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Metodainducieimatematicerecapitularefinal

Fidelucru,clasaaXa,3h/sapt,Ancolar:2009/2010

1)Ssedemonstreze,prinmetodainducieimatematice,egalitile:
a)

1
1
1
1
n
+
+
+ ...+
=
, " nN* .
12 2 3 3 4
n(n+ 1) n+ 1

b)1+3+5++(2n 1)=n2 , " nN* .


n

c)

(4k-3) (4k+ 1) = 4n+1 , " nN* .


k=1

2)Ssedemonstreze,prinmetodainducieimatematice,inegalitile:
a) 2n>2n+1, " nN* .
1
1
1
b) 1+
+
++
<2 n, " nN* .
2
3
n
1 1 1
1
n
c) 1+ + + ++ n
> , " n N* .
2 3 4
2 -1 2
3)Ssedemonstreze,prinmetodainducieimatematice,c:
a) 9n 1sedividecu8, " n N.
b) n3 +11nsedividecu3, " n N.
c) 4n +15n 1sedivideprin9,pentruoricen N.
4)Teoreme:
a)Termenulgeneral,aluneiprogresiiaritmetice: (an )n1 ,estedatdeformula: an = a1 + (n-1) r, " n1 .
b)Termenulgeneral,aluneiprogresiigeometrice: (bn )n1 ,estedatdeformula: bn = b1 qn-1, " n1 .
(a + a )n
c)Sumaprimilorntermini,aiuneiprogresiiaritmetice: (an )n1 ,este: Sn = 1 n , " n1 .
2
5)
a)Ssecalculezesuma:Sn = 11!+ 2 2!+ 3 3!+ ...+ n n! , iapoissedemonstrezeprininducie
matematic,formulagsit, " nN* ,unde:n!= 12 3 4 ... n .
b)Ssecalculezeprodusul urmtor,iapoissedemonstrezeprininduciematematic,formulagsit:
1
1 1
Pn =1- 1- ...1- 2 ,n N,n 2.
4 9 n
d) Ssedemonstreze,cpentruoricen N,n 5,arelocinegalitatea:2n >n2 .
e) Ssedemonstreze,c " n N,10n +18(n 1) 10M 27.
Prof.MtrescuMaria.
1/4

Rezolvri:
1
1
1
1
n
+
+
+ ...+
=
, " nN* .
12 2 3 3 4
n(n+ 1) n+ 1
1
1
1.Verificare:p(1):
=
,adevrat.
12 1+ 1
2.Demonstraia: p(k) p(k+ 1) , " kN* .Presupunemp(k)adevratidem.c:p(k+1)este
1
1
1
1
k
adevrat,unde:p(k):
+
+
+ ...+
=
, " kN* ,iarp(k+1)este:
12 2 3 3 4
k (k+ 1) k+ 1
1
1
1
1
1
k+ 1

+
+
+ ...+
+
=
, " kN*
12 2 3 3 4
k (k+ 1) (k+ 1) (k+ 2) k+ 2

1)a)p(n):

p ( k)
1
(k+1) = k+1 , " kN*
1
1
1
1
1
k
+
+
+ ...+
+
=
+
=
k +1 (k +1)(k+ 2) (k+ 1)(k+ 2) k + 2
12 2 3 3 4
k (k+ 1) (k+ 1) (k+ 2)
p(k+1)esteadevratconcluzie:din1.i2. p(n)esteadevrat.

b)p(n):1+3+5++(2n 1)=n2 , " nN* .


1.Verificare:p(1):1=12 ,adevrat.
2.Demonstraia: p(k) p(k+ 1) , " kN* .p(k):1+3+5++(2k 1)=k2 , " kN* .
p(k+1):1+3+5++(2k 1)+(2k+1)=(k+1)2 , " kN* .1+3+5++(2k 1)+(2k+1)
p ( k)

= k2 +(2k+1)=(k+1)2 p(k+1)esteadevratconcluzie:din1.i2. p(n)esteadevrat.


n

1
n
1
1
1
n
=
, " nN* sau:p(n):
+
++
=
,
15 59
) 4n+1
(4n-3) (4n+ 1) 4n+1
k=1 (4k -3) (4k + 1
" nN*
1
1
a) Verificare:p(1):
=
,adevrat.
15 41+ 1
1
1
1
k
b) Demonstraia: p(k) p(k+ 1), " kN* .p(k): +
++
=
, " nN*
(4k-3) (4k+ 1) 4k +1
15 59
1
1
1
1
k + 1
p(k+1): +
++
+
=
, " nN*
(4k-3) (4k+ 1) (4k+1)(4k+ 5) 4k + 5
15 59
p ( k)
1
1
1
1
1
k
k + 1
+
++
+
=
+
=
, " nN*
(4k-3) (4k+ 1) (4k +1)(4k+ 5) 4k +1 (4k+1)(4k+ 5) 4k + 5
15 59
p(k+1)esteadevratconcluzie:dina)ib) p(n)esteadevrat.

c)p(n):

2)a) p(n):2n>2n+1, " nN,n 3.


1. Verificare:p(3):23 >2 3+ 1,adev.
2. Demonstraia: p(k) p(k+ 1), " kN,k 3.
p(k):2k >2k+1, " kN,k 3.p(k+1):2k+1 >2(k+1)+1, " kN,k 3.
p( k)

2k+1 = 2 2k > 2(2k+ 1),dar:2(2k+1)>2(k+1)+1,k 3 p(k+1)esteadevratconcluzie:din1.i


2. p(n)esteadevrat.
1
1
1
b)p(n):1+
+
++
<2 n, " nN* .
2
3
n
1.Verificare:p(1):1<2 1 ,adevrat
1
1
1
2. Demonstraia: p(k) p(k+ 1), " kN* .p(k):1+
+
++
<2 k, " kN* .p(k+
2
3
k

2/4

1):1+

1
2

1
3

++

1
k

1
k +1

<2 k +1 , " kN* .Dinp(k) 1+

1
2
1

1
3

++

1
k

1
<2 k +
adem.cp(k+1)esteadevrat,revielaaartac:2 k +
<2 k +1 ,k 1
k +1
k +1
k
2 k k+1 +1<2(k+1) 2 k 2 +k <2k+1 4(k2+k)<4k2 +4k+1,adevrat,deci p(k+1)este
adevrat concluzie:din1.i2. p(n)esteadevrat.
1 1 1
1
n
+ + ++ n
> , " n N* .
2 3 4
2 -1 2
1. Verificare:p(1):1>,adevrat

c) p(n):1+

1 1 1
1
k
2. Demonstraia: p(k) p(k+ 1), " kN* .p(k):1+ + + ++ k
> , " k N*
2 3 4
2 -1 2
1 1 1
1
1
1
1
k
p(k+1):1+ + + ++ k
+ k + k+1 + ...+ k+1 > , " k N*.
2 3 4
2 -1 2
2
2 -1 2
1 1 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Sk+1 =(1+ + + ++ k
)+( k + k+1 + ...+ k+1 )=Sk +Pk ,Pk = k + k+1 + ...+ k+1 >
2 3 4
2 -1
2
2
2 -1
2
2
2 -1
1
1
1
1
1
k
k
k
+
1
> k+1 + k+1 ++ k+1
> 2 k k+1 = Sk > ,Pk > Sk+1 = Sk +Pk >
p(k+1) adevrat
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 - 1
2
concluzie:din1.i2. p(n)esteadevrat.

3)a) p(n):9n 1sedividecu8, " n N.


1)Verificare:p(0):90 1M 8,adev.
2)Demonstraia: p(k) p(k+ 1), " kN ,p(k):9k 1sedividecu8, " k N.p(k+1):9k+1 1M 8, " k N.
9k+1 1=9k9 1=(9k 1)9+8M 8,adev.Concluzie:din1)i2) p(n)esteadevrat.
b)p(n):n3 +11nsedividecu3, " n N.
1)Verificare:p(0):0M 3,adevrat.
2)Demonstraia: p(k) p(k+ 1), " kN ,p(k): k3 +11ksedividecu3, " k Np(k+1):(k+1)3 +11(k+1)M 3
(k+1)3 +11(k+1)=(k3 +11k)+3(k2 +k+4) p(k+1)adevrat concluzie:din1.i2. p(n)adevrat.
c)p(n):4n +15n 1sedivideprin9,pentruoricen N.
1)Verificare:p(0):40 +15.0 1M 9,adev.
Demonstraia: p(k) p(k+ 1), " kN ,p(k): 4k +15k 1sedivideprin9,pentruoricek N,iarp(k+1):
4k+1 +15(k+1) 1M 9, " kN 4k+1 +15(k+1) 1=4(4k +15k 1) 45k+18=4(4k +15k 1)+9(25k)
p(k+1) adevrat concluzie:din1)i2) p(n)adevrat.
.

4)a) - a1 ,a2 ,,an ,


.

p(n):an = a1 + (n-1) r, " n1 .


1) Verificare:p(1):a1 =a1 .
2) Demonstraia: p(k) p(k+ 1), " kN*
def .

p ( k)

p(k):ak = a1 + (k-1) r, " k 1 .p(k+1): ak+1 = a1 + (k) r, " k 1 ak+1 = ak +3 = a1 +kr


p(k+1)adevrat concluzie:din1)i2) p(n)adevrat.
..

b) - b1,b2 ,,bn ,cu:b1 iraiaq 0.


..

p(n):bn = b1 qn-1, " n1


1. Verificare:p(1):b1 =b1
2. Demonstraia: p(k) p(k+ 1), " kN* p(k):bk = b1 qk-1, " k 1 p(k+1): bk+1 = b1 qk ,
def .

p ( k)

" k 1 bk+1 = bk q = b1q p(k+1)adevrat concluzie:din1.i2. p(n)adevrat.

3/4

c)p(n): Sn =

(a1 + an)n

, " n1 .
2
1.Verificare:p(1):S1 =a1 ,adevrat.
2.Demonstraia: p(k) p(k+ 1), " kN* p(k): Sk =
Sk+1 =

(a1 + ak+1) (k + 1)S

def .

k+1

p ( k)

= Sk +ak+1 =

(a1 + ak )k

(a1 +ak )k

+ak+1 =

, " k 1 .p(k+1):

a1 k +kak+1 - kr+ ak+1 + ak+1


=
2

2
2
(a + ak +1) (k + 1) p(k+1)adevrat concluzie:din1.i2. p(n)adevrat.
= 1

2
n

5)a)Sn =

((k+1)!-k!) = (n+1)!- 1p(n):11!+ 2 2!+ 3 3!+

...+ n n!=(n+1)!, " n1 .

k=1

1.Verificare:p(1): 1 1!= (1+ 1)!-1,adevrat.


2.Demonstraia: p(k) p(k+ 1), " kN* p(k):11!+ 2 2!+ 3 3!+ ...+ k k!=(k+1)! 1, " k 1 .
p(k+1):11!+ 2 2!+ 3 3!+ ...+ k k! +(k+1)(k+1)!=(k+2)! 1, " k 1 .
p ( k)

11!+ 2 2!+ 3 3!+ ...+ k k! +(k+1)(k+1)! = (k+1)! 1+(k+1)(k+1)!=(k+2)! 1, " k 1


p(k+1)adevrat concluzie:din1.i2. p(n)adevrat.
3 2+ 1
2 4 3+ 1
n+1
=
P3 = = =
, Pn =
prininduciematematic,sedemonstreaz,c
4 2 2
3 6 2 3
2n
1 n+1
1 1
propoziia:p(n): 1- 1- ...1- 2 =
,n N,n 2esteadevrat.
2n
4 9 n
1 3
1.Verificare:p(2):1 = ,adevrat.
4 4
1 k +1
1 1
2.Demonstraia: p(k) p(k+ 1),k 2p(k): 1- 1- ...1- 2 =
,k N,k 2
2k
4 9 k
1
k +2
1
1 1
=
p(k+1): 1- 1- ...1- 2 1-
,k N,k 2
2
2(k+ 1)
4 9 k (k + 1)
1
k +2
1 p ( k) k + 1
1
1 1

=
=
,k N,k 2 p(k+1) adevrat
1
-
1- 1- ...1- 2 1-
2
2

2k (k + 1) 2(k+ 1)
4 9 k (k + 1)

b)P2 =

concluzie:din1.i2. p(n)adevrat.
c)p(n):2n >n2 , " n N,n 5.
1.Verificare:p(5):25 >52 ,adevrat
2.Demonstraia: p(k) p(k+ 1), " k N,k 5.
p(k):2k >k2 , " k N,k 5.p(k+1):2k+1 >(k+1)2 , " k N,k 5.Ademonstrac,p(k+1)este
adevrat,revinelaaartac:2k2 >(k+1)2,k 5 k2 >2k+1 k(k2)>1,deoarecek 5 k(k2) 1
p(k+1) adevrat concluzie:din1.i2. p(n)adevrat.
d)p(n):10n +18(n 1) 10M 27, " nN .
1.Verificare:p(0):100 +18(0 1)10M 27,adev.
2. Demonstraia: p(k) p(k+ 1), " k N.
p(k):10k +18(k 1) 10M 27, " kN .
p(k+1):10k+1 +18(k) 10M 27, " kN .
10k+1 +18k 10=10 10k +18k 10=10[10k +18(k 1) 10] 10[18(k 1) 10]+18k 10=
=10[10k +18(k 1) 10] 162k+270 p(k+1) adevrat concluzie:din1.i2. p(n)adevrat.
Prof.MtrescuMaria
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