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Lumina: un nou instrument n nelegerea creierului?

Noiuni de Optogenetic

Student Lazr Alina-Aurelia, Anul II

Ce este Optogenetica?
Optogenetics is the combination of genetic and
optical methods to achieve gain or loss of function
of well-defined events in specific cells of living
tissue.
(K. Deisseroth, Optogenetics, Nature Methods , Dec 2010, 2629)

Scurt istoric:
1979 - Francis Crick : o provocare major n
neurotiine controlul asupra unui
anumit tip de celule, n timp ce restul nu
sunt pertrurbate manipularea luminii n
acest scop.
(Karl Deisseroth, Optogenetics, Nature Methods , Dec 2010)

august 2005 - Karl Deisseroth i


echipa sa ( Ed Boyden, Feng Zhang,
Viviana Grdinaru) eficiena
optogeneticii n controlul
culturilor neuronale la mamifere.
(Karl Deisseroth, Optogenetics, Nature Methods , Dec
2010)

Principii:

Excitarea unui grup de celule prin intermediul luminii determin un rspuns


(de tip eletric, PA) doar din partea celulelor fotosensibile la lumina cu anumite
lungimi de und, spre deosebire de stimularea electric, neselectiv.
(http://www.nature.com/nmeth/journal/v8/n1/fig_tab/nmeth.f.324_F2.html)

http://sitemaker.umich.edu/behnazj.notes/list_by_behnaz_jarra
hi__college_of_engineering _

Courtesy of Gary Carlson / Science Photo Library.

http://www.etudogentemorta.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/optogenetics.jpg

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

SPECIFICITATE CELULAR
PRECIZIE SPAIAL
PRECIZIE TEMPORAL (ms)
CONTROL BIDIRECIONAL
CONTROL CAUSAL

ofer
precizie
temporal

Loss of
function /Gain
of function

Stimular
nu are
easelectivitat
electric
e celular

timp de
Metodele
procesare
genetice
mare(ore,zile,l
traditional
euni)

Prin comparaie :

specificitate
celular
timp de
procesare
relativ mare
Farmacoefecte
adverse
terapia

(K. Deisseroth,Optogenetics: Controlling the Brain with Light , Scientific American, Dec 2010)

OPTOGENETICA- METODA

ANULUI

2010
Nature Methods'choice of
Method of the Year 2010 is
optogenetics for its capacity to
control cell function with light.

(http://www.nature.com/nmeth/focus/moy2010/index.html)

Aplicaiile Optogeneticii
o Afeciuni neuro-psihiatrice
- tratamentul narcolepsiei Hypocretin
Cells -blocarea mecanismului de trezire
(K. Deisseroth,Optogenetics: Controlling the Brain
with Light , Scientific
American, Dec 2010 )

- Schizofrenie parvalbumin
modularea undelor Gamma
(K. Deisseroth,Optogenetics: Controlling the Brain with Light ,
Scientific American, Dec 2010)

-Boala Parkison Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) pe


criterii
topologice
(V. Grdinaru, Optical deconstruction of
parkinsonian
neural circuitry Science, 324 (2009), pp.
354359)

modele de circuite neuronale


(K. Deisseroth,Optogenetics: Controlling the
Brain with
Light , Scientific American, Dec 2010)

Sistemul dopaminergic plcererecompens


afeciunile hedonice , adictie, recompens
(K. Deisseroth,Optogenetics: Controlling the Brain with

Light ,
Scientific American, Dec 2010)

o Sistemul Nervos Periferic


- nervul ischiadic contracii de tip secus i
tetanus
n muschii gambei
- recrutarea unitiilor motorii n trepte
(Llewellyn, M.E., Thompson, K.R., Deisseroth, K., Delp, S.L.
Orderly recruitment
of motor units under optical control in vivo,Nature Medicine, vol
16, pp 1161-1165)

http://nmbl.stanford.edu/research/experiments/optogenetics.htm

o n tratamentul retinitei pigmentare


celulele-int = celulele bipolare de
tip ON
din retin
(Ed Boyden, MIT News, April, 2011: Seeing the light - Optogenetic
technology restores
visual behavior in mice, holds promise for treating human blindness)

Credit: Raag Airan, Feng


Zhang, Ed Boyden, and Lief
Fenno

CONCLUZII
instrument de cercetare
viabil

OPTOGENET
ICA

metoda nou
extindere
alternativ terapeutic n
diverse afeciuni

V mulumesc pentru atenie!

http://news.discovery.com/tech/photo-first-lights-captured-as-both-particleand-wave-150302.htm