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VERBELE IN ENGLEZA ma voi juca (verbul in romana) -> I will play, I will be

playing (verbul in engleza)


Verbul in orice limba semnifica o actiune sau o stare. Verbul 7. Viitorul perfect:
in limba engleza, prin forma sa arata timpul la care se face ma voi fi jucat (verbul in romana) -> I will have played, I
acea actiune. Prin urmare, verbul in limba engleza, are mai
will have been playing (verbul in engleza)
multe timpuri. Timpurile de baza desi sunt prezent, trecut,
viitor, atunci cind se face o traducere, nu exista o
corespondenta perfecta a timpurilor. Totusi, pentru placerea Dupa cum se vede in exemplul de mai sus, perfectul compus
exercitiului incerc mai jos sa fac o paralela intre timpurile din limba romana poate avea drept corespondent mai multe
verbelor in limba engleza si timpurile verbelor in limba
romana: timpuri in limba engleza.

1. Prezent: Dupa modul in care se formeaza timpurile verbelor in


ma joc (verbul in romana) -> I play, I am playing (verbul
engleza, verbele in engleza se impart in verbe regulate si
in engleza)
verbe neregulate. In cazul verbelor neregulate, in engleza
2. Imperfect:
trebuiesc stiute cele 3 forme ale verbului.
ma jucam (verbul in romana) -> I was playing (verbul in
engleza)
In engleza, verbul to play = a (se) juca este verb regulat. Ca
3. Perfectul compus:
verb regulat:
m-am jucat (verbul in romana) -> I played, I have played, I
- formele continue primesc un "-ing" la sfarsit;
have been playing (verbul in engleza)
- trecutul simplu al verbului (in engleza) primeste "-ed" la
4. Perfectul simplu:
sfarsitul verbului;
ma jucai (verbul in romana) -> I played (verbul in engleza)
- participiul trecut al verbului se formeaza prin adaugarea
5. Mai mult ca perfectul:
lui "-ed" la sfarsitul verbului.
ma jucasem (verbul in romana) -> I had played (verbul in
Verbul in limba engleza formeaza timpurile (unele timpuri)
engleza)
cu ajutorul altor verbe (auxiliare). Verbele auxiliare in limba
6. Viitor:
engleza sunt: to be (a fi) , to have (a avea). Si in Limba
Romana se folosesc verbele auxiliare, dar nu in acelasi fel.
TIMPURILE VERBELOR IN ENGLEZA do not/ does not + Subiect + verb
Does she want to participate in the competition? - Vrea ea sa

Present Simple Tense: Forme - Timpurile verbelor in participle in competitie?

engleza
Afirmativ :
Present Continuous Tense: Forme - Timpurile verbelor
Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv in engleza
Exceptie : La pers a III sg verbul se termina mereu in s sau Afirmativ :

es : Subiect + Prezentul verbului a fi + ing :

The boy wants a toy car for Christmas. Baiatul vrea o She is cutting the cake in slices. (Ea taie prajitura felii.)

masina de jucarie pentru Craciun.


Negativ :

Atentie: 1. Verbele care se termina in -y la pers a III sg, y se Subiect + Prezentul verbului a fi + not + verb + ing :

transforma in -ies: She is not talking at the moment, she is eating. (In acest

I cry She cries. moment ea nu vorbeste, mananca.)

I play He plays.
Interogativ :

Prezentul verbului a fi + Subiect + verb + ing :


2. Verbele care se termina in o, -ss, -x, -sh, -ch
Is she smiling ? (Ea zambeste ?)
primesc la pers a III sg - es
My mother usually goes to the market in the morning.
Mama se duce de obicei in piata dimineata.
Present Perfect Tense: Forme - Timpurile verbelor in
engleza
Negativ : Afirmativ :

Subiect+ do not/ does not + verb Subiectul + Auxiliarul HAVE la prezent + past participle al

She does not sing in the school chorus. Ea nu canta in corul verbului de conjugat

scolii. We are not going on holiday since the prices have rise. Noi
nu mai mergem in vacant deoarece preturile au crescut.

Interogativ : Negativ :
Subiectul + have/has not + past participle al verbului de Prezentul perfect al verbului to be + Subiectul + participul
conjugat prezent al verbului de conjugat
I havent seen her this morning, she is probably sleeping. Nu What have you been doing ? I have been working on a new
am vazut-o de dimineata, probabil doarme. project. Ce ai mai facut? Am lucrat la un nou proiect.

Interogativ : Simple Past Tense : Forme - Timpurile verbelor in


Auxiliarul HAVE la prezent + Subiectul + past participle al engleza
verbului de conjugat Afirmativ :
Havent you eaten too much chocolate already? Nu ai mancat S + verbul la forma a II a de pe lista verbelor iregulate
deja destula ciocolata? We went to the zoo yesterday. Am fost la zoo ieri.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense: Forme - Timpurile S + verb + ed pentru cele regulate
I phoned her. I-am dat telefon.
verbelor in engleza
Negativ :
Afirmativ :
Subiectul + prezentul perfect al verbului to be (have/has been) S + aux DO la trecut (did) + not + verbul la infinitiv

+ participul prezent al verbului de conjugat (baza + ing) We did not finish the project in due time. Noi nu am

They have been reading a lot of book lately. Ei au citit o terminat proiectul la timp.

multime de carti in ultima vreme.


Interogativ :

Negativ : Did + S + verbul la infinitiv ?

Subiectul + prezentul perfect al verbului to be (have/has been) Did you eat all the chocolate? Ai mancat toata ciocolata?

+ NOT + participul prezent al verbului de conjugat


They havent been watching TV this afternoon. Ei nu s-au
uitat la tv in acesta dupa-amiaza.

Interogativ :
Past Perfect Tense : Forme - Timpurile verbelor in Negativ :

engleza S + verbul To BE la past tense la forma negativa + verbul de

Afirmativ : conjugat + ING

S + Past tense al verbului To HAVE + participiu trecut They werent looking for Susan; they were looking for her

Atentie: La verbele regulate participiul trecut = verb + ed iar sister. Ei nu o cautau pe Susan, ei o cautau pe sora ei.

la cele neregulate este forma a 3a de pe lista verbelor iregulate.


At last she showed me the dress she had bought. Intr-un Interogativ :

sfarsit, mi-a aratat rochia pe care si-o cumparase. Verbul To BE la past tense + S + verbul de conjugat + ING
Was he driving too fast when he had the accident? Conducea

Negativ : el prea repede cand a avut accidentul?

S + Past tense al verbului To HAVE + Not + participiu trecut


They hadnt gone to Mt. Omu, they had gone to another peak. Past Perfect Continuous Tense : Forme - Timpurile
Ei nu au mers pe varful Omu, au mers pe alt varf.
verbelor in engleza
Afirmativ :
Interogativ :
S+ had been + participiu prezent Participiu prezent =
Past tense al verbului To HAVE + S + participiu trecut
verb + ing
Hadnt he loved you? Nu te iubea?
I have been thinking of writing you a mail when you called
me. Eu ma gandisem sa iti scriu un mail cand tu m-ai sunat.
Past Continuous Tense : Forme - Timpurile verbelor in
engleza Negativ :
Afirmativ : S + had + Not + been + present participle
S + verbul To BE la past tense + verbul de conjugat + ING I hadnt been waiting long in a queue when I heard a voice
I was reading the lesson when the teacher came in. Citeam calling my name. Nu stateam de mult la rand, cand au auzit o
lectia cand a intrat profesoara. voce strigandu-mi numele.
Interogativ: ei vor fi plecat spre Sibiu.
Had + S + been + present participle
They hadnt been doing their tasks so they didnt get a bonus. Negativ :
Ei nu si-au indeplinit din taskuri deci nu au primit un bonus. S + will not have + past participle al verbului de conjugat
When you phone Julie I will not have arrived at the station.
Simple Future Tense: Forme - Timpurile verbelor in Cand o suni pe Julie eu nu voi fi ajuns in statie.

engleza
Afirmativ : Future Continuous Tense: Forme - Timpurile verbelor
S + will + verbul la infinitiv in engleza
You will feel better if you take this pill. - Tu o sa te simti mult Afirmativ :
mai bine daca iei acesta pastila. S + Will be + present participle
The Health Organisation will be opening a new hospital in this
Negativ : city. Organizatia de sanatate va deschide un nou spital in acest
S + will not (wont) + verbul la infinitiv oras.
I wont tell where she is. Nu iti voi spune unde este ea.
Negativ :
Interogativ: S + will not (wont) + present participle
Will + S + verbul la infinitiv The train wont be arriving any time soon; there was an
Will you love me in 10 years? O sa ma iubesti si peste 10 ani? accident on the road. Trenul nu va ajunge prea curand, a avut
loc un accident pe drum.
Future Perfect Tense: Forme - Timpurile verbelor in
engleza Interogativ:

Afirmativ : Will + S + be + present participle

S + will have + past participle al verbului de conjugat Will you be shouting at me if I tell you the truth? Vei tipa

past participle = forma a III a verbului daca iti voi spune adevarul?

Tomorrow at 9 they will have left for Sibiu. Maine la ora 9


Future Perfect Continuous Tense: Forme - Timpurile
verbelor in engleza
Afirmativ :
S + will have been + present participle al verbului de
conjugat present participle = verbul + ing
While Michael will have been writing his exercices, Maria will
have been playing the violin. Cat timp Mihai isi va fi scris
exercitiile, Maria va fi cantat la vioara.

Negativ :
S + will not have been + present participle al verbului de
conjugat
You will not have been working here by this summer. Tu nu
vei fi lucrat aici pana in aceasta vara.

Future-in-the-Past Tense: Forme - Timpurile verbelor in


engleza
Afirmativ :
S + would + infinitivul verbului de conjugat
She told me I would be in trouble Ea mi-a spus ca voi intra
in bucluc.

Negativ :
S + would not + infinitivul verbului de conjugat
We never thought they would not win. Noi nu ne-am gandit
niciodata ca ei nu vor castiga.
PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE Does she want to participate in the competition? - Vrea ea sa
participle in competitie?
PREZENTUL SIMPLU IN ENGLEZA
Present Simple Tense se foloseste pentru a exprima :
Present Simple Tense: Forme
- Adevaruri general valabile :
Afirmativ :
The earth has 2 emispheres - Pamantul are 2 emisfere.
Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv
Exceptie : La pers a III sg verbul se termina mereu in s sau
- Actiuni repetitive:
es :
She takes piano lessons each day at 5 oclock. Ea ia lectii de
The boy wants a toy car for Christmas. Baiatul vrea o
pian in fiecare zi la ora 5.
masina de jucarie pentru Craciun.

- Actiuni de moment, terminate in momentul in care sunt


Atentie: 1. Verbele care se termina in -y la pers a III sg, y se
savarsite :
transforma in -ies:
Mark gets out of bed, goes to the bathroom and washes his teeth.
I cry She cries.
Mark se da jos din pat, se duce la baie si se spala pe dinti.
I play He plays.

- Actiuni obisnuite :
2. Verbele care se termina in o, -ss, -x, -sh, -ch
My grandfather and Iusually look at the starts when the sky is
primesc la pers a III sg - es
clear. Bunicul meu si cu mine, noi ne uitam de obicei la stele
My mother usually goes to the market in the morning.
cand e senin.
Mama se duce de obicei in piata dimineata.
Negativ :
- Actiuni planificate in viitor, obligatorii (cu verbe de miscare) :
Subiect+ do not/ does not + verb
The year ends with the 31st of December. Anul se termina cu
She does not sing in the school chorus. Ea nu canta in corul
31 decembrie.
scolii.

Interogativ :
do not/ does not + Subiect + verb
PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE in Cluj dar in acest an locuiesc in Bucuresti.

PREZENTUL CONTINUU IN ENGLEZA


- planuri imediate pentru viitorul apropiat
Ex. The children are going camping today. Copiii merg cu
Present Continuous Tense: Forme
cortul astazi.
Afirmativ :
Subiect + Prezentul verbului a fi + ing :
- actiune frecvent repetata, suparatoare se foloseste deseori cu
She is cutting the cake in slices. (Ea taie prajitura felii.)
adverbele always, forever, constantly
Ex. Ann is always making plans without taking into
Negativ :
consideration all the facts. Ann isi face mereu planuri fara sa ia
Subiect + Prezentul verbului a fi + not + verb + ing :
in considerare toate aspectele.
She is not talking at the moment, she is eating. (In acest
moment ea nu vorbeste, mananca.)
- in propozitii subordonate
Ex They will go jogging while the babies are sleeping. Ei vor
Interogativ :
face jogging cat timp copii dorm.
Prezentul verbului a fi + Subiect + verb + ing :
Is she smiling ? (Ea zambeste ?)
Exista o serie de verbe care nu se folosesc la Prezent Continuu.
Prezentul continuu se foloseste pentru a exprima :
Ele se impart in urmatoarele categorii :
- actiune care se intampla in momentul vorbirii
Verbe de perceptie : feel, hear, see, smell, taste
Ex. The wind is blowing.- Vantul sufla.
Verbe de opinie : assume, believe, consider, doubt, feel (= a crede),
It is raining outside. - Ploua afara.
find (= a considera), suppose, think
Verbe care se refera la perceptie mentala: forget, imagine, know,
- actiune care se extinde pe o perioada putin mai lunga de timp
mean, notice, recognize, remember, understand
Ex. Julia is reading a novel by Dickens. - Iulia citeste un roman
Verbe care exprima emotii sau chiar dorinte : envy, fear, dislike,
de Dickens.
hate, hope, like, love, mind, prefer, regret, want, wish
- actiune temporara, limitata
Verbe folosite pentru masurat : contain, cost, hold, measure, weigh
Ex. I live in Cluj but this year I am living in Bucuresti. Traiesc
Alte verbe : look (= a se asemana), seem, be (in majoritatea
cazurilor), have = a poseda) Simple Past Tense
Trecutul simplu in engleza
Unele verbe pot fi folosite la forma continua dar isi schimba
sensul : Simple Past Tense : Forme
Exemple: Afirmativ :
Verbul to see (a imagina) : S + verbul la forma a II a de pe lista verbelor iregulate
I think you are seeing things, there is no one in the house. Cred We went to the zoo yesterday. Am fost la zoo ieri.
ca iti imaginezi lucruri, nu e nimeni in casa.
Verbul to smell (a adulmeca, a mirosi) : S + verb + ed pentru cele regulate
She is smelling the roses.- Ea miroase trandafirii. I phoned her. I-am dat telefon.
Verbul to look (a se uita) :
Tom is looking at Maria. Negativ :
Verbul to be (a se comporta) : S + aux DO la trecut (did) + not + verbul la infinitiv
She is being rude. Ea se comporta nepoliticos. We did not finish the project in due time. Noi nu am
terminat proiectul la timp.
Expresii de timp folosite cu prezentul continuu : now, at the
moment, at present, these days, still, nowadays, today, tonight. Interogativ :
Did + S + verbul la infinitiv ?
Did you eat all the chocolate? Ai mancat toata ciocolata?

Trecutul simplu (Simple Past Tense) se foloseste pentru a


exprima :

A. Actiuni terminate in trecut la un timp stabilit


o Cand locul si timpul unde se petrece actiunea ne sunt date
Marta called me in the morning from the hospital. Marta m-a
sunat dimineata de la spital.
o Cand se intreaba timpul PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
When did you go to the Opera? Cand ai fost la Opera?
TRECUTUL CONTINUU IN ENGLEZA
Past Continuous Tense : Forme
o Cand timpul e definit ca rezultat al unei intrebari
Afirmativ :
When did they find her? They found her 2 hours ago. Cand au
S + verbul To BE la past tense + verbul de conjugat + ING
gasit-o? Ei au gasit-o acum 2 ore.
I was reading the lesson when the teacher came in. Citeam
lectia cand a intrat profesoara.
B. Actiuni care s-au intamplat imediat una dupa alta in trecut
They went into the house, brought food from the fridge and set
Negativ :
the table in the yard. Ei s-au dus in casa, au adus mancare din
S + verbul To BE la past tense la forma negativa + verbul de
frigider si au pus masa in curte.
conjugat + ING
They werent looking for Susan; they were looking for her
C. Obiceiuri in trecut care acum sunt terminate
sister. Ei nu o cautau pe Susan, ei o cautau pe sora ei.
I used to go to ballet 5 years ago. Obisnuiam sa ma duc la
cursuri de balet acum 5 ani.
Interogativ :
Verbul To BE la past tense + S + verbul de conjugat + ING
Was he driving too fast when he had the accident? Conducea
Adverbe ce se folosesc cu Simple Past Tense : yesterday,
el prea repede cand a avut accidentul?
the day before yesterday, last week, two weeks ago

Trecutul simplu (Past Continuous Tense) se foloseste


pentru a exprima :
actiune care se afla in desfasurare la un moment dat in trecut.
While wou were having a bath, the phone rang. In timp ce
faceai baie a sunat telefonul.

actiune care continua de ceva vreme


Yesterday I was jogging in the park. Ieri, faceam jogging in VERBUL - PREZENTUL SIMPLU
park.

Prezentul Simplu (Present Tense Simple) prezinta o actiune


actiune care are loc in acelasi timp cu o alta actiune in trecut care are loc in momentului vorbirii - now.
While I was reviewing the article my husband was watching
Prezentul Simplu in engleza se formeaza folosind infinitivul
his favourite tv show. In timp ce eu revizuiam articolul sotul meu verbului (fara to), adaugandu-se doar la persoana a III-a singular
urmarea show-ul tv favorit. terminatia -(e)s.
Terminatia -(e)s se pronunta:
un echivalent in trecut al prezentului continuu
s dupa consoane surde: he thinks
They told us they were spending the night at Select. Ei ne-au
spus ca o sa-si petreaca noaptea la Select. z dupa vocale si consoane sonore: he runs, he studies

sau iz: he washes


Adverbe folosite cu Past Continuous Tense: while, when , all
morning, all night, as
Terminatia -es se foloseste cand verbul se termina in
s,x,z,sh,ch,tch sau o: he watches, he goes.
Verbele terminate in -y precedat de o consoana schimba y in i si
se adauga -es: he tries.

Afirmativ:

to drive to be
I drive I am (I'm)
You drive You are
He/she drives He/she/it is
We drive We are
You drive You are
They drive They are

Negativ: se foloseste do not (don't) sau does not (doesn't)


pentru persoana a III-a singular.

to drive to be
I do not (don't) drive I am (I'm) not
You do not (don't) drive You are not
(aren't) Birds fly.
He/she does not (doesn't) He/she/it is not Wood always floats in the water.
drive (isn't)
We are not 3. Prezentul se refera la actiuni care se petrec in momentul
We do not (don't) drive
(aren't)
You are not vorbirii sau care au loc pentru o perioada limitata in prezent,
You do not (don't) drive
(aren't) comentarii, demonstratii, exclamatii
They are not
They do not (don't) drive Look! It's raining!
(aren't)
What are you reading these days?

4. Prezentul poate avea valoare de viitor pentru


Interogativ: se foloseste auxiliarul do sau does (la persoana a III-
a singular) urmat de verb. Se conjuga numai auxiliarul. exprimarea datei: Tomorrow is Sunday.

to drive to be actiunilor planificate, aranjamente de viitor folosite cu


Do I drive? Am I?
Do you drive? Are you? verbe de miscare (go, came, leave) sau verbe ca
Does he/she Is begin, start, finish: He leave Cluj at ten. The bus
drives? he/she/it?
for Bucharest lives at 12.15 on Monday.
Do we drive? Are we?
Do you drive? Are you?
subordonate de timp (introduse de after, before) sau
Do they drive? Are they?
conditionale (introduse de if, in case): If it rains I'll
stay home.
Folosire:

1. Prezentul simplu este folosit pentru actiuni obisnuite, repetate 5. Prezentul cu valoare de trecut se foloseste in povestiri ( One

fixate prin adverbe sau locutiuni adverbiale ca: every day, day the girl goes to the woods), sau cu verbele tell, learn,

usually, rarely, sometimes, once a week, often etc. write (She tells me that they won

I usualy watch TV.


Prezentul Continuu (Present Continuous Tense) este folosit pentru a
We play tennis every day.
exprima o actiune viitoare care a fost planificata in momentul
2. Prezentul exprima actiuni generale care au loc intr-un moment
prezentului.
nespecificat, dar care include si momentul vorbirii. Adverbele
folosite sunt: always, never, ever. Se formeaza din verbul to be la prezent si participiu prezent (forma
Sun shine. -ing) a verbului de conjugat.
Afirmativ: -y final se pastreaza, chiar daca e precedat de consoana sau
I am (I'm) playing football vocala: (study) studying, (play) playing
You are (you're) playing football In engleza britanica -l final se dubleaza, dar incea americana
He is (he's) playing tennnis numai daca accentul cade pe ultima silaba
She is (she's) playing tennnis -ie final se transforma in -y: (die) dying, (lie) lying
We are playing football
-e final se pierde: (have) having
You are playing football
exceptii: (see) seeing, (be) being
They are playing football

consoana finala se dubleaza daca vocala precedenta e scurta


Negativ: si accentuata: (stop) stopping
I am not (I'm not) playing football
You are not (aren't) playing football
He is not (isn't) playing tennnis
She is not(isn't) playing tennnis
We are not playing football
You are not playing football
They are not playing football

Interogativ:
Am I playing football?
Are you playing football?
Is he playing football?
Is she playing football?
Are we playing football?
Are you playing football?
Are they playing football?

Formarea participiului:
Trecut/ Past
Forma afirmativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")

Persoana Past Simple Past Continuous Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Continuous
I singular I came I was coming I had come I had been coming
II singular You came You were coming You had come You had been coming
III
singular He/She/It came He/She/It was coming He/She/It had come He/She/It has been coming
I plural We came We were coming We had come We had been coming
II plural You came You were coming You had come You had been coming
III plural They came They were coming They had come They had been coming

Forma negativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")

Persoana Past Simple Past Continuous Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Continuous
I singular I did not come I was not coming I had not come I had not been coming
II singular You did not come You were not coming You had not come You had not been coming
III singular He/She/It did not come He/She/It was not coming He/She/It had not come He/She/It has not been coming
I plural We did not come We were not coming We had not come We had not been coming
II plural You did not come You were not coming You had not come You had not been coming
III plural They did not come They were not coming They had not come They had not been coming

Forma interogativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")

Persoana Past Simple Past Continuous Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Continuous
I singular Did I come? Was I coming? Had I come? Had I been coming?
II singular Did you come? Were you coming? Had you come? Had you been coming?
III
singular Did he/she/it come? Was he/she/it coming? Had he/she/it come? Has he/she/it been coming?
I plural Did we come? Were we coming? Had we come? Had we been coming?
II plural Did you come? Were you coming? Had you come? Had you been coming?
III plural Did they come? Were they coming? Had they come? Had they been coming?

Prezent/ Present
Forma afirmativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")

Persoana Present Simple Present Continuous Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Continuous
I singular I come I am coming I have come I have been coming
II singular You come You are coming You have come You have been coming
III singular He/She/It comes He/She/It is coming He/She/It has come He/She/It has been coming
I plural We come We are coming We have come We have been coming
II plural You come You are coming You have come You have been coming
III plural They come They are coming They have come They have been coming

Forma negativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")

Persoana Present Simple Present Continuous Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Continuous
I singular I don't come I am not coming I have not come I have not been coming
II singular You don't come You are not coming You have not come You have not been coming
III He/She/It doesn't
singular come He/She/It is not coming He/She/It has not come He/She/It has not been coming
I plural We don't come We are not coming We have not come We have not been coming
II plural You don't come You are not coming You have not come You have not been coming
III plural They don't come They are not coming They have not come They have not been coming

Forma interogativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")

Persoana Present Simple Present Continuous Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Continuous
I singular Do I come? Am I coming? Have I come? Have I been coming?
II singular Do you come? Are you coming? Have you come? Have you been coming?
III
singular Does he/she/it come? Is he/she/it coming? Has he/she/it come? Has he/she/it been coming?
I plural Do we come? Are we coming? Have we come? Have we been coming?
II plural Do you come? Are you coming? Have you come? Have you been coming?
III plural Do they come? Are they coming? Have they come? Have they been coming?

Viitor/ Future

Forma afirmativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")


Persoana Be Going To Future Simple Future Future Continuous
I singular I am going to come I will come I will be coming
II singular You are going to come You will come You will be coming
III singular He/She/It is going to come He/She/It will come He/She/It will be coming
I plural We are going to come We will come We will be coming
II plural You are going to come You will come You will be coming
III plural They are going to come They will come They will be coming

Persoana Future Perfect Future Perfect Continuous "Be about to" Future
I singular I will have come I will have been coming I am about to come
II singular You will have come You will have been coming You are about to come
III singular He/She/It will have come He/She/It will have been coming He/She/It is about to come
I plural We will have come We will have been coming We are about to come
II plural You will have come You will have been coming You are about to come
III plural They will have come They will have been coming They are about to come

Forma negativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")

Persoana Be Going To Future Simple Future Future Continuous


I singular I am not going to come I will not come I will not be coming
II singular You are not going to come You will not come You will not be coming
III
singular He/She/It is not going to come He/She/It will not come He/She/It will not be coming
I plural We are not going to come We will not come We will not be coming
II plural You are not going to come You will not come You will not be coming
III plural They are not going to come They will not come They will not be coming

Persoana Future Perfect Future Perfect Continuous "Be about to" Future
I singular I will not have come I will not have been coming I am not about to come
II singular You will not have come You will not have been coming You are not about to come
III
singular He/She/It will not have come He/She/It will not have been coming He/She/It is not about to come
I plural We will not have come We will not have been coming We are not about to come
II plural You will not have come You will not have been coming You are not about to come
III plural They will not have come They will not have been coming They are not about to come

Forma interogativa a verbelor in limba engleza (ex. verbul "to come")

Persoana Be Going To Future Simple Future Future Continuous


I singular Am I going to come? Will I come? Will I be coming?
II singular Are you going to come? Will you come? Will you be coming?
III
singular Is he/she/it going to come? Will he/she/it come? Will he/she/it be coming?
I plural Are we going to come? Will we come? Will we be coming?
II plural Are you going to come? Will you come? Will you be coming?
III plural Are you going to come? Will they come? Will they be coming?

Persoana Future Perfect Future Perfect Continuous "Be about to" Future
I singular Will I have come? Will I have been coming? Am I about to come?
II singular Will you have come? Will you have been coming? Are you about to come?
III
singular Will he/she/it have come? Will he/she/it have been coming? Is he/she/it about to come?
I plural Will we have come? Will we have been coming? Are we about to come?
II plural Will you have come? Will you have been coming? Are you about to come?
III plural Will they have come? Will they have been coming? Are they about to come?
CONJUGAREA VERBELOR IN ENGLEZA - I was going We were going
You were going You were going
FORMA AFIRMATIVA
He/she/it was going They were going

Conjugarea verbelor : Exemplu: "TO GO" A MERGE


Conjugarea verbelor in engleza : Present Perfect Simple ("to
MODUL INDICATIV AFIRMATIV
go" - a merge)
I have gone We have gone
Conjugarea verbelor in engleza : Present Simple ("to go" - a
You have gone You have gone
merge)
He/she/it has gone He/she/it has gone
I go We go
Conjugarea verbelor in engleza : Present Perfect Continuous
You go You go
("to go" - a merge)
He/she/it goes They go
I have been going We have been going
("he goes" e o exceptie. De regula se adauga "s" la persoana
You have been going You have been going
III sg.: He knows ... )
He/she/it has been going They have been going

Conjugarea verbelor in engleza : Present Continuous ("to


Conjugarea verbelor in engleza : Past Perfect Simple ("to
go" - a merge)
go" - a merge)
I was going We were going
I had gone We had gone
You were going You were going
You had gone You had gone
He/she/it was going They were going
He/she/it had gone They had gone
Conjugarea verbelor in engleza : Past Tense Simple ("to go"
- a merge)
Conjugarea verbelor in engleza : Past Perfect Continuous
I went We went
("to go" - a merge)
You went You went
I had been going We had been going
He/she/it went They went
You had been going You had been going
He/she/it had been going They had been going
Conjugarea verbelor in engleza : Past Tense Continuous ("to
go" - a merge)
Conjugarea verbelor in engleza : Future Tense Simple ("to
go" - a merge) I would go We would go
You would go You would go
I will go We will go He/she/it would go They would go
You will go You will go
He/she/it will go They will go Conjugarea verbelor in engleza : Simple Future-in-the-Past
Continuous ("to go" - a merge)
Conjugarea verbelor in engleza : Future Tense Continuous I would be going We would be going
("to go" - a merge) You would be going You would be going
I will be going We will be going He/she/it would be going They would be going
You will be going You will be going
He/she/it will be going They will be going

Conjugarea verbelor in engleza : Future Perfect Simple ("to


go" - a merge)
I will have gone We will have gone
You will have gone You will have gone
He/she/it will have gone They will have gone

Conjugarea verbelor in engleza : Future Perfect Continuous


("to go" - a merge)
I will have been going We will have
been going
You will have been going You will have
been going
He/she/it will have been going They will
have been going

Conjugarea verbelor in engleza : Future-in-the-Past ("to go"


- a merge)
EXERCITII CU TIMPURILE VERBELOR LA INDICATIV
4. Ea face curat n cas ...
(cu explicatii ) Ea face curat n cas in fiecare zi - She does the housework
every day.
- Exercitii - Explicatie : S-a folosit Present Simple pentru ca este o aciune
prezent, general, repetabil n prezent
Exercitii
Ea face curat n cas, acum, c mama ei este n concediu - She is
Atunci cnd avem de stabilit ce timp i ce aspect avem de pus ntr-o doing the housework now that her mother is in vacation.
propoziie, trebuie avute n vedere urmtoarele criterii: Explicatie: S-a folosit Present Continuous pentru ca aciunea este
- cnd se folosete acel timp i/sau aspect prezent i se desfoar acum, sau n jurul momentului acum
- ce cuvinte cheie avem n propoziie
5. Lucrez in gradina ...
1. Apa fierbe ... Lucrez in gradina. - I am working in the garden.
Apa fierbe la 100 de grade Celsius. - Water boils at 100 C. Folosind verbul in engleza la prezentul continuu indica faptul ca te
Explicatie: Pentru ca se refera la un adevr general valabil. referi la clipa asta.

Apa fierbe (acum) - The water is boiling now. Lucrez in gradina. - I work in the garden. - inseamna ca asta e
Explicatie: S-a folosit Present Continuous pentru aciunea este ocupatia ta. De exemplu ca esti gradinar.
prezent i se desfoar acum, sau n jurul momentului (acum).
6. El locuieste la Londra ...
2. Soarele rsare ... El locuieste la Londra. - He lives in London.
Soarele rsare la est. - The sun rises in the east. Explicatie: : Idem 4
Explicatie: Pentru ca se refera la un adevr general valabil.
El locuieste la Londra (in acest moment) - He is living in London
Soarele rasare. - The sun is rising. at the moment.
Explicatie: Soarele rasare acum, in acest moment. Explicatie: Idem 4

3. Plec mine dimineata ... 7. Ploua ...


Plec mine dimineata la Londra cu avionul. - I leave to London Ploua des in Marea Britanie - It often rains in the Uk.
tomorrow morning by plane. Explicatie: S-a folosit Present Simple pentru ca este un obicei in
Explicatie: S-a folosit Present Simple pentru ca este o actiune, care prezent, cuvantul cheie fiind often
depinde de orarul unui aeroport, sau programul turistic fcut de o
agenie de turism. Ploua (acum) - It is raining.
Explicatie: S-a folosit Present Continuous pentru ca aciunea este
Plec mine dimineata la Londra. - I am leaving to London prezent i se desfoar acum
tomorrow morning.
8. Nu m-am trezit devreme azi dimineata ...
Explicatie: S-a folosit Present Continuous pentru ca este o aciune
viitoare, planificat de subiect, i care nu depinde de programul Nu m-am trezit devreme azi dimineata - I havent got up early this
altcuiva. morning. (Este ora 10 a.m.)
Explicatie: S-a folosit Present Perfect Simple deoarece exprima o Locuiesc aici de ani de zile....(si voi pleca) - I have lived here for
actiune trecuta, efectuata intr-o perioada de timp neterminata (este ora years.
10 a.m., dimineata inca nu a trecut) Explicatie: S-a folosit Present Perfect Simple deoarece exprima o
actiune trecuta inceputa in trecut care continua si acum , folosind
Nu m-am trezit devreme azi dimineata - I didnt get up early this constructia for
morning. (Este ora 2 p.m.)
Explicatie: S-a folosit Past Tense Simple deoarece exprima o actiune Locuiesc aici de ani de zile....(si raman) - I have been living here
trecuta, efectuata intr-o perioada de timp terminata (este ora 2 pm, for years.
dimineata s-a inchiat, este trecut de amiaza) Explicatie: S-a folosit Present Perfect Continuous deoarece acest timp
se foloseste cam in aceleasi situatii ca si Present Perfect Simple, doar
9. Mi-am pierdut umbrela. Trebuie sa-mi cumpar una noua ca acesta insista asupra duratei acelei actiuni.
I have lost my umbrella . I must buy a new one.
Explicatie: S-a folosit Present Perfect Simple deoarece exprima o 13. Eu scriu o scrisoare ...
actiune trecuta, terminata, care are rezultate in prezent Eu scriu o scrisoare (acum) - I am writing a letter.
Explicatie: S-a folosit Present Continuous pentru ca aciunea este
Trebuie precizat faptul ca, daca se mentioneaza momentul trecut in prezent i se desfoar acum, sau n jurul momentului acum
care a avut loc actiunea care intereseaza in prezent sau care are
rezultate in prezent, nu mai poate fi folosit timpul Present Perfect. In Eu scriu o scrisoare de 3 ore - I have been writing a letter for
acest caz, se foloseste Past Simple.
three hours.
Ex. Mi-am pierdut umbrela ieri. Trebuie sa-mi cumpar una noua.
Explicatie: S-a folosit Present Perfect Continuous deoarece se insista
I lost my umbrella yesterday. I must buy a new one.
asupra duratei actiunii
10. Te-am iubit.....
14. N-au auzit vorbindu-se ...
Te-am iubit toata viata - Ive loved you all my life.
N-au auzit vorbindu-se despre el anul acesta They havent heard
Explicatie: S-a folosit Present Perfect Simple deoarece exprima o
from him this year.
actiune trecuta, efectuata intr-o perioada de timp neterminata.
Explicatie: S-a folosit Present Perfect Simple pentru ca se vorbeste
despre evenimente situate in aceeasi perioada de timp cu aceea in care
Te-am iubit candva demult - I loved you a long time ago. ne aflam la momentul prezent cand vorbim.
Explicatie: S-a folosit Past Tense Simple deoarece exprima o actiune
trecuta, incheiata.
N-au auzit vorbindu-se despre el anul trecut They didnt hear
11. Am vizitat Londra ... from him last year.
Am vizitat Londra anul trecut - I visited London last year. Explicatie: S-a folosit Past Tense Simple, deoarece ne referim la o
perioada de timp care nu mai este cea prezenta
Explicatie: S-a folosit Past Tense Simple deoarece exprima o actiune
(ieri, saptamana trecuta, anul trecut etc), evenimentul este plasat intr-
trecuta, incheiata.
un trecut datat.
Am vizitat Londra pentru prima data - Its the first time I have 15. Am trimis raportul final ...
visited London. Am trimis raportul final saptamana aceasta I have sent the final
Explicatie: S-a folosit Present Perfect Simple deoarece exprima o
report this week.
actiune trecuta, construita cu expresiile its the first / second / third
Explicatie: Idem 14
time, care cer folosirea acestui timp.

12. Locuiesc aici de ani de zile ...


Am trimis raportul final saptamana trecuta I sent the final report They did not play tennis.
last week. We were not (weren't)
Explicatie: Idem 14
Timpul trecut se foloseste pentru a exprima actiuni incheiate in
trecut.
Se foloseste de obicei cu : yesterday(ieri),last
week(saptamana trecuta),four days ago(acum 4 zile).

VERBUL - TRECUTUL SIMPLU Exemple:

I was at home yesterday.


Trecutul Simplu (Past Tense Simple)
Desemneaza un eveniment definit care a avut loc pe axa She visited Romania last month.
trecutului (evenimentul este amintit in momentul prezent).
Exprima o actiune care a avut loc la un moment dat in trecut iar They didn't go to Ben's party last weekend.
perioada de timp s-a incheiat.
Where did you go on vacation last summer?
Se formeaza astfel:

verb la infinitiv + (-ed) (la verbele regulate) VERBUL - TRECUTUL CONTINUU


forma a doua a verbului (la verbele neregulate)

Trecutul Continuu (Past Contunuous Tense)


Verbe regulate Verbe neregulate
Afirmativ I played tennis
Trecutul continuu se formeaza cu ajutorul formei de trecut simplu a
You played tennis I was auxiliarului to be, was/were + forma participiului prezent (-ing) a
He/she played tennis You were verbului principal.
We played tennis He/she was
You played tennis We were Mod de formare
They played tennis
You were Afirmativ:
They were Subiect + was (pers.I/III sg) / were (restul pers.) + Verbul la
Interogativ Did I play tennis? infinitiv + terminatia "-ing"
Did you play tennis? Was I?
Did he/she play tennis? Were you? Exemple:
Did we play tennis? 1. I was learning a poem at this time yesterday.
.......
Did you play tennis? 2. You were watering the flowers at this time yesterday.
Did they play tennis? 3.They were mending the radio at this time yesterday.

Negativ I did not (didnt) play tennis. I was not (wasn't) Interogativ:
You did not play tennis. Was (pers.I/III sg) / Were (restul pers.) + Subiect + Verbul la
He/she did not play tennis. .... infinitiv + terminatia "-ing"
We did not play tennis.
You did not play tennis.
Exemple:
1. Was I learning a poem at this time yesterday? Trecutul continuu ca si prezentul continuu sunt forme verbale
2. Were you watering the flowers at this time yesterday? apartinand registrului oral, limbii vorbite cu precadere si sunt rar
3. Were they mending the radio at this time yesterday? folosite in registrul scris.

Negativ: Trecutul continuu este folosit pentru a exprima actiuni in desfasurare


Subiect + was (pers.I/III sg) / were (restul pers.) + not + intr-un moment din trecut. Deoarece indica o limita a duratei actiunii
Verbul la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" este foarte folosit pentru a indica actiuni care au avut loc (trecut
Se folosesc adesea contractiile wasn't (was + not) si weren't (were + simplu) in timp ce o alta actiune era in desfasurare, sau pentru a
not) indica o actiune in desfasurare care este intrerupta de o alta.
Ex.: Carlos lost his watch while he was running.
Exemple: I was watching Oprah when John came in screaming.
1. I wasn't learning a poem at this time yesterday.
2. You weren't watering the flowers at this time yesterday. Exprima activitati din trecut:
3.They weren't mending the radio at this time yesterday. Ex.: Once I was driving through Kenya with a friend.

Pentru a vorbi despre obiceiuri din trecut. Trecutul continuu este


insotit in acest caz de always.
Verbe regulate Verbe neregulate Ex.: Grace was always handing in late papers.
I was playing tennis
My father was always lecturing my brother.
You were playing tennisI was being
He/she was playing tennisYou were being
Afirmativ We were playing tennisHe/she was being
You were playing tennisWe were being
They were playing tennis You were being
They were being
Was I playing tennis?
Were you playing tennis?
Was he/she playing tennis?
Was I being?
InterogativWere we playing tennis?
Were you being?
Were you playing tennis?.......
Were they playing tennis?

I was not (wasnt) playing


tennis. I was not (wasn't) being
You were not playing tennis.
He/she did not playing tennis.....
Negativ
We were not playing tennis.
You were not playing tennis.We were not (weren't)
They were not playing tennis. being
- Verbele modale in engleza nu primesc terminatia "s" la
persoana a III-a singular si nu au forma de Past Tense sau
participiu prezent: He can speak English.
- Forma interogativa, se realizeaza prin asezarea verbului
modal in fata subiectului, fara ajutorul auxiliarului do: Must I
read the book again?
- La forma negative, not sta imediat dupa verbul modal: We
VERBELE MODALE IN ENGLEZA
must not get home late.
Verbele modale in engleza reprezinta o categorie
- Se folosesc in intrebarile disjunctive (question tags): He can
speciala de verbe auxiliare, utilizate pentru a exprima
drive, cant he?
sugestii, oferte, cerinte, dorinte, intentii, politete, tact. Verbe
- Atunci cand se repeta o idee, verbele modale se pot folosi
modale in engleza sunt considerate urmatoarele: can, could,
fara auxiliar: If they cannot lend me the money Ill find
may, might, must, ought to, would, shall, will, should.
someone who can.

Caracteristicile verbelelor modale in engleza Verbul modal Can/could pot exprima in limba
engleza:
- o abilitate (fizica sau intelectuala): He can play the guitar
- Verbele modale in engleza nu sunt precedate de particula - o posibilitate: Can you join us?
"to" - o probabilitate: It could rain today.
- o permisiune (Could este mai politicos decat Can).: You
- Verbele modale in engleza sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt al can have my CD if you want to.
verbelor de conjugat: Smoking can damage your health. - o sugestie: If you dont have anything to do now, you can
help me cooking.
- Verbele modale in engleza cand sunt urmate de auxiliarul be - o imposibilitate, cand avem formele de negative: It is too
si un verb la participial present, indica o actiune prezenta sau late, so it cannot be Jack knocking.

viitoare: She must be driving home now. Verbul modal May/might au urmatoarele sensuri in
- Verbele modale in engleza atunci cand sunt urmate de limba engleza:
- o cerere sau permisiune: May I use your pen?
auxiliarul have si un verb la participial trecut, verbele modale - o posibilitate: Where is your brother? He may be playing
indica o actiune trecuta: She must have gotten home by now. soccer. He might be reading a book.
Verbul modal Must se foloseste pentru a exprima in - a exprima iritarea: Why should I know where you put your
limba engleza:
keys ?
- o necessitate, uneori un ordin: I must wash the dishes
tonight. - a exprima o posibilitate: You should arrive before noon.
- o certitudine: He must be very pleased with his
- a face referire la un eveniment: If you should decide to
accomplishments.
- o presupunere: You must know him very well, since you come, let us know.
are good friends.
- a exprima o dezaprobare cu privire la o actiune: She
shouldnt have driven so fast.
Observatie: Lipsa necesitatii impune folosirea verbelor do
not need to sau do not have to. Had to se foloseste pentru a Will/ would
exprima o obligatie sau necesitate din trecut. Cu sensul de verb modal, will se foloseste in urmatoarele
cazuri in limba engleza:
- pentru exprimarea unei cereri: Youll help me with dinner, wont
Verbul modal Shall/ should you?
- pentru a exprima o certitudine cu privire la o situatie din
Verbul modal Shall se foloseste in limba engleza pentru:
present sau viitor: Ill be sleeping by this time tomorrow.
- a exprima o hotarare: I shall visit you again.
- pentru exprimarea dorintei de a face ceva: Ill have only
- a cere un sfat: Where shall I go ?
tea.
- a face o oferta sau o sugestie: Shall we go to a movie
- pentru a exprima un ordin/oferta/invitatie/amenintare:
together ?
Youll turn the TV of right now!/Hell wait for you in the
car/Turn the radio off, or Ill leave the room.
Verbul modal Should se foloseste in limba engleza
- pentru a exprima un obicei sau o trasatura de character:
pentru:
Shell read the book in the garden, for very long, every day.
- a exprima ce e bine si ce e rau in anumite imprejurari:
Nobody should drink and drive
Would este forma de trecut a verbului will si se foloseste
- a exprima un sfat: You should really go to a doctor
astfel:
- a exprima o indoiala: I think we should have enough time
- pentru a formula cereri, oferte, invitatii: Would you like
for this.
some coffee?
- pentru a face o cerere in mod politicos: I would like to use
this machine if possible. Interogativ: Can I? Can you? etc.
Ex. Can you make this translation?
Could=Past Tense, conditional prezent al verbului can
Negativ: could not (couldn't)
Verbul modal Ought to exprima o probabilitate sau un Interogativ: Could I ? Could you? etc.
Ex. I couldn't come to you yesterday.
sfat in limba engleza.
N-am putut sa vin la tine ieri.
Could you help me?
Ai putea sa ma ajuti?

Pentru conditionalul trecut se foloseste could + infinitivul


trecut

VERBELE MODALE Ex. He could have been here in time.


Ar fi putut sa fie aici in timp.
Can, could, may, might, must, need, should, ought to, shall, Pentru celelalte timpuri se foloseste inlocuitorul to be able to.
will, would. Ex. I will be able to come to you tomorrow.
Voi putea veni la tine mine.
Caracteristici generale I haven't been able to ring you up this week.
N-am putut sa-ti telefonez saptamna aceasta.
Nu primesc to inaintea lor si dupa ele:

Ex. Can is a model verb. 2. Arata o anumita abilitate fizica sau intelectuala. Se traduce cu
I can do this. (Pot sa fac aceasta.) a sti sa.
Spre deosebire de: Ex. I can swim. (Stiu sa inot.)
I want to do this. (Vreau sa fac aceasta.) I can speak English. (Stiu sa vorbesc engleza.)
Cu acest sens, timpurile se folosesc ca la punctul 1 (could
Nu primesc s la persoana III singular, prezent. pentru Past Tense si conditionalul prezent, inlocuitorul to be
able to pentru celelalte timpuri.).
Ex. He can speak English. Ex. I will tbe able to drive a car after I have taken a few
lessons.
Voi sti sa conduc masina dupa ce voi lua cteva lectii.
Nu formeaza negativul si interogativul cu "to do".
3. In vorbirea familiara, can poate fi folosit cu sensul lui may de
Ex. He cannot (can't) speak English. "a avea permisiunea".
Ex. Father, can I take your car?
Nu au toate timpurile. Se folosesc inlocuitori. Tata, pot/am permisiunea sa iau masina ta?

Can
4. Can't/couldn't - nu se poate sa, nu e posibil sa.
1. are sensul de a putea, a fi in stare
Ex. I can make this traslation. Ex. It can't/couldn't be 9 o'clock. The sun hasn't set yet.
Can = infinitiv, prezent Nu se poate sa fie ora 9. Soarele nu a apus inca.
Negativ: cannot, can't Pentru a reda ideea de trecut cu acest sens, se foloseste infinitivul
Ex. I cannot (can't) make this translation. trecut.
Ex. You can't/couldn't have seen John in the street. He is abroad. 1. A trebui
Nu se poate sa-l fi vazut pe John pe strada. El e in strainatate. Ex. It's got late. I must go home.
S-a facut trziu. Trebuie sa plec acasa.
May Negativ: must not, mustn't
Interogativ: Must I? Must you?
1. are sensul de a putea, a avea permisiunea Must = infinitiv, prezent
Nu are alte timpuri.
Ex. May I smoke in this room? Se foloseste inlocuitorul to have to.
Pot/am permisiunea sa fumez in aceasta camera? Ex. I had to finish the traslation yesterday.
Yes, you may. (Da, poti.) A trebuit sa termin traducerea ieri.
Negativ: may not, mayn't I will have to finish the translation tomorrow.
Interogativ: May I? May you? Va trebui sa termin traducerea mine.
May = infinitiv, prezent Trebuie mentionat faptul ca inlocuitorul lui must, to have to
Cu acest sens exista timpul might care reda ideea de trecut, dar se formeaza interogativul si negativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului to
foloseste numai dupa un alt verb la trecut (vorbire indirecta). do.
Ex. He said I might smoke in that room. Ex. I didn't have to finish the translation yesterday.
Pentru celelalte timpuri se folosesc inlocuitorii: to be allowed to, to
be permitted to. 2. De asemenea, poate avea sensul probabil ca:
Ex. I was allowed/permitted to smoke in that room.
Am putut/mi s-a permis sa fumez in camera aceea. Ex. It must be late. Let's go home.
I will be allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. Probabil ca e trziu. Hai sa mergem acasa.
Voi putea/mi se va permite sa fumez in camera aceea. John must be at home now. Let's call on him.
Probabil ca John e acasa acum. Hai sa-l vizitam.
2. May/Might - s-ar putea sa Cu acest sens, ideea de trecut se reda prin adaugarea infinitivului
trecut.
Ex. Take your umbrella. It may/might rain. Ex. I was asleep when you arrived home last night. It must have
Ia-ti umbrela, s-ar putea sa ploua. been late.
Ring up John. He may/might be at home now. Eu dormeam cnd ai venit tu aseara. Probabil ca era trziu.
Telefoneaza-I lui John. S-ar putea sa fie acasa acum.
Cu acest sens, ideea de trecut este redata prin adaugarea
infinitivului trecut.
Ex. Why didn't you take your coat? You may/might have caught a Need
cold.
De ce nu ti-ai luat haina? S-ar fi putut sa racesti. Exista doua verbe:

3. May/might pot exprima un repros. To need: verb obisnuit, notional, cu sensul de a avea nevoie
Ex. You may/might help me when I am in need.
Ai putea sa ma ajuti cnd sunt la nevoie. Ex. He doesn't need this book.
Pentru redarea ideii de trecut, se adauga infinitivul trecut. El nu are nevoie de aceasta carte.
Ex. You might have written me a letter when you were in England.
Ai fi putut sa imi scrii o scrisoare cnd erai in Anglia. Need: verb modal, cu sensul de a fi nevoie

Must Ca verb modal, need se foloseste numai la interogativ si negativ.


Ex. Need I be here at one o'clock?
E nevoie sa fiu aici la ora 1? Shall
No, you needn't.
Nu, nu e nevoie. Folosit cu persoana I, shall indica viitorul.
Pentru a raspunde afirmativ la intrebarea de mai sus, se foloseste Folosit cu persoana I, interogativ, poate indica, de asemenea,
verbul must. solicitarea unui sfat, o oferta sau o sugestie.
Ex. Need I be here at one o'clock? Ex. Which dress shall I buy?
Yes, you must! (Da, trebuie!) Ce rochie sa cumpar?
Pentru exprimarea ideii de trecut a verbului need, exista 2 Shall I wait for you?
posibilitati: Sa te astept?
Shall we meet at one o'clock?
Daca actiunea nu era necesara, dar a fost facuta, se foloseste Sa ne intlnim la ora 1?
needn't + infinitivul trecut. Folosit cu persoanele II si III, shall poate arata o promisiune, o
obligatie sau o amenintare care provin de la cel care vorbeste.
Ex. You needn't have watered the flowers. Ex. Mother to child: You shall have a bicycle if you pass the exam.
Couldn't you see it was going to rain? Mama spune copilului: Vei avea o bicicleta daca vei lua examenul.
Nu era nevoie sa uzi florile. N-ai vazut ca urma sa ploua? Mother to child: You shall not get any pocket-money if you don't
pass the exam.
Daca actiunea nu era necesara si nu a fost facuta, se Mama spune copilului: Nu vei mai primi nici un ban de buzunar
foloseste didn't need + infinitivul daca nu vei lua examenul.

Ex. We didn't need to do this exercise. Will, Would


The teacher told us it was too easy for us.
Nu a fost nevoie sa facem acest exercitiu. Profesorul ne-a spus ca Formula de politete, cerere politicoasa:
e prea usor pentru noi.
Will you/would you sit down?
Nota: Nu trebuie confundat need not cu must Will you/would you help me with my translation, please?
not. Need not se traduce cu "nu e nevoie".
Must not se traduce cu "nu trebuie". A voi (cu sens extins la obiecte):

Ex. You needn't drive so fast; we have enough time. This child will/would not do what I say.
Nu e nevoie sa conduci att de repede; avem destul timp. Acest copil nu vrea sa faca ce-I spun.
You mustn't drive so fast; there is a speed limit here. This radio won't work.
Nu trebuie sa conduci att de repede; aici e limita de viteza.
Actiune repetata:
Should, Ought to
- in perioada prezenta
Ambele verbe indica o actiune corecta, o obligatie morala, o My mother will sit for hours watching TV.
recomandare. Se traduc cu: ar trebui sa, ar fi cazul sa, ar fi bine sa. Mama mea obisnuieste sa stea ore intregi privind la
Ex. You should/ought to help your mother with housework. televizor.
Ar trebui sa o ajuti pe mama ta la treburile casei.
Pentru a reda ideea de trecut, se adauga infinitivul trecut. o in trecut
Ex. You should not/ought not to have been so rude to him.
Nu ar fi trebuit sa fii att de nepoliticos cu el. When I was a child, my mother would read me fairy
tales.
Cnd eram copil, mama obisnuia sa-mi citeasca
povesti.

Presupunere: se traduce in limba romna cu o fi.

This girl looks very much like Jane.


She will be her sister.
Aceasta fata seamana foarte bine cu Jane. O fi sora ei.
Se poate folosi cu infinitivul trecut:
He will have reached Paris by now.
O fi ajuns la Paris pna acum.

Nota: In afara de "would", ideea de actiune repetata


in trecut se poate exprima cu "used to".

Ex. When I was a child, my mother used to read me fairy tales.


Used to eate un verb semi-modal, care are numai forma de trecut.
Un alt verb semi-modal este dare (a indrazni) care se conjuga la
afirmativ ca un verb obisnuit, in timp ce la interogativ si negativ se
poate conjuga att ca un verb obisnuit ct si ca modal.