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Cum se identifica

La forma de singular este adaugat:


1. "s"
: regula generala;
2. "es" : daca singularul substantivelor au terminatia in ch, sh, s, ss, z, x;
3. "ies" : daca singularul are terminatia y si inaintea lui e o consoana;
4. "es" : daca singularul are terminatia o iar substantivul e intrat de mult in
folosire;
5. "ves" : majoritatea substantivelor terminate in f sau fe (exceptii: roof/ roofs
dwarf/ dwarfs);
6. la substantivele de origine greaca, substantivele terminate in sis, la plural sis e
inlocuit de ses.

Exemple
1

inainte de "s" avem o consoana surda (p, t, k, f, th):


books, cups ("-s" se pronunta "s")

cats, roofs, boats,

inainte de "s" avem altceva decat in cazul anterior:


pronunta "z")

ideas, boys, balls, days ("-s" se

boxes, buses, dashes, prizes ("-es" se pronunta "iz")

2
3

babies, ladies, factories, spies


pronunta "iz")

(from baby, lady, factory, spy) ("-ies" se

tomatoes, potatoes, heroes, volcanoes (from tomato, potato, hero, volcano) ("es" se pronunta "z")

wives, elves, loaves, lives, thieves, knives (from wife, elf, loaf, life, thief,
knife) ("-ves" se pronunta "vz")

analyses, hypotheses, bases (plural from analysis, hypothesis, basis) (la singular
"-sis" se pronunta "sis", iar la plural "-ses" se pronunta "siz")

Comentarii
1. O serie de substantive au pluralul neregulat:
child (copil) - children, man (barbat)-men, woman (femeie) women, die (zar) - dice, foot (picior) - feet, goose (gasca) geese, mouse (soarece) - mice, ox (bou) - oxen, tooth (dinte) teeth

2.

Unele substantive au aceeasi forma si pentru singular si pentru


plural: sheep, fish (se adauga forma de plural es cand este vorba de mai
multe specii de peste), fruit (se adauga forma de plural -s cand este vorba
de mai multe soiuri de fructe), species, deer, series.
Ex: His favourite was a big white sheep.
The sheep were grazing in the field.

3.

Unele substantive au deja forma de plural (sunt urmate de un verb la plural);


denumind lucruri formate din doua parti: trousers, pants,shorts,
(sun)glasses, pyjamas, slacks, scissors, tongs, compasses, scales.

4.

Unele substantive nu primesc niciodata forma de plural


(money, information, news, progress, luggage, furniture, homework, adv
ice,knowledge); ideea de plural se va realiza prin folosirea sintagmelor: a
piece of/ two pieces of, an item of, two items of (pentru substantive ce
denumesc lucruri abstracte), a bit of. In acest caz, verbul folosit in fraza va fi
totdeauna la singular.
Ex: The money is on the table.
I need a piece of valuable information.

5.

Unele substantive se termina deja in -s, dand astfel impresia de plural. La


plural ele nu isi schimba forma: mathematics, physics, politics, billiards,
darts, gymnastics, diabetes, measles, mumps.
Ex: Mathematics is one of the most important sciences.

Exercitii
Substantivul: Pluralul in engleza - Exercitii
Alegeti forma de plural pentru substantivele urmatoare in spatiul liber. Pentru
verificare dati click pe campul de tip lista din dreapta:
cat
roof
boat
idea
boy
ball
box
potato

loaf

analysis

child
man
woman
die
foot
goose
mouse
ox
tooth
hypothesis
lady
hero
tomato
factory
bus