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Narcisismul Submitted by vizitator on Sun, 06/15/2008 - 18:55 tulburari de personalitate Bebelusul simte ca este centrul universului, ca este cel

mai important, ca este omnipotent. In aceasta faza a dezoltarii, parintii sunt perceputi ca nemuritori, atotputernici, ca exista numai pentru a implini nevoile bebelusului, pentru a-l proteja si a-l hrani. Bebelusii se vad pe sine, dar si pe ceilalti intr-un mod imatur, idealizat. Aceasta etapa se numeste narcisim primar. In mod inevitabil, conflictele care apar in decursul vietii conduc catre un anumit grad de deziluzionare. Daca acest proces este abrupt, inconsistent, imprevizibil, capricios, arbitrar sau intens, atunci ranirile pe care le suporta stima de sine a copilului pot fi severe si deseori ireversibile. Mai mult decat atat, atunci cand suportul empatic crucial pe care ni-l ofera cei care ne ingrijesc (parintii sau alte persoane substitutive, obiectele primare in psihanaliza) lipseste, sentimentul propriei valori si cel al stimei de sine din viata adulta tind sa fluctueze intre supraevaluare (idealizare) si subevaluare, devalorizare, atat de sine cat si a altora. Adultii narcisici sunt considerati a fi rezultatul unei dezamagiri profunde, al unor deziluzii radicale fata de persoanele semnificative din viata lor in perioada copilariei. Adultii sanatosi accepta in mod realist faptul ca au anumite limite si pot face fata cu succes dezamagirilor, retragerilor, esecurilor, criticilor si deziluziilor. Propria lor valoare cat si stima de sine sunt constante si pozitive, nu sunt afectate in permanenta in mod substantial de catre evenimentele externe. Narcisismul primar este in psihologie un mecanism de aparare comun in primii ani de viata (de la sase luni la sase ani) si are scopul de a proteja copilul de inevitabilele raniri si temeri care sunt implicate in procesul de separare-individuatie (procesul prin care bebelusul devine o entitate separata si individuala) al dezvoltarii. Narcisismul secundar sau patologic este un mod de a gandi si a se comporta in perioada de adolescent sau de adult care implica infatuare, obsesia de sine si excluderea celorlalti. Narcisimul se manifesta prin urmarirea permanenta a gratificarii personale, a obtinerii atentiei, prin dominanta sociala si ambitia personala, laudarosenie, lipsa sensibilitatii fata de ceilalti, lipsa empatiei si/sau dependenta excesiva de ceilalti in viata de zi cu zi. Narcisismul patologic se afla in centrul tulburarii de personalitate narcisica. Atunci cand un individ (la orice varsta) intampina un obstacol insurmontabil in progresul de la un stadiu la altul al dezvoltarii personale, va regresa la etapa infantila narcisica mai degraba decat sa intampine obstacolul. In regresie, persoana se poarta copilareste, imatur, simte ca este omnipotenta, judeca gresit puterea sa, subestimeaza provocarile, pretinde a fi cel care le stie pe toate. Sensibilitatea fata de nevoile altora, emotiile pe care le simte pentru ei, se deterioreaza intens, poate deveni intolerabil de arogant, cu tendinte sadice si paranoide si mai presus de orice cauta admiratie neconditionata. Preocuparile narcisicilor includ fantasme, gandire magica si visare diurna, iar in acest mod ei tind sa-i exploateze pe ceilalti si sa-i invidieze. Functia principala a unui astfel de narcisim secundar reactiv si trecator este de a incuraja individul sa se angajeze intr-un tip de gandire magica pentru a goni problema, a o vraji , sau a o intampina de pe o pozitie de omnipotenta. O tulburare de personalitate apare atunci cand atacurile repetate asupra obstacolului continua sa esueze in special cand esecurile recurente au loc in stadiile de formare a personalitatii (zero sase ani). Contrastul dintre lumea fantastica ocupata (temporar) de individ si cea reala in care continua sa fie frustrat este prea acut pentru a-i face fata pentru mult timp. Disonanta duce la decizia inconstienta de a trai in lumea fanteziei, a grandiozitatii in mod justificat. Narcisismul este un mecanism de aparare care se afla in relatie cu mecanismul de clivaj. Narcisicul esueaza in a-i vedea pe ceilalti (oameni, situatii) ca fiind alcatuiti din elemente bune si rele. Ei ori isi idealizeaza obiectul, ori il devalorizeaza. Lucrurile sunt vazute in alb si

negru, obiectul este ori bun ori rau. Atributele rele sunt intotdeauna proiectate, transferate sau externalizate in alt mod, cele bune sunt internalizate pentru a putea sprijini grandiozitatea sa, inflatia narcisismului si a fantasmelor de grandoare, dar si pentru e evita durerea asociata cu deziluzionarea. Narcisicul cauta sa se alimenteze cu provizii narcisice pe care le foloseste pentru a-si regla auto-suficienta care este deseori fragila si fluctuanta. Conform teroriilor psihodinamice ale dezvoltarii, parintii (obiectele primare) si in mod specific mamele sunt primii agenti ai socializarii copilului. Prin intermediul mamei sale copilul exploreaza cele mai importante intrebari ale sale iar prin raspunsurile la care se va raporta se va forma intreaga sa existenta. Cresterea atrage dupa sine detasarea gradata de mama, explorarea independenta a lumii, autonomia, iar de felul in care aceste etape sunt parcurse depinde formarea unui Eu puternic, a unui sentiment puternic de sine. Daca oricare dintre aceste etape sunt zadarnicite (uneori chiar de mama care nu-i da drumul copilului, nu-l lasa sa plece), procesul diferentierii, al separarii-individuatiei, nu va fi completat cu succes, nu se va dobandi autonomia si nici un sentiment coerent de sine, individul va fi caracterizat de dependenta si imaturitate. Este universal acceptat ca orice copil trece printr-o etapa de separatie de parintii sai si printruna de individuatie, ca o consecinta a separatiei. Abuzurile si traumele din copilaria timpurie atrag dupa ele strategii de a face fata si utilizarea anumitor mecanisme de aparare, inclusiv narcisismul. Una dintre strategiile de a face fata este retragerea in interior, cautarea gratificatiei la o sursa sigura, demna de incredere si disponibila oricand, propriul self. Copilul, speriat de respingere si abuz se va retine de la interactiunea cu ceilalti si va apela la fantasme grandioase in care este iubit si isi este auto-suficient. Ranirea repetata poate conduce catre dezvoltarea unei personalitati narcisice. Sigmund Freud este creditat pentru prima teorie coerenta despre narcisism. El descrie tranzitii de la libidoul (energie instinctuala) orientat catre subiect la cel orientat catre obiecte (ceilalti) care se produc prin intermediul parintilor. Pentru a fi sanatoase si functionale, tranzitiile trebuie sa fie line si neperturbate, altfel apar nevrozele. Astfel, daca un copil nu reuseste sa atraga dragostea si atentia obiectelor sale dorite (parintii) el va regresa in faza narcisica. Prima manifestare a narcisismului este adaptativa pentru ca invata copilul sa iubeasca un obiect disponibil (selful sau) si sa se simta gratificat, satisfacut, multumit. Dar regresia de la o etapa mai tarzie catre narcisismul secundar este dezadaptativa, este o indicatie a faptului ca directionarea libidoului catre o tinta corecta a esuat. Daca acest model de regresie persista se formeaza o nevroza narcisica. Narcisiscul isi stimuleaza selful in mod obisnuit pentru a obtine placere si gratificare. El prefera fantasmele in locul realitatii, o conceptie de sine grandioasa in locul unei autoaprecieri realiste, masturbarea si fanteziile sexuale in locul unor relatii sexuale adulte si visul diurn in locul unor realizari reale in viata sa. C. Jung a descris psihicul ca pe un depozit al arhetipurilor care sunt modele primitive, forme simbolice, imagini sau scheme innascute, exprimate in cultura popoarelor si a caror totalitate defineste inconstientul colectiv (P. Popescu Neveanu). Fantasmele sunt o cale de acces la arhetipuri si de eliberare a lor. In psihologia jungiana, regresiile sunt procese compensatorii care au scopul de a imbunatati adaptarea si nu cai de a obtine sau de a stabiliza un nivel de gratificare. Freud si Jung nu au fost de acord nici in privinta introversiei. Introversia este indispensabila narcisismului, in timp ce extroversia este o conditie necesara pentru orientarea catre un obiect libidinal. Freud a privit introversia ca pe un instrument in serviciul patologiei. Prin contrast, Jung considera introversia ca pe un instrument util aflat in serviciul cautarii nesfarsite de strategii adaptative ale psihicului (narcisismul fiind pentru el o astfel de strategie).

Cu toate acestea, chiar si Jung admite ca nevoia foarte mare de o noua strategie de adaptare inseamna ca a avut loc un esec al adaptarii si desi introversia prin definitie nu este patologica, felul in care ea este utilizata poate fi patologic. Jung distinge introvertii (cei care de regula se concentreaza pe sine mai degraba decat pe altii) de extroverti (opusul). Introversia este considerata o functie normala, naturala, in copilarie si ramane asa (normala si naturala) chiar daca va domina ulterior viata mentala a individului. Pentru Jung narcisismul patologic este o problema de grad, este exclusiv si pervaziv. Heinz Kohut sustine ca narcisismul patologic nu este rezultatul unui narcisism excesiv, al unei agresivitati excesive, al unui libido excesiv, ci este rezultatul unor structuri ale selfului narcisisce, defectuoase, incomplete, deformate. Kohut sustine ca orice copil are notiuni de marire, grandoare naiva amestecate cu gandire magica, sentimente de omnipotenta si credinta intr-o imunitate fata de consecintele actiunilor lor. Aceste elemente si sentimentele fata de parinti, care la randul lor sunt omnipotenti si grandiosi, fuzioneaza si formeaza constructele de self grandios si de imago parental idealizat. Sentimentele copilului fata de parinti sunt reactii la raspunsurile acestora care pot fi de confirmare, dezaprobare, pedeapsa, abuz, etc. Raspunsurile parintilor ajuta la mentinerea structurilor de sine ale copilului. Fara raspunsurile potrivite, grandoarea de exemplu nu poate fi transformata in ambitii si idealuri adulte. Pentru Kohut grandoarea si idealizarea sunt mecanisme de dezvoltare ale copilului pozitive. El considera ca narcisismul (dragostea de sine) si dragostea pentru ceilalti coexista si interactioneaza pe parcursul vietii si este de acord cu Freud din punctul de vedere al nevrozelor ca acumulari de mecanisme de aparare, formatiuni, simptome si conflicte inconstiente, dar identifica si o noua clasa de tulburari, tulburarile selfului care sunt rezultatul unei dezvoltari perturbate a narcisismului. Aceste tulburari sunt rezultatul traumelor copilariei, ale faptului de a nu fi vazut de ceilalti, sau de a fi privit ca o extensie a parintilor, un simplu instrument de gratificare. Astfel de copii cresc si devin niste adulti care nu sunt siguri daca exista (le lipseste un sentiment al autocontinuitatii) sau daca valoreaza ceva (lipsa unui sentiment stabil de auto-suficienta, a unei stime de sine stabile). Karen Horney sustine ca personalitatea este modelata de mediu, de societate si de cultura. Ea crede ca un copil are nevoie sa se simta in siguranta, iubit, protejat, hranit emotional. Tot ea mai spune ca anxietatea este o reactie primara la dependenta totala pentru supravietuire a copilului de adulti. Copiii sunt nesiguri de iubire, de protectie, de hrana, etc. si astfel devin anxiosi. Aparari ca narcisismul se dezvolta pentru a compensa descoperirea intolerabila a faptului ca adultii sunt simpli oameni care pot fi capriciosi, nedrepti, incorecti, independenti, etc. Apararile ofera atat satisfactie cat si un sentiment de securitate. Otto Kernberg priveste ca artificiala diferentierea libidoului orientat catre obiecte (catre ceilalti) de cel narcisic (orientat catre sine). Daca copilul va dezvolta o forma de narcisism normala sau patologica depinde de relatia dintre reprezentarile de sine (imaginea selfului pe care copilul si-o formeaza in minte) si cele de obiect (imaginea celorlalti pe care el si-o formeaza in minte). De asemenea depinde si de relatia dintre reprezentarea de sine si obiectele reale. Dezvoltarea unui narcisim patologic mai poate fi determinata si de conflictele instinctuale relationate cu libidoul si agresivitatea. Conceptul lui Kernberg asupra Selfului este asemanator cu cel al lui Freud asupra Eului. Selful este dependent de inconstient, care exercita o influenta continua asupra oricarei functionari mentale. Narcisimul patologic reflecta o investitie libidinala intr-un self structurat patologic si nu intr-unul normal, intr-o structura integrativa a selfului. Narcisicul sufera din cauza unui self devalorizat sau fixat pe agresivitate. Toate relatiile de obiect ale unui astfel de self patologic sunt detasate de obiectele reale pentru ca acestea produc deseori raniri narcisice si sunt implicate in clivaj, refulare sau proiectie pe alte obiecte. Narcisismul nu este in mod

simplu o fixatie intr-o etapa a dezvoltarii timpurie, ci este o investitie libidinala activa intr-o structura deformata a selfului. Pentru copiii foarte mici stima de sine consta in sentimentul profund de a fi iubit, acceptat, valorizat de catre ceilalti care sunt semnificativi pentru ei mai degraba decat din sentimente ce deriva din evaluarea de sine in raport cu niste criterii externe, cum este cazul copiilor mai mari. Intr-adevar, singurul criteriu de acceptare si iubire a unui nou nascut ar trebui sa fie acela ca el, sau ea, s-a nascut. Experienta unei iubiri neconditionate si a acceptarii din primii 1-2 ani ai vietii pun fundatia pentru stima de sine de mai tarziu si probabil ca fac posibil pentru un copil mai mare ca el sa se poata opune criticilor si evaluarilor negative care de regula insotesc socializarea intr-o comunitate mai mare. Pe masura ce cresc, copiii vor vedea ca societatea impune criterii si conditii pentru a fi iubit si acceptat. Daca sentimentele foarte timpurii de dragoste si acceptare pe care copilul le-a trait au fost suficient de profunde, este foarte probabil ca mai tarziu el sa nu simta slabiciune in fata mustrarilor si sa poata riposta. Odata cu cresterea in varsta copilul incepe sa internalizeze criterii de auto-suficienta si un simt vizavi de standardele care se cer realizate dupa citeriile comunitatii pe care o observa si din care incepe sa faca parte. Studiile lui Cassidy din 1988 asupra relatiei dintre stima de sine la varsta de 5-6 ani si calitatea atasamentului timpuriu mama copil, sprijina teoria lui Bowlby si anume: constructia selfului deriva din experientele timpurii zilnice cu figurile de atasament. Rezultatele studiului confirma conceptia lui Bowlby asupra procesului prin care continuitatea in dezvoltare are loc si asupra modului in care atasamentul timpuriu mama copil continua sa influenteze conceptia copilului asupra propriului self de-a lungul multor ani. Modelele selfului deriva din modul in care interactiunea timpurie mama copil organizeaza si ajuta la formarea mediului copilului. Copiii foarte mici au putine mijloace prin care pot invata despre ei insisi in afara experientei pe care o au cu figurile de atasament. Autoarea ne sugereaza ca daca copiii sunt valorizati si li se ofera confortul necesar atunci cand au nevoie se vor simti valorosi si invers, daca sunt neglijati si rejectati se vor simti lipsiti de valoare, ca si cum nu ar fi buni de nimic. Alti autori sustin ca sentimentul de competenta si stima de sine asociata competentei sunt mai mari la copiii ai caror parinti le-au oferit un amestec optim de acceptare, afectiune, limite rationale si control. In mod similar, profesorii probabil ca vor obtine sentimente pozitive de la elevi atunci cand vor oferi o astfel de combinatie de acceptare, limite si expectatii realiste in privinta comportamentelor si a efortului. La inceput, copilul isi idealizeaza parintii. Pe masura ce creste, el va incepe sa observe neajunsurile acestora si va retrage o parte din libidoul idealizant din imaginile parentale, ceea ce este favorabil dezvoltarii naturale a Supraeului. Perturbarile foarte timpurii din cadrul relatiilor de obiect pot conduce la o slabiciune structurala a personalitatii care va dezvolta un mecanism de filtrare a stimulilor deficient si/sau disfunctional. Abilitatea individului de a mentine o homeostazie narcisica de baza a personalitatii este afectata si el va suferi de o vulnerabilitate narcisica difuza. O perturbare aparuta pe parcursul dezvoltarii in perioada pre-oedipala va afecta capacitatea de control, canalizare si neutralizare a impulsurilor. Manifestarea simptomatica a acestui defect structural este inclinatia de a sexualiza derivatele impulsurilor si conflictele interne si externe fie in forma fantasmelor fie in cea a acting-outurilor. Perturbarile aparute in perioada oedipala sau la inceputul fazei de latenta vor determina individul sa caute in permanenta o figura ideala externa de la care sa primeasca confirmare, afirmare, lucruri pe care Supraeul sau nu le poate implini. Toti autorii sunt de acord ca o pierdere care intervine intr-un moment critic al dezvoltarii copilului il va determina sa se indrepte inspre el insusi pentru obtinerea gratificarii. Copilul va

inceta sa mai aiba incredere in ceilalti si in abilitatea sa de a avea relatii de atasament cu ei si va fi in permanenta umbrit de sentimentul ca numai el isi poate satisface nevoile emotionale. Unele persoane narcisice reactioneaza printr-o evadare creativa in lumi imaginare in care pot exercita un control total din punct de vedere fizic si emotional asupra mediului. Sursa tuturor problemelor narcisicilor este faptul ca ei cred ca toate relatiile cu ceilalti oameni sfarsesc invariabil prin umilinta, tradare sau abandon si aceasta credinta este inradacinata din copilaria foarte timpurie de catre parinti si prin experientele pe care le au cu celelalte persoane. Narcisicul intotdeauna generalizeaza, pentru el interactiunea emotionala si orice fel de interactiune este menita sa sfarseasca intr-un mod nefericit. Sa se ataseze de un loc, de o slujba, de un bun, de o idee, de o initiativa este la fel de dificil cum este sa se ataseze de o persoana si din acest motiv narcisicul evita intimitatea, prieteniile, dragostea, emotiile in general, obligatiile, dedicarea, perseverenta, planificarea, investitiile emotionale sau de orice alt fel. Narcisicii nu pot fi empatici, nu dezvolta niciodata un simt al securitatii sau al placerii. Scopul tratamentului in cazul unei tulburari de personalitate narcisica este de a il ajuta pe pacient sa isi creasca gradul de empatie, sa accepte mai usor respingerea din partea celorlalti fara sa se simta amenintat, sa-si dezvolte o perspectiva mai realista asupra abilitatilor sale actuale in defavoarea celor fantasmatice. Tratamentul este o provocare pentru ca un individ este definit de personalitatea sa si personalitatea sa este o parte esentiala a perceptiei de sine a persoanei. De regula narcisicii nu doresc un tratament pentru ca nu vor ca ceilalti sa creada ca ei au slabiciuni, nu vor sa ceara ajutor pentru ca a cere ajutor, pentru ei, inseamna a se injosi. Tratamentul este dificil si pentru ca ei incearca sa isi sustina o imagine perfecta si indestructibila, dedesubtul acestei fatade aflandu-se o persoana nesigura si cu o stima de sine scazuta. Prezentandu-se cu o imagine de sine foarte sigura ei se protejeaza de una dintre cele mai mari temeri ale lor: aceea ca oamenii vor afla ca au imperfectiuni si slabiciuni ca toti ceilalti. http://www.psihoterapie.net/forum/psihoterapie/tulburari-de-personalitate/narcisismul.html 08.11.2011 Narcissism From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Narcissism is a term with a wide range of meanings, depending on whether it is used to describe a central concept of psychoanalytic theory, a mental illness, a social or cultural problem, or simply a personality trait. Except in the sense of primary narcissism or healthy self-love, "narcissism" usually is used to describe some kind of problem in a person or group's relationships with self and others. In everyday speech, "narcissism" often means inflated selfimportance, egotism, vanity, conceit, or simple selfishness. Applied to a social group, it is sometimes used to denote elitism or an indifference to the plight of others. In psychology, the term is used to describe both normal self-love and unhealthy self-absorption due to a disturbance in the sense of self. The term "narcissism" was introduced in 1887 by Alfred Binet but its usage today stems from Freud's 1914 essay, On Narcissism. In Greek myth, Narcissus was a beautiful young man who rejected all potential lovers, but then tragically fell in love with his own reflection in a pool. Havelock Ellis wrote in 1898 of "Narcissus-like" self-absorption, and in 1899 Paul Ncke used "narcissism" to describe men who were sexually excited by their own bodies rather than someone else's. In "On Narcissism," Freud expanded the term "narcissism" to explain the difference between being pathologically self-absorbed and having an ordinary interest in oneself.

In On Narcissism, Freud argued that primary narcissism is a natural and necessary investment of one's sexual energy in oneself, a sexual version of ordinary self-interest, whereas secondary narcissism is a defensive reaction of withdrawing one's sexual interest from other people and focusing it exclusively on oneself. To illustrate the difference, Freud compared secondary narcissism to the self-absorption of a person in pain: "It is universally known, and we take it as a matter of course, that a person who is tormented by organic pain and discomfort gives up his interest in the things of the external world, in so far as they do not concern his suffering. Closer observation teaches us that he also withdraws libidinal interest from his love-objects: so long as he suffers, he ceases to love." Today, in psychology, narcissistic personality disorder is a mental illness characterized by a lack of empathy, a willingness to exploit others, and an inflated sense of self-importance. In popular discourse, "narcissism" is a widely-used term for a range of selfish behaviors. Cultural critics including Christopher Lasch have applied the term "narcissism" more generally to contemporary American culture. Some experts believe a disproportionate number of pathological narcissists are at work in the most influential reaches of society, such as medicine, finance, and politics.[1] Myth of Narcissus In The Metamorphoses by Ovid, Narcissus was a flamboyant youth who refused everyone who wanted to be his lover. Narcissus had never seen his reflection. The nymph Echo saw him one day walking through the forest, and fell in love with him. Echo was unable to say what she felt, because she had been cursed by the goddess Hera to only be able to repeat others' words back to them. Narcissus heard her but could not see her, and when he asked, "Who's here?", all Echo could reply was, "Here." One day, when Narcissus became thirsty and stopped by a pond to take a drink, he saw his reflection in the water for the first time. Not recognizing himself, he fell in love with his reflection. Unable to consummate his love, Narcissus pined away at the pool and changed into the flower that bears his name, the narcissus. [edit] History Main article: History of narcissism The concept of excessive selfishness has been recognized throughout history. In ancient Greece the concept was understood as hubris. It is only in recent times that it has been defined in psychological terms. In 1898 Havelock Ellis, an English sexologist, used the term "narcissus-like" in reference to excessive masturbation, whereby the person becomes his or her own sex object.[2] In 1899, Paul Nche was the first person to use the term "narcissism" in a study of sexual perversions. Otto Rank in 1911 published the first psychoanalytical paper specifically concerned with narcissism, linking it to vanity and self-admiration.[2] Sigmund Freud published a paper exclusively devoted to narcissism in 1914 called On Narcissism: An Introduction.[3] In 1923, Martin Buber published an essay "Ich und Du" (I and Thou), in which he pointed out that our narcissism often leads us to relate to others as objects instead of as equals. Since 2000, on psychological tests designed to detect narcissism, the scores of residents of the United States have continually increased. Psychologists have suggested a link to social networking.[4] [edit] Healthy narcissism Main article: Healthy narcissism Healthy narcissism is a structural truthfulness of the self, achievement of self and object constancy, synchronization between the self and the superego and a balance between libidinal and aggressive drives (the ability to receive gratification from others and the drive for impulse

expression). Healthy narcissism forms a constant, realistic self-interest and mature goals and principles and an ability to form deep object relations.[5] A feature related to healthy narcissism is the feeling of greatness. This is the antithesis of insecurity or inadequacy. [edit] A required element within normal development Healthy narcissism might exist in all individuals. Freud says that this is an original state from which the individual develops the love object. He argues that healthy narcissism is an essential part of normal development.[3] According to Freud the love of the parents for their child and their attitude toward their child could be seen as a revival and reproduction of their own narcissism.[3] The child has an omnipotence of thought; the parents stimulate that feeling because in their child they see the things that they have never reached themselves. Compared to neutral observations, the parents tend to overvalue the qualities of their child. When parents act in an extreme opposite style and the child is rejected or inconsistently reinforced depending on the mood of the parent, the self-needs of the child are not met. [citation needed] [edit] In relation to the pathological condition Healthy narcissism has to do with a strong feeling of "own love" protecting the human being against illness. Eventually, however, the individual must love the other, "the object love to not become ill". The individual becomes ill as a result of the frustration created when he is unable to love the object.[6] In pathological narcissism such as the narcissistic personality disorder and schizophrenia, the persons libido has been withdrawn from objects in the world and produces megalomania. The clinical theorists Kernberg, Kohut and Millon all see pathological narcissism as a possible outcome in response to unempathic and inconsistent early childhood interactions. They suggested that narcissists try to compensate in adult relationships.[7] The pathological condition of narcissism is, as Freud suggested, a magnified, extreme manifestation of healthy narcissism. With regard to the condition of healthy narcissism, it is suggested that this is correlated with good psychological health. Self-esteem works as a mediator between narcissism and psychological health. Therefore, because of their elevated self-esteem, deriving from selfperceptions of competence and likability, high narcissists are relatively free of worry and gloom.[8] Other researchers suggested that healthy narcissism cannot be seen as good or bad; however, it depends on the contexts and outcomes being measured. In certain social contexts such as initiating social relationships, and with certain outcome variables, such as feeling good about oneself, healthy narcissism can be helpful. In other contexts, such as maintaining long-term relationships and with other outcome variables, such as accurate selfknowledge, healthy narcissism can be unhelpful.[9] [edit] Impact of healthy vs. destructive narcissism on organizations Lubit compared healthy and destructive narcissism in relation to their long-term impact on organizations.[10] Characteristic Healthy Narcissism Destructive Narcissism High outward self-confidence in An unrealistic sense of superiority Self-confidence line with reality ("Grandiose") Desire for power, Pursues power at all costs, lacks normal wealth and May enjoy power inhibitions in its pursuit admiration Concerns limited to expressing socially Real concern for others and appropriate response when convenient; Relationships their ideas; does not exploit or devalues and exploits others without devalue others remorse Ability to follow a Has values; follows through on Lacks values; easily bored; often consistent path plans changes course

Healthy childhood with support Traumatic childhood undercutting true for self-esteem and appropriate sense of self-esteem and/or learning that Foundation limits on behaviour towards he/she doesn't need to be considerate of others others [edit] Empirical studies Within psychology, there are two main branches of research into narcissism, clinical and social psychology. These approaches differ in their view of narcissism with the former treating it as a disorder, thus as discrete, and the latter treating it as a personality trait, thus as a continuum. These two strands of research tend loosely to stand in a divergent relation to one another, although they converge in places. Campbell and Foster (2007)[11] review the literature on narcissism. They argue that narcissists possess the following "basic ingredients": Positive: Narcissists think they are better than others.[12] Inflated: Narcissists' views tend to be contrary to reality. In measures that compare self-report to objective measures, narcissists' self-views tend to be greatly exaggerated.[13] Agentic: Narcissists views tend to be most exaggerated in the agentic domain, relative to the communion domain.[clarification needed][12][13] Special: Narcissists perceive themselves to be unique and special people.[14] Selfish: Research upon narcissists behaviour in resource dilemmas supports the case for narcissists as being selfish.[15] Oriented toward success: Narcissists are oriented towards success by being, for example, approach oriented.[clarification needed][16] Narcissists tend to demonstrate a lack of interest in warm and caring interpersonal relationships. [Campbell and Forster (2007)[11]]. There are several ongoing controversies within narcissism literature, namely whether narcissism is healthy or unhealthy, a personality disorder, a discrete or continuous variable, defensive or offensive, the same across genders, the same across cultures, and changeable or unchangeable. Campbell and Foster (2007) argue that self-regulatory strategies are of paramount importance to understanding narcissism.[11] Self-regulation in narcissists involves such things as striving to make ones self look and feel positive, special, successful and important. It comes in both intra-psychic, such as blaming a situation rather than self for failure, and interpersonal forms, such as using a relationship to serve ones own self. Some differences in self-regulation between narcissists and non-narcissists can be seen with Campbell, Reeder, Sedikides & Elliot (2000)[17] who conducted a study with two experiments. In each experiment, participants took part in an achievement task, following which they were provided with false feedback; it was either bogus success or failure. The study found that both narcissists and non-narcissists self-enhanced, but non-narcissists showed more flexibility in doing so. Participants were measured on both a comparative and a non-comparative self-enhancement strategy. Both narcissists and non-narcissists employed the non-comparative strategy similarly; however, narcissists were found to be more self-serving with the comparative strategy, employing it far more than non-narcissists, suggesting a greater rigidity in their selfenhancement. When narcissists receive negative feedback that threatens the self, they selfenhance at all costs, but non-narcissists tend to have limits. [edit] Relationship to Moral Judgments A study on 17 social and economic issues found narcissism to correlate significantly with traditionally "conservative" positions on capital punishment, free markets, detention of suspected terrorists without trial, and the right of a government to wage war in violation of UN resolutions. No significant relationships were found between narcissism and traditionally liberal judgments.[18] [edit] Narcissistic personality disorder

Main article: Narcissistic personality disorder Although most individuals have some narcissistic traits, high levels of narcissism can manifest themselves in a pathological form as narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), whereby the patient overestimates his or her abilities and has an excessive need for admiration and affirmation. NPD is a condition defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders version 4, but a proposal has been made to remove it from the DSM-5. [edit] Narcissistic traits Thomas suggests that narcissists typically display most, sometimes all, of the following traits: [19] An obvious self-focus in interpersonal exchanges Problems in sustaining satisfying relationships A lack of psychological awareness (see insight in psychology and psychiatry, egosyntonic) Difficulty with empathy Problems distinguishing the self from others (see narcissism and boundaries) Hypersensitivity to any insults or imagined insults (see criticism and narcissists, narcissistic rage and narcissistic injury) Vulnerability to shame rather than guilt Haughty body language Flattery towards people who admire and affirm them (narcissistic supply) Detesting those who do not admire them (narcissistic abuse) Using other people without considering the cost of doing so Pretending to be more important than they really are Bragging (subtly but persistently) and exaggerating their achievements Claiming to be an "expert" at many things Inability to view the world from the perspective of other people Denial of remorse and gratitude [edit] Hotchkiss' seven deadly sins of narcissism Hotchkiss identified what she called the seven deadly sins of narcissism:[20] Shamelessness: Shame is the feeling that lurks beneath all unhealthy narcissism, and the inability to process shame in healthy ways. Magical thinking: Narcissists see themselves as perfect, using distortion and illusion known as magical thinking. They also use projection to dump shame onto others. Arrogance: A narcissist who is feeling deflated may reinflate by diminishing, debasing, or degrading somebody else. Envy: A narcissist may secure a sense of superiority in the face of another person's ability by using contempt to minimize the other person. Entitlement: Narcissists hold unreasonable expectations of particularly favorable treatment and automatic compliance because they consider themselves special. Failure to comply is considered an attack on their superiority, and the perpetrator is considered an "awkward" or "difficult" person. Defiance of their will is a narcissistic injury that can trigger narcissistic rage. Exploitation: Can take many forms but always involves the exploitation of others without regard for their feelings or interests. Often the other is in a subservient position where resistance would be difficult or even impossible. Sometimes the subservience is not so much real as assumed. Bad boundaries: Narcissists do not recognize that they have boundaries and that others are separate and are not extensions of themselves. Others either exist to meet their needs or may as well not exist at all. Those who provide narcissistic supply to the narcissist are treated as if they are part of the narcissist and are expected to live up to those expectations. In the mind of a narcissist there is no boundary between self and other.

[edit] Masterson's subtypes (exhibitionist and closet) In 1993, James F. Masterson proposed two categories for pathological narcissism, exhibitionist and closet.[21] Both fail to adequately develop an age- and phase- appropriate self because of defects in the quality of psychological nurturing provided, usually by the mother. The exhibitionist narcissist is the one described in DSM-IV and differs from the closet narcissist in several important ways. The closet narcissist is more likely to be described as having a deflated, inadequate selfperception and greater awareness of emptiness within. The exhibitionist narcissist would be described as having an inflated, grandiose self-perception with little or no conscious awareness of the emptiness within. Such a person would assume that this condition was normal and that others were just like them. The closet narcissist seeks constant approval from others and appears similar to the borderline in the need to please others. The exhibitionist narcissist seeks perfect admiration all the time from others. [edit] Millon's variations Theodore Millon identified five variations of narcissist.[2] Any individual narcissist may exhibit none or one of the following: unprincipled narcissist: including antisocial features. A charlatanis a fraudulent, exploitative, deceptive and unscrupulous individual. amorous narcissist: including histrionic features. The Don Juan or Casanova of our timesis erotic, exhibitionist. compensatory narcissist: including negativistic (passive-aggressive), avoidant features. elitist narcissist: variant of pure pattern. Corresponds to Wilhelm Reich's "phallic narcissistic" personality type. fanatic type: including paranoid features. An individual whose self-esteem was severely arrested during childhood, usually with major paranoid tendencies who holds onto an illusion of omnipotence. These people are fighting delusions of insignificance and lost value and are trying to re-establish their self-esteem through grandiose fantasies and self-reinforcement. If unable to gain recognition of support from others, they take on the role of a heroic or worshipped person with a grandiose mission. [edit] Other forms of narcissism [edit] Acquired situational narcissism Acquired situational narcissism (ASN) is a form of narcissism that develops in late adolescence or adulthood, brought on by wealth, fame and the other trappings of celebrity. It was coined by Robert B. Millman, professor of psychiatry at the Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University. ASN differs from conventional narcissism in that it develops after childhood and is triggered and supported by the celebrity-obsessed society: fans, assistants and tabloid media all play into the idea that the person really is vastly more important than other people, triggering a narcissistic problem that might have been only a tendency, or latent, and helping it to become a full-blown personality disorder. "Millman says that what happens to celebrities is that they get so used to people looking at them that they stop looking back at other people."[22] In its presentation and symptoms, it is indistinguishable from narcissistic personality disorder, differing only in its late onset and its support by large numbers of others. "The lack of social norms, controls, and of people telling them how life really is, also makes these people believe they're invulnerable,"[23] so that the person with ASN may suffer from unstable relationships, substance abuse and erratic behaviour. A famous fictional character with ASN is Norma Desmond, the main character of Sunset Boulevard. [edit] Aggressive narcissism

This is Factor 1 in the Hare Psychopathy Checklist, which includes the following traits: Glibness/superficial charm Lack of remorse or guilt Grandiose sense of self-worth Callous/lack of empathy Pathological lying Failure to accept responsibility for own actions Cunning/manipulative [edit] Codependency (inverted narcissism or co-narcissism) Main article: Codependency Codependency is a tendency to behave in overly passive or excessively caretaking ways that negatively impact one's relationships and quality of life. Narcissists are considered to be natural magnets for the codependent. Rappoport identifies codependents of narcissists as "conarcissists".[24] [edit] Collective or group narcissism Main article: Collective narcissism Collective narcissism (or group narcissism) is a type of narcissism where an individual has an inflated self-love of his or her own ingroup, where an ingroup is a group in which an individual is personally involved.[25] While the classic definition of narcissism focuses on the individual, collective narcissism asserts that one can have a similar excessively high opinion of a group, and that a group can function as a narcissistic entity.[25] Collective narcissism is related to ethnocentrism; however, ethnocentrism primarily focuses on selfcenteredness at an ethnic or cultural level, while collective narcissism is extended to any type of ingroup beyond just cultures and ethnicities.[25][26] [edit] Conversational narcissism Conversational narcissism is a term used by sociologist Charles Derber in his book, The Pursuit of Attention: Power and Ego in Everyday Life. Derber observed that the social support system in America is relatively weak, and this leads people to compete mightily for attention. In social situations, they tend to steer the conversation away from others and toward themselves. "Conversational narcissism is the key manifestation of the dominant attention-getting psychology in America," he wrote. "It occurs in informal conversations among friends, family and coworkers. The profusion of popular literature about listening and the etiquette of managing those who talk constantly about themselves suggests its pervasiveness in everyday life." What Derber describes as "conversational narcissism" often occurs subtly rather than overtly because it is prudent to avoid being judged an egotist. Derber distinguishes the "shift-response" from the "support-response".[clarification needed] [edit] Corporate narcissism Organizational psychologist Alan Downs wrote a book in 1997 describing corporate narcissism.[27] He explores high-profile corporate leaders (such as Al Dunlap and Robert Allen) who, he suggests, literally have only one thing on their minds: profits. According to Downs, such narrow focus actually may yield positive short-term benefits, but ultimately it drags down individual employees as well as entire companies. Alternative thinking is proposed, and some firms now utilizing these options are examined. Downs' theories are relevant to those suggested by Victor Hill in his book, Corporate Narcissism in Accounting Firms Australia.[28] [edit] Cross-cultural narcissism Joan Lachkar describes the phenomenon of cross-cultural narcissism thus:[29] The cross-cultural narcissist brings to his new country a certain amount of nationalistic pride, which he holds onto relentlessly. He refuses to adapt and will go to great lengths to maintain his sense of special identity. Cross-cultural narcissists often hook up with borderline women, who tend to idealize and be mesmerized by men from another culture. [edit] Cultural narcissism

In The Culture of Narcissism, Christopher Lasch defines a narcissistic culture as one where every activity and relationship is defined by the hedonistic need to acquire the symbols of wealth,[30] this becoming the only expression of rigid, yet covert, social hierarchies. It is a culture where liberalism only exists insofar as it serves a consumer society, and even art, sex and religion lose their liberating power. In such a society of constant competition, there can be no allies, and little transparency. The threats to acquisitions of social symbols are so numerous, varied and frequently incomprehensible, that defensiveness, as well as competitiveness, becomes a way of life. Any real sense of community is underminedor even destroyedto be replaced by virtual equivalents that strive, unsuccessfully, to synthesize a sense of community. [edit] Destructive narcissism Destructive narcissism describes someone who constantly exhibits numerous and intense characteristics usually associated with the pathological narcissist but having fewer characteristics than pathological narcissism.[31] [edit] Gender narcissism Gender narcissism is a relatively new concept, referred to by Dr. Gerald Schoenwolf,[32] with reference to both males and females. The concept builds on Freud's theories of penis envy and the castration anxiety. Chiefly that an over-emphasis or over-perception of gender and gender difference in childhood can lead to either a devaluation or an over-valuation of one's gender in later life. Dr. Schoenwolf in particular suggests that the emergence of the feminist personality, with gonadal-centric views, and female gender narcissism are synonymous. [edit] Malignant narcissism Main article: Malignant narcissism Malignant narcissism, a term first coined in a book by Erich Fromm in 1964,[33] is a syndrome consisting of a cross breed of the narcissistic personality disorder, the antisocial personality disorder, as well as paranoid traits. The malignant narcissist differs from narcissistic personality disorder in that the malignant narcissist derives higher levels of psychological gratification from accomplishments over time (thus worsening the disorder). Because the malignant narcissist becomes more involved in this psychological gratification, in the context of the right conditions, they are apt to develop the antisocial, the paranoid, and the schizoid personality disorders. The term malignant is added to the term narcissist to indicate that individuals with this disorder have a powerful form of narcissism that has made them ill in the forms of paranoid and anti-social traits. [edit] Medical narcissism Medical narcissism is a term coined by John Banja in his book, Medical Errors and Medical Narcissism.[34][35] Banja defines "medical narcissism" as the need of health professionals to preserve their self esteem leading to the compromise of error disclosure to patients. In the book he explores the psychological, ethical and legal effects of medical errors and the extent to which a need to constantly assert their competence can cause otherwise capable, and even exceptional, professionals to fall into narcissistic traps. He claims that: ...most health professionals (in fact, most professionals of any ilk) work on cultivating a self that exudes authority, control, knowledge, competence and respectability. It's the narcissist in us allwe dread appearing stupid or incompetent. [edit] Phallic narcissism Wilhelm Reich first identified the phallic narcissistic personality type, with excessively inflated self-image. The individual is elitist, a "social climber", admiration seeking, selfpromoting, bragging and empowered by social success.

According to Otto Fenichel, 'Phallic characters are persons whose behavior is reckless, resolute and self-assured - traits, however, that have a reactive character: they reflect a fixation at the phallic level, with overvaluation of the penis and confusion of the penis with the whole body'.[36] Fenichel stressed that 'an intense vanity and sensitiveness reveals that these narcissistic patients still have their narcissistic needs...for which they overcompensate'. [37] Others would add that 'the phallic character conceives of sexual behaviour as a display of potency, in contrast to the genital character, who conceives of it as participation in a relationship'.[38] [edit] Primordial narcissism Psychiatrist Ernst Simmel first defined primordial narcissism in 1944.[39] Simmel's fundamental thesis is that the most primitive stage of libidinal development is not the oral, but the gastro-intestinal one. Mouth and anus are merely to be considered as the terminal parts of this organic zone. Simmel terms the psychological condition of prenatal existence "primordial narcissism". It is the vegetative stage of the pre-ego, identical with the id. At this stage there is complete instinctual repose, manifested in unconsciousness. Satiation of the gastro-intestinal zone, the representative of the instinct of self-preservation, can bring back this complete instinctual repose, which, under pathological conditions, can become the aim of the instinct. Contrary to Lasch, Bernard Stiegler argues in his book, Acting Out, that consumer capitalism is in fact destructive of what he calls primordial narcissism, without which it is not possible to extend love to others.[40] In other words he is referring to the natural state of an infant as a fetus and in the first few days of its life, before it has learned that other people exist besides itself, and therefore cannot possibly be aware that they are human beings with feelings, rather than having anything to do with actual narcissism. [edit] Sexual narcissism Sexual narcissism has been described as an egocentric pattern of sexual behavior that involves an inflated sense of sexual ability and sexual entitlement. In addition, sexual narcissism is the erotic preoccupation with oneself as a superb lover through a desire to merge sexually with a mirror image of oneself. Sexual narcissism is an intimacy dysfunction in which sexual exploits are pursued, generally in the form of extramarital affairs, to overcompensate for low self-esteem and an inability to experience true intimacy.[41] This behavioral pattern is believed to be more common in men than in women and has been tied to domestic violence in men and sexual coercion in couples.[42][43] Hurlbert argues that sex is a natural biological given and therefore cannot be deemed as an addiction. He and his colleagues assert that any sexual addiction is nothing more than a misnomer for what is actually sexual narcissism or sexual compulsivity.[44] [edit] Spiritual narcissism Main article: Spiritual materialism Spiritual narcissism describes mistakes spiritual seekers commit that turn the pursuit of spirituality into an ego-building and confusion-creating endeavor.[45] This is based on the idea that ego development is counter to spiritual progress. [edit] Commonly used measures [edit] Narcissistic Personality Inventory Main article: Narcissistic Personality Inventory The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is the most widely used measure of narcissism in social psychological research. Although several versions of the NPI have been proposed in the literature, a forty-item forced-choice version (Raskin & Terry, 1988) is the one most commonly employed in current research. The NPI is based on the DSM-III clinical criteria for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), although it was designed to measure these features in

the general population. Thus, the NPI is often said to measure "normal" or "subclinical" (borderline) narcissism (i.e., in people who score very high on the NPI do not necessarily meet criteria for diagnosis with NPD). [edit] The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory Main article: Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) is a widely used diagnostic test developed by Theodore Millon. The MCMI includes a scale for Narcissism. Auerbach compared the NPI and MCMI and found them well correlated, r(146) = .55, p<.001.[46] It should be noted that whereas the MCMI measures narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), the NPI measures narcissism as it occurs in the general population. In other words, the NPI measures "normal" narcissism; i.e., most people who score very high on the NPI do not have NPD. Indeed, the NPI does not capture any sort of narcissism taxon as would be expected if it measured NPD. [47] [edit] Narcissistic parents Main article: Narcissistic parents Narcissistic parents demand certain behavior from their children because they see the children as extensions of themselves, and need the children to represent them in the world in ways that meet the parents emotional needs. This parenting 'style' most often results in estranged relationships with the children, coupled with feelings of resentment and self-destructive tendencies.[24] [edit] Narcissistic leadership Main article: Narcissistic leadership Narcissistic leadership is a common form of leadership. The narcissism may be healthy or destructive although there is a continuum between the two. A study published in the journal Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin suggests that when a group is without a leader, you can often count on a narcissist to take charge. Researchers found that people who score high in narcissism tend to take control of leaderless groups.[48] [edit] Heritability of narcissism utilizing twin studies Livesley et al. concluded, in agreement with other studies, that narcissism as measured by a standardized test[49] was a common inherited trait.[50] Additionally, in similar agreement with those other studies, it was found that there exists a continuum between normal and disordered personality. The study subjects were 175 volunteer twin pairs (ninety identical, eighty-five fraternal) drawn from the general population. Each twin completed a questionnaire that assessed eighteen dimensions of personality disorder. The authors estimated the heritability of each dimension of personality by standard methods, thus providing estimates of the relative contributions of genetic and environmental causation. Of the eighteen personality dimensions, narcissism was found to have the highest heritability (0.64), indicating that the concordance of this trait in the identical twins was significantly influenced by genetics. Of the other dimensions of personality, only four were found to have heritability coefficients of greater than 0.5: callousness, identity problems, oppositionality and social avoidance. [edit] Stigmatising attitude of narcissists to psychiatric illness Arikan found that a stigmatising attitude to psychiatric patients is associated with narcissistic personality traits.[51] [edit] Narcissism in evolutionary psychology The concept of narcissism is used in evolutionary psychology in relation to the mechanisms of assortative mating, or the non-random choice of a partner for purposes of procreation. Evidence for assortative mating among humans is well established; humans mate assortatively regarding age, IQ, height, weight, nationality, educational and occupational level, physical

and personality characteristics, and family relatedness.[52] In the "self seeking like" hypothesis, individuals unconsciously look for a mirror image of themselves in others, seeking criteria of beauty or reproductive fitness in the context of self-reference. Alvarez et al. found that facial resemblance between couples was a strong driving force among the mechanisms of assortative mating: human couples resemble each other significantly more than would be expected from random pair formation.[53] Since facial characteristics are known to be inherited, the "self seeking like" mechanism may enhance reproduction between genetically similar mates, favoring the stabilization of genes supporting social behavior, with no kin relationship among them. [edit] Examples of narcissism in the media Numerous books, films and television shows have narcissistic characters and/or themes. Examples include: All About Eve (Addison DeWitt) Peter Pan (Peter Pan and Captain Hook) American Psycho (Patrick Bateman) Secret Smile (Brendan Block) Basic Instinct (Catherine Tramell) Spongebob Squarepants" (Squidward Barry Lyndon (Stanley Kubrick's 1975 period Tentacles) film version of William Makepeace The Office (Michael Scott) Thackeray's 1844 novel, The Luck of Barry The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde Lyndon) (who was a self-confessed narcissist) features Cruel Intentions (Kathryn Merteuil, Sebastian the narcissistic characters of Dorian Gray and Valmont) Lord Henry Wotton. Crime and Punishment (Rodion Romanovich The Wizard of Oz (The Wizard) Raskolnikov) There Will Be Blood (Daniel Plainview) Criminal Minds White Oleander (Ingrid Magnussen) Dallas (J.R. Ewing) Spanglish (Ta Lioni) Gaslight (1944 film) (Gregory Anton). From The Duchess (Ralph Fiennes) the film's title, "gaslighting" acquired the The Riddler, a comic book supervillain meaning of ruthlessly manipulating an published by DC Comics, and an enemy of individual, for nefarious reasons, into Batman believing that they are going crazy or The Smurfs (Vanity Smurf) imagining things. Watchmen (Adrian Veidt) House MD What Ever Happened to Aunt Alice? (Claire Two And A Half Men "Evelyn Harper" Marrable) Laura (Waldo Lydecker) Street Fighter (Vega) Mortal Kombat" (Johnny Cage) Nip/Tuck (Dr. Christian Troy) Paradise Lost (Lucifer) Jay Gatsby, the titular character of F. Scott Fitzgerald's 1925 novel The Great Gatsby, "an archetype of self-made American men seeking to join high society,"[54] has been described as a "pathological narcissist" for whom the "ego-ideal" has become "inflated and destructive" and whose "grandiose lies, poor sense of reality, sense of entitlement, and exploitive treatment of others" conspire toward his own demise.[55] The most famous of the seven filmed interpretations of this novel[56] is Paramount Pictures' 1974 screen version, starring Sam Waterston as narrator Nick Carraway, with Mia Farrow as Daisy Buchanan and Robert Redford as Gatsby, with a script by Francis Ford Coppola. In the film Iron Man 2, Nick Fury tells Tony Stark he cannot be a part of the Avengers Initiative because of his compulsive self-destructive behaviour and textbook narcissism. Tony agrees, making him a self-aware narcissist. In the film To Die For, Nicole Kidman's character wants to appear on television at all costs, even if this involves murdering her husband. A psychiatric assessment of her character noted

that she "was seen as a prototypical narcissistic person by the raters: on average, she satisfied 8 of 9 criteria for narcissistic personality disorder... had she been evaluated for personality disorders, she would receive a diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder."[57] In the video game series Mass Effect, the Reapers are an elder race species of bioships with strong AI that as a species have a strongly individualistic and highly narcissistic effect, to the extent of a God complex. This is shown especially when they are communicating with other species; given their superlatively greater power and technology, the Reapers, in their thoughts, feel they are vindicated in their narcissism.[58] [edit] See also Dorian Gray syndrome Ego ideal Egotism Illusory superiority Jointness (psychodynamics) Megalomania Model minority Narcissism of small differences Narcissistic abuse Narcissistic defences Narcissistic elation Narcissistic mortification Narcissistic parents Narcissistic Personality Inventory Narcissistic rage and narcissistic injury Narcissistic supply Narcissistic withdrawal Sam Vaknin Selfishness Spoiled child Superiority complex True self and false self Vanity [edit] References ^ Megalomiacs abound in politics/medicine/finance Business Day 2011/01/07 ^ a b c Millon, Theodore, Personality Disorders in Modern Life, 2004 ^ a b c Freud, Sigmund, On Narcissism: An Introduction, 1914 ^ Person of the Year 2010 Mark Zuckerberg Time Magazine December 15, 2010 ^ Moore & Fine (1990). Psychoanalytic Terms & Concept. The American Psychoanalytic Association: New York. ^ Psywilly.be, psychoanalyticus Willy Depecker ^ Morf, Caroline C., Rhodewalt, Frederick (2001). "Unraveling the Paradoxes of Narcissism: A Dynamic Self-Regulatory Processing Model". Psychological Inquiry 12 (4): 177196. doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1204_1. ^ Sedikides, C., Rudich, E.A., Gregg, A.P., Kumashiro, Ml, Rusbult, C. (2004). "Are Normal Narcissists Psychologically Healthy?: self-esteem matters". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87 (3): 40016. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.87.3.400. ^ Campbell, W.K., & Foster, J.D. The Narcissistic Self: Background and extended agency model and ongoing controversies. Sedikides and Spencer. The Self, Psychology Press, 2007. ISBN 978-1-84169-439-9

^ Lubit, R. (2002). The long-term organizational impact of destructively narcissistic managers. Academy of Management Executive, 16(1), 127-138. ^ a b c Campbell, K.W. & Foster J.D. (2007). The Narcissistic Self: Background, an Extended Agency Model, and Ongoing Controversies. To appear in: C. Sedikides & S. Spencer (Eds.), Frontiers in social psychology: The self. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press. ^ a b Campbell, W. K., Rudich, E., Sedikides, C. (2002). "Narcissism, selfesteem, and the positivity of selfviews: Two portraits of selflove". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28 (3): 35868. doi:10.1177/0146167202286007. ^ a b Gabriel, M. T., Critelli, J. W., Ee, J. S. (1994). "Narcissistic illusions in self-evaluations of intelligence and attractiveness". Journal of Personality 62: 14355. doi:10.1111/j.14676494.1994.tb00798.x. ^ Emmons, R.A. (1984). "Factor analysis and construct validity of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory". Journal of Personality Assessment, 48 (3): 291300. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa4803_11. ^ Campbell, W. K., Bush, C. P., Brunell, A. B., & Shelton, J. (in press). Understanding the social costs of narcissism: The case of tragedy of the commons. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. ^ Rose, P. & Campbell, W. K. (in press). Greatness feels good: A telic model of narcissism and subjective wellbeing. Advances in Psychology Research. Serge P. Shohov (Ed.) Hauppauge, NY: Nova Publishers. ^ Campbell, W.K., Reeder G.D., Sedikides, C., Elliot, A.J. (2000). "Narcissism and Comparative Self-Enhancement Strategies". Journal of Research in Personality 34 (3): 329 47. doi:10.1006/jrpe.2000.2282. ^ Arvan M (2011). "Bad News for Conservatives? Moral Judgments and the Dark Triad Personality Traits: A Correlational Study". Neuroethics Online First. doi:10.1007/s12152011-9140-6. ^ Thomas D Narcissism: Behind the Mask (2010) ^ Hotchkiss, Sandy & Masterson, James F. Why Is It Always About You?: The Seven Deadly Sins of Narcissism (2003) ^ Masterson, James F. The Emerging Self: A Developmental Self & Object Relations Approach to the Treatment of the Closet Narcissistic Disorder of the Self, 1993 ^ Simon Crompton, All about me (London 2007) p. 171 ^ Crompton, p. 171 ^ a b Rappoport, Alan, Ph. D.Co-Narcissism: How We Adapt to Narcissistic Parents. The Therapist, 2005. ^ a b c Golec de Zavala, A, et al. "Collective narcissism and its social consequences." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 97.6 (2009): 1074-1096. Psyc articles. EBSCO. Web. 26 Mar. 2011. ^ Bizumic, Boris, and John Duckitt. "My Group Is Not Worthy of Me: Narcissism and Ethnocentrism." Political Psychology 29.3 (2008): 437-453. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection. EBSCO. Web. 9 Apr. 2011. ^ Downs, Alan: Beyond The Looking Glass: Overcoming the Seductive Culture of Corporate Narcissism, 1997 ^ Hill, Victor (2005) Corporate Narcissism in Accounting Firms Australia, Pengus Books Australia ^ Lachkar, Joan: How to Talk to a Narcissist, 2008 ^ Lasch, C, The Culture of Narcissism. 1979 ^ Brown, Nina W., The Destructive Narcissistic Pattern, 1998 ^ Schoenwolf, Gerald, PH.D Gender Narcissism and its Manifestations ^ Fromm, Erich, The Heart of Man, 1964

^ Banja, John, Medical Errors and Medical Narcissism, 2005 ^ Banja, John, (as observed by Eric Rangus) John Banja: Interview with the clinical ethicist ^ Otto Fenichel, The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis (London 1944) p. 495 ^ Fenichel, p. 495 ^ Charles Rycroft, A Critical Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (Penguin 1977) p. 117 ^ Simmel, Ernst (1944). Psychoanalytic Quarterly XIII (2): 16085. ^ Bernard Stiegler, Acting Out (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2009). ^ Hurlbert, D.F., Apt, C. (1991). "Sexual narcissism and the abusive male". Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 17 (4): 27992. doi:10.1080/00926239108404352. PMID 1815094. ^ Hurlbert, D.F., Apt, C., Gasar, S., Wilson, N.E., Murphy, Y. (1994). "Sexual narcissism: a validation study". Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 20: 2434. doi:10.1080/00926239408403414. ^ Ryan, K.M., Weikel, K., Sprechini, G. (2008). "Gender differences in narcissism and courtship violence in dating couples". Sex Roles 58 (1112): 80213. doi:10.1007/s11199008-9403-9. ^ Apt, C., Hurlbert, D.F. (1995). "Sexual Narcissism: Addiction or Anachronism?". The Family Journal 3 (2): 1037. doi:10.1177/1066480795032003. ^ Spiritual Narcissism ^ Auerbach JS (December 1984). "Validation of two scales for narcissistic personality disorder". J Pers Assess 48 (6): 64953. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa4806_13. PMID 6520692. ^ Foster, J.D., & Campbell, W.K., Are there such things as "narcissists" in social psychology? A taxometric analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Personality and Individual Differences, in press. ^ Narcissistic People Most Likely to Emerge as Leaders Newswise, Retrieved on October 7, 2008. ^ Narcissism Test ^ Livesley WJ, Jang KL, Jackson DN, Vernon PA (December 1993). "Genetic and environmental contributions to dimensions of personality disorder". Am J Psychiatry 150 (12): 182631. PMID 8238637. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/pmidlookup? view=long&pmid=8238637. ^ Arikan, K. (2005). "A stigmatizating attitude towards psychiatric illnesses is associated with narcissistic personality traits" (PDF). Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 42 (4): 24850. PMID 16618057. http://www.psychiatry.org.il/upload/infocenter/info_images/2008200653242PM@Pages %20from%20IJP-42-4-7.pdf. ^ Buston & Emlen 2003, Buss 1989, Epstein & Guttman 1984, Garrison et al. 1968, Ho 1986, Jaffe & Chacon 1995, Spuhler 1968, Rushton 1989 ^ Alvarez, L. (2005). "Narcissism guides mate selection: Humans mate assortatively, as revealed by facial resemblance, following an algorithm of 'self seeking like'". Evolutionary Psychology 2: 17794. http://human-nature.com/ep/articles/ep02177194.html. ^ Jay Gatsby ^ Fitzgerald.narod.ru ^ The Great Gatsby ^ Hesse, Morten; Schliewe S, Thomsen RR (2005). "Rating of personality disorder features in popular movie characters". BMC Psychiatry (London: BioMed Central) 5: 45. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-5-45. PMC 1325244. PMID 16336663. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/5/45. ^ Youtube.com [edit] Further reading

Brown, Nina W. Children of the Self-Absorbed: A Grown-up's Guide to Getting over Narcissistic Parents (2008) Brown, Nina W. The Destructive Narcissistic Pattern (1998) Golomb, Elan Trapped in the Mirror - Adult Children of Narcissists in their Struggle for Self (1995) Hotchkiss, Sandy & Masterson, James F. Why Is It Always About You? : The Seven Deadly Sins of Narcissism (2003) Lavender NJ & Cavaiola AA The One-Way Relationship Workbook: Step-By-Step Help for Coping with Narcissists, Egotistical Lovers, Toxic Coworkers & Others Who Are Incredibly Self-Absorbed (2011) Lowen, Alexander Narcissism: Denial of the True Self (1984) McFarlin, Dean Where Egos Dare: The Untold Truth About Narcissistic Leaders - And How to Survive Them (2002) Morrison, Andrew P. Essential Papers on Narcissism (Essential Papers in Psychoanalysis) (1986) Morrison, Andrew P. Shame: The Underside of Narcissism (1997) Payson, Eleanor The Wizard of Oz and Other Narcissists: Coping with the One-Way Relationship in Work, Love, and Family (2002) Ronningstam, Elsa F. Identifying and Understanding the Narcissistic Personality (2005) Thomas David Narcissism: Behind the Mask (2010) Twenge, Jean M. & Campbell, W. Keith The Narcissism Epidemic: Living in the Age of Entitlement (2009) Vaknin, Sam & Rangelovska, Lidija Malignant Self Love: Narcissism Revisited (1999) [edit] External links Look up narcissism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. A Field Guide To Narcissism, Carl Vogel - feature writer for Psychology Today magazine Distinctions between Self-Esteem and Narcissism: Implications for Practice, Lilian G. Katz The Impact of Narcissism on Leadership and Sustainability, Bruce Gregory Ph.D. Information for people who are, or have been in relationship with Narcissists. All About Narcissists The Unreal World of Narcissists and Sociopaths, with host Jari Chevalier for Living Hero. Numerous experts, including Nina W. Brown, Linda Martinez-Lewi, Gabor Mate, Martha Stout, Philip Zimbardo