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PRIMITIVE

I. 1. S se stabileasc dac o funcie admite sau nu primitive:


I. 2. Proprieti ale funciilor care admit primitive:
a) Funcia care admite primitive are proprietatea
f
derivate
b) Orice funcie continu pe un interval R I admite primitive pe I .
c) Dac
R I f :
i
( ) I f
nu este interval, atunci
f
nu admite primitive pe I
.
d) Fie
R I f :
o funcie care admite primitive. tunci orice funcie
R I g :

care difer de
f
!ntr"o mulime finit nevid de puncte, nu are primitive.
e) Funcia
R I f :
, care nu are proprietatea lui Darbou#, nu admite primitive.
f)
( )
funcii care admit primitive i nu sunt continue $ continuitatea de spea a
doua )
%)
( )
funcii care au proprietatea lui Darbou# i nu au primitive.
" 1 "
&)
( )
funcii care au primitive i ale cror ptrate nu au primitive.
Observaie:
( ) I C
" mulimea funciilor continue pe I
( ) I P
" mulimea funciilor care admit primitive pe I
( ) I a D
" mulimea funciilor care au proprietatea lui Darbou#.
( ) ( ) ( ) C I P I Da I
I.'. Definiii:
Def.: Fie
: , . f I R I R
f admite primitivee pe I dac( ) : F I R
astfel !nc(t:
1) F derivabil pe I
2) ( ) ( ) ( )
)
, F x f x x I

Def.: Dac
: f I R
admite primitive, mulimea primitivelor lui f se numete inte%rala
nedefinit a lui f i se notea* ( ) ( ) , + ,. f x dx F x c c C C R +

-ropo*iie: Fie
: , . f I R I R
Dac
1 2
, : F F I R
sunt dou primitive ale funciei f, atunci ( )
o constant c R astfel !nc(t ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
, . F x F x c x I +
I... Operaii
Dac
, : f g I R
sunt dou funcii care admit primitive i
, /, R
atunci
f g +
i
f
admit
primitive i au loc relaiile:
[ ] ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1. $ ) $ )
2.
'.
f x g x dx f x dx g x dx
f x dx f x dx
f x dx f x dx c

+ +

'




I.0. 1abel de inte%rale nedefinite $elementare)
$fie)
1.
1
sin cos
2
xdx x c +

2.
1
cos sin
2
xdx x c +

'.
x x
e dx e c +

..
1
x x
e dx e c

0.
1
ln dx x a c
x a
t +
t

2. ( ) ( )
)
f x dx f x c +

3.
dx x c +

4.
chxdx shx c +

5.
shxdx chx c +

1/.
2
1
dx thx c
ch x
+

11.
2
1
dx cthx c
sh x
+

" 2 "
$carte)
Funcia (simpl !erivata !omeniul de derivabilitate
c / 6
# 1 6
, 1
n
x n !ntre%
1 n
nx

6
,
r
x r real
1 r
rx

cel puin ( ) /,
x
1
2 x
( ) /,
ln x 1
x
( ) /,
x
e
x
e
6
, /, 1
x
a a a > ln
x
a a
6
sin x
cos x
6
cos x
sin x 6
tgx
2
1
cos x
cos / x
ctgx
2
1
sin x
sin / x
arcsin x
2
1
1 x
( ) 1,1
arccos x
2
1
1 x

( ) 1,1
arctgx
2
1
1 x +
6
arcctgx
2
1
1 x

+
6
Funcii (compuse !erivata
u ) u
, 1
n
u n !ntre%
1
), /
n
nu u u

>
, /,
r
u u > r real
1
), /
r
ru u u

>
( ) / u u
( )
)
, /
2
u
u
u
>
( ) ln , / u u >
( )
)
, /
u
u
u
>
u
e )
u
e u
, /, 1
u
a a a > ) ln
u
a u a
sinu cos ) u u
cosu
sin ) u u
( ) , cos / tgu u
( )
2
1
), cos /
cos
u u
u

( ) , sin / ctgu u
( )
2
1
), sin /
sin
u u
u


" ' "
( )
2
arcsin , 1 u u
( )
2
2
1
), 1
1
u u
u
<

( )
2
arccos , 1 u u
( )
2
2
1
), 1
1
u u
u

<

arctgu
2
)
1
u
u +
arcctgu
2
)
1
u
u

+
II. Inte%rarea prin pri
1eorem: Dac
, : f g I R
sunt funcii derivabile cu derivate continue, atunci ( ) ) , ), ), f g fg fg

admit primitive pe I i sunt e#primate prin relaia:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ) f x g x dx f x g x f x g x dx

III.1 -rima metod de sc&imbare de variabil
1eorem: Fie
, I J R
i
: , : I J f J R
funcii cu proprietile:
1.

derivabil pe I
2. f admite primitive pe 7 $F este o primitiv a sa). tunci funcia ( ) ) f o
admite
primitiva pe I, iar
F o
este o primitiv a lui ( ) ) f o
de forma:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
$ ) ) f x x dx F x C +

Observaie:
8tape:
a) Fie : h I R care are primitive
b) 9e caut
I J f R
uur uur
astfel !nc(t ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ) h x f x x
c) 9e caut o primitiv ( ) $ ) f t dt F t c +

d) O primitiv a lui & este


H F o
adic
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
) h x dx f x x F x c +

e) -ractic ( ) x t
i se diferenia* ca o e%alitate ( ) ( ) : x t d d x dt
sau
( ) ) x dx dt ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
) f x x f t dt F t c F x c + +

III.2 -rimitivele funciilor raionale simple
1)
( ) ( )
1
1 1 1
1
1
ln , 1
n n
dx c
n
x a X a
dx x a c n
x a

2)
2
1
ax bx c + +


" . "
ca*ul / > "
2
2
1 1 1 1
2 2
ln
2
2 2 2
2 2
b
x
a a
dx c
a a b
b
x
x
a a a
a a

+
+

_

_
+ +
+


,
,

ca*ul / "
2
1 1 1 1
2
2
dx c
b
a a
b
x
x
a
a
+
_
+
+

,

ca*ul / < "


2
2
1 1 1 1
2
2 2
2 2
b
x
a
dx arctg c
a a
b
x
a a
a a
_
+

+
_

_

+ +


,
,
,

')
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 1 2
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 '
2 1 2 1
n n n n
x n
I dx I
a n n
x a a x

1

1
+
1
+ +
]

Observaie: ;n ca*ul
( ) ( )
2
2
2 2 2
2 2
n
n n
n n
b
ax bx c a x a t k
a a
1
_

_
1
+ + + + +



1 ,
,
]
2
<
2
b
x t d
a
dx dt
k
a


'

.) ( )
( )
( )
: , ,
P x
f I R f x
Q x

%rad P < %rad
Q
a) Dac ( ) Q x
are rdcini simple: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 1 2
... ...
n n
Q x x a x a x a unde a a a
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
1 2 1 2
...
...
n
n n
P x A A A
f x
x a x a x a x a x a x a
+ + +

b) Dac ( ) Q x
are rdcini multiple: ( ) ( )
m
Q x x
( )
( )
( )
m
P x
f x
x

( )
1 2
2
B B
x
x


+ +



( )
...
m
m
B
x
+ +


c) Dac ( ) Q x
nu are rdcini reale: ( )
1,2,...,
/
p
<
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 1 2 2
2 2 ... 2
p p
Q x X b x c X b x c X b x c + + + + + +
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 1 2 2
2 2 ... 2
p p
P x
f x
X b x c X b x c X b x c

+ + + + + +
1 1 2 2
2 2 2
1 1 2 2
...
2 2 2
p p
p p
C x D
C x D C x D
X b x c X b x c X b x c
+
+ +
+ + +
+ + + + + +
" 0 "
d) Dac ( ) Q x
nu are rdcini reale:
( )
( )
1,
/
i n
<
: ( ) ( )
2
2
s
q q
Q x x b X c + +
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
2 2
2 2 2
...
2
2 2 2
s s
s s
q q
q q q q q q
P x X ! X ! X !
f x
x b X c
x b X c x b X c x b X c
+ + +
+ + +
+ +
+ + + + + +
e) Dac ( ) Q x
are !n componen descompunerile a,b,c,d atunci:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
1 2 1 1 2 2
2
2
... 2 2 ... 2
2 /, /, /, /
m
n p p
s
q q p s
Q x x a x a x a x x b X c x b X c x b X c
x b X c unde
+ + + + +
+ + < < < <

( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 2 1 2 1 1
2 2
1 2 1 1
2 2 1 1 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
... ...
2
... ...
2 2 2
2 2
n m
m
n
p p
s s
s
p p q p
q p q p
P x A B A A B B C x D
f x
Q x x a x a x a x x b X c
x x
C x D
x ! C x D x ! x !
x b X c x b X c x b X c
x b X c x b X c


+
+ + + + + + + + +
+ +

+
+ + + +
+ + + + + + +
+ + + + + +
+ + + +
Observaii:
1) 9e determin constantele de la numrtor i inte%rm fiecare e#presie !n parte.
2) -entru ( )
( )
( )
,
P x
f x
Q x
gradR gradQ <
, ( )
( )
( )
R x
g x
Q x

se tratea* cu a,b,c,d,e $form.)


III.' -rimitivele funciilor raionale simple
1. ( ) ( ) sin , cos = = : R x x dx R tgx dx ! tgx t

a)
2
2
2
2
2
sin
1
2
: = < =
2
1
2
cos
1
2
x
tg
x
x
tg
x
! tg t F
x
tg
x
x
tg

'


2
2
2 :
2 1
x
arctgt x arctgt d dx dt
t

+


2
2 2 2
2 1 1
,
1 1 1
t t
R dt
t t t
_

+ + +
,

b) 6 impar !nsin cos x x t


c) 6 impar !ncos sin x x t
d) 6 par
tgx t
, 2
2 2
1 1
: , sin , cos
1
1 1
tgx
x arctgt d dx dt x x
t
tg x tg x
t t

+
+ +
2.
cos
sin cos = ,
sin
m n
m impar x t
x xdx m n "
n par x t


'

" 2 "
'.
( )
2 2
, R x a x dx

substituia:
2 2
sin ) cos : cos ... cos x a t sau x a t d dx a tdt a x a t
..
( )
2 2
, R x a x dx +

substituia:
2 2
2
: ,
cos cos
a a
x atgt d dx dt a x
t t
+
0.
( )
2 2
, R x x a dx


2
sin
: : ,
cos sin cos
a a a t
! x sau x d dx dt
t t t

2. ( )
,
x
R e dx R


1 1 1
: : ln ln ln :
2
x
! e t x t x t d dx dt
t


3. ( )
' 1 2
, , ,
r r r
R x x x x dx

' 1 2
1 2 ' 1 2 '
1 2 '
= = = , ,
p p p
r r r q q q !
q q q


( )
1 2 '
. . . . , , n c mmmc q q q

9ubstituie:
n
x t
4.
,
ax b
R x dx
cx d
_
+


+
,

2 2
: : ...
ax b ax b ax b
! t t x d
cx d cx d cx d
+ + +

+ + +
5. 9ubstituiile 8uler:
( )
2
, R x ax bx c dx + +

a.
( )
2
/ , / ax bx c a x t xt c a c < + + t t >
b.
( )
2
/
/ ax bx c t x x text nedescifrabi# < + +
1/.
( )
2
p
dx
mx n ax bx c + + +
9ubstituie:
1
mx n
t
+
11. 9ubstituii pentru funcii binome $>eb(rev):
( )
= , ,
p
m n
x ax b dx m n p Q +

a.
1
,
n
s
m r
p " x t
n s
+

b.
( )
1
2
1
,
s
m r
" p ax b t
n s
+
+
c.
( )
1
1
,
n
s
m r
p " p a bx t
n s

+
+ +
12.
( )
( )
2
2 2
P x
dx
dx Q x ax bx c
ax bx c ax bx c
+ + +
+ + + +

%rad ? @ %rad -"1
>oeficienii polinomului ? i se determin prin derivare i identificare.
1'. ( ) ( )
x x
e P x dx e Q x c

+

, %rad ? @ %rad -
1.. ( ) ( ) ( ) sin sin cos . P x dx Q x x $ x x C + +

( ) Q x
i ( ) $ x
se determin prin derivare i
identificare.
" 3 "