cursan!ii. &legerea strategiilor de predare-%nv$!are r$m.ne %n sarcina e9clusiv$ a celui care conduce activitatea. Crearea momentului de independen!$ se reali'ea'$ prin observarea atent$ a cursan!ilor, a e#ectu$rii sarcinilor de %nv$!are propuse. . obinerea per!ormanelor repre'int$ punctul culminant al activit$!ii prin care se dovede,te atingerea obiectivelor propuse %n e9emple de comportamente ,i competen!e la nivelul programelor ,colare. &cum trebuie s$-i cerem cursantului s$ arate c$ ,tie cum s$ procede'e. :oi %i cerem nu numai s$ ne conving$ pe noi, ci ,i pe el %nsu,i. ". asi#urarea !eed$bac%$ului repre'int$ o scurt$ recapitulare a cuno,tin!elor teoretice %nv$!ate %n acea activitate, cu aplica!ii pentru a ar$ta ce tie sau ce tie s fac cursantul, la s#.r,itul activit$!ii de %nv$!are. C.nd pro#esorul urm$re,te per#orman!a cursantului, comunicarea #eed-bac;-ului poate avea loc %n diverse #eluri1 un gest de aprobare, un '.mbet sau un cuv.nt. Caracteristica important$ a comunic$rii nu este con!inutul, ci #unc!ia sa1 #urni'area c$tre elev a in#orma!iei re#eritoare la corectitudinea per#orman!ei. &. evaluarea (!ormativ sau sumativ) a per!ormanelor repre'int$ momentul c.nd cursan!ii primesc con#irmarea valabilit$!ii celor %nv$!ate, iar cadrul didactic %,i autoaprecia'$ munca depus$. <ormele sub care se poate #ace evaluarea sunt #oarte diverse, de la activit$!i orale, la activit$!i practice, lucr$ri scrise, #i,e de munc$ individual = independent$, pe grupe. Este bine ca aceste #orme s$ alterne'e pentru evitarea monotoniei sau stresului. &precierea cu cali#icative trebuie #$cut$ cu #oarte mult$ pruden!$, pe ba'a unor indicatori de per#orman!$, c.t mai corect posibil. '. intensi!icarea reteniei se reali'ea'$ prin discu!ii legate de e#icien!a re'ultatelor ob!inute prin evaluarea din cadrul activit$!ii ,i presupune eviden!ierea nivelului obiectivului propus ,i reali'at, recomand$ri pentru ameliorare dac$ nivelul atins este necorespun'$tor. >rebuie s$ se integre'e noile acumul$ri %n cadrul capacit$!ilor dob.ndite anterior, prin repetarea sistematic$ la anumite intervale.
1(. asi#urarea trans!erului recomand$ surse de in#ormare pentru elaborarea preg$tirii cursan!ilor1 manual, lucr$ri, reviste, culegeri. >rans#erul %nv$!$rii se poate reali'a optim prin sarcini noi, variate date cursan!ilor, care s$ solicite aplicarea noilor achi'i!ii.
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