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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

Drepturile asupra acestei ediii aparin autorului.

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naionale a Romniei

DOBRE CLAUDIU Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor/ Claudiu Dobre- Gura Humorului : Terra Design, 2011 Bibliogr. ISBN 978-973-8914-35-3 821.135.1-101
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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

alb.- albanez ab.- arab() arb.- arbresh (graiul albanez din peninsula italic) aro.- aromn bal.- baluchi bg.- bulgar bret.- breton cat.- catalan ch.- ceh cr.- croat cum.- cuman dan.- danez eg.- englez eusk.- euskara/limba basc fr.- francez frig.-frigian gael.- gaelica din Scoia, scoiana gidhlig, eg. gaelic gal.- galeg (limba galeg/galego/galiciana) gd.- geto-dac<> germ.- german hd.- hindi hitt.- hittit hu.- dialectul/graiul huul al rutenei il.- ilir it.- italian iran.- iranian (persan) isl.-islandez istr.-istroromn ld.- ladina dolomitic lat.- latin ltg.- latgalian (dialect al letonei) lt.- lituanian lv.- leton/latvian luw.-luwian() lyc.-lycian() mac.- macedo-slav mg.- maghiar megl.- meglenoromn nep.- nepali ngr.- neo-greac norv.- norvegian ol.- olandez psh.- pashto/pushto (afgan) pl.- polonez port.- portughez prss.- vechea pruss (limba vest-baltic) punj.- punjabi/panjabi rg.- rumantsch grishun (reto-roman) ro.- romn rus.- rus rut.-rut. ss.- dialectul ssesc din Transilvania al limbii germane sb.- srb sbc.- srbo-croat slv.- slovac slvn.- sloven sg.- samogitian (dialectul emaii al lituanianei) skt.- sanskrit sp.- spaniol (castilian) su.- suedez t.- trac tb.- trac<ii> bithyn<i> tc.- turc tod. -trac<ii> odrys<i> tgd.- traco-geto-dac<, e> tmz.-tamazight (berber) ucr.- ucrainean ud.- urdu vbalt.- vech<i/e> baltic<> vlt.- vechea lituanian vsl.- vechea slav "comun", protoslav wfr.- west frisian (limba din grupul olandezei)

ABREVIERI

Ban.-Banat bot.- botanic Buc.-Bucovina Ex. inc.- Exemplu incert IE- Indo-European<>/Indo-Europene Maram.-Maramure Mold.-Moldova bot.- botanic cf. - conform et. nec.- etimologie necunoscut Mold.-Moldova fem.- feminin pl.-plural reg.- regionalism Trans.- Transilvania pb.- probabil

Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

DER- Dicionarul Etimologic Romn DEX- Academia Romn, Institutul de Lingvistic "Iorgu Iordan" - Dicionarul Explicativ al Limbii Romne, Ediia a II-a, Ed. Univers Enciclopedic, Bucureti, 1998 EOPV- Old Prussian Elbing Vocabulary copiat de Peter Holzwescher din Marienburg (sec. XIV) dup un document din secolul XIII i readus ateniei publicului de Dr. Letas Palmaitis din Kaunas n 2004 i analizat critic de prussologul V. Maiulis GM.xx - Gimbutas Marija- "The Balts, Ed. Thames and Hudson, London, 1963"- (pagina)xx GS.xx- Revista Grai i Suflet a Institutului de Filologie i Folclor publicat de Ovid Densuianu, Atelierele Socec & Co. SA, Vol. IV- Fascicula 1-1929, Vol. IV- Fascicula 2-1930 - (pagina)xx HC. xx- Crian Ion Horaiu - "Burebista and his time, Ed. Academiei, Bucureti, 1978"- (pagina)xx MA. xx- Mcri Anatol Dr.- "File din istoria mai veche i mai nou a Romniei, Ed. Paco, 2008"- (pagina)xx K.xx- Kovaec August- "Descrierea istroromnei actuale, Ed. Academiei, Bucureti, 1971" - (pagina)xx P.xx- Papahagi Tache- "Grai, Folklor, Etnografie, Ed. Minerva, Bucureti, 1981"- (pagina)xx PS.xx- Paliga Sorin- "Influene romane i preromane n limbile slave de sud, Ed. a II-a, Ed. el., Buc, 2003" Alte surse: - Pentru arbresh: Gaetano Gerbino- "Fjalori arbrisht- italisht, i hors s arbreshvet- Dizionario arbresh - italiano della parlata di Piana degli Albanesi, www.jemi.it, Palermo, 2007"; Instituti I Shkencave- "Pralla Popullore Shqiptare, Tiran, 1954, STASH 2204-52, Stabilimenti Mihal Duri, Tiran, http://www.mling.ru/etnolingvistika/albania/pralla_alb.pdf" i Dr. Caroli Henrici Theodori Reinhold"Noctes Pelasgicae vel Symbolae ad congnoscendas dialectos Graeciae Pelasgicas collatae, Athenis, 1855, Typhis Sophoclis Garbola, http:// anemi.lib.uoc.gr/metadata /4 /0/e/metadata-112-0000000.tkl" - Pentru anatoliana comun antic, carian, gaulish, hitit, illyrian, irish ogham, lycian, lydian, macedoneana antic, oscan, palaic, frigian, trac, tocharian, umbrian: www. wordgumbo.com/ ie/cmp/index.htm - Pentru baluchi: Ahmad Mumtaz A Baluchi-English Glossary Elementary Level http:// dsal. uchicago.edu/ dictionaries/ mumtaz/ - Pentru basc/euskara: Trask R. L.- "Etymological Dictionary of Basque, University of Sussex, 2008" i Van Eys W. J.- "Dictionaire Basque - Franais, Paris, Maisonneuve, Londres, Williams & Norgate, 1873" - Pentru breton, irish gaelic, gaelic- gidhlig: www. wordgumbo.com/ ie/cmp/index.htm - Pentru cuman, turc, gguz: Mcri A.- "File din istoria mai veche i mai nou a Romniei, Ed. Paco" - Pentru hindi: Snell Rupert- "Teach Yourself Beginners Hindi, Bookpoint Limited, 130 Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX 14 4SB, 2010" - Pentru ladina dolomitic: Grzega Joachim- "Materialen zu einem etymologischen Wrterbuch des Dolomitenladinischen MEWD, www.grzega.de, Eichsttt, 2005" - Pentru latgalian: http: //latgola.lv/voluda/vuordineicys/cyulltg.shtml - Pentru leton: www. dictionary.site.lv i www.letonika.lv - Pentru lituanian: www. anglu-lietuviu.com; Harold H. Bender- "A Lithuanian Etymological Index, Ed. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton-London, Humphrey Milford Oxford University Press, 1921" (n germ.) - Pentru vechea mitologie baltic i mitologia popular romneasc: Wikipedia - Pentru nepali: Karunakar Baidya- "Teach Yourself Nepali, A Tourist Manual, Published by: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, Bhotahity, Kathmandu, 1997"; http: //dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/romadict.pl?query =y&table=schmidt - Pentru vechea pruss: Mikkels Klussis- "Basic English-Prussian Dictionary for further lexical reconstruction (samlandian dialect), 2005-2006, Prussologia Klossiana: Lingua Borussica Nova, IIf" i "Trilingual dictionary of Prussian: Prussian, German, English " tradus de Letas Palmaitis dup Vytautas Maiulis- "Prs kalbos etimologijos odynas. Mokslas, Vilnius, I 1988, II 1993, III 1996, IV 1997 - Pentru rumantsch grishun i dialectele sale < sursilvan, sutsilvan, surmiran, puter i vallader>: www. pledari.ch/mypledari/ - Pentru pashto (afgan): Tegey Habibullah, Robson Barbara- "Beginning Pashto Textbook, Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, ED 323763" i Raverty, H. G. (Henry George). A dictionary of the Pukto, Pusto, or language of the Afghans: with remarks on the originality of the language, and its affinity to other oriental tongues. Second edition, with considerable additions. London: Williams and Norgate, 1867 din sursa http://dsal. uchicago.edu/dictionaries/ raverty/ - Pentru punjabi: http://www.ijunoon.com/punjabi/dictionary.aspx?word=? - Pentru samogitian: Wikipedia http://bat-smg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lietoviu_-_%C5%BEemaitiu_kalbu_%C5%BEu od %C4%ABns i http://bat-smg.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C5%BDemait%C4%97%C5%A1ks_%C5%BE uod%C4%Abnielis -Pentru trac: www. groznijat.tripod.com/thrac/index.html lucrarea Duridanov Ivan- "The Language of the Thracians" (n limba englez) - Pentru sanskrit : Egenes Thomas- "Introduction to Sanskrit, Part One, Motilal Banarsidas Publishers Private Limited, Delhi, 2003" i Apte, Vaman Shivaram- "The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary. Poona: Prasad Prakashan, 1957-1959" la adresa http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/ - Pentru tamazight: Ali Amaniss Dictionnaire Tamazight Franais (Parler du Maroc-Centrale) - Pentru west frisian: http:// www.websters-online-dictionary.org/browse_index/NonEnglish/Frisian

SURSE

Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

CAP 1. CONSIDERAII PRIVIND LIMBA TRACILOR I A GETO-DACILOR


Limba comun indo-european IE (analizat prin raportare la sanscrit) era constituit dintr-o serie de graiuri i dialecte, acestea fiind regsite peste timp prin corespondenele din limbile IE moderne. Substratul pre-IE este dificil de identificat, de cuantificat i decelat, demers realizabil doar prin raportare la limba bascilor i alte limbi neIE cunoscute. Din grupul limbilor IE antice, ramura traco-geto-daco-frigian este astzi disprut; se menin urme de substrat n limbile balcanice moderne (romn, bulgar, macedoslav, rutean/rusin; posibil albanez, slovac i n unele dialecte slovene ?). Pentru identificarea conexiunilor, a desprinderilor i scindrilor diferitelor ramuri analiza lingvistic comparat reprezint un instrument util, ns doar orientativ. Clasificarea formal de tip kentum-satem mparte limbile IE dup cum urmeaz: kentum (celt, german, greac, italic i neo-romanice, anatolian, toharic, albanez) i satem (armean, baltic i slava veche, indo-iranian, traco-frigian, iliric). Ion I. Russu apreciaz c limba traco-geto-dac era o limb satem nrudit n principal cu limbile ilirice, balto-slava, armeana, iraniana. Enorma munc de raportare la albanez depus de Ion I. Russu este important, complet, util. Raportarea romnei la armeana veche ar putea fi deasemenea extrem de util. n consecin, pentru identificarea cuvintelor atribuite ad-stratului slav, dar care pot aparine motenirii traco-geto-dace, autorul a realizat o comparare analitic cu limbile baltice- grupul estic: lituaniana (Auktaii i respectiv emaii, denumit samogitian) i letona (cu dialectele livon, latgalian <dialect sau limb distinct> i central leton) i grupul vestic: rudimentele vechii limbi baltice prusse (dialectul samlandian/sembas, dialectul sudovian reconstituite de exceleni lingviti prussologi precum dl. Vytautas Maiulis), cu pashto/pushto i nepali, precum i cu alte limbi IE antice sau moderne: limbile slave, celtice, limbile IE antice din Anatolia, arbresh, dialectele rumantsh grishun, etc. S procedm la o enumerare succint a limbilor baltice: vestice (galindian, skalvian, yotvingian/sudovian, vechea pruss, toate disprute) i estice (lituaniana cu samogitian, letona cu latgalian, curonian practic disprut; selonian, semigallian). Autorul consider limbile baltice datorit caracterului lor conservativ i trsturilor arhaice drept limbi IE "rdcin" pentru alte limbi IE moderne. Dl. Ivan Duridanov apreciaz c traca, geto-daca, frigiana i ilira au fost distincte. Materialul lingvistic disponibil n vechea trac cuprinde: circa 23 de cuvinte atestate n izvoare antice, inscripii, toponime i hidronime, nume de persoane, triburi, zeiti locale. Dintre cuvintele trace, dl. Duridanov enumer: asa (tussilago farfara: podbalul, bruscanis, brustan, brusturalb, brustur-de-ru, cenuoara, glbinele, gua-ginii, limba-vecinei, lapoel, papalung, podbeal, rotungioare), blinthos (bour slbatic, bizon; ro. bolnd- "descreierat, nebun, smintit " <mg. bolond sau din blinthos ?>. Asemnare incert.), bria (trg, aezare), briza (secar), brynchs (chitar, instrument muzical trac avnd coarde), brytos/bryton (bere din orz), dinupula/sinupyla opus gd. kinuboila (dovleac slbatic), gnton (mncare, carne- eg. meat), kalamndar (arbore/arbust de es), kemos (tip de fruct), ktstai (anahorei/sihatrii traci), midne (sat), pltyn (fortificaie sau turn din lemn), rhomphia (lance, spad), sklm (cuit, palo- cf. ro. lam, lt. laikelis- eg. "blade"), skrke (moned din argint), spnos (piatr ncins ce sfrie la stropirea cu ap), torlle (refrenul unei lamentaii), zalms (piele netbcit), zeir sau zir (obiect de mbrcminte pentru bust), zels (sortiment de vin; cf. Duridanov: lt. alas- eg. "brown"), zetria (cup), zibythides (nobili

Atestrile cuvintelor trace provin din surse antice strine limbii trace, de regul elene, putnd semnifica fie cuvntul n sine, fie un atribut conex. Dl. Duridanov se raporteaz pentru aceste cuvinte la elemente apropiate ca rezonan i sens din vechile lituanian/ leton/pruss, limba iranian veche, sanscrit, lydian, frigian.

traci: cf. A. Fick lt. ibeti- eg. "shine, sparkle, twinkle").

Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

Dnii. Duridanov, Deev, Gheorghiev au reconstituit din trac 180 de cuvinte/rdcini:


achel (ap); aiz (capr/ap- ro.: nume ru Ozana; frig. attagos- eg. "a goat"); ala (curs, curent); alta<s> (curs, curent); an<a> (la, n); ang (curbat, rsucit); ant<i> (mpotriv); apa/aphus (ap, ru, izvor; lyc. xabe, luw. hapi, hitt. hapa- eg. "a river"); apsa (plop tremurtor- populus tremula); arma (mlatin, smrc, mocirl); ars (a curge, curent, ru); arta<s>/arda<s> (curent, ru- ro.: nume ruri Ard<eu,uzel>, Arge<,l,stru,el>); arzas (alb); asa<s> (piatr) i as<a>m (pietros); at (la, n, spre, ctre); ath (nlime, deal); at<u> (curent, curs); bebrus (castor, biber- castor fiber); bend (a uni, a lega); beras (oache, brunet); berga<s> (deal, val); berza<s> (mesteacn- Betula verrucosa); bredas (pune, islaz); brentas/brendas (cerb, cprioar: lv. briedis- eg. "deer, hart, stag"); brink (eg. to swell); bruzas (repede, iute- ro. burzului <mg. borzolni sau lt. burzdulis- eg. "fidget" ?>); bur/buris/boris (om, brbat- ro. strbun); burt/burd (vad, trecere); bzas (capr, ap); chalas (noroi, ml); dama (aezare, stabilire); daphas (potop, viitur); darsas/dersas (brav, curajos, drz; hitt. dau, lyc. dezi- eg. "strong", lyc. wakssa- eg. "courage"); datan/datas (loc, aezare); dentu (clan, trib, gint); desa<s>/disa<s> (zeitate, zeu); dinga (teren fertil); diza (fortrea, palanc, palisad); dn (loc, inut); drenis (cerb, cprioar); dumas (ntunecat- ro. nume proprii Duma, Toma, lv. dmaka- eg. "brume, haz, mist, fog, gauze, vapour, smoke"); dn (deal, munte, dun); e<i>b (a curge, a picura); ermas (nebun, dement, slbatic); esvas/ezvas (cal; cf. hitt. asu/aswa, lv. i- eg. "horse", lyc. esbedi- eg. "cavalry"); gaidrus (limpede, clar, luminos, strlucitor); gava<s> (inut); germas (cald, fierbinte; frig. germe- eg. "warm"); gesa (pescru- alcedo ispida); gin (ofilit, stins, uscat- ro. reg. Mold., Buc. a se ugili); haimos<-on>/*saimas<-an> (culme, coam); ida/ide (copac, pdure; ro. Letea, lv. lete- eg. "bar, wood"); iet(e)r/jeter (repede, agil, iute); l(u) (nmol, noroi); iras/jras (ap, ru, lt. jra, lv. jr- eg. "sea"); kaba<s> (mlatin, mocirl, balt); kalas (district, regiune de grani); kalsas (uscat); kapas (deal, coast, ro. cap: ex. capul dealului; lv. kpt- eg. "mount, ascend, climb, rise"); kel<l>a (izvor); kenthas (copil, urma); kersas (negru); ketri/ketre (cifra patru); kik (viu, agil); kiri/kira (munte sau pdure); knisa<s> (loc erodat, gol); kupsela (grmad, ridictur, mamelon); kurp (a se ascunde n vizuin); kurta (uluc, jgheab, lemn); laza<-as> (lumini, poian); lingas (depresiune, lunc, pajite); mar- i marka (ap, ru, mlatin- ro. mrghil reg. Trans., Mold.); melda<s> (trestie, stuf); mr (mare, larg); mezna (clre- interpretare greit ?: ro. mnz, lt. mgjas- eg. "amateur, dilettante", lt. medioti- eg. "hunt, shoot, chase", lt. meginimas- eg. "efort, ncercare", lt. meginys- eg. "mostr, prob", termenul pentru clre n lt. jojikas- eg. "horseman, rider, horsewoman" i lyc. esbedi- eg. "cavalry"); muka (smn, neam, urma- ro. mucos cu sensul de tnr/ neexperimentat derivat din ro. muci); mukas (inut mltinos); musas (acoperit cu muchi sau licheni, humus, sol- ro. mzg- noroi lipicios i alunecos); nest (plin de via, clocotitor; ro. nestvilit cu sensul de impetuos, de neoprit- asociat cu ne+stavil ?); stas (izvorul rului); pa<i>vis (copil, fiu, pui); paisa<s> (funingine, arsur); pala (mlatin- ro. reg. Ban. bar, nv. palud); palma (mlatin- ro. reg. bahn); pan<i> (smrc, turbrie- ro. reg. bahn); para/phara (aezare, sat- ro., aro. far: neam, ginte, soi); pauta<s> (spum, nspumat- ro. sput- "flegm"); per (biat, fiu); per<u> (o piatr); ps (biat, copil); piza<s> (pmnt mocirlos, lunc); pras-/praus- (a spla, a stropi, a mproca); puis, pus, pys (copil, fiu- ro.: puior, puiu); pupa (nimic, prostie sau muuroi, grmad); pura(secar alb, alac); purda (loc ud, noroios); puris, poris, por, pyris, pyros, pyr (fiu, biat); pusinas (pdure de pini, molid); putras (ipt, urlet, strigt); raimas (pestri, multicolor); raka<s> (loc erodat, viroag, vlcea- ro. a rci, a scurma, a scormoni, pashto war-ah- eg. "a small channel in a field for irrigation purposes"); ramus (linitit, calm, lt. ramas- germ. "Ruhe", lt. rama, ramti- germ. "beruhigen, besnftigen"); raskus (iute, agil, plin de via); rera (pietros); rzas/resas (rege; rze- "freeholder" din mg. ?); ring-/rink- (dibaci, priceput); rudas (rou, nroit- ro.: ruj- "trandafir, mce, mpurpurare, mbujorare" i rug- "mce, mur"); rumba<s> (creast, cascad); rs-a (groap sau curgere lin); sabazias (liber- rom: slobozi- "a elibera"); saldas/zaldas (aur, ro.: localitate Zlatna, zltar); sara (curent, curs); sartas (lumin roie); satras/satrus (plin de via, iute, agil- ro. reg. Olt. saitoc- "drcos, neastmprat"); saut-is <-as> (indolent, domol- reg. Olt. sanchiu); sei<e>tuva (loc adnc n ru- ro.: reg. Trans. i Ban. ioi, Trans. i Maram. tibloanc, Mold., Buc. i Trans. tioaln i tiulboan- "bulboan, vrtej"); seina<s> (sat, aezare); skas (iarb, frunzi, verdea, fn); sem<e>la (=zemla) (ar, pmnt- ro. selite, slite); serma/sermas (curent, curs); siltas (plcut, clduros); sind<u> (ru); singas (loc jos, depresiune); skaivas (stnga); skalp- (a ciocni, lovi, bate); skaplis (secure, topor, bard; lt. skapoju, skapoti- germ. "schaben, schnitzen"-"a ciopli, a sculpta"); skapt- (a spa, a rci, a scormoni, a scocior); skaras <-is> (repede, ro. a se scurge referitor la trecerea timpului); skarsas (nclinat, piezi, oblic, rom: cruci, lt. skesas- germ. "quer, schielend"); skilas (impetuos); skreta (cerc, circumferin ro. a scruta- "a cerceta, a privi n jur cu atenie"); skumbr-as (deal, munte); spinda<s> (defriare n pdure); stra din strava (curent, torent); strambas (mirite); strum/strumn/strna (curent, ru); stur<ia> (inut, district); suchis/sukis/suku<s> <-os> (fat, biat, tnr ?); suka (deschiztur ngust, defileu, chei, pas); sula (tufi, pdure); sunka (sev, fluid); sura/zura (curent, curs); suras (puternic, curajos, erou); suras (aspru, amar); svit- (a strluci, licri, scnteia); tarpas/terpas (sprtur, gaur, fisur); taru- (lance, suli- ro. ru- "par ascuit"); thin- (a avea, a ine, a ngriji); thurd- (a sfrma, a prbui- ro. a stoarce, a strivi, a zdrobi, vezi i strugure); tirsas (desi- ro. tufi, tufri, tufrie, hi); titha (lumin, strlucire n ro. licr ?); tranas (a se descompune, a putrezi); traus- (a sparge, frmia, spulbera n ro. a trzni); tund- (a mpinge, a bate); tuntas (grmad, turm, ceat, stol, dar i popor- vezi ro. tot, toat); turm- (fug- ro. expresia "urma scap turma"; lv. turpinties- eg. "to run on"); udra<s> (vidr, lutr- nume propriu Udrea); udrnas (ap, acvatic- n ro. ud, umed); kas (nceoat, tulbure); upa (ru); urda<s> (curent de aer); usku- (ap, acvatic, mltinos); ut- (ap, ru); vair-as <-us> (rotitor- n ro. nvrti); varpasas (bulboan, vrtej, volbur); veger-/veker-(igrasie, mbrobonat); veleka<s> (loc de splat); ver- (a scpa, a ni- ro. a vrsa); verza<s> (barier folosit pentru pescuit, zgaz, stavil); zbel-/zibel (strlucire, trznet, lumin cf. lt. ibeti- eg. "shine, sparkle, twinkle"); zburul- (lumin, strlucire); zelmis (vlstar, urma); zenis/zens (nscut, originar din...); zri-/zvri-(animal, bestie); zi- (Dumnezeu, zeu); zilas (gri, grizonat, albastru cf. lt. ilas- eg. "grey"); zilma<s> (verdea, fnea); zum-, zuml-(dragon, arpe n vsl.- ro. zmeu-"dragon", ro. zmeu-"cpcun" n unele basme, cf. lv. <brie>smonis- eg. "monster, ogre", lt. mogdra- eg. "cannibal, man-eater"); zvaka<s> (strlucitor, alb- cf. lt. vak- eg. "candle").

Raportrile domniilor lor la vechile limbi baltice reconfirm dorina continurii cercetrilor lingvistice comparate cu limbile baltice moderne prin identificarea cuvintelor

Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

aparinnd ad-stratului autohton din romn, cu circulaie regional sau general i care sunt greu de decelat ca rezultat al prelungitei convieuiri slavo-romne. Astfel, dac despre trac dispunem de informaii din inscripii de dimensiuni apreciabile i un numr de cuvinte atestate de scrierile antice a cror descifrare este nc n disput, precum i de cuvinte sau rdcini reconstituite prin efortul unor tracologi de excepie, despre geto-dac tim bine c nu cunoatem aproape mai nimic. Pentru a ncerca descifrarea misterului limbii tgd., n cele ce urmeaz folosesc expresiile: dacism latinizat i dacism slavizat. Prin dacisme latinizate autorul nelege cuvintele autohtone gd. care sub influena unor cuvinte fonetic asemntoare sau simile din latin au suferit transformri de sintez fonetic i acumulri de sens, confundndu-se cu latinismele, uneori pn la disoluie complet, fenomen petrecut n perioada primar a graiurilor latinofone locale aparinnd convenional proto/str-romnei (pn la migraia slavilor). Totui, pe baza analizelor etimologice comparate ncercm identificarea acelor cuvinte care, dei au suferit influene, transformri fonetice, modificri de sens nu au fost complet substituite de echivalentul latin. Prin dacisme slavizate se neleg cuvintele care dei iniial au cptat poate un sens marginal sau chiar depreciativ n perioada primar a formrii proto/str-romnei (sec. II-VI), pstrnd poate sensul iniial doar n afara spaiului de iradiere latinofon, ulterior i ca rezultat al convieurii slavo-romne timpurii (sec. VI-X) ele s-au ntrit i revigorat, contopindu-se sau adaptndu-se dup corespondentul slav, pstrnd totui unele particulariti de sens sau/i fonetice care ar conduce la concluzia c ar putea fi grefe/adaptri slave sau contopiri cu un sau peste un cuvnt autohton. Unele cuvinte au circulat datorit multilingvismului sau bilingvismului "<latin/getodacic> i <strromn/dacic relict/vechi slav>" n dublete sau triplete de cuvinte: latin (n italic)- dacic sau/i vechi slav (subliniat), crend i cliee sau expresii de dublete lingvistice care poate ? sunt prezente nc n romn. Acest gen de expresii din perioada multilingvismului sau bilingvismului <latin/geto-dacic> i <strromn/dacic relict/vechi slav> au fost adaptate fonetic sau semantic, devenind cliee perpetuate n vorbirea curent (dubletele caracterizeaz etapele de contracie i sintez lingvistic din intersectarea i suprapunerea a dou limbi sau mai multe limbi n curs de contopire). Exemple de dublete sau expresii ce pot fi considerate drept dacisme latinizate: "mo btrn" (aro. moae ; pentru mo cu sensul de "n vrst": pashto mshr/mashar- eg. "elder, leader"; pentru derivatele lui mo cu sensul de "drept ereditar, motenire": ossetian moj/mojnae- eg. "husband"; lv. muia- eg. "manor, estate", lv. muinieks- eg. "nobleman, noble, squire, gentleman", cf. ro. moneag. Ciornescu: un lat. anossus- ro. "ncrcat de ani". A se vedea i cap. 2; pentru btrn: aro. bitrnu cf. lat. vtranus/vetranus, nep. brddha /vrddha- eg. "old, feeble, broken- down"; punj. btorher- eg. "elder" sau punj. buddhra- eg. "old" ? Pashto badrng- eg "ugly" este mai apropiat fonetic de ro. i ar putea fi complementar ro. mo n dubletul exemplificat, exprimnd decrepitudinea btrneii ? Sau pashto bddah/ bagn- eg. "an old man", pashto bd-r/bd-rn (pl.)- eg. "a master, an employer, a superior" . Atunci, lat. vtranus/vetranus s-a suprapus peste un dublet preexistent cu substituire de sens ?), "tot poporul" (cf. IE *teuta- eg. "people", lt. tauta- eg. "people, nation", prss. tut- eg. "country, land", lv. tauta- eg. "demos, nation, people, country, folk, nationality", il. teuta- eg. "people, a tribe"?), "doarme dus" (lv. dusteng "sleep"), "a juca de bucurie" (lt. digauti- eg. "rejoice, triumph"; lt. diaugsmas- eg. "joy"), "btaie de joc" (lat. batt<u>alia, lv. izzobot- eg. "deride, satirize, rag, rib, twit, roast"; lat. jocus, lv. jokoties- eg. "joke, jest, lark", lv. joks- eg. "farce, jock, lark, fun, game"); "c-i place, c nu-i place" ("de voie, de nevoie"; lat. placere, lv. izplaucts- eg. "forced", lv. izplauct- eg. "force"); "suprat foc" (lt. fokusas- eg. "1. focus, 2. trick", lt.

Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

fokusininkas- eg. "conjurer, juggler, tricker" unde motivul suprrii: nelciunea a cptat un alt sens semantic prin confuzie cu lat. focus de intensitate a suprrii, dei la origine poate era explicaie la ntrebarea "de ce este suprat?": "suprat pentru c a fost nelat"; lat. sprre- ro. "a depi, a ntrece", pashto sipris /suprs- eg. "recommendation, intercession, inducement" ?); "e greu, tare greu" (lat. grevis=gravis, lat. talem; lv. grtieg. "hard"; ltg. gryui- lv. smagi- eg. "heavily, hard"; nep. grho- eg. "hard, difficult, difficulty, distress"; lv. iegrt- eg. "collapse"); "<a fi> ud leoarc/<a fi> ud ciuciulete" (ro. leoarc-"foarte ud, plin de ap, bleac", ro. ud ciuciulete- "a se uda sau a fi ud pn la piele"; vbalt. Lietuvonis/Lytuvonis- eg. "the rain deity", lt. lietingas/lv. lietus i lt. lapias/lv. slapjums, slapj - eg. "wet, rainy", lv. lt- eg. "rain", cf. nume propriu ro. Letea care ar putea fi n conexiune i cu lv. lete- eg. "bar, wood"; ro. ciuciulete= lv. aula- eg. "tegument, shell"+lv. lietus-"wet, rainy", lv. liet- eg. "in the wet"; dar ro. leoarc corespunde expresiei lt. lauke lapia- eg. "it is wet out of doors", unde lt. lauke- eg. "out of door, outside". Probabil din succesiunea: "e ud, e leoarc"-"e ud pentru c vine de afar", leoarc s-a contaminat i a fost neles mai trziu cu sensul de "plin de ap"); "beat turt" (lt. beturtis- eg. "indigent, poor person": beat de suprare ?); "ngheat bocn" (ngheat tare; lt. brakinti, lv. brakint- eg. "freeze hard"); "<a fi> rupt de oboseal" (ro. a fi foarte obosit;/eg. flat out;/lt. aptrupti- eg. "become crumbled a little; crumble off", lt. aptrupinti- eg. "<make> crumble, crumble off"); "cu vrf i ndesat" (ro. "din belug, cu prisosin"; lt. viraus- eg. "besides, in addition to, to boot", lt. virum- eg. "above, over", lat. in-de<n>sare); "<i dau una de vezi> stele verzi" (se spune cnd cineva primete o lovitur puternic; posibil o pierdere sau o contaminare de sens a lt. vaigd- eg. "star" cu lt. aizda- eg. "wound"- "a rni" cf. expresiei lt. mirtama aizda- eg. "fatal wound"+ lt. vertis- eg. "strain after, long to +inf., be dying to+inf."- "lovitur mortal, ran fatal" printr-o confuzie de termeni a trecut din lt. aizda n lt. vaigd care a fost tradus ca atare ntr-o prim etap, dup care i lt. vertis i-a pierdut sensul, fiind "latinizat" ?); "ia care vrei !" (cnd se ofer ceva: ro. dup pofta inimii, cum doreti; lv. iekre- eg. "lust, desire", lv. iekrot- eg. "covet, lust"; lat. volere); "afar !" (cu valoare de interjecie: "Iei !""Pleac !"- "Du-te !"; lat. ad foras; lv. afra- eg. "hustle; dodge"- "a mbrnci, a nghionti; a se feri, a se da n lturi"; bret. afo- eg. "quickly"); "auzi! <dup ce c...>" (lv. aiz- eg. "after, abaft, behind, beyond, for, of, with, from, astern of, out of"- "n urma, dup"); "ca la mama acas" (lv. mja/ mjas- eg. "home"); "mort copt" (lv. kopt- eg. "groom, tend, foster, attend"- "a ngriji, a ntreine", n ro. poate cu sensul de mort i mblsmat. Ex. inc.); "a da bir cu fugiii " (lt. byrti- eg. "fall, pour, run out"); "a czut lat " (lv. lauzts- eg. "broken", lv. lauzt- eg. "break, fracture", lv. lauzt kju- eg. "to fracture ones leg", lat. latus); "pn la capt " (lv. kpt- eg. "mount, ascend, climb, rise", lat. capita ?); "<s ne strngem> cu toii laolalt" (ro. mpreun, la un loc; lv. laulto draugu- eg. "marital"; lv. laulta draudzene/laultais draugs- eg. "spouse/ husband"); "o, o pe el !" (ro. "cine, sari pe el !" ?; "o": lt. uo- eg. "dog", hitt. suwana- eg. "dog" ; "o pe el !": lt. uolis, uolikas- "salt, sritur", lt. uoliuoti- "a sri"); "vi se pare" (ro. se rspunde la o acuzaie nedovedit: "nu eu, oricare altul";/eg. not me, every other;/lv. visi prjie- eg. "all the others, every other", lv. visparastkais- eg. "as common as muck, common or garden", lv. vispr- eg. " generally, all in all, at all"); "adevrul doare" (lt. dora- eg. "morals, honesty" ? Ex. inc.); "<este> de speriat, < i bag nasul peste tot>" (despre o persoan insistent, enervant; lv. izokert- eg. "nose, to ferret out, to mouse out"- "nas, copoi; a descoperi, a depista, a afla"; lv. izokert, izot- eg. "to smell round, to smell about", pashto spadal or spaal/ spa <prezent>- eg. "to undo, to unravel, to unfold, to unclose, to unloose, to open the eyes <as the young of a cat or dog>" ? sau psh. spera-kaey- eg. "a poltroon, a low, mean, or miserable fellow, a term of abuse"; lat. expavorere<pavor);

"stors de puteri" (hitt. istark- eg. "an illness"- "boal, stare proast"; lat. extorquere, lat. potere); "a mnca ceva bun" (t. esko, tocharian swa- eg. "eat"; anatoliana comun sav, sava- eg. "something good", lydian sav- eg. "the good". Ex. inc. totui.); "a tace chitic" (ro. a nu spune nimic; lat. tacere; lt. tykus- eg. "quiet, silent, gentle", lt. tykumas- eg. "quiet, silence"); "a zmbi ca prostul" (deseori i "a rde ca prostul"; sg. zambis- lt. ioplys- eg. "gawk, gull, fool"- "prost, ggu, naiv, nebun", psh. parast- eg. "adorer, worshipper; devoted to, attentive to" cf. ro. prost, dar i ro. parastas, pb. a cptat o conotaie negativ datorit cretinismului ? Psh. paras-tr/ paras-trn- eg. "a slave, an adorer" ? Mg. paraszt- eg. "boor", sb. prost- ro. "simplu"); "a pune/aga pofta/dorina n cui" (sg. akatalt. noras- eg. "wish, desire, longing for; will"; lat. accaptiare; vsl. pohotti; dublet sau coinciden ? Ex. inc.); "a-i da arama pe fa" (a-i arta adevratul caracter, nemairespectnd politeea; lat. a<e>ramen; psh. arm- eg. "a robber, an assassin, a rascal, a cheat", psh. armedal- eg. "to become unlawful or prohibited" ? Ex. inc. Explicat prin obiceiul de a bate monede de aram, suflate cu un strat de aur sau argint, prin folosin ncepe s se vad stratul de aram.); "unda apei" (sg. ondou- lt. vanduo- eg. "water" s-a contopit cu lat. unda? Cf. hu. voda/oda/oda- "ap". Ex. inc.); "zi repede" (psh. jir- eg. "quickly, speedily, quick, soon"). Sau expresii latinizate ? precum: "prul vlvoi" ("zbrlit, ciufulit"; lt. velti- eg. "tousle, dishevel"<unul dintre sensuri>, sg. veiluoks- lt. veltinis, pb. de la velti ?; lv. velvjums- eg. "vaulting"- "bolt, boltire, arcuire"?); "loc virgin " (nelucrat, necultivat, neexplorat; lat. locus; lt. laukas- eg. "field"; lat. virgo,-inis; lt. virynas/viryn- eg. "heat"- "brgan, cmp acoperit cu buruieni"); "ce-i pas !?" (lv. pas- eg. "special, specific, unusual, particular, peculiar"), "cine tie ?" (lv. iesties- eg. "to bite in, to eat in"- "a ine n sine, a ascunde un gnd"); "persoan/om cinoas/cinos" (lat. canis; frig. kunes, bret. ki- eg. "dog<s>", sg. vilkien- lt. vilk- eg. "she-wolf"- lupoaic ?, bret. ki- eg. "dog"); "e n joc..." (lat. jocus, lv. iejaukts- eg. "mixed up, concerned"); "<a ndruga> verzi i uscate" (ro. "a spune lucruri inutile, nimicuri, minciuni; vrute i ne-vrute"/lv. verdzisks- eg. "slavish, menial, obsequious, servile"+lv. maldgs uzskats- eg. "misbelief", lv. uzskats- eg. "deem, opinion, viewpoint, notion, thinking, thought, mind, view, outlook, sight"; lat. vir<i>dis, lat. exsucare; simpl coinciden ?); "e <tot numai> lapte i miere" (se spune despre cineva care vine mpciuitor dup o discuie anterioar violent; lat. lactis, lat. mel; lv. miergi- eg. "quietly, stilly, easy", lv. miers- eg. "calmness, imperturbability, quiet, repose, stillness, pax, peace, peacefulness"; lv. atpta- eg. "repose, rest, recreation, relaxation"); "<s tragem>/<s ne nhmm> mpreun la jug " (ro. "s facem echip"; lyc. ahma- eg. "beloved", psh. jug/ jugna <pl.>- eg. "the yoke of a plough, a yoke for oxen in general", psh. jug taal- eg. "to yoke"; lv. iejgt- eg. "harness, team, yoke"; hitt. ikn"a yoke"; lat. jugum/igum cf. it. giogo, fr. joug, cat. jou, etc. ); "aa e dat de la Dumnezeu!" (lv. iedalt- eg. "apportion, lot, distribute", lat. dare); "i d Dumnezeul nsutit !" (ro.: i va primi pedeapsa; lv. izstit- eg. "deporte, banish, to send out", lv. izstanaeg. "banishment, deportation"); "ia-o de la capt !" (lv. iedaa- eg. "section, point", lat. capita; lv. kpt- eg. "mount, ascend, climb, rise"); "<ca> argint<ul> viu/aro. earear<u,inu >" (ro. fig.: om plin de energie; lat. argentum, lat. vivus; lt. varginti- eg. "weary, tire, fatigue, trouble", lt. vargintis- eg. "weary oneself, tire oneself". Ex. inc.); "ia te uit !" (atunci cnd se spune la sosirea neateptat a cuiva sau la aflarea inopinat a unei veti; lv. ieiet- eg. "enter, to bob in, to get into, to go into, to step in, to walk in/into"); "iai zis?" (lv. ieildzis- eg. "long-drawn, far-gone, lenghty, lingering, long-standing, prolonged, of long standing", lat. dicere); "e cazul s..."/"de ce faci atta caz ?" (lv. iekaisis- eg. "agog, angry, heated, warm"- "dornic de, nerbdtor, nfierbntat", lat. casus);

Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

"nici nu tii ct <m> cost !" (lv. iekosties- eg. "to bite in"- "a ine n sine, a ascunde un gnd", lv. iekost- eg. "bite, nip, to satisfy the inner man, to get outside of", it. costare); "<a face> glgie" (cu sensul de "a se da mare"; lv. galjais- eg. "utmost, uttermost, outside, supreme", lv. galjba- eg. "extremeness, extreme, extremity, excess"; n DEX et. nec.); "<a umbla> bezmetic" (a umbla aiurea, fr scop; lv. bezmrgs- eg. "aimless, driftless, meaningless, objectless, purposeless", lv. baismgs- eg. "fearsome, uncanny, fearful, flagrant", lv. baismgs skats- eg. "fearsome sight"; lat. amphisbeticus ?); "pe dibuite" (ro. pipind, fr s vad, la ntmplare; lv. daba- eg. "nature, spirit, habit, fibre, kind"; lv. dabjams- eg. "gettable, obtainable, procurable, available"; lv. dobj/dobs- eg. "hollow""scobit, concav"? A obine, a procura n ascuns sau ntr-un loc ascuns uznd de simuri ?; n DEX et. nec.); "p - p" (ro. red zgomotul uor produs de paii cuiva, de mersul n vrful picioarelor; hitt. pa- eg. "to swallow"- "a-i nbui o emoie, a se stpni; a nghii, a sorbi", psh. pas pasey kawul- eg. "to whisper in the ear, to address in a low voice", psh. pos-posh- eg. "continual or repeated warnings; Take care !"); "deodat <l vd c...> " (ro. 1. pe neateptate, brusc, subit; 2. n acelai timp, simultan, concomitent; sens 1: lv. draudi- eg. "imminence, threat, menace, danger"; sens 2. lv. draudt- eg. "hector, menace, threaten; n expresie: to bluster at"); "gata, bi ?!/ gata treaba ?" (lv. gatavb- eg. "on stand-by"); "ba e gata!" (rspuns la ntrebarea "tot nu-i gata ?"; lt. baigta- eg. "ready, thats all ! ") "mai e cam..." (la ntrebarea: "Ct mai e pn la... ?"; lv. iekams- "before, pending"- "nainte, pn la"; psh. kam- eg. "adj. chiefly used in composition; less, little, deficient, scanty, seldom, etc" ); "a <se >gti/a gta" (ro. 1. a isprvi, a sfri; 2. despre mncruri: a prepara, a pregti la foc; 3. a se mbrca frumos, a se mpodobi; sensurile 1 i 3: lv. gatavot- eg. "make, prepare, groom, fit, do"- "a face, a pregti, a ngriji/ferchezui/dichisi, a potrivi, a svri", psh. gaal/ga <participiu trecut> - eg. "to gain, to acquire, to win, to get, to realize, to derive, to come by, to bag, to profit, to turn to profit. 2. To worst, to beat, to check-mate, to nonsuit, etc"; sensurile 1 i 2: arb. gatanj- it. "vt. preparare"); "<a rmne> grea " (ro.: gravid; lv. grta- eg. "gravid, pregnant, big"); "<a da de> greu/greuti " (ro. a ntmpina dificulti; lv. dot- eg. "impart, bestow, give, inflict, render, deliver, returne", lv. grti- eg. "hard", lv. grtbas- eg. "hardship, privation, difficulty, involvement, trouble, pressure"); "nveninat de..." (lv. iekvlint- eg. "enkindle, inflame, kindle, fire, flush", lat. venenum); "este <mai> ruinos" (despre o persoan timid care are ceva de comunicat, altcineva l prezint; lv. ierosinos- eg. "proponent, suggestive", lat. roseus); "la e ! " (lv. ielaist- eg. "admit, usher, run, to let in, to let into"); "ei, acu !" (lv. ielgo- eg. "mind you !"); "aa nu ! " (lv. izsaiot- eg. "unpack, uncase" ?); "te rog !" (lv. ielgt- eg. "invite, bid, ask", lat. rogare. Ex. inc.); "api cine ?"(cnd cineva se gndete la cine s apeleze pentru ajutor, la o persoan din vecintate ?; ltg. apleicne- lv. apkrtne- eg. "adjacency, environement, vicinage, entourage, neighbourhood, surroundings"; ltg. apleicne- lv. apgabals- eg. "district, region, area, county". Ex. inc.); "nma nu te gndi c..." (ro. indic restricia, exclusivitatea: nu+mai sau lat. non magis ?; ltg. nmane/atmane- lv. apzia- eg. "sense, consciousness" ? Psh. gundi- eg. "perhaps, by chance".); "apleac-te asupra..." (lat. applicare; ltg. apleik- lv. apkrt- eg. "<a>round, about"- "de jur mprejur, peste tot". Ex. inc.); "a avea ceva asupra sa/asupra sa au venit..." (lat. ad-supra; ltg. atspriekle/atspriekli vn t ?- lv. atmuguriski- eg. "aback, backward""n/pe spate". Ex. inc.); "ca lumea !" (lv. laime- eg. "blessedness, happiness, luck, felicity, fortune, blessing, chance, paradise"); "ca nelumea !" (ltg. namums- lv. satraukums- eg. "discomposure, disquiet, inquietude, take-on, turn-on, commotion, fret, unrest, perturbation, agitation, convulsion, disturbance, trepidation, vexation, ferment, pulse, feeling"); "numai c, atta c" (lat. non magis, lat. eccum-tantum, ltg. nmane/atmane- lv. apzia- eg. "consciousness, sense"- "contiin, sens"?); "oare ce s fie ?" (cnd cineva

Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

vrea s repare ceva sau cnd s-a produs un eveniment nedorit care putea provoca o pierdere, distrugere; lv. ierce- eg. "appliance, fix-up, gadget, instrument, device, rig, set, facility, contrivance"); "ce-ai pit ?" (lv. just patiku- eg. "love, fancy, to be fond, to go for, to have a liking"; lv. just nepatiku- eg. "to take an aversion, to feel an objection", psh. psawul- eg. "to raise, awaken, erect, set upright, stir up, stimulate"; eusk. aipatu/aipatzen- fr. "mentionner, parler de", lat. pati); "mur-n gur" (hitt. muri- eg. "a berry", hitt. murijan- eg. "a bunch of grapes"); "<a fi> varz" (lv. varza- eg. "1. crowd, gang; 2. pack"; lv. varkrupis- eg. "spadefoot, garlic toad", lv. varza- eg. "corn, wart", lat. vir<i>dia); "a-i iei <cuiva> nainte" (lat. exire; lv. ieana- eg. "going, walk, walking". Ex. inc.); "nu-i aa ?" (pentru a obine un accept sau ntrebare retoric; dar i cu scopul de a atrage atenia asupra cuiva sau ceva dup o scurt introducere: "e ca lumea !, nu-i aa ?"; lv. iznkana- eg. "come-out, coming-out, appearance"- "a reiei, a deveni clar; apariie"); "n-are cum !" (lv. iznkums- eg. "outcome, upshot, event, offspring, issue, end"); "Uite cum ! Cu grij !" (lv. jutgums- eg. "sensitiveness, sensitivity, sensibility, susceptibility, rawness, tenderness, delicacy". Ex. inc.); "numai eu tiu ct de greu a fost !" (lt. atti- eg. "come tearing along"- "a deveni istovitor, epuizant"); "arzi, arzoie/dorin arztoare" (ro. arzoi, arzoaie- "aprins, nfocat"; ltg. aizkorsums- lv. kaisle- eg. "pash, lust, passion"- "poft trupeasc, dorin, pasiune", psh. r-z- eg. "wish, desire, hope, distress, want"; lat. ardere); "se ofer careva ?" (vreunul, oarecare, cineva; lv. kareivis- eg. "effective, soldier", lv. kareivgs- eg. "bellicose, militant, belligerant, martial, soldierly", lv. kareivji- eg. "man, other ranks"); "caui ceart ? " (lat. certare; lv. karot- eg. "fight, war, to make/wage war, to be at war", lv. karotjs- eg. "fighter"); "<te compori> ca i cum..."(lv. kas jums kai?eg. " whats the matter with you?; whats wrong with you ?"); "ca s nu..." (dup propoziii negative; lv. kas ne- eg. "but"); "a se nciera/ncierare" (din ro. caier, lat. caiulus ?; lv. kauja- eg. "battle, combat, fight<ing>, engagement, action, show"); "a cocoloi" (a rsfa, a rzgia;/eg. to spoil;/lv. kukuoana- eg. "bribery"- "mit, mituire"); "a corcoli/corconi" (a rsfa; a trgna; et. nec.; lv. kurkulis- eg. "tadpole"- "mormoloc", lv. kurkui- eg. "spawn"- "odrasle, plozi; icre"); "a pune cuiva cluul n gur" (a mpiedica pe cineva s vorbeasc cf. clu- mototol de crpe introdus n gura unei persoane pentru a o mpiedica s strige; lv. klusi- eg. "quietly", lv. kluss- eg. "close-lipped, noiseless, quiet, silent, wordless" ? Ex. inc.); "a-i crpa buza/mseaua dup ceva" (a avea mare nevoie de ceva; lat. crepare; lv. krpas- eg. "expectoration, sputa, sputum". Ex. inc.), "a fi punga/a ine n pung" (et. nec.; lv. kuis- eg. "stomach, belly, bread-basket <slang>, the inner man"- "stomac, co de pine, om ascuns"); "a i se face gura pung" (datorit senzaiei de acru; psh. ulga- eg. "a small mouth". Ex. inc.); "a fi luat de val/a-l lua valul" (lv. aut vau- eg. "wreak, uncork, unleash, exhale, riot; to open the floodgates, to give way, to give/let loose, to run riot, to give vent", unde eg. wreak- "a-i da fru liber mniei, a-i vrsa mnia, a rzbuna"); "Valea !" (ro. Pleac !; Plecai imediat !; lat. vallis; lt. valyti- eg. "clean, brush"- "a cura, a terge, a peria", lt. valus- eg. "tidy, neat, clean; easily cleaned". Ex. inc.); "Din plin/A-i merge cuiva din plin" (ro. din abunden; lat. plenus; ltg. pylnai- lv. daudz- eg. "many, much, considerably; deal, far, very; <a> great deal <of>, far and away". Ex. inc.); "mai cu grij/ mai potolii-v i voi !" (lv. maigums- eg. "fondness, mildness, clemency, gentleness, tenderness, geniality, delicacy, mellowness", lv. maigs- eg. "dulcet, clement, gentle, mild, tender, balmy, benign, maidenlike, silky, soft, delicate, kind, melting, mellow, open, soft". Ex. inc.); "a avea mncrici/mncrime" (lat. manducare; lv. mantkrgs- eg. "grasping, greedy, mercenary, rapacious", lv. mantkrba- eg. "rapacity, greed, greediness"- "rapace, lacom"); "cum le vine la ndemn..." (lv. lavna- eg. "avalanche, billow"); "Tu o s stai pn mine aici !" (ro. cnd cuiva nu-i convine modul cum altcineva i desfoar activitatea i l d deoparte ca s-i arate cum se face; lv.

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pamiens- eg. "modus, manner, method, shift, stroke, touch"); "los" (ro. cu lae multe, cu pr ori fir lung i mios; lv. lcis- eg. "bruin, bear, backwoodsman", lv. lcgs- eg. "bearish, cubbish". Ex. inc.); "ap lin" (lv. lna upe- eg. "lazy river", lv. lni- eg. "leisurely, slow, slowly, heavily"; lat. lenus/lenis); "a o ticlui <bine>" (ro. a da unei afirmaii mincinoase aparena de adevr; et. nec. n DEX; lt. tikslumas- eg. "precision, exactness, accuracy, punctuality", lt. tikslus- eg. "exact, precise, accurate, punctual"); "a se cciuli" (ro. a se njosi, ploconi, umili; sg. kaioliavms- lt. kutenimas- eg. "tickling, <be> ticklish""a gdila" ?; sg. kaioliout- lt. kutenti- eg. "tickle", sg. kaiolt- lt. kamuoti- eg. "torment, torture, weary, wear out, tire"- "a sci" ?; sg. kaiolt- lt. varginti- eg. "torment, weary, tired, fatigue, trouble"- "chin, griji, ncurctur, nevoi" ?); "a fi repezit/a se repezi/la repezeal" (ro. n grab, n prip, nestpnit; 1. sg. repeiuot/ repekoti- lt. eiti rplomis, unde lt. eiti- eg. "walk, move, run", lt. rplomis- eg. "crawling, on all fours"; sg. repekotilt. repekenti- eg. "creep, crawl"; 2. sg. repiea- lt. kas isiskts, nerangus, nevikriai einaeg. "who move one's leg apart; slow, sluggish, clumsy, awkward"- "nendemnatic, grosolan, fr tact" ?; psh. apedal/apej/apeg - eg. "to shake, to move, to tremble, to be agitated, to writhe, to toss about, to bob, to wag, to palpitate", psh. apedanah or rapedah orapawul- eg. "1. to agitate, to toss, to tumble, to buffet, to wallop; 2. to wag the tongue, to prate, to chatter, to cackle, to jabber, to talk nonsense; 3. to wag or move the tongue as a horse, etc. when afflicted with a disease to which that animal is liable; 4. to rinse or cleanse (as clothes)"; considerat derivat al ro. repede< lat. rapdus); "asta !/aceasta ! " (sg. t<s>- lt. tai- eg. "here"); "pe msur ce... " (lv. pamazm- eg. "gradually, bit by bit, bit and by"); "e bine pe mta !" (vulgar, rspuns la: "e bine ? "; lv. pamatgs- eg. "deep-minded, detailed, special, proper, nice, good". Ex. inc.); "a fi pe lng" (lv. palga- eg. "auxiliary", unde ro. lng cf. psh. lndey- eg. "below, under, beneath, down". Informativ psh. ingah- eg. "a female who accompanies and waits on a bride for a few days after marriage, generally a female relation" care conduce poate la ro. lingu- ro. "o persoan obedient, dornic s fac plcere unei persoane cu influen" ?); "pcal/pclici" (lv. pakautais- eg. "inferior, vassal, junior "; lv. paklaust- eg. "obey, listen" . Ex. inc.); "pe cale de... " (lv. paklau- eg. "now then"); "cum necum" (indiferent cum, vrnd-nevrnd;/eg. willing or unwilling;/ lv. nelikumgs- eg. "illicit, unlawful, unlicensed, illegal", lv. nelikumba- eg. "illegality, illegitimacy"; psh. km-n-km- eg. "willing or unwilling, nolens volens"); "de neiertat" (lv. neieredzt- eg. "abominate, loathe", lv. nerts- eg. "incommodious, inconvenient, embarrassing, uncomfortable, uneasy, unhandy, awkward"); "nemaiauzit" (lv. neaudzints- eg. "uncultured, uneducated, unmanerly, ignorant"); "neaprat s..." (lv. neatkargs- eg. "independent, free, autonomic", lv. neatkarg- eg. "on one's own"); "neapreciat" (lv. neapprecties- eg. "to stay single"); "i-atunci unde ajungem ?; ajungem la balamuc !" (exprim dezordinea sau distrugerea prin neglijen, impasivitatea sau preteniile exagerate ale unei persoane; glgie, dezordine, zpceal; corespunde mai bine sg. balamts- lt. nenaudelis- eg. "disadvantage, damage, harm"; sg. balamts- lt. apgavikas- eg. "deceiver, cheat, fraud; swindler, knave" dect lv. balamutgs- eg. "rattlebrained, rattleheaded"- "zpcit, nuc, aiurit, zevzec" care explic sensul propriu al ro. balamuc- "cas de nebuni"); "a-i abate mnia" (sg. abazos- lt. pulkas/kariuomen- eg. "army, forces", psh. abtar- eg. "ruined, spoiled, worthless; dissolute, wanton", psh. abtar kawul/ eg. to spoil, to ruin"); "a lucra curat/a<-i> trece <temele> pe curat" (eg. accuracy; sg. akrat- eg. lt. tiksliai, i tikrjeg. "exactly, precisely"; lat. curare); "acurat" (ro. reg. nv. Trans.: acurat- "tocmai"; sg. akrat- lt. tiksliai- eg. "exactly, precisely"); "crud/cruzime" (eg. cruel, cruelty; sg. akrtnos- lt. stiprus/ baisus/ nemonikas- eg. "terrible, horrible, frightful, fearful,

Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

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dreadful, awful, scary"; lat. crudus); "<mi> se pare c..." (lv. pareot- eg. "predict, pronosticate, prophesy, augur, forecast, foreshadow", lv. parea- eg. "augural", psh. misleg. " simile, parable, saying, example"); "pare-se c e bine" (lv. pareizi- eg. "aright, accurately, correctly, right<ly>, true, properly, right on" sau psh. bar-ser- eg. "apparent, clear, visible, obvious, palpable, manifest, distinct" ); "pareaz !" (lt. pareizi ! pareizi !- eg. "hear ! hear !". Ex. inc.); "pe rnd" (lv. parinde- eg. "footer"- "pieton", poate cu sensul de "la pas". Ex. inc.); "se fur pe rupte" (lv. parpties- eg. "see, to see about"- "a cerceta, a urmri, a fi atent la... ", lv. parpties par- eg. "to look to, to see to". Ex. inc.); "e doar una" (lt. tra- eg. "there is only, there are only"; lat. de-hora; ex. inc.); "<cumva> m ignori ?" (lat. ignorare, lv. ignort- eg. "disregard, ignore, defy, disdain, override"); "pesemne" (ro. probabil; lt. signum, ltg. pzynums lv. atzia unde lv. atzinba- eg. "acknowledgement, appreciation, distinction, recognition"; psh. pamn- "<n vest> disgrace, regret, sorrow, penitence, repentance, shame" posibil doar coinciden fonetic); "nite" (lt. nescio quidro. "nu tiu ce", ltg. nazcik- lv. dai- eg. "couple, several, a few, some few"); "la mine acas" (lv. mtne- eg. "lodging, home", psh. minah- eg. "a house, a dwelling, a place of residence, a mansion"; lt. casa. Psh. kz/ kznah- eg. "the den of a wild beast; a cavern in which men or sheep are lodged in the winter" poate mai apropiat de ro. cazemat ? Ex. inc.), "a fi n gleat" (ro. a fi la ananghie ?;/psh. galat/galatnah <pl.>- eg. "an error, a mistake, a blunder; wrong, erroneous, mistaken". Ex. inc. Pentru sensul propriu al ro. gleat, psh. altah- eg. "a bag, a haversack, a wallet"), "s-a zis cu ei" (ro. s-a terminat cu ei ? cnd s-a dat la iveal un plan, o conspiraie; lat. dicere; psh. szis kawul- eg. "to plot, to combine, to get up a conspiracy"; psh. szis- eg. "collusion, combination, confederacy, conspiracy, plot, cabal". Ex. inc.), "a spla/terge putina" (lat. putna ?; psh. pitnah- eg. "sedition, mutiny, mischief, perfidy". Ex. inc.), "gur mare" (psh. al-maleg. "unfeigned <friendship>, unreserved, frank, candid, sincere, free spoken"; lat. gla cf. it.,cat. gola, fr. gueule; psh. ulah- eg. "the mouth, orifice, entrance", psh. go-lah- eg. "a mouthful"), "a stura pe cineva/i-am sturat/le-am dat pe sturate" (psh. sa war-kawuleg. "to vanquish, to give a defeat unto"), "a da fata"(ro. a promite cstoria fetei; psh. wdah- eg. "a promise, vow, agreement, bargain, assignation, appointment", psh. wdaheg. "a marriage, a wedding, a marriage festival". Din aceei rdcin pare a proveni i ro. adunare- eg. assemblage, respectiv sensul de grup de oameni), "a datora" (psh. wdah taal or wdah kawul- eg. "to enter into an agreement, to bargain, to agree, to promise" ), "ndat" (psh. an-dak/ an-dakah <fem.>- eg. "little, few, small"), "a bate tare" (despre fenomenele atmosferice, vnt, ploaie; psh. bad tar/ bad tarah- eg. "worse, bad"), "S dea Domnul/Cum d Domnul" (Psh. sattr- eg. "one who covers, an attribute of God"poate cf. alb. Zoti<n> i cf. ro. "s dea..." ? Psh. ud-e- eg. "God", psh. ude jo- eg. "By God! so help me God!" poate cf. ro. "cum d" ?), "a se arta" (lat. arrectare; psh. pah artah <E.> or. pah aratah (W.)- eg. "the first visit of a lover to the house of his betrothed" ?), "mi bag p**a" (psh. papula or papulah- eg. "spontaneously, of one's own accord or free will, voluntarily" ?). Exemple de expresii ce pot fi considerate drept dacisme slavizate: "<a tace> mlc/ca melcul" (lat. tacere; ro. mlc: vsl. mlati, ch. mlky- eg. "muteness"- "n tcere", lv. pamugs- eg. "softwitted, sheepish, soft" ?; ro. "ca melcul": lv. kurlmmais- eg. "deafmute", lv. kurlmms- eg. "deaf-mute, deaf and dumb". Ex. inc.); "cu treab pe lng cas" (vsl. trba; lt. troba- eg. "cottage, house, farmhouse"); "cu trud" (vsl. trud; lt. trukdymas- eg. "hindrance, setback, interference, delay", lt. trukdyti- eg. "hinder, hamper, impede, prevent, interfere with...; disturb, trouble; detain, delay, inconvenience"); "e mai vrstnic" (lt. vyresnis- eg. "elder", sl. vrusta); "srac lipit <pmntului>" (deseori se spune

Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

doar srac lipit; lv. laupana- eg. "rapine, robbery, sack, pillage, plunder, brigandage", lv. laupt- eg. "bereave, bereft, despoil, pillage, plunder, rob, denude, widow, prey", vsl. lpiti, bg, sbc. sirak); "s fie pzit de rele !" (lv. iepazt- eg. "to know, to be wise", vsl. paziti); "<a nu-i> vedea vrful nasului" (lt. virunos- anat. "bridge of the nose"- "rdcina nasului", sl. vrh); "a i se sui tot sngele n vrful capului " (ltg. vierss- lv. auga- eg. "top, head", sl. vrh); "aidoma ie !" (ro. asemntor;/eg. living, very, all over;/lv. iedomjies tikai- eg. "just imagine !, just fancy !", sl. vidom- "vizibil"); "<l-am> vzut aievea !" (lv. iedvesmas gars- eg. "daemon"; lv. ietve- eg. "sidewalk, pavement, foot path, walk"; skt. iva- eg. "as if, like"; bg. jave); "trai pe vtrai" (ro. "via uoar, lipsit de griji"; lt. vtrin- eg. "roofprotecting plank", sg. vtrin- lt. vtrung- eg. "weathercock, weathervane""giruet"; lt. vieta- eg. "place, spot, site"; sbc. vtralj, bg. vatral); "<a> cresta pe rboj" (lv. iegriezt robu- eg. "snick"- "tietur sau cresttur uoar", bg., sbc. rabo), "<pine> pe vatr" (expresia ro. "pe vatr" reproduce lv. pavards- eg. "kitchen-range, furnace, hearth, fireplace, range"; aro. vatra; cf. alb. vatre, hu. vatra- eg. "fireplace", arb. vtr- it. "foccolare", sbc. vatra- eg. "fire"; hu. vaterca- eg. "foc mic"; fr. l' tre ?, eg. hearth ?; expresia putea fi "pine la vatr", dar pare n conexiune cu lv.); "e vdit c..." (clar, limpede, evident, dar i cu sensul de "se demonstreaz c..., se dovedete c"; vsl. vaditi; lv. ievadt- eg. "prelude, premise, premiss, precede, initiate, preface, inaugurate, introduce", lv. ievads- eg. "preamble, lead-in, prelude, introduction"); "a se face de basm/bsn" (a exagera, a se face de pomin; vsl. basn; lv. izpausme- eg. "expression, manifestation, utterance, exercise, taint, vent, show; loose"; lv. izpaust- eg. "divulge, betray, expose"; lv. izpaust noslpumu- eg. "to give the the game away, to give away the show, to tell a secret"); "ap ispitor" (persoan pus s suporte consecinele pentru greelile altora, calchiat dup exemplul biblic; lv. izpauana- eg. "utterance, telling, exposure", n romn pstrat poate o perioad cu sensul de mrturisire?; vsl. spasiti- "a mntui"), "a sluji drept tlmaci" (a interpreta, a tlcui; cum. telma, vsl. tlmaiti, pl. tumaczy, psh. tarjumah- eg. "translation, interpretation" ?; tc. tercme etmek); "cu tlc" (cu rost, cu socoteal; lv. tulkot- "a traduce" poate cu sensul de a pricepe ?; vsl. tlk), "iscusit/iscoditor, socoate" (vsl. iskusiti, vsl. ischoditi, lv. izsekoana- eg. "espial, tracing", lv. izsekot- eg. "spoor, retrace, trace, track, deduce, scrutinize, shadow, derive, nose, to be after, to hunt down, to run back, to spy into, to spy on" i cf. ro. socot, socoate), "a <se> nvrti pe aici/a nvrti pe toate prile " (vsl. vrtti, ltg. vrts/ apsavrt- lv. apskatt- eg. "examine, inspect, view, survey, see, visit, do"); "ce tot dai vina !? " (vsl. vina; lv. iedod to viai- eg. "give it to her" ? Ex. inc.); "ia-l iute" (a lua "tare" pe cineva, a obine o confesiune rapid prin intimidare sau apel la sentimentalism; lv. jtami- eg. "aloud", lv. jtas- eg. "sentiment, emotion, feeling, quick", lv. jtelgs- eg. "namby-pamby, pettish", vsl. ljut); "e vdit lucru" (ro. vdit: evident, demonstrat; demascat; not: explicaia din DEX este seac i nu include fatalismul prevzut din sensul expresiei; vsl. vaditi; ltg. vuodeit/aizvuodeitlv. kaitt- eg. "harm, damnify, scathe, blight, malign, prejudice, blast, stab, to do harm"); "a fi crpa cuiva" (om fr personalitate, care face ntotdeauna ce i se spune; bg. krpa, sbc. krpa; lv. kalpot- eg. "serve", lv. kalps- eg. "menial, servant, knave, varlet, retainer, man"); "alene" (ro. n ritm ncet, fr grab; vsl. ln; lv. lni- eg. "leisurely, slow, slowly, heavily"); "a dovedi <ceva greu, dificil>" (ro. a rezolva, a finaliza, a reui s finalizeze o sarcin grea; sg. davadt- lt. tvarkyti- eg. "put in good order, order, set/put to rights, regulate; master, manage, control, keep, run; clean, tidy"- "a pune n ordine"; vsl. dovesti); "a goni, prigoni, izgoni" (ro. a alunga; sg. guont- lt. ikeikti- eg. "scold, rail <at>, abuse, curse, damn"; sg. guont- lt. iplsti - eg. "scold, rail <at>, abuse; come/rise to the surface, emerge"; vsl. goniti); "a ispiti" (ro. a tenta, a momi, a ademeni; sg. ipt- lt. iteti- eg. "soften, grow pulpy"- "a nmuia, a slbi, a crete moale"; sg. ipt- lt. ibjurti -

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eg. "deteriorate, become worse; become soft"; vsl. ispytati); "a fi strivit <de greuti>" (ro. a fi copleit de griji, necazuri, probleme; sg. itrivuot- lt. itverti- eg. "bear, stand, endure, undergo; stand"; vsl. sutryvati); "a fi rzboinic" (ro. agresiv; tlhar; lupttor; sg. razbainnks- lt. plikas/ niekadjas, unde lt. plikas- eg. "robber, plunderer, burglar, brigand", lt. niekadarys- eg. "idler, loafer, jester, buffoon" ?); "pe est" (ro. pe ascuns; 1. sg. iekts<s>- lt. iukl<s>- eg. "sweepings, rubbish"- "mizerie, gunoi", ro. poate cu sensul de a face ceva necurat ?; 2. lv. paslpts- eg. "hidden", sg. slaptuoms- lt. slapia- eg. "secretly, in secret, on the sly" pb. influenat de rus. est- "ase i atenie !" din care se consider c a derivat); "a face zmbre" (ro. a rvni, a jindui; n argou: a face scandal; sg. zambriniet- lt. valkiotis- eg. "hang about, lounge about, roam, rove, loaf"; sg. zambrinietlt. dykinti - eg. "idle, loaf"; sg. zambrautis- lt. skubiai iekoti- eg. "look/search <for> in hurry"; sg. zambrautis- lt. graibytis - eg. "grope <for>"; pl. zabrze < sl. zonb - "dinte" ?); "a se face zob" (ro. a se sparge n frme, a se face praf; bg., sbc. zob- "mertic" ?; sg. zbs- lt. smgis- eg. "blow, stroke, thrust, stab, kick, punch, cuff; impact "; psh. jabr- eg. "oppression, violence, strength, force, power" ?); "cade zpad" (vsl. zapaditi- "a cdea" ?, lv. ieputint- eg. "snow", lv. ieputints- eg. "snowbound", wakhi zam- eg. "snow"+ishkasmi varf- eg. "snow"; psh. sapak- eg. "a flake of snow, a pellicle" + psh. <wore->dal - eg. "to rain, to fall, as snow or hail, to drizzle, to mizzle, to drop, to trickle, to distil", nep. turo- eg. "hoarfrost, frost; dew; snow". Contaminare ? Ex. inc.); "a se pomeni de...." (ro.: s-a amintit de cineva sau ceva; vsl. pominti; lv. pamant- eg. "espy, note, notice, meet, to take notice, to catch sight, twig"); "nu-i drgu din partea..." (lv. nedraudzgs- eg. "unfriendly"; vsl. drag); "a i se nzri" (ltg. aizarkt/ aizrkt- lv. iekliegties- eg. "to give a cry, to cry out"; lv. ne reizi- eg. "never", vsl. nazirati); "obicei/ca de obicei" (ro. deprindere, obinuin; sg. abiajus- lt. prapatimas/protis- eg. "habit"; sg. abiec- lt. tapetai, unde lt. tapenti- eg. "tread"- "a urma un drum"; bg. obiaj; DER: din vsl. uiti- "a nva"; dacism slavizat ?); "bietul nostru printe" (cnd se amintete cu respect despre cineva decedat; sg. bieda- lt. nelaim- eg. "misfortune, bad/ill luck", sg. biednos- lt. vargas/neturtingas- eg. "poor, indigent" influenate de vsl. bdn cf. hu. bidn- "srac" sau de lat. vieto- "trecut, vechi". Psh. bey hes- eg. "for nothing, without reason".); "a boscorodi <pe cineva>" (ro. a vorbi singur, spunnd vorbe nenelese; a mustra mereu pe cineva; a descnta; lv. paskaidrot- eg. "explain, ilustrate", lv. paskaidrojams- eg. "explicable", lv. paskaidrojos- eg. "elucidatory, explanatory, explicative, expositive, illustrative, declaratory"; rut. bozkorditi); "a da de necaz" (lv. nekas- eg. "fuck-all, naught, nihility, nil, nix, nothing<ness>, nought"; bg. nkaz- "nenorocire", sbc. nakaz- "avorton", ceh, nakaz- "epidemie". Ex. inc.); "tocmai" (lt. toks- eg. "such"- "de acelai fel, asemntor; aa, asemenea, astfel de"; vsl. tkmu. Rut. tokma, tokmyty posibil din ro.); "a cloci" (lv. auklt + ltg. oceit ?, unde lv. auklt= ltg. oceit- eg. "incubate, nurse", bg. kloi din bg. klo- ro. "a cotcorozi" ?); "cntec de jale" (bocet; lat. canticum, lv. dziesma/dzejolis- eg. "song"; bg. alja- "durere", psh. arar- eg. "1. injury, damage, detriment, loss, ruin. 2. anguish, affliction", hd. jaln- eg. "to burn"- a incinera mortul ? Traco-dacii nu ngropau, ci incinerau morii. Poate iniial un dublet latin-dacic care i-a deviat sensul ulterior, indicnd astfel o specie de cntec ?), "a fi leat cu cineva" (ro. a fi de acceai vrst cu cineva, dar i cu sensul de contingent; sl. lto cf. sl. v lto- ro. "n anul", psh. lo-ya/ lo-yaah or loya-nah <pl.>- eg. "greatness, largeness, magnitude, size; grandeur, eminence"), "rou n obraji/obrjori" (psh. rog jo/ rogah-joah <fem.> - eg. "well, healthy and strong"), "a se da zmeu" (psh. z-ms- eg. "1. trial, proof, essay, examination, experiment. 2. temptation"), "vai i amar" ( psh. bey samar- eg. "fruitlessness" ?).

Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

Exemple de expresii ce includ cuvinte care sunt atribuite etimologic limbii maghiare, dar exist i n alte limbi indo-europene/indo-iraniene (filiera ar putea fi comun: n romn pe filier sarmatic/agatrs/ossetin jassic, n maghiar pe filier sarmatic/ ossetin jassic; ori de contact trziu a maghiarei cu lituaniana/letona ?): "de pild/a lua pild" (ro. de model, de exemplu; mg. plda; lv. izpilde- eg. "performance, execution, run", lv. izpildjums- eg. "accomplishment, performance", lv. izpildana- eg. "execution, fulfilment, implementation, performance, put-through, administration, execution"; psh. leg. "a word, a speech, a saying", psh. kir-dr- eg. "action, deed, art, business, labour, doing manner, conduct", psh. kirdr- eg. "the performer of a good action". Psh. l-o-l- eg. "conversation, confabulation, clack, babble, controversy, altercation" poate mai apropiat de ro. pcleal); "a da/intra buzna" ? ("a nvli, a se repezi s intre sau s ias", a deranja, a intra oricum i oricnd ?; sensul de a nvli: mg. buszma- ro. "bdran" ?, ltg. brzme- lv. drzma- eg. "concourse, crowd, jam, ruck, thick, confluence, crush, hive" ?; sensul de a deranja: lv. buinat- eg. "to dishevel, to tousle, to muss up", lt. bsena- eg. "state, condition" ?); "curge uvoi" (lat. currere; mg. si?; 1. hitt. uwi- eg. "to fill"; 2. sg. vuots- lt. "nelygus, su perokiais, tarpais" unde lt. tarpais- eg. "at times, from time to time"; sg. vus- lt. "vikrus, greitas, smarkus, mitrus; taiklus" unde lt. vikrus- eg. "nimble, agile, swift; deft, dexterous, skilful", sg. vus reprodus de ro. poate cu sensul de iute?; 3. tocharian suwam- eg. "it is raining", tocharian swase/swese- eg. "rain"; 4. arb. suvl<ja>it. "ondeggiare", arb. suvl<>- it. "onda, ondata"; 5. lt. srov- eg. "current, stream, torrent; flow"; 6. lt. ovotas- eg. "hollow"- "scobitur, concavitate", ltg. uova- lv. rievaeg. "joggle, rabbet, corrugation, groov, wale"- ro. "jgheab, urm, an"); "a <se> burzului" (mg. borzolni; lt. burzdulis- eg. "fidget" ? Ex. inc.) "ar<ag,gos>" (mg. harcag; lt. atagaeg. "obstinate, refractory creature"; lt. atagaris- eg. "person doing everything the wrong, other way/round; obstinate, refractory person", lt. atagarioti- eg. "doing everything the wrong, other way/round; contradict, thwart, cross"); "<a-i lua> gndul" (a renuna la orice speran; lv. loms- eg. "catch, draught, hale, take, taking"- "a lua"; lv. gandrz- eg. "much, almost, quasi, wellnigh, narrowly, nearly, nigh, close, little short of" - "a fi aproape de... "; ltg. guods/ guodys- lv. iecere- eg. "conception, contemplation", psh. god- eg. "a doll, a puppet, an image"; skt. cintayati- eg. "he thinks", nep. magaja- eg. "brain"; mg. gond ?); "pe negndite" (lv. negaidti- ltg. nagaidami- eg. "all at once, all of a sudden"); "a fi nesbuit" (lv. naaubies- eg. "have no doubt !"; mg. szabadni- "a fi ngduit" ?); "de-o seam/asemenea" (mg. szm ; su. samma- eg. "same", ltg. samrs- lv. attiecba- eg. "relationship, relation, respect"; skt. samsa- eg. "<put together>, compound"; psh. sneg . "like, as, similar, etc.; resembling, like" + psh. yek-hamn- eg. "alike, similar, uniform, identical, parallel" poate ca psh. yek- <sn>-hamn ?); "cu srg<uin>" (mg. srgs- ro. "grbit"; ltg. <ap>sorguot- lv. aizstvt- eg. "defend, vindicate, protect, fight, ward"; ltg. puorsorguot- lv. brdint- eg. "caution, forewarn, alert, warn, admonish, to tip off" ? Ex. inc.), "nc" (mg. cenk; psh. tankaey- eg. "1. a babe, a suckling of any animal, a young ox unfit for the plough, a young horse too young for the saddle, a colt; 2. unripe, tender, immature, green"; psh. songaey- eg. "a dwarf, a pigmy", psh. songa- eg. "a female dwarf" ? Psh. cng- eg. "wide open, unclosed, open, grinning, opening the mouth". Ex. inc.), "arc" (mg. szarka ?, lt. arka ?, psh. sar- eg. a kind of hawk or falcon, an eagle"); "teleleu" (ro. pierde-var, hoinar; mg. telel, psh. eyl l- eg. "romping, fun, frolic, prank, antic, etc.; dalliance"; psh. eyl l kawul- eg. "to romp, to gambol, to dally, to fondle"), "a-i fi cu bnat" (ro. a se supra, a se simi jignit, ofensat; indispoziie, suprare; mg. bnat; psh. bnah- eg. "pretence, evasion, excuse, pretext, feint, contrivance, affectation"), "<a se> lfi" (ro. a sta comod pe ceva, ntinzndu-se n voie; a huzuri, a se

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

rsfa; nv. i reg. a se proslvi; /pentru sensul de "a sta comod, ntinzndu-se": posibil mg. leffenni- "a blbni, a atrna"; pentru sensul de "a huzuri" i "a se proslvi": psh. lfey kawul or lfey wahal- eg. "to boast, to brag".). Exemple de expresii ce includ cuvinte care sunt atribuite etimologic limbii turce sau pecenegei/cumanei (dar ar putea fi autohtone, tot pe filier sarmatic/agatrs/ossetin jassic): "nu e cazul s i faci dumani" (lv. iekaisis dusms- eg. "ablaze with anger"- "a se aprinde de mnie"; lv. iekaist dusms- eg. "to bristle up with anger, to bristle to anger" unde lv. dusmas- ltg. dusme- eg. "anger, rage", psh. duxmn/hd., nep. dushman- eg. "enemy", greaca pontic toushman/ toushmanos- eg. "enemy" ?, lat. casus, tc., cum. dman/dmen, alb., bg., sb. duman. Pare a fi mai degrab un IE satem derivat din dusm<as,e>- eg. "anger, rage" ? n tc. i cum. pe filier IE-lor anatoliene sau sarmatice ? ); "halal ie ! " (exclamaie de admiraie, bravo; cum. halal- "licit", tc. i gguz caiz- "licit" cf. MA.-106, luw. halali- eg. "pur, clean", lyc. hla- eg. "to glorify", frig. alu- eg. "a priest", psh. l/ lnah <pl.>- eg. "state, condition, case; affair, business, matter; the present, present time"; n cum. poate pe filiera unei alte limbi IE, spre exemplu tocharian ?; cu sens peiorativ: psh. halwk- eg. "amazed, completely astonished, at a loss what to do" sau psh. alal- eg. "interruption, confusion, disturbance, damage, injury, defect, breach, prejudice". Ex. inc.: "halal" prezent n arab, turc, limbile indo-iraniene, etc.); "n-am habar" (ro. a nu ti nimic, a nu-i psa de ceva; cum., tc., gguz haber- "veste", hd. khabar- eg. "news", nep. khabar- eg. "message", nep. khabara garnu- eg. "to inform", psh. abar- eg. "a, news, information, intelligence, rumour, report, account"; hitt. haluganeg. "a message", hitt. happr- eg. "a price", hitt. happaraizzi- eg. "sells", palaic hapari- eg. "to bargain"- "tranzacie, nelegere, trg, profit", frig. kavar- eg. "a sacred place". Turc, iranian, arab ? Cuvnt devenit "universal".), "calf" (lucrtor calificat dup o perioad de ucenicie; tc. kalfa din ab. Khalifa- ro. "succesor" ?; ltg. kavs- lv. kaljs- eg. "blacksmith, hammersmith, smith, forger, smithy". Ex. inc.); "a fi ctrnit" (din catran=tc. katran ?; lv. ktrs- eg. "inactive, indolent, inert, torpid, slow, lukewarm", lv. ktrums- eg. "inaction, indolence, inertness, torpidity, torpor, inertia, backwardness, heaviness"; lv. kautrs- eg. "self-conscious, self-effacing, timid, timorous, maidenlike, trembly, tremulous, backward", lv. kautrba- eg. "timidity, modesty". Ex. inc.); "a merge tiptil" (ro. fr zgomot, cu grij, uor pentru a nu fi auzit; tc. tebdil; lt. tipenti- eg. "tiptoe; take short steps, trip along, mince"); "pici neastmprat" (ro. pici, avorton, strpitur ?: puti; tc. pi- "bastard"; sg. pkis- lt. velniukas/kamuolinis aibas, unde lt. velniukas- eg. "little devil; naughty boy"; lt. kamuolinis aibas- eg. "globe-lightning, fire-ball", friulian piul- eg. "small"); "gealat" (aro., megl. gilat; ro. clu, gde; om voinic i violent;/eg. executioner, cruel person;/tc. cellt/cellad; psh. jallt- eg. "an executioner", psh. jallt-n- eg. "cruel, hard-hearted", psh. jallt-- eg. "the office of executioner; cruelty" ? Alb. elat, bg. delatin); "geant" (aro. ceant; ro. poet, serviet; tc. canta, bg. anta, psh. camtah/ camtaey - eg. "a beggar's wallet, a haversack, a bag"); "serdar" (ro. comandant de oaste, mai ales de clrime; boier de rang mijlociu, primul din categoria lui, eful armatei, inspector general al potelor i comunicaiilor;/psh. sardr-eg. " a chief, a commander, a head man", psh. sardr- eg. "chiefship, rule, domination, lordship, supremacy"; ud. sir-dhar/ sir-dhar-eg. "head of a village, quarter, or family, patron, master"; tc. serdr); "om ursuz" (ro. morocnos; lt. urzgus- eg. "querulous, peevish, grumpy"- "crcota, argos, fnos", lt. urgzlus- eg. "grumbling, grumpy"; tc. uursuz- "nefericit"); "turcu pltete" (lt. turius- eg. "the rich man; the rich, the wealthy" ?. Ex. inc.), "n ce hal" (tc. hal, psh. sa-kalah- eg. "How? in what manner? by what mode or means?". Deasemenea, psh. l/ lnah <pl.>-

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

eg. "state, condition, case; affair, business, matter; the present, present time" corespunde i ro. hal- "state, condition" i ro. halal- "licit" i ro. lun- eg. "month". Ex. inc.). Exemple de expresii ce includ cuvinte care sunt atribuite etimologic elenei sau ngr.: "<a face> garage/carage" (ro. a face glume pe socoteala cuiva, a umbla cu pcleli; ngr. karakxa; lv. gara- eg. "harangue, sharp"- "a ine predici", lv. garastvoklis- eg. "mood, humour, temper, spirit, frame or state of mind");"<ne>sigur de el !" (lv. iznesgums- eg. "portliness"- "falnic, impozant, trupe"; ngr. sghurosj, aro. siguru). Personaje, simboluri din mitologia popular romneasc: austru (vnt secetos care bate n
Romnia din sud-vest; lt. Autaras/Autra- eg. "the god of the northeast wind, who stands at the gates of paradise and lights the way for those going to paradise. His function of shining this beacon makes him similar to Aurin; some consider him to be her cousin"); baubau: (var. bordea, borz, cau, Tran. bbluc, Trans. i Buc. bolea; ro. personaj imaginar cu care se sperie copiii mici; gogori;/eg. bugaboo;/lt. baubas, sg. babauis- eg. "bugaboo, bugbear, bogy man"- "gogori, sperietoare, comar, spaim, nluc, fantom, sperietoare", psh. bau/bao/oeal-bau-bau- eg. "a scare-crow, a bugaboo, a bogie to frighten children"; vbalt. Baubas- eg. "an evil spirit with long sear arms, wrinkly fingers, and red eyes"; arb. bab<u>- it. "nel linguaggio infantile: spauracchio, mostro". n rg. bau, sutsilvan baubau, puter-vallader bo: eg. "beetle"- "gndac"; DER indic i ngr. , calabr., sicil. babbau, germ. Wauwau.); <baba>Cloana/Muma Pdurii (vrjitoare sihastr ce triete n adncul pdurii; lt. Maumas- eg. "spirit of field: bugaboo", lv. Krumu mate, lt. Krmin, curonian Kuris- eg. "a household deity"; vsl. Jav Boba- eg. "woman of grain" ? Ex. inc.); <baba> Dochia (lv. Dekla- eg. "latvian deity of fate; very sympathetic to human life, took care of small children, and grieved over the birth of a baby who was destined to have an unhappy life", G.M.-198. Ex. inc.); Gaia (psri rpitoare asemntoare uliului; i expresia ? pe care unele mame o spun copiilor neastmprai nainte de culcare: "Culc-te ! c dac nu te ia Gaia !"; vbalt. Gaila- eg. "a spirit of night, which obsessed people and animals in dreams". Ex. inc.); iele (eg. "white-clad beautiful girls, bewitching men with their song and dance"; sbc. vile- eg. "nymphs", prss. Naselis- eg. "spirit, ghost", lt. siela- eg. "soul, heart", sg. aniuols- lt. "angelas"- "nger", vbalt. Nijoleg. "wife of Pykuolis and the daughter of Krmin <a household deity of brushes, bushes and husbandry and an inventor of agriculture>", sg. aniuols- lt. "angelas"- "nger", psh. au-liy- eg. "the saints, the apostles, the holy". Din aceeai familie cu eg. holy i psh. au-liy ?); nichiprcea (ro. pop. dracul;/vbalt. Nukirpja- eg. "one of the Governing Goddesses; the godess who cut the cloth of life" sau mai pb. vbalt. Kerpyius- eg. "a forest god, according to asicki"); Pcal (vbalt. Pykuolis/Pikulas- eg. "the master of the underworld". Ex. inc.); pricolici (ro. n superstiii- duh ru care ia nfiare de lup; strigoi;/eg. poltergeist;/lt. pikiurna- eg. "spitfire, malicious creature, shrew, vixen", lt. pikius- eg. "1. pikiurna 2. devil, deuce", sudovian peckolle- eg. "devil", sg. pkis- lt. "velniukas", vbalt. Prakorimas- eg. "a euphemism of the supreme deity", vbalt. Pykuolis/Pikulas- eg. "the master of the underworld". Dintr-un p(r)ikiul ?); Samca (spirit necurat, urt i fioros, sub form de femeie goal, despletit i fioroas; lt. emininkas- eg. "the supreme deity of fertility and agriculture" ? Ex. inc.); vlve (ro. duh, zn, tim; vbalt. Vls- eg. "spirits of dead human beings", lt. vl- eg. "soul", vsl. vluhvu, bg. vlahva), Vrncioaia (una dintre Deivs Valdytojos- eg. "Governing Goddesses, were seven sisters goddesses who made garments from human's lives". Una dintre ele era Verpianioji- eg. "who spun the threads of life". Ex. inc.).

Toponime i hidronime romneti: Abru<d,zel> (lt. aprdyti- eg. "become rusty"- "ruginiu, roietic"; sg. abrzdielis/abruozdos- lt. paveikslas- eg. "painting, picture, canavas; picture, scene; image; example, model" ?); Agri<teu> (lv. iekrist- eg. "fall"; lv. iegriezums- eg. "kerf, cut-in, incision"; lv. agrs rts- eg. "brightening", poate cf. "brightening power""putere de albire" ?); Aita (lv. aita- eg. "sheep, mutton"); Alm<a, aul,el,eleni> (lt. almti- eg. "ooze, exude, trickle; run, flow"- "a prelinge, <s>curgere lent"); Amar<u,adia>/Hamaradia/Hmradia (lt. amaruotas- eg. "covered with plant-lice", lt. amaruoti- eg. "become, grow covered with plant-lice"; sg. amaliuot- lt. plepti- eg. "chatter, jabber, prate, twaddle, babble"- "a bolborosi" ?); Arama (lt. apraminti- eg. "calm, quiet; assuage, appease"); Ard<an,ealu,eleni,ua,eu,uzel,eleana> (lt. ardyti- eg. "unravel, unrip; destroy, demolish; break, disturb", lt. ardymas- eg. "unripping, unravelling; destroying, pulling down; breaking of peace, disturbance", lt. ardytojas- eg. "disturber, destroyer"); Arg<eel,estru,etoaia,ghi> (lt. iargas- eg. "with ones leg spread wide", lt. argstyti- eg. "<leg, foot> spread ones legs apart, spread ones feet planted apart; spread wide; step over"-"crcnat, rsfirat". A se vedea i cap. 2); Armeni<> (lt. armuo- eg. "precipice, abyss, gulf"); Arpadia (sg. arpuoti- lt. vtyti- eg. "winnow, fan"- "vnturtoare". Ex. inc.); Ars<a,anca,asca,eneasca, ura,uri>/Aria (lt. arus- eg. "furious, violent, fierce"); Artan (lt. artti- eg. near, close ?); As<u,ul,ou> (lt. aaroti- eg. "water, cry"; lt. aara- eg. "tear"); Bab<a,e,oia,ovici,arunca> (lt. babaliuoti- eg. "mumble, bable; drivel"); Bac <ea,iu> (lv. braucjs- eg. "driver, fare, rider, whip, hit-and-run driver", lt. bgikas- eg. "runner"); Badu/Bd<eanca,eni,eti> (lt. bedugn- eg. "precipise, abyss, gulf, chasm"; lt. badas/badautinis- eg. "hunger, starvation" ?); Bai<a,cu,>/Baia Mare/Bi<au,eu,a> (lt. baisus- eg. "terrible, horrible, frightful, fearful, dreadful, awful, scary"); Bahn<a,ia> (lt. baksnoti- eg. "poke smth. into; jab smth. at; stick smth. into; push; elbow"- "care mpinge, care rupe din mal; cu meandre, coturi, curbe" ?; lt. bakoti- eg. "push in, cram into; wade through mud, walk in the mud"- "a-i croi cale prin noroi" ? Psh. bahah- eg. "course, stream, current, flow of a river".); Bal<aj,aca,eia,ota>/Bl <ina,teasa,easa,escu,lu> (lt. bala- eg. "marsh, bog, slough"); Baldal (lt. balda- eg. "knock, noise"; lt. baldalas- eg. "milk or cream to add to the soup" ? Zgomotos sau nspumat ?); Baldovin (Probabil dintr-un nume propriu; lt. balduonis- eg. "one who gads at night; night reveller"); Baran<ca,ga> (lt. berankis- eg. "armless; awkward, clumsy"- fr brae secundare sau stingheritor ?); Barb<ul,ocet,oi,oica> (lt. barbenimas- eg. "knock, knocking"; lt. barbtieg. "jingle, clink; mutter, murmur"; lt. barbinti- eg. "knock, clatter, clink"); Barc<u,he,u>/Brgu (lt. barkti- eg. "rattle, rumble", lt. bergti- eg. "graw, become dry, barren; ripen; squander, waste"); Beica/Baicu (lt. baiktti- eg. "grow frightful, startled" ?, lt. bejuok- eg. "it is no joke, seriously" ?, lt. beicas- eg. "tech. mordant"- "bai, agent coroziv"- poate un sens mai vechi extensibil i la ruri cu sensul de coroziv, care "muc" din mal ?); Beg<a,heiu,iu,u>/Bg<ara,u> (lt. bgti- eg. "flow, run", lt. bginti- eg. "make/let smth. flow in stream/jet/spurt"); Bel<e,i> (lt. belstelti- eg. "give a knock, rap", lt. belstieg. "knock", lt. belstis- eg. "knock, be naghty"); Ber<eteu,tea> (lt. berti- eg. "strew, scatter; break out");

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor Berz<a,asca,easca,ovia,uni> (lt. bergdauti- eg. "be barren, dry"; lt. bergti- eg. "grow, become dry, barren; ripen; sqaunder, waste"); Bet<a,egosul,el> (lt. betiksliseg. "aimless, idle, pointless"); Blid<ul, reasa>/Bre<tea,dicel,tila>/Briheni (lt. bridimas- eg. "fording, ford"); Brad<a,u>/Brd <etul,ior,u> (lt. brada- eg. "swampy mud; ford"- "tulbure, noroi mltinos; vad"; sg. braidioti- lt. braidyti- eg. "wade, ford"; lt. purv braidyti- eg. "wade in/through mud"); Braia (sg. braidioti- lt. braidyti- eg. "wade, ford"); Brt<ei,ioara,oaia>/Brat<ia,e,ilov,cu, cov,ca,ocea,u> (sg. braukt- lt. vaiuoti- eg. "go, travel", lt. brautis- eg. "squezze/make/ force one's way through"); Bran<a,itea> (lt. branka- eg. "swelling"- "umflat" ? real: "inflamat, buboi"; lt. briauna- eg. "edge, berge; bank, edge"- "lizier, banc nisip, aluviune"; lt. briaunotas- eg. "cut, faceted"- "ce separ" ?); Breaz<a,ova>/Brecu/Brez<cioara,oaia, ovia,ua> (lt. bris/braiioti/brti- eg. "scratch", lt. bergdauti- eg. "be barren, dry" ?; lt. brazdenti- eg. "rustle; scratch; go/move with a slight rattle; go rustling"); Brustur<atul, el,elul,escu,etul,e,i,oasa> (lt. bruoti- eg. "scratch, walk fast", lt. brungzti- eg. "buzz, drone", lt. bruzdus- eg. "noisy, fussy, fidgety, bustling"); Buc<a,oiu> (lt. buksuoti- eg. "skid"- "patin, patinare, alunecare"- ru ce nghea iarna i permite patinarea ?); Bucur <a,easa,eci,etioara,iciu> (lt. buksyras- eg. "tug<-boat>, tow-boat; tow-rope"; lt. buksyruoti- eg. "tow, tug". Ap curgtoare care se traverseaz sau e navigabil cu ambarcaiuni trase cu parme, odgoane de pe mal ?); Buc<ie,e,ini,iu> (lt. buius- eg. "fishing-basket, creel"); Bud<a,easa,escu> (lt. bdas- eg. "disposition, temper, character", lt. bud- eg. "oilstone, whetstone" ?; lt. bdinas- eg. "calamitous, poor", lt. bdoti- eg. "complain to smb. or smth.; lament for/over"- care iese din matc i inund des sau ru cu praguri i zgomotos ?); Bughe<a,anu> (lt. bgti- eg. "fear, be frightened <at>"- ap repede ce inund adesea ?); Bulz<u,a> (lt. burgzti- eg. "rumble, roar, roll, buzz, sing"- "care huruie"; lt. burzdulis- eg. "fidget"- "neastmprat, zvpiat"); Bumbueti (sg. bumbti/bambaliuoti - lt. bambti- eg. "grumble, be peevish, murmur, mutter, growl"; lt. bumbtelti- eg. "give a bang, crack", lt. bumbt- eg. "bang, crack"); But<a,ea,oaia,ucari> (lt. bti- eg. "stay to long, linger"; lt. btasis- eg. "past"; lt. btinas- eg. "necessary, indispensable"); Canapitea (lt. kanapininkyst- eg. "hemp-growing"); Capra (lt. keberiotis- eg. "flounder; climb <clumsily>; get up <clumsily>"- "agitat; a slta, a ridica: care crete, se umfl ncet ?"); Cara<,su> (lt. karas- eg. "war, warfare", lt. keras- eg. "bush, shrub"- "tuf, arbust, tufi"); Carpen (lt. karpyti- eg. "cut, clip, cut out; move"; lt. kerpinis- eg. "lichen, moss"); Cain (lt. kasinti- eg. "dig about, unearth, rake about; geol.: excavate"); Clim<an,nel,neti,nu> (lt. klimas- eg. "ferrying, putting across", lt. klimasis- eg. "river crossing"); Clin<a,u,eti,easa> (lt. kelionje- eg. "on ones way, en route", lt. kelion- eg. "trip, travelling, travel"); Clmu (lt. kelmas- eg. "stump, stub"); Clmiasa/Clmui<-ul Sec> (lt. kailiamautis- eg. "rod for drying skins/hides"; lt. kelmyn- eg. "stubby place, place abounding in stubs"; lt. kelmuotumas- eg. "stubbiness; abundance in stubs"); Cln<u,e,ic,itea> (lt. kalnas- eg. "mountain, hill; heap, pile"; lt. kelionje- eg. "on ones way, en route"; lt. kilnoti- eg. "move, shift; lift, raise, heave"; lt. kilnotis- eg. "heave; move, travel, migrate"); Crn<ea,eti,u> (lt. kernoti- eg. "scolde, abuse, rail/inveigh against, call smb., run down, cast slurs upon"); Crp<a,noasa,etii>/ Crp<inei,ini,eni> (lt. karpyti- eg. "cur, clip, cut out; move", lt. kirpti- eg. "cut, clip, shear; cut out; bite", lt. kirba- eg. "swamp, marsh, quag, quagmire"); Ciun<ca,ga,gani, ganu,get,gi,gu> (sg. ciongs/ciuongs- lt. skersvjis"draught, draft"- "curent de aer") Chir<ui,oaiu,ivoaia, ia,i>/Chiuruul (lt. kirba- eg. "swamp, marsh, quag, quagmire"; lt. kirbti- eg. "move, stir; swarm, teem with"); Chirtaeger (lt. kirtaviet- eg. "cutting area, glade, cleared space; face, slope"); Cost<eti,ia>/Co<a,tei> (lt. koti- eg. "strain, filter"- "care strecoar, filtreaz", lt. kotuvas- eg. "strainer, filter"; lt. kustieg. "recover, grow stronger; comme off"; sg. kost/kusuot- lt. gundyti/skatinti/ kalbinti, unde lt. gundyti- eg. "entice, allure, tempt, seduce", lt. skatinti/ eg. "induce, prompt, stimulate", lt. kalbinti- eg. "try to persuade smb. + to inf." poate sensul de seductor, fermector, cu frumusee aparte ?); Cov<e,urlui,asna,ania> (lt. kova- eg. "struggle, fight"; sg. kovarnis- lt. kovas- eg. "March"; lt. kovinis- eg. "battle"); Crac<a,u,u>/Cr<aica,aicova, icu,eaca> (lt. kraikas- eg. "litter""murdrie; de-a valma" ?, lt. kraikyti/kreikti- eg. "scatter, strew, spread"; lt. krioklys- eg. "waterfall, cataract, cascade" ?); Crai<va,ova> (lt. kreiv- sg. kreivoji- eg. "<linija> curve"; lt. kreivis- eg. "curvature, crookedness"; lt. kreivinti- eg. "bend, distort"); Criv<a,adia,aia,,eti> (lt. kreivis- eg. "curvature, crookedness"; lt. krivl- eg. "village meeting/gathering" ?); Cr<asna,asnia,snua> (lt. kresnoti- eg. "shake, jolt; trot, go trotting along", lt. krsti- eg. "shake, jolt; search; manure, dung; sweep, clean"; lt. kratinis- eg. "edge, border"; sg. kresnas- lt. spirgai- eg. "cracklings"- "pritur" ?); Cri<ul,an,anu,oaia,tior> (lt. kristi- eg. "fall, drape, drop, to go down"; lt. krioklys- eg. "waterfall, cataract, cascade"; lt. kryius- eg. "cross", lt. krymai- eg. "crosswise", psh. s wlaey- eg. "bigness, stoutness, stalwartness, brawniness, strength"); Cuc<a, ioaia,iulata,uiei,uteni> (lt. kukti- eg. "bend/bow down"); Cucur <easa,oasa,uzu> (lt. kukuris- eg. "back, hump"); Cu<ejd,ejdiu,ied> (lt. kudti/ kugdti/kugdjimas- eg. "whisper"); Cump <na,nia, rata> (lt. kumpanosis - eg. "hook-nosed" ?, lt. kumpas- eg. "hooked, bent, crooked, curved"; lt. kumpti- eg. "grow, become croocked, bent, hooked"; lt. kempin- eg. "spongy", lt. kemptas- eg. "spongy, porous" ?); Cum<a,ed> (lt. ksmas- eg. "suffering" ?); Cvania (lt. kvaiti- eg. "grow, become foolish, silly; giddy", lt. kvaitinti- eg. "make giddy; roam, wander", lt. kvkti- eg. "whimper, snivel"); Dob<a,rca,rcina,ra> (lt. dobiliena- eg. "clover field"; lt. dobti- eg. "beat, hill; kill"; lt. drabstyti- eg. "be sprinkle with, splash on, over; be spatter with"); Drac<u,u>/Drc<anu,ulea>/Drxeni (lt. draikalas- eg. "things scattered about; muddle, mess, mixture"; lt. draikioti- eg. "mix, muddle; scatter/screw about", lt. draikus- eg. "spreading, scattery", sg. drginti- lt. drkinti- eg. "irrigate; moisten, damp, wet"); Drag<a,omanu, oteanu,ova,u> (lt. drgnti- eg. "grow, become damp, moist, humid"; lt. drkinamasis- eg. "irrigation; moistening, damping, wetting"); Dra<gomirna,hmirov> (lt. drgm/ drgmingumas- eg. "dampness, moisture, humidity"); Drg<anu,neasa,oi,oiu, hiciu,hia,uiasa> (lt. drgnas- eg. "damp, humide, moist, wet"; lt. drkinamasis- eg. "irrigation; moistening, damping, wetting"); Dreptu<l> (lt. drbtas- eg. "clumsy, coarse"- "grosolan, aspru"; lt. drbti- eg. "throw, hurl, chuck; build of mud, clay; retort, reply, return, rejoin, blurt out; strike, hit, beat; fall heavily, fall in thick flakes", lt. drebti- eg. "quiver, tremble, shake" sau ro. drept); Drighiu (sg. drginti- lt. drkinti- eg. "irrigate; moisten, damp, wet"); Drogul (lt. drugys- eg. "fever; butterfly, moth"; lt. drukis- eg. "stout, fat, plump"); Drojdia (sg. drsti- lt. drtti- eg. "thicken; get stronger"); De<jani,ju,zna> (lt. daugti- eg. "incrise, rise, accumulate"); Dub<a,ul> (lt. dauba- eg. "ravine"; sg. duba- lt. drev- eg. "hollow", lt. dubus- eg. "hollow, concave"; lt. dubtieg. "grow/become hollow/sunken; stick, sink"); Duc<aul,in,inu,inoiu> (lt. dkinti- eg. "enrage, infuriate, madden, drive wild", lt. dksoti- eg. "become flat", lt. dkus- eg. "violent, ungovernable"); Dud<a,a,e,ia,urugu> (lt. dudenti/dudnoti- eg. "make a slight noise; chatter slowly"); Dumbr<ava,vanu,via> (lt. dumbravas- eg. "pit"- "cavitate, groap; prpastie, abis" sau rom. dumbrav); Dumitr<a,easa,elul,u> (lt. dumti- eg. "blow; smoke; rush/speed/tear along"); Dung<a,u> (lt.

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor dunguotis- eg. "gloom, lower, lour"; sg. dunksenti- lt. dunksnoti- eg. "roll/rumble/knock/tap slightly"); Dur<au,ceasa,oa,u> (lt. durti- eg. "thrust, stab; ache, hurt, jam; add on, lenghten; tear along"- "a o ine tot ntr-o goan"); Dua (lt. dis- eg. "blow, stroke"; lt. dsuoti- eg. "breathe heavily; sigh, heave a sigh"); Fntn<,ele,ia> (lt. fontanas- eg. "fountain; gush, spring forth; fount"- "uvoi, torent"); Frum<osu,oasa,ueaua,uana,uelu,uica,uia> (sg. furmuons- lt. virininkas- eg. "head, chief, superior"- poate cu sensul de colector ?; lat. formosus); Gagu (lt. gaguoti- eg. "cackle"); Gala<ca,i> (lt. galuotis- eg. "torment oneself over; take pains/trouble over; play pranks, be up to mischief, be naughty"; lt. galuoti- eg. "torment; kill, slay"); Galben<a,ele,u> (lt. galabinti- eg. "kill, slay; torment"; lt. gelbjimas- eg. "rescuing, life-saving, helping"; lt. gaivesys- eg. "refreshing, refreshment", lt. gaivinantis- eg. "vivifying, life-giving", psh. gl-o-bl- eg. "tumult, disturbance, noise, din, uproar, clamour, sound" sau rom. galben); Gal<eu,ia,u> (lt. galia- eg. "power, might"); Grb<u,ul, ea,ele,ou,ova,ovana,ov,oveta,ovul> (lt. garbana- eg. "curl, lock, ringlet", lt. garbanoti- eg. "wave, curl, frizzle"); Grl<a,el,enu,ite,ia> (lt. garinti- eg. "evaporate" ?); Gin<a, ria> (lt. gainioti- eg. "drive"; lt. gainiotis- eg. "chase, pursue"); Gur<eana, eni,i,iciu,ini> (lt. gauruotas/gauruoius- sg. gaurius- "shaggy<-haired person>, dishevelled <one>"); Gvan (lt. gavti- eg. "fast, keep the fast"); Geamn<a,ele,u>/Gemene<a,le> (lt. gelmenys- eg. "depth"); Ge<a>mrtlui (lt. geltonmargis- eg. "yellow motley"- "mpestriat cu galben". Ex. inc.); Ger<sa,ului,uia> (lt. gris- eg. "goodness, kindness; good"); Ghil<uca,ea,noiu>/Gilor<t,el> (lt. gilus- eg. "deep, profound"; lt. gili up- eg. "deep river"+lt. artus- eg. "near, close"; sg. arpuoti- lt. vtyti- eg. "winnow, fan"- "vnturtoare" ?); Giurgiu<leul> (lt. girgti- eg. "cackle", lt. girgdenti- eg. "squeak, creak, crunch slightly" ? Psh. gurzaey- eg. "a surge, eddy, whirl, gurge, strong current of a river; a drain or water course leading from a river"); Giuvala (lt. gyvai- eg. "urgently, extremely, swimmingly" ?); Glod<u,eni,ior, oasa> (lt. gldti- eg. "be, lie, be concealed, be hidden"; lt. gldinti- eg. "steal, slink, sneak"); Groz<a,ea> (lt. igraua- eg. "wash-out, gully, ravine"- "albie, viroag"); Harag<u>/Hrgel (mg. harcag; lt. ataga- eg. "obstinate, refractory creature"; lt. atagarioti- eg. "doing everything the wrong, other way/round; contradict, thwart, cross" ?); Ialomi<a,cioara> (lt. isiliejimas- eg. "effussion, outpouring"; lt. ups isiliejimas- eg. "overflow of the river"); Jiu (psh. gi-yh/ gi-yhnah- eg. "grass, green herbage, straw"?); Latoria (lt. latakas- eg. "chute, shoot; gutter"); Olt<e,ior,eana,eanu> (lt. alioti- eg. "hoot"- "vuiet"); Or<aa, tie,anul> (lt. oro srov- eg. "air current"; lt. oras- eg. "weather"); Orm<an, eni> (lt. armuo- eg. "precipice, abyss, gulf"); Os<etul,ta> (lt. oti- eg. "murmur, rustle, sough"); Pec<eneaga,inica> (lt. bginti- eg. "make run, force, compel smb, to run; make, let smth. flow in stream, jet, spurt"); Pocl<o,ua> (lt. poktelti- eg. "crack, pop, bang"); Per<iani,ani> (lt. peralimas- eg. "cold, chill"); Pl<vaia,avievia> (lt. blaivytis- eg. "clear, grow, get sober", lt. blaivumas- eg. "clearness, serenity; soberness of mind"; lt. plavinti- eg. "lounge, loaf about"; lt. plevsuoti- eg. "fly, flutter, stream"); Pli<eti,ieu,ioru,uul> (lt. pleiti- eg. "crack, chap"- "crptur ngust"); Plescioara/Ple<a,coaia,cua,oaia>/Plica (lt. pliaukti/pliaukti- eg. "smack, crack, lap, swash"); Ple<u,tioara> (lt. pleiti- eg. "crack, chap"; lt. plsti- eg. "widen, broaden; increase, enlarge, expand"; lt. plstis- eg. "widen, broaden, become wider; grow, spread; dilate"); Plop<i,u,ul,opoasa>/Plotin<a,i> (lt. ploktuminis- eg. "plane"; lt. ploktis- eg. "flat, flatness"; lt. ploktinti- eg. "flatten, flat"; lt. popldis- eg. "freshet, high water"); Plotunia (lt. plotis- eg. "become flat, width, breadth"); Podr<agu,iga> (lt. padraikyti- eg. "strew, scatter"; lt. podraug- eg. "together" ?; sg. padrtti- lt. drtti- eg. "thicken, grow fat/stout, put on flesh; get stronger"); Pog<anu,ni,neti,nici,oana> (lt. pakamuoti- lt. pakankinti- eg. "torment, make suffer"); Pop<a,ilnica> (lt. popldis- eg. "freshet, high water"); Porc<ul,ari,reasa, re,reaa,reu,ovia,escu> (lt. purkti- eg. "sprinkle/spray/ spatter with; sprinkle, spit"; lt. pursti- eg. "swell"); Poaga (lt. poskis- eg. "turn, turning, change"; lt. ups poskiu- eg. "at the bend of the river"); Potoc<i> (lt. potekomis- eg. "running, at a run"); Pr<aia,aid,ia> (lt. prajodinti- eg. "break in"); Prav (lt. prava- eg. "rut"; lt. pravstieg. "get/grow colder"; lt. pravsinti- eg. "cool a little"); Prut<e> (sg. prds- lt. kdra- eg. "pond", sg. prds- lt. tvenkinyseg. "pond, reservoir", iar lt. tvenkti- eg. "pond, dam up"; eleteu, iaz, ru cu stvilar ?; lt. platus- eg. "wide, broad, extensive"; (lt. purvaseg. "mud, dirt, filth"); lt. pratstieg. "prolong, extend, renew; stretch"); Prva Pur<cari,caru,crei,creu,celu,croaia,itoaca> (lt. purkti- eg. "sprinkle/spray/spatter with; sprinkle, spit"; lt. pursti- eg. "swell"); Puru (lt. pursti- eg. "swell"); Pust<aciu,a,iu,ia, iosu> (lt. psti- eg. "blow, puff, whiff; swell, boost"- "a pufi, a mri, a umfla"); Put<na, nioara,ina> (lv. putas- eg. "spume, foam, froth, scum"- "spum"; sg. putnus- lt. putlus- eg. "plump, chubby" ?; lv. putns- eg. "bird"); Put<reda,urosu, uroasa> (lt. putra- eg. "mess, skilly"); Rac<o,otiau,ova,ov,ovia>/ Rc<a,tu, du,ovicioara> (lt. rkus- eg. "loud, loud-voiced"- "zgomotos"; lt. rkauti- eg. "shout, bawl, yell"- "urlet, ipt"; lt. rkoti- eg. "shout, bawl"); R<aca,ca>/Rc<ua,oiu,ana> (lt. rka- eg. "tub"- "cuv, bazin"); Rad <eul,iciu,na,u>/Rd<ui,eni,ocheasa>/Rod (lt. rodytis- "eg. appear, be found" derivat din lt. rastis; care izvorte ?; psh. rod/rodnah <pl.>- eg. "a river, a stream". Eventual un jassic ?); Rasa (lt. rasa- eg. "dew"- "proaspt, nrourat"); Rastova (lt. rastis- eg. "happen, become, appear, be found", lt. rastinis- eg. "found"); Ra<a> (lt. rytis- eg. "stretch one-self, stretch ones limbs"); Raz<nic,elm,im> (lt. rytis- eg. "stretch one-self, stretch ones limbs"; lt. raiena- eg. "stubble, stubble-field""mirite" ?); Rch<est,ita,iti,itoasa,itova,i<e>aua,iele> (lt. rkauti- eg. "shout, bawl, yell"- "urlet, ipt" i ro. rchit); Rm<eti,e,na,nic<u>,nicel,nua> (lt. ramus- eg. "calm, quiet, tranquil"; expresia lt. rami/tyli kiaul gili akn knisa- eg. "still waters run deep" pb. prescurtat rami knisa kiaul- Rmnicel ?); Rec<a,ea,i,iu,ia> (lt. rkauti- eg. "shout, bawl, yell"); Sl<truc,trucel,ua> (lt. altas- eg. "cold, cool, light"); Slv<ei,eni,ua>/ Slivu/Soava (lt. srov- eg. "current, stream, torrent; flow" ?; lt. slyva- eg. "plum, prune" improbabil); Sodolu (lt. sodrus- eg. "abundant; luxuriant, lush; rich, juicy"); Sohodol (lt. okuoti- eg. "hop; hobble"- "a opi; a mpiedica" ?); Solon<a,e> (lt. sulinkti- eg. "bend down, bow down, stoop" ?; lt. suliniuoti- eg. "rule"); Sovata (lt. ovotas- eg. "hollow"- "scobit, concav"; lt. suvarytas- eg. "uneasy, constrained"; lt. suvarstyti- eg. "string, thread, lace"); Suva (lt. suvarytas- eg. "uneasy, constrained"; lt. suvarstyti- eg. "string, thread, lace"); ipo<t,te,teu,elu,toaia>/opot<u> (lt. spuotis- eg. "sway, rock"- "a balansa, a cltina" ?); ug<u,a,ag,tag> (lt. sugaudyti- eg. "catch"; lt. sugauti- eg. "catch, snatch, grip; catch out; grasp"; lt. sugaiti- eg. "waste time away; linger, delay"; lt. sugausti- eg. "<begin to> drone"); umuleu (lt. sumuilinti- eg. "soap, rub/cover with soap". Ex. inc.); u<ara,u,ia> (lt. susitelkti- eg. "unite, rally; concentrate <on>"?; lt. suoti- eg. "<begin to> rustle"); Trn<ava,via> (lt. tarnavimas- eg. "service, serving" ?); Tecuc<i,el>/Tc<aele,iuni,uta> (lt. tekti- eg. "flow, run, stream; leak, be leaky", lt. tekjimas- eg. "flow"); Tlmcua/Tm<aul,eni,eti,oiu,u> (lt. tkm- eg. "flow, stream"); Tel<ciu,cior,ec,eac> (lt. telktis- eg. "come, flock together, assemble, rally; be concentrated"); Tele<ajen,jenel> (lt. telti- eg. "wet, pee, stale; pour;

20

Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor lash, flog; fling"); Tel<iu,ia,eau> (lt. tylus- eg. "soft, low; quiet, tranquil; silent, still; taciturn"); Tesl<a,ui> (lt. tiesykl- eg. "level"; lt. tiesl- eg. "tech. tape-measure, tapeline"; lt. tikslus- eg. "exact, precise, accurate"); Ti<ca,cu,co,cu,hul,hule> (lt. tykus- eg. "quiet, silent, gentle", lt. tikti- eg. "splash, dash, sprinkle, spit"); Tili<ca,cua,eu> (lt. tylus- eg. "soft, low; quiet, tranquil, silent, still; calm, quiet; taciturn, silent, reticent; tacit"); Timi<ul,e,ana,a,eni> (lt. tylmetis- eg. "lull, slack"; lt. tylomis- eg. "noiselessly, silently, on the quiet"; lt. tyljimas- eg. "silence"; lt. tamsu- eg. "obscure, dark; gloomy, sobre; shady, fishy, wicked; ignorant, benighted"); Tinc<a,ua,ua,ova,ovia> (lt. tingti- eg. "grow lazy/slack"; lt. tingus- eg. "lazy, idle, indolent; slack, slothful, sluggish"); Ti<reu,rimia,ur> (lt. tyras- eg. "pure, clear"; lt. tyrumas- eg. "purity", lt. vandens tyrumas- eg. "purity of water"); Tis<a,a,au,r,oasa> (lt. ties- eg. "straight <line>", lt. tiesiai- eg. "straight, right", lt. tiesis- eg. "straightness"; lt. tsa- eg. "extent, extension, stretch", lt. tsus- eg. "extensive, lenghty"); Tism<ana,nia> (lt. tsumas- eg. "extension"); Ti<ia,ovia> (lt. tiesinti- eg. "straighten, make straight", lt. tiesioji- eg. "straight, right line", lt. tiestis- eg. "stretch oneself; stretch, extend"; lt. titi- eg. "become sodden; get, become soft, slushy; become sluggish, slothful, soggy"- "care devine noroios" ?; lt. tikti- eg. "splash, dash, sprinkle, spit"- "care stropete, mproac, izbete"); Titim<iul,oiu> (lt. tikti- eg. "splash, dash, sprinkle, spit" + lt. tykumas- eg. "quiet, silence"); Tol<au,easa> (lt. tolus- eg. "far, distant, remote"); Topli<cioara,a> (lt. toptelti- eg. "flash, strike, jam"); Trest<enic, ia,iana,ioara> (lt. trkti- eg. "crush; press, squeeze <out>"; lt. trekti- eg. "crackle, crack; lt. trti- eg. "fertilize, manure, dung"); Trohana (lt. trkuseg. "intermittent, interrupted"); Turba<ta,i> (lt. trupti- eg. "crumble, break into small pieces"); Turc<el,inoasa,inu,u,uleu> (lt. turius- eg. "the rich man; the rich, the wealthy" ?); Turda<> (lt. turtti- eg. "grow rich; be enriched"; lt. turtingas- eg. "rich, wealthy"; lt. tirtti- eg. "tremble, shake, quiver"); Tur<ia,eacu,ior> (lt. turas- eg. "turn" ?); Ungur <aul,easca,elau> (lt. ungurys- eg. "zool. eel"- "ipar"; sg. ungzti- lt. unkti- eg. "whine, whimper"- "care vuiete, se tnguie"); Urd<ria,ele,eti> (lt. sg. urdulys- lt. urulys- eg. "<verpetas> whirl"); Url<atul,ea,toarea,elul,oiu,ui,uia> (lt. urulys- eg. "<verpetas> whirl"); Urlieu (lt. urlys- eg. "grumbler"- "crcota, venic nemulumit" ?); Urs<oaia, ul,oiu> (lt. urktus- eg. "grumbling, peevish, grumpy"); Urvi (lt. urvuoti/urvinti- eg. "cave, burrow"; lt. urvuotas- eg. "with many caves" ?); Urzicar <i,u> (lt. urzgti- eg. "growl, snarl"); Vaca/Vc<area,ria> (lt. vakaluoti- eg. "sway"- "a legna, balansa"; lt. vakariau/vakariau- eg. "more westwards, farther to the west"- "mai spre apus"; , lt. vakaris- eg. "west, western"?); Vale<a> (lt. valas- eg. "fishing-line", psh. wlah- eg. "a canal, a water-course, a stream", psh. we-lah- eg. "a small stream, a brook, a rivulet, a small river or canal"); Var<u,ul> (lt. varu- eg. "by force, under compulsion"); Varn<a,ia> (sg. valknas- lt. valkataeg. "tramp, vagabond, vagrant; lazy person, idler, lazy-bones"; lt. varin- eg. "copper basin"; lt. varinjimas- eg. "driving from place to place, there and back"; lt. varna- eg. "crow"; sg. varva- lt. varvjimas- eg. "dripping, falling in drops, flow"); Va<su,ar,slui,sluie,sielu> (sg. vaus- lt. velus- eg. "luxuriant"?; lt. veislus- eg. "fruitful, fertile, fecund, prolific" ?; germ. Wasser- eg. "water" ?); Vj<a,oaia>/Vijitea (lt. vijoti- eg. "twist, wind, reel; weave"; lt. vjuoti- eg. "blow, rise the wind"?); Vlc<ioara,oi,u> (lt. valkus- eg. "tough, tenacious, malleable, ductile"; lt. velk- eg. "long fishing line"; lt. valkataujantis- eg. "vagrant, itinerant", lt. valkata- eg. "tramp, vagabond; idler"); Vna/Vin<ul,eti,iorul> (lt. vandenis- eg. "water" ?; sg. vienatis- lt. vienatv- eg. "solitude, loneliness"; lt. vienias- eg. "alone, lonely, lonesome; single"); Veljul (lt. verlus- eg. "swift, headlong, impetuous"; lt. verlumas- eg. "swiftness, impetuosity, dash"); Vel<na,nia> (lt. velnias- eg. "devil, deuce"); Ven<ecioara,eia,eioara,el>/ Vin<eti,ul, iorul> (lt. vienyti/vienytis - eg. "unite, unify, join togheter"); Ver<au,dele,teag> (lt. verkti- eg. "cry; lament, deplore"; lt. verstas- eg. "with down-curved edge"; lt. versti- eg. "load, turn to, into"- "a vrsa"; lt. virsti-eg. "flock, throng; turn <into>, change <into, to>"); Vid<a,ua,ra,rioara,rua> (sg. vidury- lt. vidur- eg. "in the middle" ?; lt. vidupys- eg. "in the middle of the river"; lt. vidurys- eg. "middle, midst" ?); Viezur<ata,oiu>/Visa/ Vi<ag,eu,eu> (lt. viesuluoti- eg. "whirl, rage, rave, storm", lt. viesulingas- eg. "whirling, stormy"); Vit<ea,ioara> (lt. vsti- eg. "cool, get cold<er>; grow flat"; lt. viksti/viksnoti- eg. "<tail> wag"; lt. vikstelti- eg. "give a wag"); Vizui/Vizie (lt. vizgti- eg. "wriggle, wag"); Zamor<a,u> (lt. iemiau- eg. "to the north <of>, northward <of>, further north <than>" ?); Zb<ala,lua> (lt. abai- eg. "brushwood"; lt. abalas- eg. "blind", lt. abaldyti- eg. "blind, dazzle"- "strlucitor de orbitoare" ?; sg. abalioti- lt. abalinti- eg. "grope, feel ones way, grope along", lt. abalinti- eg. "blind; <eiti kaip abalam>: grope, feel ones way, grope along": "pe bjbite" ?; sg. ebelys- lt. kankoris- eg. "bot. <pine> cone" ?); Zbr<ui, tu> (lt. ebraburnis- eg. "motley-muzzled", lt. ebras- eg. "motley-muzzled; dirty, grimy"); Zlan (lt. ala- eg. "harm, hurt, injury, damage"); Zganu (lt. alzganas- eg. "<somewhat> greenish"; lt. egnotis- eg. "cross oneself"); Zno<aga,gua> (lt. angstyti- eg. "step <often>, make steps <often> <over>", lt. engimas- eg. "marching, mouvement; making steps forward, pace, advance"; lt. angus- eg. "swift-footed, nimble-footed"; lt. zengti- eg. "hum, buzz, drone, murmur"); Zpod<ea,ia,ie> (lt. aboti- eg. "bridle, curb; restrain, control, keep in check"; lt. ibutis- eg. "sparkle, sparklet; tinsel, trumpery" ?); Zrzag (lt. zirzesys- eg. "hum, buzz, drone"; sg. zirzeklis- lt. zirza- eg. "whiner, sniveller, peevish person", psh. zwag- eg. "noise, sound, clamour, murmur, rustling"); Zvoaie<le>/Zboina (lt. aboti- eg. "horse: bridle, curb; restrain, control, keep in check"- "a nfrna, a stpni" ?; lt. ava- eg. "fascination, charm"); Zeletin (lt. ala- eg. "harm, hurt, injury, damage"; lt. limas- eg. "growth, growing"; lt. lti- eg. "grow, spring up, sprout, become overgrown <with>". Ap cu vegetaie luxuriant ? Ex. inc.); Zrn<a,ioara> (lt. irti- eg. "fall, spill, scatter; dazzle, jam"; lt. iaurus- eg. "cruel, brutal, savage"; lt. iaurinti- eg. "make smb., smth. cruel, brutal, savage"); Zgrcea (lt. zurgti- eg. "grumble, grunt, be peevish, whine, snivel"); Zeic<ani,u> (lt. eisti- eg. "injure, wound"); Zizin (sg. zyzti- lt. zirzti - eg. "hum, buzz, drone; whine, snivel, whimper, be peevish, grumble, murmur"; lt. zzti- eg. "buzz; grumble, grunt"; psh. jwaj- eg. "noise, tumult, din, uproar, sound, cry, clamour, exclamation; the rippling or murmuring of a brook, the rustling of leaves, the moaning of the wind"); Zlagna (lt. liaugti- eg. "stream, pour"); Zimbru<l> (sg. zambriniet- lt. valkiotis, dykinti- eg. "hang about, lounge about; roam, loaf, rove; idle, loaf "- "hoinar, a umbla hai-hui" ?); Zmeu (lt. emuma- eg. "lowland, depression"; lt. ymjimas- eg. "marking, designation, note").

Odat cu extincia sau absorbia limbii geto-dace i ulterior a restrngerii i asimilrii enclavelor slave s-a produs o omogenizare lingvistic prin absorbie de sensuri i apropiere fonetic, conducnd la paronimii i sinonimii multiple pentru cuvinte de circulaie secundar. Totui, trebuie subliniat caracterul comun latinofon al acelor cuvinte

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

fundamentale, de circulaie curent din spaiul romnesc prin faptul c romna s-a impus ca o lingua franca asupra enclavelor lingvistice gd. sau alogene (slave, tiurcice, germanice, alanice, uralice) i datorit ruralitii i caracterului arhaic-conservator al societii <str>romne, a ciclicitii pstoritului i a fluxurilor de populaie (din schimbarea rutelor pastorale i reaezri), aa cum limbile slave s-au impus n enclavele tgd. nelatinizate, absorbindu-le. Dispariia treptat a traco-geto-dacei (tgd.) dup secolul IV s-a produs prin absorbie n romn, albanez, macedoslav, bulgar, rutean/rusin, posibil i n srbocroat, slovac i sloven, <cu meniunea c slovena are multiple forme dialectale i raportarea ar trebui realizat la limba vorbit i nu la limba literar>, dar este posibil ca enclave vorbind o limb compozit impregnat de rudimente lingvistice traco-geto-dace, enclave "imperfect" latinizate (n cadrul strromnei, romnei) sau slavizate s se fi meninut pn n sec. VII-X ? (n Maram., Buc., Transcarpatia, Galiia, dar poate i n zona de interferen ntre srbi, bulgari, macedoneni- populaia denumit shopi ?), aa cum susin i Tpkova-Zaimova i Velkov despre meninerea limbii trace n zone rurale izolate pn n sec. V-VII. Actualmente dispunem din tgd. de o list de cuvinte, nume de localiti, de regi sau conductori locali, de nume de plante menionate de Dioscoride i PseudoApuleius, probabil deformate, incorect preluate. Referitor la numele de plante, Constantin Daicoviciu reine ase termeni: aniaserxe (iarb srac), budathla (limba boului), diesema (coada vacii), dyn (urzic), mizela (cimbru), riborasta (brusture). Scopul lucrrilor antice era botanic i medical, nu lingvistic, deci este de presupus o viciere a prelurii denumirilor geto-dace. Pentru puinele cuvinte tgd. regsim urmtoarele corelaii cu lituanian i samogitian, respectiv cu leton i latgalian, dar i cu alte limbi: Cuvinte diverse traco-geto-dace: tgd. sau elen basile<us>/basile<os> (din inscripia de pe vasul de la Ocnia CI<C ?> IAMAPKO<?>; lt. valdia- eg. "power, authority, rule; state"+ lv. lieliskums- eg. "grandeur, magnificence, glory" sau poate cuvinte similare lat. rex, lex ? ; frig. baln- eg. "a king"; considerat de unii cuvnt elen, alii l consider mprumut din trac ?); gd./gotic ? belagines (Iordanes: legile <frumoase> ale gd.; lt. belang- eg. "dungeon, prison"; cuvnt incert de ev mediu timpuriu); t. bria (aezare; 1. provine din prima parte a lt. vie<tov>- eg. "locality, district"; pl. wie- eg. "village, country-side"; 2. lt. tvirtov- "fortificaie", lt. tvir- "puternic"; 3. bret. bourk- eg. "small market town", bret. gwik- eg. "in place names, village, small market town", eg. burg; cf. ro. trg sau t. bria ?; 4. gaulish briga- eg. "a hill"; 5. lyc. wedri- eg. "a city", lydian bira, tocharian ri/riye- eg. "a city", hitt. parn/pir - eg. "a house", hitt, palaic wete- eg. "to build"); gd. comati (rani, oameni de rnd: lt. kumetis- sg. komieios- eg. "cottage, peon, cottar, farm-labourer, farm-hand, hired man", lv. kaimi- ltg. kaiminis- eg. "neighbour, stable-companion, stablemate", psh. kumak/ kumak-n <pl.>- eg. "a helper, an aider; auxiliary, ally, aider" poate mai degrab cf. ro. a chema/chemat; slvn. kmet, istr. cmet"gospodar, ran"-K.57 i respectiv istr. cosmt- "pros"-K.57, cf. termenului lat. capillati. Confuzie de termeni preluai din gd. n lat. vulgar ? Ro. cumtru, cumetre <ex. inc.>, cf. vsl. kmotra, pare contaminat de vsl. sau un lat. commater- "cumtr" ? Bal. <dh>kameg. "cultivator, farmer, agriculturist" ?); daci (1. sg. <bl>doks- lt. velnias- eg. "devil, deuce" ar corespunde semnificaiei stindardului de lupt dacic; eg. deuce corespunde sg. *doks, dac nu cumva sg. este un compus ?; 2. lv. dakas/ dakia/dakveida- eg. "fork""furc", dar i lt. dalgis- eg. "scythe" - "coas", lt. dalgikotis/dalgiakotis- eg. "handle of a scythe": ar desemna oamenii de munte, cresctori de animale ?; 3. lv. daksti- eg. "tile""cahl, igl, olan" puin probabil; 4. lv. dka- eg. "adventure, affair", lv. dkaine- eg. "adventuress", lv. dkains- eg. "adventurous"; 5. vbalt. Dausos sau Dangus- eg. "the home of good souls"; 6. frig. das, dai- "lup, lupi"; 7. sg. druskius- lt. druskininkas- eg. "salt dealer, salt monger; salt-worker" pare improbabil; 8. hitt. dau, lyc. dezi- eg. "strong",

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

lyc. wakssa- eg. "courage", hitt. wahessar- eg. "sacred"; 9. Dochia- lv. Dekla- eg. "latvian deity of fate"; 10. luw. dakam- eg. "ground": poate o coinciden ?; 11. Bal. dhkam- eg. "cultivator, farmer, agriculturist", zebaki dehqan- eg. "cultivator", psh. dih-n- eg. "husbandry, agriculture", psh. dih-n- eg. "a husbandman, a villager", psh. da kal saaey- eg. "a villager", psh. da kal aah or aah- eg. "a village female" sau bal. Dwkhia- eg. " difficult, hard, arduous" ?; 12. Zebaki dok<andar>- eg. "sheperd" ? Papahagi menioneaz un trib restrns de aromni astzi grecizai n inutul Zagorului numii Dal'i, n vecintatea comunei aromneti Grebinii-P.50. Este una dintre rarele forme de atestare a etnonimului ca atare); gd. dava (aezare i cetate din pmnt, lemn i piatr, cf. lyc. ddewe- eng "a city", zazaki dew<e>/balochi d- eg. "village", kurdish sorani d- eg. "village"+ kurdish sorani w- eg. "village, settlement"; hd. gv- eg. "village", punj. pindvaala- eg. "villager", nep. godavari- eg. "a village in Kathmandu valley", slvn. vasi- eg. "village sau rus. , germ. Dorf, ol. dorp- eg. "village" ?; 1. provine din a doua parte a lt. <vie>tov- eg. "locality, district"; 2. lt. daug- eg. much, plenty of, a lot of, many", lt. daugelis- eg. "many", lt. daugyb- eg. "great number"; 3. lt. valdovas- eg. "lord, ruler, sovereign"; lt. valdov- eg. "mistress, sovereign; queen"; lt. dvaras- eg. "estate, landed property, manor", lt. dvarviet- eg. "place of an estate arba of a manor", psh. ar-kn-i-dawlat- eg. "nobles, grandees, ministers of state" unde psh. ar-kn- eg. "pillars, props, supports", dava poate cu sensul de reedin nobiliar ?; 4. lt. tvirtov, cr. tvrava, sb. , slvn. trdnjava, pl. twierdza, ch., slv. tvrz- "cetate ntrit, fortificaie", unde lt. tvir- "puternic", cr. tvrd- "dur". Cr. utvrda, sb. , slvn. Utvrdama, pl. twierdza"fortificaie"; psh. us-tuwr- eg. "strong, firm, stable, powerful, brave, resolute"; a se vedea i eg., su., norv. tower- "turn" sau bg., rus. - eg. "palace"; ltg. <tier>dzeiba/ tiergoona- lv. tirdzniecba- eg. "trade, market, traffic"; 5. ch., slv. dav- eg. "crowd", slvn. drava- eg. "country", dar i ltg. tvaine, lv. tvija- "native land, fatherland, motherland". Astfel, numele Trgovite pare a proveni de la lt. tvir sau turgus- eg. "market, bazaar"+grdite/ gorodite/horodite =aezare cu scop comercial i ntrit, conform bg., sbc. - "ora", ch. hrad- "cetate, castel", frig. gordum/zordum- eg. "a city", psh. dar i lv. grfiste- eg. "shire, county, princedom, principality, earldom". Frig. i lv. corespund ro. grdite i variantelor sale. De notat i cuvntul ro. margine, mrginime- "aezare <mrgina>" cu echivalent n dialectele rumantsch grishun- rg. citad, puter: cited, vallader: cit, sursilvan: marcau, dar sutsilvan: martgieu, martgo i surmiran: martgea"ora" poate n corelaie cu psh. mulk / mulknah - eg. "country, a kingdom, a realm, a region" sau germ. marc- ro. "inut", cf. spre ex. Danemarca); tgd. egbeo (inscripia KOTYOC EBEO gsit ntr-un mormnt tumular de inhumaie n Agighiol i considerat ca aparinnd unui prin trac ?; I.H. Crian consider c numele Kotyos este numele regelui odrys HC.223; expresia lt. "bti/tapti kieno auka"- eg. "fall a prey <to>"; lt. auka- eg. "sacrifice; victim; donation, offering" i lt. bti- eg. "be, become, exist", lt. bakoti- eg. "push in, into, cram in, into", lt. baigti- eg. "end, finish, stop, wear out, exhaust" i cf. frigianului eg- eg. "to hold, experience". EBEO pare compus din lt. auka + lt. bti/lt. bakoti i improbabil din lt. baigti. Deci inscripia s-ar traduce: KOTYOS EGBEO: "<lui> Kotyos ofrand a<m> pus" unde Kotyos ar putea fi i numele unei zeiti locale); tgd. " ..... / " (inscripia de pe inelul de aur de la Duvanli: "zi ..... dele / meznai": 1. Duridanov: "eys,ie dele... mezenai": "<You>, powerful, help... protect, <you> horseman"; 2. lt. dia- eg. "oppressor; devourer"; lt. <laz>dele- "nuia, baston", lt. <va>deles- "fru, h"; lt. medioti- eg. "hunt, shoot, chase". Probabil tot o imagine a Clreului trac, cu invocarea: dia <va>dele<s> medioti "tirania nfrnat i alungat". Astfel, meznai semnific posibil "a alunga, vna, hitui, izgoni", diferit de iliricul Menzana-

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

"the horse deity" ? 3. lt. edios- "iesle, troac", lt. desys- eg. "forage, feed, provender, fodder"; t. <laz>dele- "nuia, baston", lt. <va>deles- "fru, h"; lt. meginimas- eg. "efort, ncercare", lt. meginys- eg. "mostr, prob". Poate invocarea meritelor unei persoane care dreseaz caii nemblnzii ? Totui, puin probabil; varianta a doua pare mult mai solid); gei/getae (1. prss. gets, getka- eg. "bread", sudovian/yotvingian- geitis, geitika- eg. "bread"- "pine". Gei: oamenii de la cmpie, agricultori ?; 2. lt. girtis- eg. "boast of, swagger about, brag of/about"- "mndrii, floii" ?; 3. let ztjs- eg. "sawyer"-"tietor de lemne" ?); t. midne (trac: sat, trg, dar incert; Duridanov: lv. mtne- eg. "a place of stay, a dwelling, a shelter", alt surs: lv. mtne- eg. "abode, lodging, home"- "sla, cas", hitt. mina/mini- eg. "a city", psh. minah- eg. "a house, a dwelling, a place of residence, a mansion". Psh. mstah- eg. "a dwelling, a residence, abode, quarters, domicile" mai apropiat de slavul mesto/misto/miasto; vbalt. Medeina- eg. "euphemism of the hunting and forest goddess, She was worshiped by peasants"); t. para/phara (eg. "settlement, village, marketplace"; Old Indic pr, puri- GM-41, lyc. prna, hitt. parn/pir - eg. "a house", lyc. prnawa- eg. "to build", bal. paRa/paRo- eg. "quarter of a city or town, ward, neighborhood" ?. Se regsete n ro. aprare- "a ntri, a consolida n scop defensiv", dar i n ro. brn-"element solid din lemn pentru construcie"); gd. per (din inscripia DECEBALVS PERSCORILO; 1. lat. puer, lat. *puerunculus- "fecior, fiu" i lyc. pere- eg. "forward" cf. traducerii "Decebalus, the son of Scorilo"- C. Daicoviciu; 2. lt. per- "through, across, over; in, within, during; through, because of; too": "Decebal pentru Scorilo" ?; 3. lt. peras- "egg; hatch; peer"- "titulatur nobiliar" ?: "<de la> Decebal nobilului Scorilo"; 4. clujeanul Kurt Horedt a emis ipoteza c inscripia red tampila unui olar i e scris n latin cu sensul: <din cuptorul de ars al lui Decebal prin intermediul lui Scorilo>, iar I.I. Russu: inscripie n latin: "Decebalus <made it> through Scorilus" HC. 224); t. peltast (infanterist trac; lt. peilis- eg. "knife", lt. peiliakotis- eg. "handle of a knife, haft of a knife"); gd. pileati (mica aristocraie ? Pare a fi vorba de oreni i mici nobili, i acopereau capul cu o cum? : lt. pilietis- "cetean, supus", lt. pilietybe- "cetenie", lt. pilietinis"civic, civil", lv. pilntiesgs loceklis- eg. "freeman", lv. pilsta- eg. "city", lv. plis- eg. "crowd"); odrysi (trib trac care a ntemeiat regatul cu acelai nume; 1. lt. oda- eg. "skin, leather", lt. odadirbys- eg. "currier, tanner, leather-dresser"?, lv. da- eg. "fell, hide, leather, skin, pelt"+ lt. reti- "a tia"; 2. Duridanov: nume totemic derivat din lt. dra- eg. "otter"); gd. sica (cuit sau sabie; 1. lt. skalpelis- eg. "knife", irish gaelic scian- eg. "knife"; un gd. sika<l>pelis ?; 2.Improbabil, dar amintim dac sensul gd. sica este de arm, tiind c ranii utilizau furcile, coasele ca arme n rzboaie: ltg. sokumi- lt. daka- eg. "fork""furc" ?); gd. tarabostes (marea aristocraie: lt. taryba- eg. "council" sau lt. taurumas- eg. "nobility"/lt. taurus-eg. "noble"+ lt.bstas- eg. "lodging, dwelling, apartment, room"- ad literam: sala de consiliu, membrii consiliului, sfatul domnesc); thraikios (vechiul cuvnt grecesc pentru traci cf. Thrax- eg. "son of Ares"; 1. lt. traikyti- eg. "crush, squash, trample, press", lt. traukyti- eg. "pull, tug; out, extract; twitch, cramp, convulse"; 2. lt. trakinti- eg. "enrage, infuriate"; lt. trakti- eg. "be rabid, rage, be furious"; 3. lt. trauklus- eg. "attractive"; 4. lv. traks- eg. "insane, mad, crazy; harum scarum; possessed", lv. trakaiseg. "nut-case; luny, loony; madman"; 5. lv. tracis- eg. "uproar, fuss, roar"); t. zels (un tip de vin n limba tracilor; Duridanov: lt. alas- eg. "brown"); t. zibythides (nobili traci: lt. aibuoti- eg. "flash, sparkle", lt. vitrus- eg. "quick, brisk, smart", lt. vilgti- eg. "shine, be glossy, glitter", lt. vilgus- eg. "brilliant, twinkling, sparkling, glittering". A. Fick: form grecizat a lt. ibeti- eg. "shine, sparkle, twinkle"). Nume de zeiti tgd.: t. Bassareus (un Dionysus tracic ?; 1. lt. baisus- eg. "terrible, horrible, frightful, fearful, dreadful, awful, scary" sau lt. bausti- eg. "punish, frighten, scare, abuse"; 2. lt. bealis- sg. bealikas- eg. "impartial, unbiassed"- zeu al dreptii divine ? sau

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

cf. lt. besaikis- eg. "boundless, infinite, immoderate"- zeu al exceselor ?); tgd. Bend<is,ida> (zei gd. i bithyn; 1. lt. bendrai- eg. "togheter, con-jointly", lt. bendraseg. "general, common; joint; friend, participator, accomplice", lt. bendrija- eg. "community, association", lyc. uwedri- eg. "a community", ltg. bdra- lv. kopjs- eg. "tender, collective, conjoint, joint, common, co-operative, total, mutual"; Duridanov: germ. binden- eg. "to bind"; 2. lt. vandeningas- eg. "deep, having an abundance of water", lt. vandenis- eg. "water". Zei a dragostei i familiei sau a iazurilor, Lunii, pdurilor i farmecelor ?); tgd. Derz<elas,is>/Darzalas (zeu gd. al sntii; 1. lv. dergs- eg. "pertinent, useful, good, valuable, beneficial"+lv. zaa <krsa>- eg. "green"; 2. lt. darelis- eg. "flower garden", lt. derlus/derlingus- eg. "fertile, fecund"; 3. lt. darin- eg. "barn. mow"- grnar, lt. derliuseg. "harvest, yield, crop". Zeitate a eflorescenei, a plantelor vindectoare sau protectorul abundenei recoltelor ?); gd. Gebeleizis (zeitate gd.; 1. lt. gebejimas- "putere", lt. galia- eg. "power, might" sau lv. galjais- eg. "utmost, uttermost, outside, supreme", lv. galjba- eg. "extremeness, extreme, extremity, excess"+ lt. dievas/dievaitis- eg. "god"; 2. lv. gabal- eg. "straight"- ro. "echitabil, corect, drept" + lv. ldzjs- eg. "prayer" ? g. 3. n mitologia vbalt. este amintit Gabija/Gabjauja- eg. "the foster of the Holy Fire, a godess, a daughter of the God", lt. gabija- eg. "mit.: sacred home fire; sacred, holy thing; wax candle", dar i Laimaeg. "godess of Faith and Luck", eventual sintez original gd. Gabija+Laima+Dievas ?); tgd. Karabazmos (probabil supranume al "clreului trac" contopit n cretinism cu Sfntul Gheorghe, corespunde "clreului anatolian" denumit n lyc. Kakasbos ? cf. "Stelae of Promise" i vbalt. Kauriraris- eg. "the deity of war and war-horses"<Stryjkowski>; 1. lt. karas, lv. karot- eg. "war"+lt. bausm- eg. "punishment, death penalty"; 2. lt. karas, lv. karot - eg. "war"+lv. izpausme- eg. "expresion, manifestation, utterance, exercise, taint, vent, show, loose"; 3. sg. karabj- lt. kas karabijasi/nenuorama, unde lt. nenuorama- eg. "fidget, rolling stone; fidgety/restless person"- "a se foi, a se vnzoli, a deranja" ?; 4. sg. karabzt- lt. barti/kyriai kalbti/raginti, unde lt. barti- eg. "scold, chide, abuse, inveigh <against>, call, reprove, blame", lt. kyrti- eg. "pester/bother/ bore/worry/plague <with>", lt. kyrjimas- eg. "worrying, pestering", lt. kalbti- eg. "speak, talk"; lt. ragintieg. "incite, urge, encourage; speed, urge, drive on"); t. Kotys/ Cotytto (zei a tracilor edonieni sau/i zei mam ?; lt. dkoti- eg. "<kam> thank smb."); t. Sabazios (zeu tracofrigian- eg. "the sky and father god depicted on horseback, a horseman god"; 1. lt. saugiklis- eg. "protective", lt. saugokis- eg. "take care !, look out !", lt. saugoti- eg. "take care of, preserve, protect", lt. saugykla- eg. "storage, depository"; 2. lv. sabozies- eg. "ruffled, bristled up, peevish, sulky, suleen"- "suprcios, capricios"; 3. Duridanov: "liber" cf. ro. slobozi, bg. svoboda- eg. "free, rescue", opuse lv. ieslodzt- eg. "immure, incarcerate, pen, constrain, restrain"); t. Semele/Zemel (a. zei traco-frigian a pmntului corespunde zeitii vbalt. emyna/Zemes mte- eg. "the deified soil"; H. Daicoviciu: vlt. Zemeluks ?; frig. zemel- eg. "a slave, a person, man on ground"; lt. em, lv. zeme, iran. zamin, sbc. zemlja, pl. ziemia, ch. zem- "soil, earth, ground, land"); gd. Za<molxis,lmoxis,lmoksha> (erou civilizator zeificat gd. sau zeitate a pmntului corespunznd traco-frigianei Semele/Zemel i vlt. emyna/Zemes mte ? sau lycianului Somondeus- eg. "a mountain god", iar terminaia s vin cf. eg. holy sau psh. au-liy- eg. "the saints, the apostles, the holy" ?; 1.ltg. aizmoksa/aizmoksuoona/moksa/ moksuoona - lv. samaksa- eg. "pay-up, pay-off, payment, compensation, discharge", ltg. aizmoksuot/ samoksuot- lv. samakst- eg. "pony, compensate, solve, meet, discharge, to make good, to stake to"; 2. ltg. zamyn, lt. emyn- eg. "down, downward"+ lt. mokslus- eg. "gifted for, clever, learning"- supranume formul de genul "nelepciunea/cuminenia pmntului" ?; 3. ltg. zamoka/zemne- lv. apaka- eg. "bottom"- "baz, temelie, fund, capt, poale <de

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

munte>" i ltg. zamakejais/ zamakejuo- lv. apakjais- eg. "nether, lower"- "inferior, de jos, a cobor" ; 4. lt. smojis- eg. "wit, wittiness, witticism, sally, jock"+lt. mokslas- eg. "science, study, knowledge, education, learning" sau lt. mokslus- eg. "gifted for, clever, learning" ? Un sg. saminis- lt. iuklynas, slavynas?; 5. lt. limas- eg. "growth, growing"+lt. mokslas- eg. "science, study, knowledge, education, learning" sau lt. mokslus- eg. "gifted for, clever, learning" ?; 6. lv. zaimojos- eg. "blasphemous, sacrilegious, profane"; 7. lv. samulsis- eg. "confused, embarrased, bewildered, abashed, perplexed"; frig. zemel- eg. "a slave, a person, man on ground"; 8. Deasemenea un slvn. mogani, istr. ml'ani- "creier"-K.60 ?, deosebit de sbc. mozak, ch. mozek- "creier"; 9. Poate fi ? un supranume al vbalt. Dievas Senelis - eg. "God Old Man. He was a separate deity, a teacher of people and judge of their morality. He looks like an old traveling beggar. Dievas Senelis is proficient at magic and medicine" cf. lt. smon- eg. "consciousness", lt. smoninti- eg. "develop consciousness", lt. smokslas- eg. "plot, conspiracy"- "zeu care indica sorii, sftuitor de tain" ? 10. Este amintit vbalt. Mokas- eg. "a stone with an ability to teach people, sometimes they are found in families- with wife Mokien and children Mokiukas"; 11. Olteanu, Duridanov: t. zelmis- "aprtoare pentru lupt, plato", t. zalms"piele netbcit" cu sensul de protector, similar germ. Helm- "coif"); t. Zbelsusdos/Zybelthurdos (zeu trac, simbolizat de lumina fulgerului, corespunde lyc. zbali-, hitit iwali- eg. "a deity"; 1. lt. aibas- eg. "lightning", lt. aibuoti- eg. "flash, sparkle"; 2. Vbalt. iburinis- eg. "a scary foster spirit that appears as a phosphorescent skeleton" ?); Nume de persoane (regi, cpetenii, lideri religioi, persoane obinuite, etc.) tgd.: tod. Amadocus (regi ai tod.; lt. amas- eg. "speech, voice"+lt. dagus- eg. "prickly" sau lt. daugeg. "much, plenty of, a lot of" sau lt. dangus- eg. "sky" sau lt. dauguma- eg. "majority" sau lt. dka- eg. "thanks to, owing to" sau lt. dkulis- eg. "fury, rage, frenzy"); tb. Artabanus (conductor bithyn; lt. artti- eg. "approach, near", lt. artyn- eg. "nearer, closer" + lt. vanduo- eg. "water" ?); tb. Bas (rege bithyn; lt. basas- eg. "barefoot, bare", lt. basius- eg. "barefoot<ed> person; vagabond, tramp"); tb. Bassaces (conductor bithyn, fiul lui Artabanus; 1. lt. basakojis- eg. "barefoot"; 2. lt. vasariai- eg. "south"; 3. lt. sg. vaisus- lt. "vislus"- eg. "highly generative, reproductive", lt. vaisius- eg. "fruit; fruit, results"; 4. lt. vaisiuotis- eg. "bring forth the young" ?); tod. Berisades (rege al tr. od. 359-352 C.; 1. sg. byra- lt. derlius- eg. "harvest, yield, crop"- recolt cf. ro. prg+ lv. sardze- eg. "watch, guard, sentry, look out": cel care vegheaz sau pzete recoltele; sg. saidris-lt. viksva- eg. "sedge, carex"- rogoz pare improbabil ?; 2. lt. bjaurumas- eg. "ugliness, deformity, abomination"); t. Bergaios (rege local trac din districtul Pangaian, cca. 350- 400 C.; 1.lt. bergdauti- eg. "be barren, dry"- "sterp, steril"; 2. lt. vergauti- eg. "be a slave; work very hard"; 3. vbalt. Perknas- eg. "the Thunder", poate un supranume de "fulgertorul", dei trecerea lui p n b este puin probabil); tb. Boteiras (rege bithyn ?- 376 C.; lt. btis- eg. "being, existence"+lt. jra- eg. "sea" sau lt. jreivis-"seaman, sailor" probabil un supranume de tipul "nscut din mare" sau "fiina mrii"); gd. Burebista (vestit rege gd. 7044 C.; 1. lt. vairas- eg. "helm, be at the helm"- "crmuire", lt. valstybs vairas- eg. "the helm of state" + lt. veti- eg. "grow vigorously, thrive; prosper, flourish, thrive": "crmuire nfloritoare, prosper"; 2. lt. brinikas- eg. "platoon comander", lt. busti- eg. "wake up, awake" sau lt. bstin- eg. "abode, residence"; 3. lt. vyrautis- eg. "prevail, predominate, have dominion over, hold sway over" sau lt. vyravimas- eg. "predominance, prevalence, supremacy"+lt. visateisis- eg. "enjoying full rights; fully entitled/qualified" sau lt. visataeg. "the universe"; 4. c. arb. br/br- it. "fatto, compiuto; maturo" sau arb. brr- it. "uomo"+arb. vistr- it. "tesoro"; 5. lv. burvgs- eg. "charming, adorable, enchating; glamourous" + lv. bstams- eg. "dangerous, perilous, risk, risky, hazardous"; 6. lv. burvjueg. "magic" sau lv. burvba,burvestba- eg. "magic, whitchcraft, spell" sau lv. burvis- eg.

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"sorcerer, wizard, magician, enchanter" sau lv. burt- eg. "to conjure, to practice magic", toate+ lv. bstams- eg. "dangerous, perilous, risk, risky, hazardous"- "mag de temut" ?; 7. Crian: "the briliant, noble" cf. C.G. Mateescu, "well-known" cf. Giurescu; "the powerful, plentiful" cf. Tomaschek, "the first among men" cf. Deev- HC.43); tod. Cersobleptes (rege al tr. od. 359-341 C.; lt. keras- eg. "piebald, dapple"- "blat, pestri"+lt. blstis- eg. "gloom, lower, lour, be overcast"- ntunecat- poate indica un defect fizic precum o boal de piele sau de ce nu, chiar lepr); tod. Cetriporis (rege al tr. od. 358-347 C.; lt. ketera- eg. "crest" sau lt. keturi- eg. "four"+ lt. pora- eg. "pair, couple" sau lat. puer- eg. "son"); gd. Comosicus (rege gd.; lt. kmas- eg. "godfather"); gd. Cothelas (tatl Medei a Odessei; 1. lt. katilius- eg. "copper smith"; 2. lt. kotelis- eg. "penholder"); tod. Cotys (regi ai tr. od.; 1. lt. gdus- eg. "dreary, gloomy, sombre" ?; 2. lt. kutai- eg. "fringe" ?; 3. lt. dkoti- eg. "<kam> thank smb."); gd. Dapix (rege gd.; 1. lt. dabita/dabiius- eg. "dandy" ?; 2. lt. davjas- eg. "giver"- legiuitor, cel ce dicteaz ?; 3. lv. dabisks- eg. "national, natural; unafectted, unsophisticated, simple, easy, native"); gd. Decebal (rege gd.; 1. sg. Dkts- lt. "aunus, stiprus": lt. aunus- eg. "valiant, dashing, gallant"- "viteaz, impetuos, brav", lt. stiprus- eg. "strong, firm, powerfull, fierce, severe, hard, intense, violent"; sg. balkis- lt. "sija, rstas": lt. atsijoti- eg. "sift"- "a cerne, examina, analiza, studia"; 2. lv. dka- eg. "adventure, affair"+lv. balss- eg. "voice"); gd. Deceneu (sacerdot dac; lt. dkingas- eng "grateful, thankful", lt. dekingumas- eg. "gratitude"); gd. Dicomes (cpetenie get din Cmpia Muntean, l-a ajutat pe Marc Antoniu n rzboiul cu Octavian; 1. lt. daigumas- eg. "germinating power"; 2. lt. dykuma- eg. "desert, wilderness", poate datorit aplicrii tehnicilor de prjolire n caz de rzboi ?); gd. Diegis (cpetenie dac, frate al lui Decebal ?, l-a reprezetat la tratativele de pace purtate cu Domiian 89 e.n. primind n numele lui diadema regal; 1. lt. ddius- eg. "uncle"?, lt. diegas- eg. "shoot, sprout; fellow"?; 2. lt. degsiai- eg. "site of a fire"?, lt. iu- eg. "fire"); gd. Dromichaites (rege get; 1. lt. drovjimasis= drova- eg. "shyness, bashfulness, diffidence"+getae; lt. drovumas- eg. "shyness, diffidence, bashfulness"+ getae, amndou cu sensul de getul modest; lt. drovingas- eg. "modest, shy"; 2. Sg. dromolis- lt. "virdulys"- eg. "tea-kettle, samovar", dei mai apropiat fonetic, nu are sens n context); gd. Duras-Diurpaneus (rege dac, c. 68/69-87 dC. frate al lui Scorilo i unchi al lui Decebal ?; 1. lt. doras- eg. "honest, moral; good, proper, fit"+lt. drykti- eg. "spread; stretch, extend"+ lt. pnas- "domn, stpn"; 2. lv. duramais- eg. "prick, pricker"+ lv. durt- "eg. pike, dagger, stab, prick, jab, thrust, bite"+ lt. pnas- "domn, stpn" - "cel ce nfige <n> lancea ascuit ?"); tod. Hebryzelmis (rege al tr. od. 390-384 C.; lt. gebti- eg. "be able, know how, can"+lt. limas- eg. "growth, growing"); gd. Gerula/Gerulo (antroponim; lt. gerulis- eg. "good-natured person, good soul"); gd. Koson (rege gd.; lt. kasuoti- eg. "annul, reverse", sg. kost/kusuot- lt. gundyti/skatinti/kalbinti, unde lt. gundyti- eg. "entice, allure, tempt, seduce", lt. skatinti/ eg. "induce, prompt, stimulate", lt. kalbinti- eg. "try to persuade smb. to" ?); gd. Moskon (cpetenie gd.; 1. slvn. moki, sbc. mukarac- eg. "man", istr. mkile-"brbatul"K.65?; 2. sg. Moskols- lt. "<daiktavardis> raumuo"- eg. "muscle; lean meat"; 3. lt. mueika- eg. "pugnacious person, <jis didelis m.> he is always really to fight"- "btios, combativ, certre"; 4. lv. moi- eg. "goblins, evil spirit, hobgoblins"; 5. lv. mos- eg. "alert, lively, cheerful, cheery, breezy" sau lv. moums- eg. "alertness, liveliness"); tb. Nicomedes (regi bithyni; 1. lt. nukamanoti- eg. "unbridle"- "nestrunit"; 2. lt. nykus - eg. "gream, dismal, dreary; uncanny, eerie, weird"+lt. medus- eg. "honey", un "weird honey""stranie/ nepmntean dulcea" ?); gd. Oroles (rege gd.; lt. erelis, lv. rglis, ch. orel, slv. orol, pl. orzel, ucr. - vultur); t. Orpheus (poet mitic de origine trac cruia i sunt atribuite texte lirice i filozofice; lt. oriai- eg. "with dignity"+ lt. fja- eg. "fairy"); tod. Pleuratus (rege al tr. od. 213-208 C.; lt. privyti- eg. "overtake, catch up with", lt.

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

privertimas- eg. "compulsion, coercition", lt. priverti- eg. "tighten/screw up"); tb. Prusias (regi bithyni; lt. prusinti- eg. "enlighten, educated", lt. prusti- eg. "be/become developed/ educated"); tod. Pythodoris (rege al tr. od.; lt. pjtis- eg. "reaping, harvest"+lt. dora"morals, honesty"); tod. Rhascus (rege al tr. od. 48-13 C.; lt. raikus- eg. "distinct, expressive; <raikusis skaitymas>: elocution"); tod. Rhoemetalces (rege al tr. od.; lt. ramiai- eg."quietly, calmly, peacefully"+lt. talka- eg."collective assistance, collaboration, help"); gd. Rhemaxos (rege gd. sau scit ?; lt. remti- eg. "1. support, 2. prop up, shore up", lt. remtis- eg."lean/rest <on, upon>, base oneself <on>, refer <to>, quote, cite"+lt. mokslas- eg."science, study, knowledge, education, learning" sau lt. mokslus- eg."gifted for, clever, learning"); Rhescuporis (rege al tr. od.; lt. rijas- eg. "tier, binder"+ lt. poraeg. "pair, couple"); gd. Roles (rege gd. din Dobrogea; lt. rol- eg. "role, part" ?; lv. rulliseg. "bolster, roll, scroll, reel" ? ); gd. Rubobostes (rege gd.; a. lt. rudabarzdis- eg. "redbearded"?; b. sg. ruobt- ruopti, din lt. rpti- eg. "be worried/concerned, care" ?+lt. busti- "wake up, awake"); tod. Sadalas (regi ai tr. od. gd.; lv. sadale- eg. "distribution; allocation; assessement; arrangement, planning", lt. sandlis- eg. "store"); Scorilo (rege gd.; 1. lt. skarulis= skarmalas-eg. "rags, duster"- "zdrene, prfuit" este fonetic asemntor dar nu poate explica numele propriu al demnitarului gd.; 2. lt. siekas=saikaseg. "measure, moderation"+lt. reiklus- eg. "demanding, exacting, exigent, strict"- "dreapta msur" ?); tod. Seuthes (I i II regi al tr. od.; lt. siutas- eg. "rage, fury, jam", lt. siti- eg. "sew, make" ?, lt. siautti- eg. "rage, rave, storm"); tod. Sitalces (rege al tr. od. 431-424 C.; lt. siautulys- eg. "fury, frenzy; romp"+lt. alsus- eg. "tiresome, wearisome"- "furie nestpnit" ?); tod. Sparadokos (rege tod., fiul lui Teres I; lt. sparta- eg. "speed, rapidity" + lt. duokl- eg. "tribute, contributio"); t. Syrmos (rege al tracilor tribali, contemporan cu Alexandru cel Mare; 1. lt. suremti- eg. "lean against each other; gripe"- "a asupri, a chinui, a mpila"; 2. lt. surikimas- eg. "scream, shriek"); tod. Teres (regi ai tr. od. Teres I, primul rege puternic i unificator al tracilor: 450-431 C. i Teres II: 347-? C.; lt. tra- eg. "there is only, there are only"); tod. Tryphaena (rege al tr. od. 18-38 dC.; sg. truopn- lt. "tiksliai, taikliai; kruopiai; tikrai; patikimai; tvirtai"; sg. truopnos- lt. "tikslus; kruoptus, solidus; patikimas": lt. tikslus- eg. "exact, precise, accurate, punctual"; lt. kruoptus- eg. "thorough, tedious, careful, painstaking, scrupulous"); gd. Zeuta (sacerdot gd. ?; 1. lt. ruoti- eg. "shine, glitter, sparkle, twinkle, glare" ?; 2. lt. diauti- eg. "hang up <for drying>" ?); tb. Ziaelas (rege bithyn; lt. iauruolis- eg. "cruel, brutal person", lt. iaurus- eg. "cruel, brutal, savage"); tb. Zipoites (rege bithyn; lt. iburys- eg. "light", lt. iburiuotas- eg. "luminous, fluorescent"); t. Zoltes (cpetenie t. contemporan cu Rhemaxos; 1. lt. oltas- eg. "overgrown with grass, full of grass; dirty with grass" ?; 2. lt. aloti- eg. "damage, injure, hurt, spoil, maim, mutilate, cripple, laim", lt. ala- eg. "harm, hurt, injury, damage"; posibil: "cel ce schilodete" ?); gd. Zyraxes (rege gd.; 1. lt. iaurus- eg. "cruel, brutal, savage"; 2. lt. vairas- eg. "squint"- "privire cruci", lt. vairuoti- eg. "look askance, askew, asquint"; lv. irt- eg. "negotiate"+ lv. akcija- eg. "share, action". Rege nendurtor, cu privirea cruci sau bun negociator ?) Hidronime antice: Buseos- [] (rul Buzu; lv. bs jau labi- eg. "anything goes" ? Psh. bjah- eg. "a cork, a stopper" ?); Crisus (Cri; lv. kristi- eg. "fall, drape, drop, to go down"; lt. kryius- eg. "cross", lt. krymai- eg. "crosswise"); Donaris (Dunrea; lt. duona, sg. douna- eg. "bread", lt. bedugn- eg. "precipise, abyss, gulf, chasm"; lt. dugnaseg. "bottom, ground"- albie ? Psh. duny- eg. "the world, people, goods of the world"+ro. ru= rul lumii ?); Istros (Dunrea; lt. striai- eg. "slantwise, obliquely" sau lt. itrokes"nsetat", lt. itrokes kraujo- "sngeros". Numele de Istru- "diagonal" dat probabil Dunrii de la Clrai pn la braele Deltei ?); Naparis (lt. nepagraintas- "direct" ?); Nestus (lv. nest- eg. "bear, carry, drift, cart, to bring forth"; lt. neti- "a purta"); eg. Tisia-

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

Pathissus (rul Tisa; lt. tiesiai- eg. "straight, right", lt. ties- eg. "straight <line>"; lt. tsuseg. "extensive, lenghty"); Tyras (rul Nistru; lt. tyras- eg. "pure, clear; pure, honest; bare"); Samus (rul Some; lt. smyis- eg. "confusion, disarray", lv. samaist- eg. "medley, agitate, blend, mix, compound"). Localiti, forme de relief, regiuni tgd.: Carpates (Carpai; aro. scarp- ro. "stnc" posibil din alb.; istr. rpa-K.63 "piatr"; psh. sar/sr<pl.>- eg. "a stone, a rock, a pebble", psh. sarah- eg. "a rock, a large hewn stone", prss. grbs, grabis- eg. "mountain", lt. karpas- eg. "notch"- "defileu, trectoare", lt. karpyti- eg. "cut, clip; move", lt. karpotas- eg. "warty, leaf, leaf covered with warts"; lv. kpt- eg. "mount, ascend, climb, rise"); Caucaland (zon n care gotul Atanaric se refugiaz n faa hunilor; lt. kaukaras/kauburys- eg. "1. hillock, knoll; 2.the top of a hill, mountain"); gd. Genucla (cetate de reedin a regelui Zyraxex; ltg. dzanaukls/esmins- lv. asmenis- eg. "blade, gad, edge"; lt. gynyba- eg. "defence", lt. ginklas- eg. "arm, weapon", lt. ginklin- eg. "munition factory, armoury, arsenal"); gd. Helis (cetatea de reedin a regelui Dromichaites; lt. hellio- sveiki ? incert, pb. derivat din lt. sveikinti- eg. "greet, hail, welcome, salute, cheer", lt. sveikinimaseg. "greeting, salutation, salute, congratulation" ?); gd. Kogaion<on>(munte sacru al gd.; lt. kokia= koks- eg. "1. what, 2. some, any"+ lt. kainotieg. "estimate, evaluate" ?, sensul de "ce va urma ?"); gd. Sarmizegetusa (<SarmisegetusaSarmisegethuza, -Zarmizegethousa--Zermizegethouse>; 1. ltg. samegeits/samegeita /gryuts- lv. sarets- eg. "complicate <d>, inextricable, complex, thorny, tricki, knotty, sophisticated", lv. sarejums- ltg. gryutums - eg. "nodi, nodus, involvement, imbroglio, plexus, knot"; 2. sg. sarmata- eg. "shame", sg. sarmatytis, sarmatingas- eg. "be ashamed", slvn., sbc. sramota, mac., bg. sram- eg. "shame", zebaki sharmindi- eg. "ashamed" + lt. grtis- eg. "admire smth, smb", lt. girtis- eg. "boast of, swagger about, brag of/about"-"mndrie, fal, laud de sine, a se fli, a se slvi, a se luda"- "admiraia smereniei", "ruinarea slavei trectoare" ? dat de dubletul sanctuar religios- observator astronomic; 3. sg. sarmata- eg. "shame"+ lt. igerti- eg. "drink", lt. igertuvs- eg. "drinking-bout, carouse" ?; 4. lv. sarma- "hoarfrost, white frost; snow- sens poetic"- chiciur, promoroac; 5. Basanavicius, Srba: gd. *-zegetusa cf. lt. zaginiai- "gard, palisad", lt. ziogris- "gard, uluci"); tod. Seuthopolis (capitala regatului odrys; 1. lt. siutaseg. "rage, fury, jam", lt. siti- eg. "sew, make" ?, lt. siautti- eg. "rage, rave, storm"; 2. lt. siti- eg. "1.sew, make 2. n expresie: scurry, dart about"; 3. probabil: oraul <polis> regelui Seuthes). Ceti tgd.: Clepidava (lt. klebonas- "preot" ?; lt. klupeti- "a ngenunchea" ?); Dausadava (lt. dauyti- "a distruge"); Dokidava (lt. takas- "culoar, drum, potec"); Giridava (lt. girti- "slav, laud"); Kapidava (lt. kapas- "groap"); Patridava (lt. patrauklumas"atracie"); Pelendova (lt. pelenai- "cenu"); Ramidava (lt. ramiai- "tihnit, potolit, calm"); Sucidava (lt. sukietinti- "a ntri"); Tamasidava (lt. tamsu- "ntunecat"); Zarcidava (lt. ara"strlucire").

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

La momentul actual, dispunem de o list de cuvinte din romn presupuse de origine gd. analizate de ctre Bogdan Petriceicu-Hadeu, Ion I. Russu, Ariton Vraciu, Sorin Olteanu. n aceast list se regsesc fr pretenii de exhaustivitate: abe; Abrud; abur (eg. steam, vapour; aro. aburu; pentru sensul de "vapori de ap": slvn. pare- eg. "steam", slvn. parni- eg. "vapour"; alb. avull; psh. bs/bhas- eg. "vapour, heat, exhalation, steam"; ud. bur/abira-abara- eg. "vapours, exhalations, steam, fumes". Autorul consider c vapor/vapur i abur provin din aceeai rd. IE; pentru sensul de "iluzie, suflet": eusk. aburu- fr. "croyance confuse, esprance peu fonde" ?); aca (cu varianta aga; eg. to hang, to catch; lat. accaptiare<captiare; lv. uzkrt- eg. "hang, string", lv. krties- eg. "hang", lv. erana, ert, saert- eg. "catch"; lv. ar i- eg. "hooked", lv. eksis- eg. "boathook, crook, hook", hitt. gank- eg. "to hang", nep. ankush- eg. "hook", punj. latkauna- eg. "to hang" ?); adman; ademeni (eg. to tempt, to lure; cf. mg. adomni- eg. "gift"; lt. dmti- eg. "stain, blot, spot"- "ntinare, ocrre, pat"; psh. z-ms/ z-m-yil/ wu bah z-m-y (imperfect)- eg. "to tempt"; punj. tama dena- eg. "to lure" ?); adia (eg. to breeze gently; aro. adiljeari- ro. "briz, mngiere, respiraie"; punj. haava- eg. "breeze", psh. bd- eg. "wind, air, brezze, gale"; psh. bd wahal- eg. "to strike as a hot pestilential wind"; lt. aidinu, aidinti ?- germ. "reizen"- "a ispiti, a excita" ?; lt. jaudinti- eg. "agitate, trouble, excite, disturb", lv. uzbudinjums- eg. "excitation, excitement, fluster", pl. odwia- "a sufla", bret. avel- eg. "wind", eusk. aize- eg. "wind"); aghiu (eg. devil; drcuor, din ngr. gios- "sfnt"; pare a fi din epoca nchinrilor de mnstiri ctre cele athonite i melkite ?); aidoma (eg. alike, identical; aro. omnjea-ro. "la fel", lt. adv vienodai- eg. "alike", lt. vienodas- eg. "the same, uniform, homogeneous, monotonous", lv. iedomas- eg. "phantasm", lv. iedomjams- eg. "imaginable, thinkable, concevable", vsl. vidom"vizibil"; psh. yek-hamn- eg. "alike, similar, uniform, identical, parallel". O form mai veche yek-dhamn n psh. ? Psh. an-dm/ an-dmnah- eg. " body, stature, figure" ?); alac (eg. Einkorn wheat; sp. alaga ?, hitt. halki- eg. "grain, bread", eusk. ale- eg. "grain, seed"); <h>al (eg. a monster that unleashes storms); aldea ? (ro. alde- "oameni, ntmplri de felul...": lt. dalikas- eg. "thing, object, subject, subject of research, matter, matter of taste, share, dowry", eusk. alde- eg. "in favour of, on behalf of", psh. alah- eg. "a circle, a ring, an assembly, a fraternity; a knocker for a door" cu sensul de fraternitate i psh. dod or dodeyah- eg. "like, similar, resembling; like, in the same manner" ?); amei (eg. to make/get dizzy; slvn. omotini- eg. "dizzy"- "ameeal"; lt. apmti- eg. "cover with manure/dung/ muck, manure, dung", lv. samulsint- eg. "abash, maze, disconcert, distract, dismay, dizzy", lt. smyis- eg. "confusion, disarray", lv. aizmiglots- ltg. aizveumuots- eg. "bleary, filmy" ? Psh. mai- eg. "wine, spirituous liquor".); amurg (eg. twilight, dusk; aro. murdzishu/murdzit/murgheazm/ mughizm/murgishu/murgiu/ murgu- ro. "amurg"; slvn. mrak- eg. "dusk"; n germ. Dmmerung, lt. sambrkis, norv. skumring, ch. za soumraku, slv. za smraku, prss. migl, lv. pagrimuma periods- eg. "twilight"; rromani muglya- eg. "fog"; psh. targ-ma- eg. "a dark night, a night without moonlight; darkness" ?; psh. m-m/m-m- eg. "evening, twilight" i psh. laah- eg. "twilight, the dusk, the grey of the morning" ?; su. mrk- eg. "dark"; lv. murgains- eg. "freaky, light-headed, raving, psychedelic", lv. murgs- eg. "night-mare, night-hag", lv. murgi- eg. "riding-hag, delirium, rave, raving", lv. murgojos- eg. "delirious, light-headed", lv. murgot- eg. "rave, wander, to be delirious, to see things" cf. nep. mrkha- eg. "foolish"); anina (eg. to hang, to hook; lt. anszas- germ. "haken"- a prinde ?); aprig (eg. fiery, hot-blooded; alb. ashpr,

CAP 2. CONSIDERAII ASUPRA UNOR CUVINTE APRECIATE DREPT AUTOHTONE

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

cum. aprig- "boal"? MA-110; lv. pretgs, lt. arus- eg. "fierce"; lt. prigauti- "a deine, a poseda": cel ce-i apr ndrjit posesia ?; lt. aprungti- eg. "overcome, beat, win", lt. aprkti- eg. "rate, shout at somebody"; lv. sprgstos- eg. "bursting, detonating, explosive, blasting, fiery", ngr. - "avid, zgrcit"; psh. brd- eg. "attack, onset, charge, assault, storm", psh. brd kawul- eg. "to attack, to assault, to charge"); argea (eg. loom or particular boards of a loom; lv. aira kts- eg. "loom"); Arge (1. Cf. Duridanov: arda- "ru, curent", un gd. rdzi-/arge-, transformat n arge<>, cu sensul de ru iute cu albie schimbtoare, cf. lt. ygiavimas- eg. "march, marching", lt. ygis- eg. "march, trip, cruise; hike". 2. lt. ardytojas- eg. "disturber, destroyer", lt. ardyti- eg. "unravel, unrip; destroy, demolish; break, disturb", lt. ardymas- eg. "unripping, unravelling; destroying, pulling down; breaking of peace, disturbance". Ex. inc.; 3. lt. iargas- eg. "with ones leg spread wide", lt. argstyti- eg. "<leg, foot> spread ones legs apart, spread ones feet planted apart; spread wide; step over "- "crcnat, rsfirat" ?; 4. eusk. argi- eg. "light, bright", eusk. argitu/argitzen- fr. "clairer" presupus de la IE *arg- eg. "shine, bright" ? Ex. inc.; 5. A. Madgearu: trcicul argi- "ridictur de teren, nlime" justificnd: Argessis nu este atestat, Herodot indic Ordessos, iar Argedava nu are legtur cu zona Argeului. Domnia sa presupune c iniial numele a fost atribuit localitii Curtea de Arge i apoi a fost denumit rul, cf. practicii atribuirii numelor de pruri funcie de sate atestat n inutul Fgraului. 6. Totui, Argeul este un ru mult prea important n raport cu praiele alimentate de zpezi din Fgra ca s-i fi pierdut numele autohton, aa cum demonstreaz ilustrul Vasile Prvan prin comparaie cu toponime armene: muntele Arghsh-dgh lng Caesarea i oraul Ardjsch=Arsesa n zona lacului Van); arunca (eg. to throw, to cast; aro. para-rucu/rucu/ aleapidu-mi/ aminu/ aricu/ arucu-mi/ aruncu; Cihac: lat. (e)runcare- "a smulge, a cura de buruieni"; slvn. vrei- "to throw"; aro. arc- "a sri, a se lansa"-P.578; un lv. ruket- "a smulge" ?, lv. paroce- eg. "elbow, arm", lv. parocgi- eg. "handily"; lt. atranka- eg. "selection, natural selection", lt. atrankinis- eg. "selective", lt. atrankos- eg."remainder, leavings", cf. lt. ranka, sg. ronka- "mn/palm", dar i lt. rankos, lv. rokas, slvn. roko-"bra", hu. ruca, sbc., ch. ruka-"mn", pb. din a-ronca, adic a azvrli, a lepda din mn, a se debarasa de ceva inutil, compromitor, deseori imperativ: "arunc !- scap de... !", cf. ro. brnc- "mn, membru anterior la animale, lab". Dar i prss. rkaieg. "garments, dress-clothes, clothes-dress", pl. rzuca- eg. "throw", lv. dranis- eg. "garbage- colloquial, muck, punk, stinker, lemon"- "gunoi, lucru fr valoare, fleacuri, prostii, nesuferit, lucru nefolositor", lv. drags- eg. "trashy"; psh. asaaey cawuleg. "to cast lots with straws" unde psh. cawul- eg. "to throw, to cast, to fling, to impel, to chuck, to fire off, to launch, to let fly, to discharge, to let off, etc." i psh. asaaey- eg. "a straw, or anything of no value" ?); azug (?; pb. form corupt din aizuka, cf. Duridanov trac aiz- "capr" i lt. oka- "capr, ap", okiukas-"iedv, oys- "ap", hu. coza- "capr", hu.- cozac- "ap", lv. zis- "billy-goat, goat, he-goat" i lv. kaza- "nanny-goat, goat"; psh. aj kawul eg. "to rattle or gurgle, as a goat or sheep with its throat cut"; psh. bzaheg. "the name of a bird, the ibis, or royal curlew; a she-goat"); baci (eg. 1. chief sheperd, 2. elder brother or person: Ban. ?; 1. dei pare dintr-un b<r>gi<ans>, din aceeai familie cu fr. berger, lv. gans-"pstor" i cu germ. Berg- "munte", este posibil ca aseriunea s fie speculativ: sensul pare "lider, conductor"; lt. vacaluoti- eg. "sway", lt. vachmistras- eg. "cavalry sergeant major", lv. braucjs- eg. "driver, fare, rider, whip, hit-and-run driver", lt. bgikas- eg. "runner"; Densuianu: particula tiurcic bak- "a pzi", poate prin intermediar pecenego-cuman GS.151; 2. un arhaic hu. baci, slvn. bi, mg. bcsikm- eg. "uncle", hu. bachco- "tat", alb. bats, sbc. baa- eg. "elder person"-GS.150 par a fi n conexiune cu lv. vecks- eg. "elder", lv. veckais- eg. "headman, senior, dean, elder, head, primus, major", lv. vecs- eg. "old"; sg. buoius, buoios, buoielis- lt. "senelis, senuolis"-bunic); baier()

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(aro. bairu- ro. "salb"; eg. rope, belt; coin necklace; talisman; bail-handle; ld. Fassanisch baer- germ. "Wasserlache, Pftze"; ld. Fassanisch bal- germ. "Lrm, Geschrei"; ro. poate cu sensul de clinchet, zgomot din atingerea monedelor ?; n Maram.: baer- "cureaua de la tac, Ieud: legtur de desagi"; baier- "ieu: sfoara de la gura desagilor"- P.365. Psh. garabbaey- eg. "a buckle, a breast or waist plate, a hook and loop for a belt"+psh. rog- "a belt" ?); balig (eg. dung, manure; aro. balig, cf. alb. bajg i alb. plehroj, arb. blg/-it. "sterco bovino", sbc. i slvn. balega, hu. balega- "balig de vac" i lt. Mlavabaliai"balig sau gunoi de grajd", psh. lid/ lidnah- eg. "dung, excrement", pl. gnj i ch. hnj i slv. hnoj- "balig" corespund ro. gunoi de grajd/casnic); balt (eg. pool, puddle; aro. balt, blat; cf. alb. balt, sbc. blato, hu. boloto- eg. "mud" i prss. bltan, baltn, balta-germ. "Bruch"- eg. "moras, marsh, swamp"; lt. bala- eg. "marsh, bog, slough", lt. baloknis- eg. "little marsh/swamp", lt. balotas- eg. "boggy, marshy, swampy, fen"); bar (eg. marsh; lv. vadzis- eg. "peg", lt. vartelis- eg. "small, little bolt; peg, pin"); Barb-Cot; barz (eg. stork, Ciconia ciconia; aro. barz/lelicu/ lilecu/lulecu/pilicanu/shtrcu/strcu/strcu/ ul<e>alecu/uljiulecu- "barz", lv. bards- eg. "swan"; cat. pardal+alb. zog - eg. "bird", punj. pankheru- eg. "bird", hd. (pannch)/ paranda- eg. "any flying animal" +nep. <?>rajhanseg. "swan"-"lebd", poate <pa?>rajhans, expresia psh. ar-jal-barjal- eg. "entangled, entrapped (as a bird in a net), noosed" ?, psh. bzah- eg. "the name of a bird, the ibis, or royal curlew; a she-goat", lt. vieversys- eg. "sky-lark"- "ciocrlie"; considerat din alb. barth, bardh- eg. "white", arb. brdh- it. "bianco", cf. lt. balta, baltaodis- eg. "white" derivat dintr-o form cu sensul de pestri sau ptat cu alb, dei este apropiat ca pronunie de lt. beras, lv. brzs i prss. berzi- eg. "birch" cu care nu are poate legtur. Alte corelaii sunt ntre lt. gas- germ. "Storch", lv. stris, slvn. torklija, pl., slv. bocian, hu. busoceg. "stork", poate dintr-un vechi bostrsia ?, dei aseriunea poate fi speculativ. Sunt atestate i un lt. briu/ brti- germ. "kratzen"- "a scrmna", lt. barzda- eg. "beard, bit, wattle"- "barb, mo". Cel mai pb. cf. lv. bards- eg. "swan" contopit cu lv. brda- ltg. buorzda- eg. "beard, gill, jowl". Pentru expresia "Vine barza !" a se vedea n bret. e-barzheg. "inside", lt. barzdukas- eg. "mit. gnome"- pitic ? n limbile indo-iraniene zazaki berz/kurdish sorani berz sau barz/balochi bwrz/ossetic baerzond- eg. "tall" - ro. "zvelt, subire, nalt" ?); basc (eg. beret; ltg. balyks/ balaks- lv. kapuce- eg. "bonnet, hood, cowl". Ro. basc din aceeai familie cu ro. bclie ?); batal (eg. wether, castrated ram); balaur/blaur (dragon, monster; aro. bul'ar; psh. balawul- eg. "to light, burn, set on fire, kindle, ignite" ar indica mai degrab ro. prli, psh. bal/balw (pl.)- eg. "trial, calamity, misfortune, accident, vengeance, evil, ill", bal. bla- eg. "evil spirit, devil; trial, affliction, difficulty, calamity" ; hd. bheyrry- eg. "wolf", ossetian birh-eg. "wolf"; cf. alb. boll- eg. "snake", arb. bll/, -a- it. "biscia"/eg. "grass-snake", lt. velnias, sg. vels, sg. bldoks- eg. "devil, deuce, serpent" cf. unui vechi ro. veliar- necuratul ?, lv. izpalgs- eg. "devil", lt. blogyb/blogis- eg. "evil", lv. pavadone- eg. "chaperon, dragon", lt. balain- eg. "how the devil !". Lt. eil <belaukiani moni>- eg. "queue"? Lt. bjaurumas- eg. "ugliness, deformity, abomination", lt. bjaurus- eg. "ugly, hideous, deformed, disgraceful, nasty". Poate o contaminare a lt. velnias, sg. bldoks cu lt. bjaurus a condus la un dublet balaurveliar care a circulat simultan n regiuni diferite ?); bga (eg. to insert, to thrust; din reconstrucia prss. avem un palakaitun cu sensul eg. "to maintain, keep, retain", dar i lt. perbegti, lt. perbraukti kuo- "a curge", poate a scurge dintr-un vas n altul ?. Alt sens are lt. baiga- eg. "end, ending, completion", lv. bagete- eg. "moulding"; lt. baigti- sg. bengt- eg. "end, finish"; lv. beigt- eg. "end, accomplish, cease, finish, heal, quit, close, to end of, to off, to round off, to wind up" sau psh. beygr-eg."a person forced to work, or impressed, either with or without pay" cf. expresiei ro. "bag mare !"- "termin, finalizeaz"); biat/ bietan (eg. "boy"; psh. baiat/baiatnah (pl.)- eg. "homage, fealty", psh. baiat kawul- eg. "to

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

become the disciple of anyone, to pay homage" ?; nep. bal/thito- eg. "child, boy, young man", nep. badho- eg. "womans brothers son", nep. bhatijo/bhatij- eg. "mans brothers son"; sg. beizas- lt. berniktis- eg. "urchin boy"- "trengar, copil neastmprat" cf. ro. biea; lt. berniukas- "biat"; lv. brns, dan. i sued, barn, rus. - "copil"; lv. bradlu, resp. pl. bratanek- "nepot" din care pe filiera bietan/biea- biet a dat ro. biat. O alt variant, cf. prss. brti- eg. "little brother, dear brother", hd./nep. bhi- eg. "brother", psh. bacae-eg. "an infant, a child, the young of any creature" i cf. eg. bratpici, puti, posibil dintr-un brtiati care a condus la biat. Lv.: zns, puisis, bojs, junga, kua puika- toate cu sensul eg. "boy", posibil direct din bojs ? Alt posibilitate: lv. bojteg. "impair, queer, spoil, affect", lv. bojties- eg. "addle, spoil", lv. bojts- eg. "addle, tainted, rotten, bad, defective, faulty, unplayable, off", bret. bihan- eg. "small" cf. ro. bietan ?); blan (eg. blond <person>, white-haired; vsl. bl, dar i lt. balta, baltaodiseg. "white"); beregat (eg. throat, larynx, psh. gah- eg. "the throat" ?); brs (a piece of wood or iron that binds together the coulter, the share and mouldboard of a plough- the plough beam ?; lv. berzt- eg. "frictionize, furbish, scrub"; lv. berana- eg. "scrub"; lv. berzt- eg. "chafe, rub" ?); boare (eg. "breeze", it. brezza, aura, arb. borm/- it. "borea, tramontana"- eg. "north wind"); bordei (buried or half-buried hut; variante: bud, bujd, burd, bud; lv. bris- eg. "cage, coop, hutch, mew"- "hutch: colib, bojdeuc" contopit cu lv. bda- eg. "hut", prss. butan- eg. "house", prss. bda- eg. "doghouse", pol., rus., mg. buda- ro. "colib", psh. borjal(i)- eg. "a house, home, hearth, halting-place, abode, resort", dar i psh. bor-jal- eg. "a trysting place, a place where lovers meet" care sugereaz ro. bordel); bort (eg. hole, hollow, archway; punj. bhorha- eg. "hollow, pit" ?); brad/bradz (eg. fir- any tree of genus abies; alb. bradh/bredh<i>- "brad". n lt. egl/baltegl, pl. joda, slv. jeda, ngr. , hu. eleea, posibil un vechi IE briegle. Lv. bradt- eg. "paddle" ? Psh. ano-bar- eg. "fir, pine, any cone-bearing tree"); brndu (eg. crocus, primula Crocus heuffelianus and other similar flowers; bg. brenduka, sbc. brndu, dar i lt. branduolysnucleu. Crocus heuffelianus- brndua de primvar i Colchicum autumnale- brndua de toamn. Lv. balanda- eg. "pigweed" ?); brnz (aro. brndz; eg. cheese; din germ. Brinsenkse; slv., pl. bryndza, hu. brenza, brendza; posibil descrie operaiune de nchegare a ze<>rului- adic de brnzire, din ngr. , alb. tromboz, ch. sraenina, slv. zrazenina- eg. "to clot"- " a nchega" i respectiv zer- ngr. it. siero di latte, eg. "whey". Termenul normal este siers, suris, sir<a> sau sera, ori Kse, kaas, cheese, queij(x)o, chaschiel, aro. ka iar formaggio, formatge, fromage provin posibil tot din ngr. , care n final a dat "a forma - a lua form". Sau dintr-un iniial vechi IE b(v)resirca, neatestat. Nep. dugdhasar- eg. "cheese", nep. dugdha- eg. "milk" ?. n psh. bagoah- eg. "coagulated milk, a kind of cheese, the Persian urt" i psh. bagoah zdo-yal-eg. "to grind, or prepare cheese, etc. by grinding"; psh. wur-jah- eg. "the first milk given by a cow, goat, etc., after calving, biestings", ishkasmi idzgai- eg. "cheese (of sheep-milk)". n lv. biezpiens- eg. "curd, cheese, pot cheese, cottage cheese", lv. biezputrains- eg. "mushy", moale, psat; lt. vark/varkinis- eg. "curd, cottage cheese", lt. varkti- eg. "curdle" par s explice cel mai bine duetul a brnzi- "cudle" i brnz- "curd"), bru (eg. belt, waist; alb. bres or brezi; psh. abrah- eg. "a small shawl worn round the waist"); brusture (eg. bur, burdock; lt. Varnala, lt. dags, lv. dadzis, lt. gdas- germ. "Klette", su. kardborre, it., cat, port., gal. bardana, fr. bardane. Posibil o rdcin brld()ds ?); bucura/bucuros (eg. glad, to enjoy; punj. mauj baharan karna-eg. "to enjoy" sau hd./punj. bahut- eg. "very"+nep. khushi/hd. khu/punj. khush- eg. "pleasure, delight, glad, happy" + nep. rijha/punj. rajieg. "gladness, hapiness, contentment" + nep. sukhi-eg. "happy, pleased, delighted" ? vezi i ab. bikhair- eg. "very good"; persian bar-khwurdan- eg. "to enjoy" ?; ud. bur

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

n/bur ahn- eg. "to have a fever; to get into a state of feverish heat, excitement, or alarm"; greaca pontic gouzlarakas- eg. "gay" ?; alb. zbukuroj- "frumos", bukurosh"mndru", arb. bkur- it. "bello, bene, n bela maniera", arb. bukur<a> - it. "bellezza", arb. zbukur/nj- it. "abbellire, splendere di bellezza", arb. zbukurar- it. "abbellito, ornato" unde arb. cf. psh. r-'- eg. "adorning, embellishing", psh. r-s- eg. "ornament, embellishment, dressing, preparation; equipage"; sudovian bukareisas- eg. "beech-nut, beech-acorn"- "jir", prss. Buccareisis/bukareisis- germ. "Buchecker"- eg. "beech-acorn" care corelate cu arb. bk/- it. "pane"- pine ar fi putut nsemna "a nfuleca", "a se veseli ca porcul la jir"- Ex. inc.; unii autori leag termenul de srbtoarea lui Bachus i a Bachantelor. Alte serii de "coincidene" din lv., lt. care par rspunsul la ro.: lv. bauda- eg. "delight, gusto, treat, pleasure"+lv. gt prieku- eg. "enjoy", lv. baudt- eg. "feast, enjoy, relish", lv. baudt brv- eg. "to taste freedom", lv. baudt mieru- eg. "to live in peace and quiet", dar i lv. baudkre- eg. "lechery, salacity", lv. baudkrs- eg. "lascivious, lecherous, voluptuary, salacious, voluptuous" ? Hd./ punj./ ud. b<u>kha<a>r- eg. "fever"); buiestru (eg. pace, a horse gait); bunget (eg. thick and dark forest; alb. bunk, prss. wkautwei- eg. "to haloo in the forest", psh. ba/ banah (pl.)- eg. "a forest, a wood"+psh. angaleg. a forest, a wood, a wild tract of country" ?, nep. baaklo jangal- eg. "dense forest"; nep./punj. ban- eg. "forest" + punj. jangal- eg. "forest"); burghiu (eg. drilling bit; tc. burgu- eg. "corkscrew", sbc. burgija; psh. <ul>boraey- eg. "a stopper, a plug, a cork, a bung, a spigot, a lid" + psh. gwaj- eg. " the ear, an ear, the screw of a violin" ?); burlan (eg. spout, water pipe; tc. burgu eg. "pipe, trumpet"); burt (eg. belly, stomach; alb. barku, arb. br/k, -ku, pl. brzuch, psh. pur-kr- eg. "thick, stout, fat, coarse" ?, lv. piepstas buras- eg. "belly", lt. burtas- eg. "1.lot, 2. sorcery", ol. buik- eg. "stomach", nep. bhundi/pet/pea- eg. "stomach", hd. pet-bhar- eg. "belly full" sub forma bhar- pet ?; psh. geah-war- eg. "pot-belly" sau psh. eah- eg. "the belly" similar nep. pet poate sub forma war- geah sau war- eah ?); burtuc; burtu; butuc/butur (eg. log, stump; cum. butak-eg. "branch" , tr. buduk, mg. butuk, lv. bluis, bais- eg. "log"; lt. buo- eg. "knob, butt, steelyard, kulak", lt. buoulas- eg. "knob"); buz (eg. lip; alb. buz- eg. "lip", bg. - eg. "cheek", prss. warsus, varzus din EOPV- eg. "lip", punj. bull + nep. oh<a>eg. "lip, lips", psh. sn- eg. "the lip"; psh. bey zabn- eg. mute, without language", lv. rupjba- eg. "lip: slang", psh. je-bah- eg. "1. the tongue. 2. language, speech, dialect" poate sub forma bah- je, lv. knbis- eg. "beak"- cioc, lv. oklis- eg. "chap, chop, jaw, jowl", dar i ld. bussar- germ. "kssen", lt. buiuoti- eg. "kiss"- "srut". Interesante slvn. beseda, lt. odis - eg. "word" sugereaz ro. "buz, buze". Psh. ur-bz- eg. "a muzzle of wood or leather for a dog, calf, etc., to prevent biting or drinking; the muzzle", psh. tambzak- eg. "the muzzle of anything, the mouth and nose of an animal; a fastening for the mouth; the bridge of the nose", psh. wurbz/ wurbznah- eg. "the lower part of the face <particularly applied to the lips and nostrils of a horse and other animals>", psh. tambzak- eg. "<n vest> the muzzle of anything, the mouth and nose of an animal; a fastening for the mouth; the bridge of the nose", psh. tambzaey- eg. "the bridge of the nose", psh. tanbezah- eg. "the bridge of the nose, the muzzle"); caier (eg. tuft of wool, etc. to be spun; lat. caiulus); <a>ca/ca (ca: eg. long stick ending with a hook, used by shepherds i aca: eg. to hang, to catch; alb. cita- eg. "weaving sticks", lt. kari, krtigerm. "hngen"- eg. "to hang"); cciul (eg. brimless hat; alb. ksul' acelai sens, arb. ksl/- it. "berretto", bg. , pl. kaptur- eg. "hood"- "glug, capion"; lt. keprgerm. "Hut; der Hut auf dem Butterfasse"- eg. "hat", lt. kepurl- germ. "Htchen", cf. aro. kapel, rar kaper- "plrie de ora", lv. kapuce- eg. "bonnet, hood, cowl", psh. khawalyeg. "hat". Sg. kaioliout- lt. kutenti- eg. "tickle"- "a gdila, a ncnta" n conexiune cu ro.

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

"a se cciuli". Psh. a<sab>-eg. "a kind of red silk, a small turban" + psh. crah- eg. "a kind of turban, the folds of which are very small" ?. O trecere a lui p i r din lt. kepr n i l nu e exclus, conducnd la cciul ? sau influenat de sg. ?); cpu (eg. tick; alb. kpush, dar i alb. mash, lv. knaibles, lt. nypls- pb. dintr-un originar k<n>p<l>s; punj. chihchri- eg. "tick"); cput (eg. upper side of a foot; footwear covering it; alb. kputs, mg. kapta, vsl. kopyto); ctun (eg. hamlet; alb. katund- eg. "village", arb. katndit. "paese, villagio", scr. katun-eg. "summer pasture", bret. kr- eg. "town, village", lt. kaimas- "sat", gael. clachan- eg. "hamlet, village". Probabil dintr-o form compus aproximativ pe modelul prezumat bret. kr+eg. town, aa cum i Skok l explic prin alb. ka- i alb. ndej- "aezare"; ro. ctun: un vechi compus traco-ilir apropiat de gael. ? Psh. kalaey- eg. "a village, a hamlet" + psh. torah- eg. "a village, a hamlet", dar i psh. ko/ konah- eg. "a fort, a castle, a stronghold, a keep <generally applied to small forts on hills or other difficult situations>" sau psh. or/ ornah or orn <pl.>- eg. "a manger, a trough; a stable, a stall" cf. i fr. accueillir- ro. "a gzdui"); cioar (eg. crow; alb. sorr, arb. srr/- it. "cornacchia", lv., lt. varna, prss. varne, ch. vrna, slv. vraa, dar pl. kruk i wrona, germ. Kro/Krhe, eg. crow, ucr. i , lv. kovrnis, sbc., slvn. avka, pl. kawka, ch., slv. kavka - eg. "daw, jackdaw"- "stncu/corvus monedula", lt. kranklys- eg. "raven"; lt. kryktauti- eg. "crowed, exult, shout, yell"- "a croncni"; lt. paukiauti- eg. "fowl, bird", hd. ciiy- eg. "any small bird"; nep. char/caro- eg. "bird"; punj. chiri- eg. "bird"; psh. carg- eg. "a game fowl, a fowl of a large breed", dar i psh. serah- eg. "a scarecrow" sau psh. saey- eg. "a bustard, a florican <Otis bengalensis>"ro. dropie. Este considerat gd. de Hadeu i anterior IE de Lahovary, afirmaie susinut ? de eusk. txori/tx<r>i /xo<r>i- eg. "bird", eusk. txorikume- eg. "baby bird"); cioc (eg. beak; alb. ok- eg. "hammer, knuckle", arb. cp- it. "becco, rostro" n conexiune cu ro. ciupi, arb. c(u)j/p,-i- it. "capro, becco", bg. - eg. "beak, bill"; lt. snapas paukio- eg. "beak"; lt. paukiauti- eg. "fowl, bird", poate cu un vechi sens de pasre cnttoare, zgomotoas, cf. lv. auis- eg. "chiffchaff, warbler"; lt. paukiukas- eg. "nestling, fledgeling, thick"- "puior, ai da penele". Sunt atestate i lt. iaukus- eg. "garroulus, talkative", lt. iaukti/iaukti- eg. "chatter, chirp"- "ciripit", lt. iauklys- eg. "talker, chaterrer"; nep. chuchch-eg. "beak", hd. choch- eg. "beak", psh. skah- eg. "the point of anything, the peak of a mountain, a beak, a snout, a proboscis, the nozzle", psh. skaheg. "the beak of a bird"; punj. chunjh/chinjh- eg. "beak", psh. cakas- eg. "a perch for birds, a roost for a falcon"); ciocrlie (eg. skylark, considerat derivat din cioc, exist formele atestate de DER bg. evruliga, sbc. evrljuga "ciocrlie, dar i formele bg. , scr. eva; persian chakvah- eg. "skylark", psh. cr walak- eg. "the diminutive of the comb of the cock, the hood of the hoopoe or the lark, etc"; psh. arah- eg. "the name of a bird, the skylark", pasto cugr- eg. "the song of a bird, particularly of the nightingale; the sound of an instrument". n sg. crolis, lv. crulis- eg. "skylark" care par formele cele mai apropiate de ro., pb. dintr-un vechi IE cicir(u)lis. Sg. croltis- lt. "vyturiukas", sg. croliuot- lt. "vyturioti". De reinut ro. reg. tiuturoi cf. lt. vyturiukas/vyturys- eg. "skylark"); ciomag (eg. club, cudgel; tr. omak, persian chumkciomag, psh. sowrangawul- eg. "to thrash, to beat, to drub, to bruise, to cudgel", psh. amez wlaey- eg. "crookedness, obliquity, bend, curvature" ?; alb. omage- eg. "big hammer"); crlan (eg. sheep or goat weanling; colt, foal; lt. kumeliukas- eg. "colt, foal"); crlig (eg. hook; bg. , persian kullb, dan. krog, su. krok, norv. kroken, pl. hak, ch., slv. hk, hu. hac, fr. crochet, it. gancio, ol. haak, lt. kablys, lv. is- eg. "hook", pb. dintr-un vechi IE kr<a>likis); codru (eg. wide old forest ?; alb. kodr- eg. "hill" pare corespondentul cu lt. kalvel- eg. "hillock, knoll"; dan. skog, su. skog, rg.

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

guaud/uaul/gld/gt/god- eg. "forest", ossetian qd- eg. "forest"; psh. kar-ka- eg. "a brake, a copse, a bush, brush-wood, underwood, a thicket" + psh. dargah- eg. "an impenetrable jungle, a dense forest, a wilderness <particularly of canes, etc.> ", psh. kanar/ kanarnah - eg. "a ruinous or broken down building, the ruins of a house, village, etc. 2. A place haunted by demons" care pare ntre ro. pdure i ro. codru); lt. <su>kapoti + <pri>pjiauti- ambele cu sensul eg. "chop"- a ciopli, a tia lemne; poate dintr-un vechi ro. s<u>codr<u> - margine de pdure sau deal mpdurit ?; particula s<u> s-a pierdut prin confuzie de expresie: pe sub codru- "la margine de codru", n loc de prin sucodru, dei sensul vechi este clar de pdure <btrn> sau deal mpdurit; dacism slavizat ?); copac (eg. tree; aro. cupaciu- ro. "copac, stejar"; lv. koks- eg. "tree", zazaki koli/boli-eg. "wood" ?, lt. kapoti- eg. "hew, hack, chop, flog, peg", lt. kapokl <peilis>- eg. "chopper, choping knife"; ro. cu sensul de cuit sau de semne pe arbori, dei termenul ro. pare a fi susinut de lv. koks?; aro. kupa'- "stejar", istr. cop- "copac, tuf"-K.55, psh. kkur - eg. "the acacia tree" ?+ psh. pay kawul- eg" to ham-string, to cut off a tree close to the ground"; psh. klah p- eg. "the name of a forest in the aak country in which there is much game. This term is generally applied to a place where there are hills, rivulets, and a forest" doar informal aducnd cu numele de localitate Cplna ?); copil (eg. child; aro. cokilu/cokil- ro. "copil/copil <din flori>",alb., sbc., bg. kopil<e>- eg. "bastard", arb. kopil<e>- it. "ragazzo, giovane, ragazza"-eg. "brat"; tc. kopil- eg. "gamin"- "vagabond"; nep. keti/keto- eg. "girl, boy" ?; lt. kdikis- germ. "Kind, kleines Kind"; lv. kopiena- eg. "commune", lv. koplekts- eg. "nest", lv. kopgi- eg. "collectively, jointly, mutually, in common"; lv. kopt- eg. "groom, tend, foster, attend"- "a crete, a ngriji"; psh. claey- eg. "a young male kid" aduce cu eg. child; psh. pulaw- eg. "connection, friendship, relationship, family connexion", psh. pulaw kawul- eg. "to form connexion by marriage, to make or contract friendship" care aduce i cu ro. "a copula"; hd. chhokr lark/chhokr lark- eg. "a mere boy/girl", confirmat de ro. copilrie); cre (eg. curly, curly haired; aro. ctsrosu ?, lt. skresti- germ. "drehen"/eg. "grow dirty/filthy", lt. skrcz- germ. "drehen, im Kreise herumdrehen"); crua (eg. to pardon, to spare; lt. skirti- eg. "to spare"; hd. chhorn- eg. "forgive" + flt- eg. "spare", psh. ktalaey- eg. "killed for food, lawfully killed lierally cut up into joints" pare opus ro. crua i ar conduce mai degrab la ro. catan, ro. gde i ro. clu); cujb (Y-shaped piece of wood used to hold the kettle over the fire); culbec/cubelc (eg. snail; ngr. , germ., norv. klebrig, ol. kleverig, su. klibbig, dan. klbende toate cu sensul eg. "sticky"- "unsuros", regsit i n expresia "melc, melc, codobelc"); curma (eg. to tighten- a rope; to cut, stop; alb kurmue ?); curpn (eg. vine, twining stem; alb. kurpen ?, lt. kerpinis- eg. "lichen, moss", lt. kerp- eg. "bot. lichen", lt. kerpena- eg. " Iceland lichen/moss"); curs (eg. trap, snare; alb. kurth-"curs, la" i lv. slazds - eg. "snare"- "la"; lt. kursuoti- eg. "to make trips, ply between, run"), custur (eg. blade, knife edge, knife); darari ?; da (eg. ram; alb. dash- "ram", arb. dash- it. "montone, ariete", lt. tekis- eg. "1. boar, 2. ram"; psh. do-saral- eg. "a two-year-old ram or he-goat", punj. dhusna- eg. "ram"); drma (to demolish, to knock down; pb. din aceeai familie cu destrma. Slvn. demolirati- eg. "demolish", lt. parama- "sprijin, suinere", psh. trawul- eg. "to disperse, to spread, to scatter", psh. rez-ma-rez kawul- eg. "to bruise, to break in pieces, to tear piecemeal"; psh. aam- eg. "a prop, a bar of wood placed against a door, a support, a pillar"; psh. aam kawul- eg. "to prop, to support", psh. zah-mtaey- eg. "adj. broken"; psh. da-da- eg. "broken to bits, shattered, torn, piecemeal, in fragments, in shreds, splintered, shivered to atoms, etc." + psh. mt- eg. "adj. broken, cracked, smashed, shivered, shattered, torn, broken up, disjoined, detached, sundered, split, splintered, cracked, rent, dispersed, etc.". Al doilea intr i n ro. frmat. Ltg. dareit naruomu/ dareit namu- lv. satraukt- eg. "discompose, disquiet, fllury, fright, perturb,

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

convulse, shake, unsettle; stir, try, throw, to work up". Variant improbabil tr. desteklemek- "sprijin". Se evoc un alb. dermoj- eg. "to hurt someone". Arb. drm/nj- it. "1.frantumare, spezzetare, 2. sminuzzare, sbriciolare", cu sensul de a face frmie); deh; deretica (eg. to tidy up; lt. tvarkyti- eg. "to order, to put in gut order"); desca (eg. to unhook; lv. att- "to unhook"); descurca (eg. to disentangle; it. districare, port. deslindar, cat. desembrollar, lv. izkulties, toate cu sensul de eg. "disentangle". Posibil un calc lingvistic din krok- "crlig" cu varianta-K<u>rK<a>, cu particula des- i n-); dezghina/dezbina (eg. to divide, to separate; posibil calc lingvistic cu sensul de a desface binele, eg. "divide"); dezbra (eg. to break from a bad habit, to rid; lt. berods- eg. "teacher, believe", lt. berti- eg. "strew, scatter, splutter words, break out"); dezgauc ?; doin (eg. lyrical folk song; sg. dain, lt. dain- eg. "song", lt. dainuoti- alb. kndoj- eg. "sing", psh. <saro>d/<saro>dunah <pl.>- eg. "a song, modulation, melody", psh. sandarah- eg. "a song, a melody, modulation"; nep. gunu- eg. "to sing", lv. dziesma/dzejolis- eg. "song", lv. dainaeg. "folk song", eusk. doinu/dou/tonu- eg. "tune, melody" ? Din lv. dziesma deriv bg. , ch. Pse, rus. , ucr. , care au condus la ro. "pies"= "compoziie", toate corespunznd eg. "song"); don; dop (eg. cork, plug; eg. tap- cep de butoi; cf. ssesc dop; din aceeai familie de cuvinte cu stop, zdup- "nchisoare" i tampon, cf. ro. astupu/stupu, cu eg. tap, cat. tap, sp. tapn; punj. dakka- eg. "plug"); droaie (crowd, doggery; aro. grdeljiu, alb. droe/droje, psh. eraey- eg. "a crowd, a throng, a multitude", psh. eraeg. "a heap, a pile", psh. er/ erah <fem.>- eg. "much in quantity or degree, long in duration, abundant, enough, many in number", psh. er wlaey- eg. "abundance, amplitude, plenitude, enough. 2. Length of time, number, prevalence"; alb. turm - eg. "crowd, large number", ltg. draudze- lv. sabiedrba- eg. "society, people, world, life, the community"; nep. dal- eg. "party, group, crowd", nep. dhrai/dhraijaso- eg. "much, many, a lot"; hd., punj. dher- eg. "heap". Lv. drzma, lv. drzmties, gaulish drungus - eg. "crowd". Lv. i pl. tum, arb. lzm/- it. "folla, moltitudine". De reinut i ch., slv. dav- "eg. crowd"); dulu (pl. dolow din sl. loviti- ro. "a vna" ?; psh. daulat wh- eg. "a well wisher, loyal", psh. <a>al/ <a>aln <pl.>- eg. "a large dog in good condition" sau psh. aalah- eg. "a bitch as above"cf. ro. reg. Mold. i Buc. zblu. Ex. inc. ); frm (eg. fragment, crumb; dan. krumme, ol. kruimel, germ. Krmel, cf. ro. crmpei, a se reine particula "rume", dar i lv. kripata- eg. "crumb" cf. ro. crpat/crptur i lt. trupinti- eg. "crumble, crumb; make, drops a lot of crumbs", lt. trupinys- eg. "crumb" cf. ro. rupe. Arb. grm/- it. "briciola, particella", un vechi alb. thrrime ? neatestat; it. frantumare- "a sfrma"; lt. formuot- eg. "unit"- "formaie de lupt". Explicaia pentru frm ar putea fi mai simpl dect pare: ar fi dintr-un cuvnt latin care a dat i it. frantumare, contaminat eventual de un dacism ? Nep. thorai- eg. "a little, few"+ psh. rezma-rez- eg. "bruised, in pieces, in fragments, piecemeal" sau psh. ricah/ricey riceyeg. "in atoms, in fragments, in pieces, in shreds" sau psh. arrah- eg. "an atom, a jot, a particle, a little, a mote" sau psh. zarey zarey- eg. "in pieces, in atoms, in shreds or fragments" ?, nep. tukra- eg. "a small piece, nep. tukrinu- eg. "to be divided to pieces"); gard (eg. fence; aro. gardu, alb. gardh, vsl. grad eg. "fence", arb. grdh- it. "siepe"- "gard viu"; psh. r-dr-eg. "thorny, barbed, troublesome"; psh. r-gr- eg. "a fence, a temporary defence made of thorns". Dar i alb. gardhoi, bg. i sbc. , slvn. ograja, lv. ogs- "ngrdit", lt. ardiena- eg. "enclosure, pen, sheepfold", hitt. gurta- eg. "an enclosed place"); gata (eg. ready, done; alb. gati- eg. "ready, done", arb. gatam(i)-it. "preparare, pronto". Cu sensul eg. "done", deasemenea ol. gedaan, germ. getan, dan. gjort, su. gjord, dar i ch., slv. hotovo, rus., sbc. , ucr. . Dar i lv. izdarts-"done" cf. ro. zadar, zdrnici cu semnificaie opus ? Pentru sensul eg. "ready", lv. gatavs sau lt. gtavas- eg.

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

"ready, finished", germ. "bereit, fertig, willig" explic ro. gata. Similar, exist bg. , pl. gotowy, rus. , ucr. , ol. gereed); glbeaz (fascioliasis; alb. glbaz, klbaz- eg. "phlegm"?, arb. gjlbr- it. "biondo, verde", arb. gjelbr/nj- it. "verdeggiare, biondeggiare"); genune (eg. abyss; ltg. dzanaukls/esmins- lv. asmenis- eg. "blade, gad, edge" ?; nep. kinra- eg. "edge, border", psh. gaang/ gaangnah <pl.>- eg. "an abyss, a deep hollow, a shaft, a gulf, a crater, a cavity "; psh. gah- eg. "throat; shore, border, margin, coast", psh. girdo/ girdo-nah <pl.>- eg. "a whirlpool, a gulf, a vortex, an abyss"; lt. bedugn, lv. bezdibenis, norv. avgrunn, su. avgrund, dan. afgrund, ol. afgrond, germ. Abgrund- "abis"); ghear (eg. claw, talon; aro. sgri/zgrnji, nep. kil- eg. "nail"; psh. mangwel- eg. "claw", psh. mangul- eg. "a paw, a hand, a talon, a grasp, the five fingers", psh. mangl- eg. "the hand including the five fingers, the paw of a beast, the talon of a bird", psh. mangrah- eg. "a scratch, scratching, wounding with the nails"; ishkasmi cangul- eg. "claw, talon", psh. cangul/canglnah <pl.>- eg. "the talon of a bird, the claw of a wild beast, the fingers". De altfel i eg. finger- ro. "deget" pare apropiat de ro. ghear ? Arb. gzhd/- it. "chiodo"- "unghie", lv. i prss. nags, germ. Klaue, eg. claw. Lv. <ie>skrpt- eg. "rasp, scrape, claw". Dar i lv. nagla- "unghie" i lv. dzelonis, lv. dzeloaugs- eg. "thorn". Lt. dagys- eg. "thistle"+lt. erktis- eg. "blackthorn, sloe", conducnd poate la un <da>gys+erktis devenit: "<d>gler". Psh. nkrah- eg. "scratching, scraping with the nails, clawing, tearing with the nails; scratch, a slight wound", psh. nkrey kawul- eg. "to scratch, to claw, to rend or tear with the nails or talons". Cuvnt enigmatic, legat poate de lat. ungularis. Totui, lv. dzeloaugs explic mai bine i ro. ghear, dar i eg. claw); ghes (eg. a poke, a goad; aro. "u adrasi ghes"- ro. "a face boacne" sau aro. ngsiescu-mi- ro. "a impulsiona, a mboldi, a convinge, a determina, a mbia" ?; psh. an-gez/an-gezah- eg. "exciting, rousing, causing; an exciter"; psh. fit-nah angez- eg. "a mischief maker, an insurgent, a fomenter of disturbances, an incendiary"; psh. fit-nah angezeg. "seditiousness, disturbance, sedition, mischievousness" ? Drganu <cf. Ciornescu>indic ca posibil etimon pentru ro. a nghesui cuvntul mg. gyeszl- ro. "mpinge" ? Lv. gausi- eg. "slow, slowly", it. gozzoviglia- "chef, trznaie", su. egga, norv. egge- eg. "goad"- "imbold", lt. kyioti- eg. "poke, thrust", dar i pl. pogania care a dat ro. pogonici semnificnd "biat care mn vitele". Sau lt. gasasgerm. "Lichtschein am Himmel" a putut da ro. ghes cu sensul de "imbold de trezire" ? Pentru ro. nghesuial, ro. a se nghesui- lt. gaiszatis- germ. "Versumnis, Hindernis", lt. gaiszin, gaisznti- germ. "verzgern, hindern, versaumen; tilgen, vernichten".); ghimpe (eg. thorn; alb. gjemb, arb. glmb- it. "spina"; lt. gmb- germ. "ein in die Wand etc. geschlagener eiserner oder hlzerner Nagel zum Aufhngen, eine Knagge", sg. gmb- lt. "pakaba"-"agtoare" ?); ghiob (eg. cheese barrel); ghionoaie (eg. ?; aro. ghioni/ghionu; alb. gjon- "night bird", arb. gjn- it. "assiolo, piccolo gufo", lv. dzenis, lt. genys, alb. qukapiku, sbc. una, prss. genix-geniks toate cu sensul eg. "woodpecker"), ghiont (eg. a nudge, a poke); ghiuj (eg. old, decrepit man; aro. geagiu- ro. "btrn, mo", alb. gjysh- eg. "grandfather", lv. bijuais- eg. "lapsed, former, old"; ld. bij- germ. "grau", it. bigio- "grau"; de reinut lv. vecs- eg. "old", psh. <b->gaey- eg. "an old decrepit man, an imbecile"); gde (eg. executioner, hangman; alb. xhelat, tr. cellat, lv. bende, lt. budelis, norv., dan. bdell toate cu sensul eg. "hangman". Gde pare a fi fost la origine un gotic ori gepidic bdell cu trecerea lui b n g); gdel; gordin (eg. type of grapes); gorun (eg. Sessile oak; bg. acelai sens, ngr. , sbc. hrast, cat. roure, sp. roble, rg. ruver, cu varianta din dial. rg. surmiran rover. Probabil un vechi ro. goru, ca n cat. Psh. arawah- eg. " the oak tree"); grap (eg. harrow; alb. grep, grep- eg. "fishing rod, hook", cat., sp. grada, port. grade, lv. ect, lt. akios, akti, sg. strapakas- eg. "harrow"; lv. skrpt- eg. "scrape"-

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

"scurma"; de reinut gal. reixa i sbc., slvn. drljaa- eg. "harrow"); gresie (eg. sandstone, whetstone; lt. galstuvas, lv. galoda, prss. glst, alb. grih, dan. hvssesten i pl. osekaeg. "whetstone", psh. -siynah- eg. "a whetstone". Lv. smilakmens, lt. smiltainis, pl. piaskowiec- eg. "sandstone". Ro. gresie: originar similar cu pl. <g>loseka+psh. -siynah i cu filiera prss. i lt. ?); groap (eg. hole, pit; alb. grop, arb. grp/- it. "fossa, conca, tomba, orbita", lv. gropt- eg. "groov, rabbet, chase, channel", lv. gropvele- eg. "jointer", lv. robs- eg. "breach, hole, gap, blank", dar de reinut i lv. caurums- "groap" i prss. garo, goro- eg. "ashes pit"; psh. gpah/gopah- eg. "dipping, diving, immersion; a dive, a dip, a plunge, an immersion", psh. gpah waal- eg. "to dive, to dip, to be immersed"; psh. wr gaey- eg. "a hole made in the ground by digging clay for making pots, a clay-pit" poate sub forma gaey wr, unde psh. wrah- eg. "earth, dust, clay"); grui (eg. hilltop, hillock; pl. na wzgrzu, slvn. hribu, ch. vrchol kopce, toate cu sensul de eg. "hilltop", deal. Lv. uzkalni, lt. kauburys, pl. wzgrek, ucr. , alb. bregore, ch., slv. nvrieeg. "hillock"- "movil". Sg. sangrdis=lt. sangrda- eg. "<ice> hummock". Ro. grui pare simil cu termenii sg., slvn., pl.; su. kulle- eg. "hillock", simil cu ro. culme); grumaz (eg. neck; alb. gurmaz sau grmaz- eg. "throat"- "faringe", termenul nu se regsete n arb., bg. , fr. gorge, lt. gerkl, pl. garde, port. garganta, slvn. grlo, ucr. , rg. gula. Lv. prmauga, lv. zemesaurums- eg. "neck", lt. vingrumas- eg. "meanderingness, sinuosity, tortuousness", lt. kamloti- eg. "gorge, guzzle"- "a nghii lacom" ?; psh. gah- eg. "the throat" +psh. aor-mej/war-meg -"the neck, the throat" sau psh. magzaey- eg. "the neck" sau psh. mandow- eg. "the withers of a horse"; nep. ghni/nardan- hd./punj. gardan- eg. "neck" + punj. modhaa- eg. "shoulder". n hd./nep.- kandh- eg. "shoulder". ); grunz (eg. a lump of stiff but brittle substance, such as a block of salt; bulgre, drob de sare, bulgre de glod ngheat. Lt. gruntas, lv. grunts- eg. "ground", lv. gruntsgabals- eg. "land", lt. grumstas- eg. "<ems> clod"); gudura (eg. to fawn; alb. gudulis- eg. "to tickle" respectiv a gdila nu pare cea mai fericit apropiere, exist ns lv. gudrs, lt. gudrus- eg. "clever, sage, smart"- "iste, iret" i lt. gudrumas- "mecherie", care par mai apropiate de cuvntul dat; ltg. gduot- lv. godint- eg. "dignify, celebrate" care mai degrab pare o coinciden improbabil ?. Pahto gazl- "a fawn, a young deer"+ psh. irpal- "flattery, toadyism, sycophancy"; psh. go-raey/ go-ra - eg. " a lamb, an ewe lamb"; punj. gaddon khurki karni- eg. "to fawn"); gu (eg. goiter; alb. gush i bg. acelai sens, arb. gsh/- it. "gola, collo, gozzo, struma", dar i sbr. guavost, lt. gys, it. gozzo, slvn. gola, lv. guza- eg. "craw, jawl, maw, gizzard, crop"), hojma (eg. repeatedly, continuously; ucr. homa ?, psh. hamesah or hames- eg. "always, ever, at all times, continually" ?), iazm (eg. ghost; lt. dvasia+mkla- eg. "spirit", lv. briesmonis- eg. "monster, ogre", lv. gaismaeg. "glim, shine, light" ?; psh. <mard-> zm-e- eg. "a goblin, a demon" unde psh. mardeg. "a male, a man, a brave man"; psh. waj-mah- eg. "1. breath, respiration; steam, vapor, exhalation. 2. a light air or breeze, a cat's paw". Psh. z-ms- eg. "1.trial, proof, essay, examination, experiment. 2. temptation" mai degrab apropiat de ro. dezm); iele (eg. white-clad beautiful girls, bewitching men with their song and dance; sbc. vilenymphs, prss. Naselis- eg. "spirit, ghost", lv. ieleja- eg. "bottom-land, dean, lowland, valley, bottom", lt. siela- eg. "soul, heart", lt. vl- eg. "soul", sg. aniuols- lt. "angelas""nger", psh. au-liy- eg. "the saints, the apostles, the holy"); ncurca (eg. to entangle, to mix up; psh. sarah gah- eg. "a hard knot, one not easily opened" unde psh. gedal- eg. "to become knotted, entangled, entwined, ravelled, matted, to form knots or joints <as plants>". Probabil ro. "ncurcat" cf. psh. sarah gah cu sensul de "nod dificil de desfcut" din care a derivat verbul ?); mbina/nghina (eg. to assemble, to put together; alb. mblidhen- eg. "assemble"); ngurzi (eg. to wrinkle the edge of a fabric or the

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

sole of a shoe with a thread); nseila/ nsila (eg. to stitch, sew temporarily; sbc. iti, lt. siti "to sew" dintr-un Balt. *sju-/*sj- , prss. tun- eg. "to sew to needle"); ntrema (eg. to recover after illness or fatigue); jil/jiel (eg. tall-backed <arm>chair"; lv. ieildzis- eg. "long-drawn, far-gone, lengthy, lingering, long-standing, prolonged, of long standing"- "a zbovi, a trgna, a o lungi" ? Ex. inc.; psh. anr- eg. "a chair"); leagn (eg. cradle, swing; aro. leagnu; lat. *liginare from ligare- eg. "to tie/bind"; sg. lingnis- lt. "lopis""leagn". Verbul lt. lingau, lingoti- germ. "sich hin und her, auf und ab, bewegen, schaukeln"- "a legna" ? Psh. linda- eg. "a bow used by stone- cutters and carpenters, the bow of a fiddle; a piece of wood bent over the head of a cradle and covered with a cloth as a canopy"+ psh. gah-wrah- eg. "a swing, a cradle", nep. jhlug- eg. "swing; swinging cradle"; punj. jhula- eg. "swing"+ punj. panghura- eg. "cradle"); lepda (eg. to drop; to take off clothes; abortion; sensul de "a arunca, a scoate, a se debarasa": lat. lapdre/ dilapdre- eg. "to throw stones", sbc. pada, opada- eg. "to drop, to fall"; nep. luga phukalnu/phukaunu- eg. "take off clothes", nep. lu<g /ka>pad- eg. "cloth"; hd. labdeg. "cloak"- "mantie, nveli", psh. pre-dal- eg."to discontinue, to relinquish, to cease, to leave off, to drop, to desist"; sensul "a avorta" pentru ro. lepda psh. paid- eg. "born, created, produced, exhibited, discovered, invented"); lespede (eg. stone slab); leina (eg. to faint; aro. lishinu<-mi>; arb. ligsht- it. "debolezza", lt. glenus- germ. "weich, zart, schwchlich, widerstandslos"- plpnd; lv. lzens- eg. "flat, low-pitched, easy", lv. lzenums- eg. "flatness", psh. liwl/ lewl- eg. "peckish, inclined to eat, hungry, craving, desirous, inclined, eager, hankering after" + psh. sm- eg. "faint for want of food, hungry"); mal (eg. shore; cf. alb., arb. ml- eg. "mountain"; deasemenea un lt. dumblas"mal", care putea s dea la fel de bine i dmb i mal, posibil dintr-un dumb<a>las; lv. mala- eg. "border, edge, flank, margin, side, end", lv. krastmala- eg. "quay, bund, embankment"); maldac (eg. a small load); mazre (eg. peas, Pisum sativum; aro. madzre, eg. pea<s>- Pisum sativum, punj./ud. matar/hd. maar- eg. "pea", nep. khadyanna- eg. "food grains", psh. mo- eg. "a kind of lentil vetch, also the grain <Phaseolus max, or radiatus>", psh. magzaey- eg. "the brain, the marrow, a kernel"; alb. modh, modhull, dar i bizele cf. tc. "bezelye", arb. mdhull- it. "carezza, moina"- "alint", lt. irnis/irniai, lv. ziri. Pare a fi un originar <ma>zirni. Prss. kekeras/nep. kerau/psh. kk - eg. "pea", din prss.- gotic ? poate deriva ro. i hu. cucuruz- "porumb", cf. i lv. kukurza- eg. "maize, corn". Sbc. graak, ch. hrek, bg. , rus. i ucr. , slv. hrok, slvn. grah, hu. horo, dar i port. grochu i germ. Erbsen sunt conforme toate formei din prss. kekeras); mce (eg. sweetbrier- Rosa eglanteria; lv. meroze/meroztes, lt. erktuogi"mce"; arb. marsht/- it. "fragola"); mdri (eg. to pamper, to spoil a child; lt. madaraseg. "bungled work, botched/scamped work" ?; punj. mar dhar- eg. "spoil" ?); mgur/mgul (eg. hill, knoll; aro. mgur; alb. magul- eg. "hill", din pl. gra, ucr. , hu. hora, slvn. gorsko, ch., slv. horsk, prss. grabis- eg. "hill"; lt. kauburys- "munte", pb. dintr-un originar m<n>kaburys, care a dat grabis+muncel +munte. Din mgur deriv mogyla/movila. Din lv. kalns, lt. kaln- "munte" deriv ro. culme, colnic, dar i eg. "knoll". Psh. gar- eg. "a mountain, a hill, a crag, a mount"); mlai (eg. millet or corn flour; prss. malns- eg. "mill", prss. maltun-eg. "to mill", hu. moloteti, moloti- "a mcina", lt. miltai, lv. malt- eg. "flour, meal", su. mjl- eg. "flour", psh. nmaa- eg. "a mouthful, bread"); mmlig (eg. cornmeal mush; aro. mumulicu/mumuligu; alb. mmelig, sbc. mamaljuga, bg., ch. mamaliga; lv. mazliet maizes- eg. "some bread", eventual n pronunie inversat lv. ma<izes> ma<z>liet ? sau lv. mja- eg. "home, house, place" + lv. mkslgs- eg. "manmade, artificial, factitious, made-up, imitative, plastic, false", de genul "a ncropi de mncare n cas"; hd. maml- eg. "ordinary" ? Lv. miesa/gaa- eg. "meat", zebaki gla-

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

mla- eg. "food", zebaki/ishkasmi gla- eg. "bread", psh. nmaa- eg. "a mouthful, bread"; psh. mn-molah- eg. "a kind of vegetable" ?); mrcat; mtur (eg. broom; aro. metur<u,>- ro. "mtur, barb" ?; sbc. metla, slvn. metle- "mtur"; arb. mtull- it. "fascio, mazzo"-"snop, balot, buchet"; lt. riti mazgu inversat: mazgu riti- eg. "tie in a knot"- un vechi ro. maturite?, dar i ro. reg. mtrcal- "snop, fascicul, mnunchi" - "snop pentru mturat calea, curtea", rg. matg <da> flur(a)s- eg. "bunch of flowers, bouquet" "mnunchi de flori"); Mehadia; melc (eg. snail; aro. zmelciu, alb., arb. krmll- it. "chiocciola, lumaca", arb. kakamll/kaamll,-i- it. "lumaca"- limax, melc; slv. slimkov pare cel mai apropiat, dar nu poate fi totui la baza ro. melc. Pl. zamula- eg. "slime"- "mzg, glod" pare a explica formarea cuvntului ro. melc, posibil dintr-un vechi IE kaa(l)ml(a). n ro. prefixul kaa<l>- a disprut contrar sensului conservativ al romnei datorit apropierii depreciative cu ro. caca. Deasemenea, lt. kirml- eg. "worm", lt. kirmlikaseg. "worm-like, wormy" ? aduc fonetic cu ro. melc); mieru (eg. bluish; sg. mielns-lt. "mlynas"- germ. "blau, dunkelblau, bleifarbig"); mire (eg. bridegroom; aro. mireas- ro. "mireas", aro. mritu- ro. "brbat"; alb. mir- eg. "good", lt. mielas- eg. "lovely, nice, sweet, dear", psh. meah/menah or manah <pl.>- eg. "husband, master, lord" ?); mistre (eg. wild boar; lv. mea kuilis- eg. "wild boar", lv. meacka- eg. "peccary, wild boar"; slvn. merjasec- "boar"; sg. mcos- lt. pariukas- eg. "<sucking-> pig"; hd. medheg. "ram". Probabil un compus desemnnd porcul slbatic, innd cont c eg. treacle semnifica n vechime "wild animal". Sau psh. math- eg. "a wild boar"+psh. soar/suarah- eg. "a pig, a wild pig, a hog, a boar"); mica (eg. to move, to stir; lv. maisana, lv. cietums- "to stir", eventual o combinaie a celor dou ?; lt. meka- eg. "bear", cf. expresiei "mut ursul"?; punj. maskana- eg. "to stir", psh. masaat/ masaatnah- eg. "trouble, labour, pains, toil, assiduity", psh. masaat kawul- eg. "to labour, to toil, to take pains, to be assiduous" ? Pentru ro. "a fi micat" cu sensul de "a fi sensibilizat": psh. ma-s- eg. "loveliness, the state of being loved, love"); mnz (aro. mndzu; eg. foal, colt; alb., arb. mz, lv. zelns, lt. asiliukas, prss. maldin/maldian- eg. "foal", il. mandos- eg. "small horse", psh. mandaraey- eg. "small, little, short in stature; a little man" ?; se crede c rd. IE *mend(i)- ar semnifica eg. "horse" pe baza unei interpretri a inscripiei de pe inelul de la Duvanli a termenului Meznai- eg. "divine horseman". Totui, o rdcin IE de tipul *mald(z)- "tnr, mic, neexperimentat": prss. mlds, lv. mazs, lt. maas, ro. mezin- "mic", lv. mazdls- "nepot". Rdcina IE pentru cal *ekwo- pare a fi dat un rkablonys ?, cf. lt. arklys, sbc., slvn. konj, ch. k, slv. k, pl. ko, ucr. , dar i it. cavallo, sp. caballo, cat. cavall, port. cavalo, alb. kali., arb. kl. Lv. zirgs, prss. sirgis/zirgis- eg. "stallion"- "armsar". Psh. manganaey- "a term applied to the young of sheep or goats born early in the season", psh. maj / majnah <pl.>- eg. "a ram", iar psh. mandow- eg. "the withers of a horse". Greaca pontic mintik- eg. "young/agressive"); morman (eg. pile, heap; psh. malaw/ malaw-nah - eg. "a sort of sack or bag, in which articles are packed previous to being loaded on camels, etc.". Ex. inc.); mosoc (eg. large sheperd dog); mo (eg. oldman, n realitate este vorba despre multiple sensuri; a). pentru mo cu sensul de "n vrst": aro. moshu- ro. "mo", alb. mosh-eg. "age", psh. mshr/ mashar - eg. "elder, leader; a patriarch", psh. masd- eg. "ugly, sour looking, ill-tempered, cross looking" ?; lv. moums- eg. "starch"- "scrobeal, formalism, rigiditate" poate n ro. veche din gd. cu sens depreciativ: "eapn, rigid, anchilozat" ? Ciornescu: un lat. anossus- ro. "ncrcat de ani". b). pentru derivatele lui mo cu sensul de "drept ereditar, motenire": ossetian moj/mojnae- eg. "husband"; slv., ch. star mu- eg. "old man" corespunde ro. strmo ?; lv. muia- eg. "manor, estate", lv. muinieks- eg. "nobleman, noble, squire, gentleman" cf. ro. moneag; Lt. ms/msikis-

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

"our, own" ? Deasemenea, slv., ch. mu, hu. muj, bg. , slvn. moki, sbc. mukarac- eg. "man" i pl. m, slvn. mo- eg. "husband, man", dar i istr. mkile-"brbatul"-K.65 care circul alturi de istr. om; lt. moa- eg. "sister-in-law: husband's sister"; lv. moi- eg. "goblins, evil spirit, hobgoblins"; lt. zmogus- eg. "person" ? c). pentru mo cu sensul de "experimentat, iste": ltg. mosnys/vuiklys-lv. izveicgs- eg. "skilful, dexterous, skilled, clever, crafty". Dar i lt. mokslus- eg. "gifted for, clever at, learning", lt. mokslingumas- eg. "learning, erudition" ultimul apropiat fonetic de ro. moneg, poate suprapunere zmogus/mokslingumas ? Un sens vechi de experimentat, nelept, sftuitor, sftos nu este exclus, probat de poreclele date indiferent de vrst, suprapus cu sensul lt. ms- eg. "our", care, grefat pe faptul c vrsta determin experiena de via a condus la sensul eg. de "age, oldman".); mo (eg. tuft, crest); mugure (eg. bud; alb mugull- eg. "bud"; psh. guleg. "a rose, a flower in general"; lv. mugura- eg. "back, ridge, crest, spine, peak, comb" corespunde psh. gunzah- eg. "a comb", lv. mugurkauls- eg. "thorn, prick, prickle, barb, spine", lv. atmuguriski- eg. "aback, backward"- "n/pe spate"; lt. nugarkaulis- eg. "backbone, spinal column"; lt. mezg, mgsti- germ. "Augen, Knospen bekommen von Bumen", lt. mzgas- germ. "Knoten, Knospe". Psh. guncah- eg. "a bud, a sprout, a shoot, a rosebud; a nosegay"; punj. kumbal kumali- eg. "bud", psh. ga-da- eg. "the leather whisp of a spindle, the whirl of a spindle", psh. nr- eg. "a sprout, a shoot"+psh. gwaedal- eg. "to open, to spread, to grow, to expand, to germinate, to blow (as a flower), to swell, to outgrow, to sprout", psh. guedal- eg. "to open, to spread, to unclose <as a flower>", psh. alaey- eg. "a sprout, a shoot, a blade of grass, etc., a straw, anything proverbially worthless, rubbish, refuse, sweepings"); munun (eg. hilltop); murg (eg. dark-brown animal, horse; aro. murgu- ro. "brun, cenuiu, gri", arb. mrg()- it. "uomo/donna sventurato, derelitto, infelice". Totui, sensul este de cal negru-rocat, castaniu nchis, cenuiu, deasemenea de crepuscul, apus, auror la concuren cu amurg. n prss. migl, germ. Dmmerung, ch. za soumraku, slv. za smraku- eg. "twilight""amurg", rezultnd i ro. duma/toma- "fumuriu, ntunecat" cf. lt. tamsa- eg. "dark" i lv. dumaka- eg. "brume, haz, mist, fog, gauze, vapour, smoke", dar i <a>murg. Termenul ro. murg contopete cele dou sensuri: cel de animal de culoare nchis i sensul libertii n infidelitate a tinereii. n lv. melnais- eg. "dark horse", gaulish marka- "a horse", gael. marcaich- eg. "ride", gael. marcach- eg. "rider, horseman", gael. muing- eg. "horse's mane"- "coama calului"; psh. mar-gah- eg. "a description of grass given to horses", psh. murgecaey- eg. "a man or boy who drives away or frightens the birds from a corn field" cf. nume propriu ro. Murgoci, pb. corelat cu punj. murgabi- eg. "wild duck"; bal. mrkbeg. "horse, steed", skt. mgah- eg. "deer", nep. mirg- eg. "deer". Informativ psh. smurg/s-murgn <pl.>- eg. "a fabulous bird, a griffin", psh. mr-ganj- eg. "the king of the vultures".); muat, istr. mut (eg. handsome; aro. mshatu/mush<e>atu- ro. "frumos", slv., ch. mu, bg. , pl. m, slvn. mo+lt. stuomeningas- eg. "handsome"= om mndru?; wfr. moai- eg. "handsome, beautiful, fine, lovely"; pentru ro. frumos i aro. muat: zebaki feri- eg. handsome, beautiful" <cf. fr. fier- ro. "mndru" > + psh. malk- eg. "delicate, handsome" + hd. shakl- eg. "handsome"; skt. sundara- eg. "beautiful" ?); nprc (eg. limbless, lizard; aro. nprtic- ro. "nprc, reptil, arpe"; alb. neprk, nprk eg. "viper", arb. nprk- it. "vipera, aspide"; lt. nematomas prieas- eg. "snake, invisible or hostile enemy", pb. gen "ne-prieas"; psh. mr-bacaey/mr-bacoaey- eg. "a young snake" ?; psh. aroaey- eg. "a biter <as a dog, horse, snake>" ?; psh. mrpec/ mr-pecah- eg. "crooked, winding, snaky, serpentine, twisting and turning"; psh. mr-pecah lr- eg. "a crooked or winding path"), nsrmb (eg. prank, mischief); niel (eg. a little; lv. neliels- eg. "target, little, small, vague, thin", lt. niekalas- eg. "spoilage,

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

wate, rejects"; punj. nikka- eg. "little", psh. sao- eg. "somewhat, a few, some, something, more or less, a certain quantity or degree indeterminate, a part greater or less; in some degree or quantity, slightly, not much" ?); noian (eg. multitude, heap; pentru sensul de mulime: psh. nai/nai-n <pl.>- eg. "a reed, a tube, a pipe, a flute, a cane"stufri ? Ex. inc.); ortoman (eg. rich of a sheperd, handsome of an outlaw, quick of a horse); pstaie (eg. pod, capsule, hull; aro. pstalji- ro. "pstaie, teac"; alb. pista, bishtaj- eg. "beans", lv. pksts- eg. "hull, pod, legume, follicle", psh. palaey- eg. "a pod, the seed vessel of beans, peas, and such like plants"); pstra (eg. to keep; arb. pshtrm- it. "copertura, coperta; protezione, riparo", arb. pshtrnj- it. "coprire; proteggere, difendere; celare, occultare, nascondere" i arb. pshtram- it. "coperto; protetto; celato", dar i lt. patraukti- eg. "pull, draw, tug"- pstra, atrage, ine, trage; lt. paturti- eg. "hold for a while, keep for sometime"; lv. paturt- eg. "to keep, to retain, to maintain", lv. uzturs- eg. "to keep"; psh. pswn- eg. "watch, guard, guarding, the duty of a guard, protection, keeping " + psh. rz- eg. "trusty, faithful; a keeper of a secret, an abettor" ?; psh. pu rz- eg. "a great secret" ? Punj. pas rakkhna- eg. "to keep", psh. <?>stal- eg. "to keep, to preserve, to protect, to defend, to guard, to shelter, to shield"); pnz (eg. cloth, linen, fabric; aro. pndz, prss. plsti- eg. "bed-sheet, linen-sheet"); pru (eg. brook, creek; alb. prrua- eg. "creek, stream", arb. prra/prri- it. "ruscello, torrente", sp. arroyo- "pru"; psh. pori yastal - eg. "to ferry, to carry or transport over a river, brook", psh. ar- eg. "a rivulet, a brook, a linn, a sluice, a gush or rush of water".); prunc (eg. small child; lat. *puerunculus; psh. kaey- eg. "little, small, less, diminutive; a term of endearment for a child, as "little one" or "wee thing," in English", psh. ao-ekaey- eg. "small, little" de und i ro. orci- plns de copil, psh. bacngaaey- eg. "a very little child, or the young of an animal" Ex. inc.), pururea (eg. always, ever, aye; lat. purus- eg. "pure"; psh. <tah abada> pori- eg. "for ever and ever, to all eternity" sau psh. <tar azala> pori or por- eg. "eternally, to all eternity, everlastingly" ?); ra (eg. duck; alb. ros, arb. rs- it. "anatra", slvn. raca, irish gaelic lacha- eg. "duck", posibil dintr-un vechi IE <ra>cacica; lv. izvairans- eg. "evasion, avoidance, dodge, duck"); ravac (eg. any of several kinds of wine; tc. ravak); rbda (eg. to bide, bear, endure; ltg. labdareit- lv. atbalstt- eg. "assist, support, sustain, prop, protect, defend, to help up", ltg. labdareituojs- lv. atbalsttjs- eg. "contributor, sponsor", ltg. labdareituojs- lv. labdaris- eg. "well-doer, benefactor"; psh. rabt- eg. "relation", psh. abar gr- eg. eg. "aid, protection, care" ?; arb. durm- it. "pazienza, sopportazione, sofferenza", lt. iaurus- insuportabil, rg. reg. vallader rabgiaseg. "trouble, bother, annoyance, iritation, bad time"); reazem (eg. support, backing, prop; psh. mam-rez/ mam-reznah - eg. "a spur"-ro. "contrafort, pinten", poate sub forma reznah- mam ?, lt. atrama/atspara, lt. paremti- eg. "prop", prss. etspara- eg. "prop, support", posibil un paremti+ atspara ?); ridica (eg. to rase, lift; psh. ri-yawdal- eg. "to raise, to elevate, to lift, to uplift, to upraise"+ psh. ejawul- eg. "to elevate, to raise, to lift, to upraise, to set up, to erect, to lift, to exalt, to make climb, to make ascend"); rmf ?; rnz (eg. gizzard; any of several stomach diseases; hu. rendza- "rnz", lt. skrandiseg. "stomach", lt. arna- eg. "gut, intestine"); s<e>arbd (eg. insipid; lat. exalbidus- eg. "white", lt. iblykti- eg. "pale"; psh. salah- eg. "nature, taste, good disposition, genius, method, knack, address, dexterity, knowledge" + psh. bad mazah- eg. "tasteless, vapid, insipid"?); Sarmisegetuza (ltg. samegeits/samegeita /gryuts- lv. sarets- eg. "complicate <d>, inextricable, complex, thorny, tricki, knotty, sophisticated", lv. sarejums- ltg. gryutums - eg. "nodi, nodus, involvement, imbroglio, plexus, knot"; sg. sarmata- eg. "shame", sg. sarmatytis- eg. "be ashamed", lt. grtis- eg. "admire smth, smb", lt. girtis- eg. "boast of, swagger about, brag of/about"; ); scpra (eg. to start a fire,

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

to strike a flintstone; aro. scapiru, lt. kibirkiuoti- eg. "sparkle, scintillate", lt. kibirktleg. "little spark", lt. kibirktis- eg. "spark" ? Psh. basar-kaey- eg. "a spark of fire"+ psh. r- eg. "bright, luminous, shining, vivid, lustrous, radiant, lambent, sunny, clear, blazing", poate sub forma cf. psh. sar-kaey-ba sau cf. lt. tis-kibirk, punj. puchkarna- eg. "to strike"); (eg. ashes; aro. scrumu, alb. shkrum, arb. shkrumb- eg. "ashes", arb. shkrmbit. "cenere; strato arido o bruciaticcio del terreno; zona arida, secca", lt. lakas- "scrum, tciune", lt. pelenai- germ. "Asche"- "cenu"; lt. szarmas- germ. "Aschenlauge"- "leie de scrum" ?); scula (eg. to get up, to wake; arb. shkl- it. "estrarre, cavare, estirpare, strappare, tirare", lt. sukelti- eg. "raise, cause, provoke, give rise", lv. iestudjums- eg. "get-up"; punj. uskauna/ akkh kholna- eg. "to wake"); scurma (eg. to scrape or dig; lv. skramba- eg. "graze, scratch, scar, scrape, brush"); smbure (eg. pit, fruit kernel; aro. sumburu/sumburi/sumbru- ro. "smbure" ?, arb. smbull- it. "gemma, goccia", rromani sumburo- eg. "seed" ?, psh. sunbul- eg. "the hyacinth, the spikenard; a flower <of an odoriferous plant)>"; sg. kondouls- lt. "branduolys"- "nucleu", lt. skumb, skpti- germ. "sich beeilen"- "a fi grbit", lt. skujokas- germ. "Kernbeisser", lv. sklia- eg. "nutlet, kernel"+ lv. btba- eg. "essence, core, kernel- figurative sense, heart", sg. sambris- lt. telkinys- eg. "accumulation, cluster, water reservoir"; psh. tum- eg. "seed, sperm"+ psh. bar- eg. "seed"; psh. samar- eg. "1.fruit. 2. Produce, advantage, profit. 3. Offspring"+psh. br- eg. "a load, a burden, fruit, time, once" sau psh. po- eg. "half grown, or near puberty (as a boy or girl), nearly ripe (as fruit), half dressed or cooked (as meat) "; psh. ustuwn- eg. "a bone, a stone or kernel in fruit"); smvea ?; spnz (eg. hellebore); stpn (eg. master, owner; hitt. eha/iha - eg. "an owner" pentru st* + pane- "domn", vsl. stopan- "stpn"; lt. pnas- "domn", vlt. weschpatni/vszpatni- germ. "Herrin, Hausherrin", lt. viepats- eg. "1. lord, ruler, sovereign, 2. God, the Lord", lt. viepatauti- eg. "1. rule over, have domination over, sway, 2. prevail, predominate, reign, 3. reign", psh. satan or tatan or tatan or catan or catan / satann or tatann or tatann or catann or catann <pl.>- eg. "a master, a lord, a possessor, a proprietor, an owner" ); strnut (eg. sneeze; lat. sternutare- eg. "to sneeze", it. starnuto, sp. estornudar, cat. esternudar; lt. skiaudu, skiaudti i lt. czudu, czudti- germ. "niesen"); stejar (eg. oak; lv. stumbrs, sbc. steer- "trunchi", lv. ozolu, lt. auolas- "stejar". Deasemenea lt. stgaras, stegers- germ. "drrer Pflanzenstengel, Halm, Reis, Strunk, Stengel"); steregie (eg. icicle-shaped soot concretion in chimneys); sterp (eg. sterile, infertile; alb. shterp, arb. shtrp- it. "sterile, infecondo", ld. Buchensteinisch: sterpa- germ. "unfruchtbare Kuh"; ld. Fassanisch: sterpesc- germ. "junges, noch unfruchtbares Vieh" din lat. extirpare ?; istr. strpla- "oaie stearp"-K.200; lt. strptis- germ. "auf etwas bestehen" sens inversat ?); stn (aro. sta'ni, tu'ti; eg. sheepfold; hu. sta- "stn", lt. stnasgerm. "Stand, Zustand"- eg. "class, leased, stande, standing, state", dar i lt. stone- germ. "ein gebruckter Pferdestand im Stalle"- eg. "stable, stall"- "grajd, staul"; pare a fi atestat i n greac i albanez ? Psh. stnah- eg. "a threshold, the inside of a house; family, progeny <particularly of saints or holy persons>"?); strghiat (eg. storm; alb. shtrngat- acelai sens; lv. stiprs vj- eg. "high wind, spanking wind" unde stiprs- "tare"; lv. spriegums- eg. "tensity", lv. sprgt- eg. "burst, detonate, explode", lv. spridzeklis- eg. "explosive", lv. sprgstos- eg. "bursting, detonating, explosive, blasting, fiery"); strepede (eg. larva living in foodstuff- Piophila casei, alb. shtrep?); strugure (eg. grape, alb. shtrydhje, ltg. satraikeit- lv. saaidt eg. "smash", ch. rozdrtit- "zdrobi", arb. shtrdh- it. "spremere, strizzare", arb. shtrdhem/ shtrdhesha- it. "spremersi, ponzare, sforzarsi", lt. isztrypi, isztrpti- germ. "austrampeln" pentru <str> + lv. augi- eg. "fruit" pentru <ugure>, alb. rrush, bg. , ch. groe, slvn. grozdni, lv. vnogas, lt. vynuoges, pl. winogron-

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

"strugure", deci sensul ar putea fi de "crushed grapes". Alte variante: lt. rgstu, rgtigerm. "sauer werden, ghren", lt. rksztas- germ. "sauer"- "acru"; slv. struky, slvn. strokieg. "pods"- "pstaie", dar i slv. grozd- eg. "cluster"- "ciorchine". Kurdish tir +nep. agura/dari angur/zazaki engur/ psh. an-gr- eg. "grape", nep. raksi- eg. "wine" ?+ nep. agura= "struguri de vin" ?, psh. krit- eg. "a place where the juice is expressed from the grapes in making wine, and made of brick and lime in the shape of a cauldron, a winepress" + psh. kwar- eg. "a grape, a wild grape", psh. an-gr- eg. "a grape, grapes"); strung (eg. place for milking sheep, narrow passage, canyon; lt. strungas- germ. "gestutzt, mit gekapptem Schwanze"- eg. "truncated, with the tail end capped, topped"? Punj. saura+ tang- eg. "narrow"); sugruma (eg. to strangle, to burke; lt. smugiu, smugti "wrgen, erwrgen"- "a rgi, a gtui, a trangula"; hd. ss <dam ghutn ?> rukn- eg. "suffocate"); sugua (eg. to strangle, to burke; lt. smugiu, smugti "wrgen, erwrgen""a rgi, a gtui "); ale (eg. hips; psh. tasaey- eg. "the side, the space between the lower ribs and the hips; the hypochondria"); ir (eg. spine; lt. stuburas- eg. "spine, backbone"; psh. nah or nah- eg. "the bone which connects the thigh bone to the spine-the os ilium"); oprl (aro. ciupilaru/ciupularu; eg. lizard; lt. sprukti+eil- eg. "to turn tail"+"tail" ?; lt. sprukti- eg. "make off, run away, take", lv. ska- eg. "serpent"?; punj. <khoar> kirli- eg. "lizard"; psh. s-peaey-eg. "a snail" ? Psh. s war kawul- eg. "to turn tail" + psh. laka- eg. "the tail of an animal or bird", psh. laka' orawul or orawul- eg. "to wag the tail, as a dog". Similar fonetic, dar diferit semantic: psh. perak (W.) or perak (E.)- eg. "a bat" sau psh. saperh- eg. "a greyish brown colour, earthcoloured"); oric (eg. pig skin; lt. sras- germ. "salzig"-"srat", lv. slts- eg. "salty", lt. srymas- eg. "1. brine, 2. pickle, souse" ? Punj. soor/nep. sungur/hd. suwar- eg. "pig"? Ex. inc.); ut (eg. hornless; alb. shyt- acelai sens); tare (eg. hard; megl. tari; istr. tore; lat. tlis; ch., slv. tvrd, slvn. trd, pl. twardy. ntre tare i greu s-a creat o confuzie inclusiv ntre limbile slave moderne. De notat totui lv. grts- eg. "hard", care sugereaz ro. greu i grav, derivate dintr-un lat. gravis/grevis ? Ro. tare pare autohton comun cu twardy, tvrd i trd? Oricum, ro. tare i greu pot fi dacisme romanizate. Psh. tarj/ tarjah <fem.> - eg. "violent <as wind>, strong or powerful <as a man>" ?); traist (eg. bag; cf. alb. trast, trajst, arb. trst- it. "sacca, tascapane, borsa", lt. traikyti- eg. "to crush", a zdrobi, a strivi, lt. taeg. "bag"); tulei (eg. young whiskers); ap (eg. he-goat; alb. cjap- eg. "billy-goat", arb. c<u>j/p<i>- it. "capro, becco"; sg. cb- lt. "oka"- "capr, ap"; lt. iaupti lpas- eg. "compress ones lips, press ones lips togheter", lt. epsti- eg. "champ, smack ones lips", psh. akah- eg." a mountain goat, or species of the ibex" ; Tache Papahagi l coreleaz cu lat. capr- GS.92: la aromni turmele de oi sunt conduse de api dresai care rspund la strigtele sau uierturile speciale ale pstorului, dar termenul aro. este ce- fr. "bouc sonnailler"-"apul conductor al turmei"-P.733 conform psh. gc- eg. "a fighting ram" sau psh. garsanaey- eg. "a mountain goat, sheep, or deer in general" ?); arc (eg. pen, fold; prss. zrdis- eg. "pen, enclosure"; lt. aptvaras- eg. "fence, enclosure, pen, sheppfold", lt. ardiena- eg. "enclosure, pen, sheepfold"; psh. sar- eg. "a stab, a puncture, a prick, a wound produced by a spear, an arrow, or the like; a wheel <particularly a potter's, or of a water-mill or well>"; psh. sarawul- eg. "to turn, to make revolve, to wheel round; to sharpen"; psh. sawa- eg. "a sort of covering for the loins of horses and asses", punj. taih karna- eg. "to fold"); arin (eg. country; lt. tvyn, sg. tievn, ltg. tvaine, lv. tvija, tvzeme-"native land, fatherland, motherland", lt. terti- eg. "soil, make dirty"; totui, ro. arin pare n legtur i cu sbc. trava, ch., slv. trva, bg. , ucr. , lv. zle, lt. ol, prss. zls/soalis- eg. "grass" i lt. terlenti- eg. "soil" printr-un proces de latinizare a dacismului prin sintez cu lat. Terra; punj. dharti- eg. "country, world"); ru (eg. pole,

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

pale, picket; hitt. taru- eg. "tree", lt. utvara- "barrier, obstruction, fence, fencing, enclosure, railing", lt. brzgulis- eg. "wooden peg": din lt. terti+lt. brzgulis- eg. "wooden peg into the soil"; psh. salaey- eg. "a pillar of mud or stones as a mark for land"); mburu/umburu (ro. mic proeminen rotund la un obiect;/eg. a small, usually round, protrusion on a surface, nub;/arb. shmbull<i>- it. "esempio"; psh. cambar/cambarnah <pl.>- eg. "a sphere, an orb, a circle, a disc, a wheel, a globe", psh. zunbuk/zunbukn <pl.>- eg. "a tassel, a knot, a rosette, a flower"; sg. evelis/ ebelys-lt. kankoris- eg. bot. "pine cone, nub"? Psh. zagozah- eg. "the cone of the pine tree, the tree itself" ?); undr ?; urc (tradiional romanian game; ld. Grdnisch: ciorca- germ. "Dummkopf"?; psh. akah argund- eg. "the knuckle-bone of the mountain-sheep, with which a kind of game is played"); a se uita (eg. look; lv. uzskats- eg. "viewpoint, view, outlook, sight"; psh. ktah- eg. "seeing, beholding, viewing, contemplating, surveying; look, glimpse, glance, gaze, stare, regard"; psh. ga katal- eg. "to stare at, to eye, to gaze at, to look intently, to ogle, to gloat over", punj. udikna- eg. "to look out for"); undrea/andrea (eg. sewing needle; lt. adat- germ. "Nhnadel", lt. ada, adti- germ. "nhen, steppen", lt. adatin- eg. "needle-case", lv. adata- eg. "needle"); urca (eg. climb; arb. rdh- it. "edera"- plant crtoare ?; lv. uzrpans- eg. "climb"- figurat i lv. uzkpana- eg. "ascent, climb, assault", nep. uklanu- eg. "to climb up, to ascend", nep. ucalnu- eg. "to lift up"; hd. par chachn- eg. "climb"; punj. uppar chrhna- eg. "to climb" dar i ab. irkab- fr. "monter" ? Psh. sworawul- eg. "to mount, to place on horseback, to place one's-self on horseback, to climb"+ psh. atal- eg. "to ascend, rise, mount, arise, uprise, get up, climb, scale, surmount, aspire, shoot up"); urcior (eg. eyesore; psh. lecaney stargey- eg. "sore or rheumy eyes"; psh. lecan stargaey- eg. "having a disease of the eyes, disordered eyes", unde psh. stargah- eg. "1. the eye, the organ of sight; 2. a planet" sau psh. lcan- eg. "afflicted with sore eyes", psh. lc- eg. "a disease of the eyes, ophthalmia"); urd (eg. cottage cheese i kwark; hu. urda, lt. Vark, pl. twarg, ch., slv. tvaroh, su. frskost, poate dintr-un <v>ursg ?. Sau posibil din tc. hurde- "drojdie, rest", printr-o filier pecenego-cuman ? psh./dari <k>urut- eg. "coagulated milk boiled, a kind of cheese" sau psh. wur-gah- eg. "the first milk given by a cow, goat, etc., after calving, biestings"); urdina; urdoare (eg. Gelatinous ocular secretion); vatr (eg. hearth, home, fireplace; aro. vatra; cf. alb. vatre, hu. vatra- eg. "fireplace", lv. pavards- eg. "kitchenrange, furnace, hearth, fireplace, range", arb. vtr- it. "foccolare", sbc. vatra- eg. "fire"; hu. vaterca- eg. "foc mic"; eg. hearth ? fr. l' tre ?; lt. vieta- eg. "place, spot, site"+lt. aizdras- sg. ugniakuras- eg. "furnace, hearth"; lv. vtra, lt. audra- eg. "storm" cf. ro. vtrai- "obiect de nteit focul, scociortor, spuzar" i vatr- "a menine focul"; vatra satului- "inima, centrul satului": lt. vieta- eg. "place, spot, site", lt. vtrin- eg. "roofprotecting plank", sg. vtrin- lt. vtrung- eg. "weathercock, weathervane""giruet". Psh. ba- eg. "a large iron pan or cauldron for roasting grain, a furnace, a kiln" + psh. tanr/ tanrah- eg. "an oven, a stove, a furnace", punj. tanuri/tandur/tanduri- eg. "oven" ? Psh. ah wardr- eg. "a servant who carries a firelock, a servant in a great man's retinue" redat doar cu titlu doar informativ.); vtma (eg. to hurt, to injure; lt. ieisti- eg. "to hurt", lt. vartoti- a epuiza?, lt. ieisti, prss. enwargtun- eg. "to hurt, to insulte", prss. gadntun- eg. "to dammage, harm"); vtui (eg. one year old kid, goat&doe, hare; lat. vitellus- eg. "a little calf", lt. pradedantis vaikcioti- "copila, pui"); viezure/viedzure (eg. badger; aro. vizuru, yedzri/yedzur, alb. vjedhull- eg. "the thief", arb. vjdhur- it. "rubare", arb. vjedhark- it. "furtivo, rapace". Dar originea ro. viedzure pare a fi pe linia lv. vajt+lv. dzt- ambele eg. "badger", prss. bzdus/ wobsdus, lt. oprus relaionat cu eg. badger. n lv. pu, ngr. fonetic compatibile cu prss. bzdus. Sbc.

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jazavac, bg. , ch. jezevec, slvn. jazbec, slv. jazvec provin tot dintr-o rdcin iniial posibil w<b>jedzrt-. Ro. bursuc cf. lt. barsukas, rus. , ucr. , hu. bursuc, eg. brock, tc. porsuk ? Limbile nordice atest: dan. grvling, norv. grevling, su. grvling, asociate cu fr. blaireau indic posibila provenien din rdcina w<b>rjedzrt- ro. viezure. n limbile cu ad-strat celtic termenul este diferit: cat. teix, gal. teixugos, port. texugo, sp. tejn, rg. tais, tes, tass., dar corelate cu pl. brzuch, ro. burt- eg. "belly, stomach", cu sens de "grsu" ?, au dat <br>t<i>s. Interesant germ. Dachs, relaionat poate cu prss. <wobs>dus, eg. <ba>dger, alb. <bal>dosa ?); viscol (eg. blizzard; lt. viska verciantis"neastmprat", lt. viesulas- eg. "whirlwind, tornado", lt. <sniego> viesulas- eg. "snowstorm, blizzard", lt. viesulingas- eg. "whirling, stormy", lt. viesuluoti- eg. "whirl, rage, rave, storm"); zar (eg. buttermilk; alb. dhall); zer/zr (eg. whey; fr. lactosrum, it. siero di latte, cat., sp. lactosuero, pl. serwatka- eg. "whey"; lv. dzert- "butur"; wakhi zarz- eg. "milk (thick after calving), beestings milk" ?); zburda (eg. jump around, prance, frolic; lt. svaigus- "ameit", lt. svaigulys- "ameeal", lt. varbus- "agitat"; arb. zbrdhja- it. "imbiancare, sbiancare", arb. zbardhllm- it. "biancore, splendore, luccichio"); zestre (eg. wedding gift or wealth; bg. , lat. "dextrae"- "fgduin solemn" ?; psh. dha- eg. "vestments or garments given to a bride, dowry"; punj. daj- eg. "dowry"; dha/daj+vsl. sestra= de zestre ?; lt. sesuo, vsl. sestra- "sor", n ro. "cuvenit sorei" ?; uzual dot; lt. kraitis, lv. prs, alb. prik cf. ro. pricin, pl. posag, dintr-un IE pkraits ?); zgard (eg. collar; psh. gawandaey- eg. "a rope for fastening horses; a collar for a dog", psh. grawah/ grewah- eg. "the collar-bone, the collar of a dress; a loop, a button loop"; alb. shkardh, arb. zgardhamnd- it. "aperto, spalancato", arb. zgardhllnj-"spalancare, stralunare" poate relaionat cu ro; gard, lt. skardau, skarditi- germ. "schroten, stampfen, zerstampfen, kmpfen", lt. skaudulys- "ran, furuncul", lt. skaudus- "dureros, sensibil"; lt. skaudiai- "crud"; prss. rdan, prss. kda, pl. szkoda, su. skada- eg. "damage"; psh. skunal- eg. "to pinch, to tweak, to pain, to hurt, to gall"); zgria (megl. zgair; eg. scratch; sbc. izgrepsti, rus., ucr. , rg. sgriffel/sgreffel/ sgrefel/sgriflada/sgraffel- eg. "scratch", lv. <ie>skrpt- eg. "rasp, scrape, claw", lv. izgriezums- eg. "cut-out, clipping, cutting, scrap", lv. izgriezt- eg. "excise, wring, whittle, clip, to cut out", lv. izkast- eg. "scrape"; lt. skardus- "sonor, ptrunztor, rsuntor", hd. kharsh- eg. "scratch"; psh. sar gara- wul- eg. "to scratch one's head <as at a loss what to do>", psh. jawar glaey- eg. "a little pit or furrow, a hole cut round the root of a tree, a small pit or hole made for planting", punj. gharund/kharund marna- eg. "to scratch". Expresia "a zgria la ureche" posibil echivalent n psh. ganjahr/ ganjw- eg. "a child's rattle" sau psh. zgerwaey kawul- eg. "to moan, to groan, to whine, to wail, to bemoan, to complain, to lament" sau psh. boj-gaey- eg. "a person having a harsh or hollow voice"); zgrma(eg. scratch, searching for something; lv. ieskrambt, lv. skramba- eg. "graze, scratch, scar, scrape, brush"; psh. garawul- eg. "to scratch, to scrape, to rub slightly with the nails" + psh. mangrah- eg. "a scratch, scratching, wounding with the nails"); z<,>mbru (eg. a coniferous tree, Pinus cembra, lt. evelis/ebelys- eg. bot. "pine cone, nub"); z<,>rn (eg. black nightshade, Solanum nigrum; vsl. zrno- ro. "boabe", prss./sudovian zirne- eg. "grainseed"; lt. irnis, lv. ziri- eg. "peas"; psh. zaaey- eg. "a seed or kernel in general"). Comparaiile cu arbresh, cu limbile baltice, slave i indo-iraniene sunt aportul personal al autorului.

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O serie ntreag de cuvinte au o etimologie necunoscut sau poate greit atribuit. Sunt cteva dintre aceste cuvinte, de multe ori de circulaie restrns i cu semnificaii "nensemnate" i care au unele corespondene n limbile baltice, n mod deosebit n grupul estic (lituanian i samogitian, leton i latgalian). Acestea sunt adesea considerate ca avnd drept surs formaii onomatopeice, au atribuit o origine etimologic "necunoscut" sau originea etimologic este eronat atribuit. Dintre aceste cuvinte amintim, utiliznd urmtoarea convenie grafic: cuvntul analizat: (definiie n romn/echivalentul n englez /corespondentele presupuse): aba, aro. ava: (form sintetic daco-slavo-latin ?; ro. de foarte puin vreme, tocmai, cu greu, anevoie;/eg. hardly, difficult, scarcely, merely, only, not later than;/lt. dabar, sg. dabariou- eg. "now, at present, just, just now, henceforth, up to now"; lat. ad vx explic aro.; lt. dabartis- eg. "the present", lv. dabt- eg. "derive, get, goten, obtain, secure, pul, have, to take out, to lay hold on", dar i lt. apyauris- eg. "early dawn, time just before daybreak", lt. apyauriu- eg. "at dawn, at daybreak, in the early twilight", lt. apyblanda- eg. "early dawn, twilight, early gloaming"; lt. vargu bau- eg. "scarcely, hardly"- "de-abia"; lv. beidzot- eg. "eventually, lastly, finnaly, at last, at lenght"; bret. abred- eg. "early"/ ro. abia: dacism latinizat ? A dat un ss. <d>abja.); acru, aro., megl. acru: (ro. gust specific al oetului, lmii, care provoac o reacie gustativ astringent;/eg. 1. sour 2. morose, surly;/lt. aprgti- eg. "become (somewhat little) sour; become sour, curdled"; lv. atkritumu- eg. "garbage"); adio: (ro. rmas bun pentru totdeauna, rmi cu bine;/eg. adieu, good-bye, farewell;/it. addio, fr. adieu; lv. ardievu- eg. "adieu, good afternoon !", lv. ardievas - eg. " adieu, good-bye, farewell"); ahtia: (ro. 1.a rvni, a jindui; 2. a se lcomi;/ eg. desire, greed;/ngr. hti- ro. "dorin arztoare"; psh. i-tiyj- eg. "necessity, want, need, indigence, exigence, occasion" ?); aci/var. ac, aca, aclea, ace, acea, ai: (ro. n acest loc;/eg. here; present;/aici, ace, acea: lat. *ad hcce, ai: lat. ad hic; ac, aca, acleadacism latinizat-: lt. ia- eg. "here, right here, from here" i lat. ad hcce par a fi circulat n paralel i cu acelai sens pn la o apropiere, relativ contopire); "aidoma ie !": (ro. asemntor;/eg. living, very;/lv. iedomjies tikai- eg. "just imagine !, just fancy !"); aievea: (ro. 1. n realitate, cu adevrat, 2. clar, limpede, real, palpabil, concret;/eg. 1. actually, really, 2. real, actual, true;/ sl. jav; skt. iva- eg. "as if, like"; lv. iedvesma- ltg. dvsme- eg. "afflatus, inspiration"; lt. apavai- eg. "charm, fascination", lt. akivaizda- eg. "presence", lt. akivaizduma-eg. "evidence, manifestness, obviousness", lt. akivaizdus- eg. "1. visual, graphic, 2. evident, obvious, manifest, patent", lv. iedvest- eg. "inculcate, inspire, infix, ioculate, impress, prompt, plant, strike", lv. iedvest bijbu- eg. "awe, to strike with awe""nfiorare, copleire", lv. iedvesmas gars- eg. "daemon"); airea/var. aire: (ro. n alt loc; undeva, altundeva;/eg. elsewhere;/lat. aliubi+re+a; cf. fr. ailleurs, v.sp. alubre, port. alhur din lat. *aliore; lt. kut kitur, lv. kaut kur citur- eg. "elsewhere"); ah !: (ro. 1. strigt cu care ncepe pluguorul; 2. strigt prin care oprim pe cineva de a face ceva;/ch. ahoj- eg. "fam. noroc ! salut !"); ala-bala: (ro. "Ce mai ala-bala? " = a) ce se mai petrece ?; b) ce rost are atta discuie (inutil) ?;/ psh. al bal kawul- eg. "to show or feel inquietude, solicitude, alarm, apprehension, despondency" ?); <h>alandala (ro. la ntmplare, n dezordine, fr nicio noim, pe dos;/eg. helter-skelter;/ngr. lla and lla- ro. "unul n locul altuia"; psh. jalandarai- eg. "a whirligig" ?); albastru: (ro. 1. care are culoarea cerului senin; 2. culoare fundamental a spectrului luminii situat ntre verde i indigo;/eg. blue;/lt. ydras- eg. "blue" pentru finalul cuvntului: <alba>stru); albstrime (ro. calitatea de a fi albastru,

CAP 3. DESPRE MINUNATA ISTORIE A UNOR CUVINTE DEOPOTRIV MARI I NENSEMNATE

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

culoarea albastru;/eg. blueness;/lt. ydryn- eg. "azure" pentru finalul cuvntului: <alb>strime); albn, aro. alvin, megl. albin, istr. albire: (ro. insect care produce miere i cear- apis mellifica;/eg. bee;/lat. alvina- stup, lt. avilys- eg. "<bee> hive"; lt. darbinink- eg. "worker-bee"; fr. abeillb i lt. bit- eg. "bee"); altundeva: (ro. n alt parte, aiurea;/eg. elsewhere;/lt. antrur- eg. "in some other place", vezi ro. ntr-aiurea- "fr int, la ntmplare"; nep. antai- eg. "elsewhere"); agr(): (reg. Trans. agre, aghiree; ro. arbust cu fructe comestibile, respectiv fructele comestibile;/eg. gooseberry <bush>;/lt. agrastas, lv. rkoga, pl. agrest, ucr. , slv. egree, ch. angret, mg. egres- eg. "gooseberry"- "coacze"; lt. raugerkis- eg. "barberry"- "agri").
coacze- gooseberry (eg.)- agrastas (lt.), rkoga (lv.), agrest (pl.), Ogrozd (sloven.), egree (slv.), egres (mg.), (bg.), angret (ch.), gooseberry (eg.), uva spina (it.), groselheira (port.), (sb.), krusbr (su.), bektai zm (tc.), (ucr.), karusmari (estonian), karviainen (finlandez) agri- barberry (eg.), brbele (lv.), raugerkis (lt.), (bg.), dil (ch.), Berberitze (germ.), berberysowy (pl.), (sb.), utika (cr.), dr (slv.), utikovina (sloven.), amberbaris (tc.), (ucr.), veprenea (hu.)

<a, a-i> aminti: (ro. a-i reveni n minte un fapt, a pomeni, a meniona ceva sau pe cineva;/eg. remember;/lt. atminti- eg. "remember, keep in mind"; lt. atmintinai- eg. "by heart, by rote"; lt. atmintis- eg. "memory", sg. atmint- lt. "prisiminti"- "a ine minte, a aminti"; lv. atmias- "amintire", hu. pamitati- "a aminti", hu. pametati- "a ine minte", lyc. slamati- eg. "to keep memory, skt. smtir- eg. "memory"; skt. smarati- eg. "he remembers"); anapoda: ( eg. topsy-turvy;/ poate o form simplificat de la psh. lndeybndey- eg. "topsy-turvy, upside down, in confusion" ? Ex. inc. ); aoleu: (psh. au-liy- eg. "the saints, the apostles, the holy" sau psh. aw-waln/ aw-walnah- eg. "the first, the former, the ancients" cf. i ro. "<n> aval". Prima variant este mai plauzibil, ro. aoleu corespunznd unei expresii tip "pe toi sfinii" sau de <re>amintire a unei srbtori <holy day> care trebuie respectat imperativ); arac: (ro. par lung pentru susinerea plantelor agtoare;/eg. vine prop;/ngr. harki, psh. aekaey- eg. "bar of wood for a door or gate, a pole, a prop, a support"); argat: (ro. servitor, slug angajat pentru munci agricole, creterea vitelor i munci n gospodrie;/eg. farm-hand, server;/bg. argat, ngr. argtis, lv. algdzis- eg. "cottar, peon, cottager"); armsar: (ro. cal mascul necastrat;/eg. stallion;/lat. armessrius / <equus> admissrius; zazaki <h>estor- eg. "horse", psh. cr sl- eg. "a horse of four years old"); aa/ aa trebuie fcut: (ro. astfel;/ eg. thus;/ psh. au-f- eg. "praises, endowments, qualities, qualifications". Ex. inc.); azi: (ro. n ziua de fa, astzi, acum;/eg. today;/lat. hc die; nep. ja- eg. "today"; psh. wrdz- eg. "day"; psh. rwa pah rwa- eg. "constantly, daily, every day"- "zi dup zi" ?); avere: (ro. avut, avuie;/eg. fortune, patrimony, riches;/DEX: din ro. avea < lat. habere; psh. wirsat/ wirsatnah- eg. "heritage, heirship". Ex. inc.); baban: (ro. mare, dolofan, de dimensiuni apreciabile. Et. nec.;/eg. big;/psh. ar-bb/ arbbn- eg. "lords, possessors, masters" poate cu sens depreciativ ?); bade/bdi: (var. Trans. badiu, ro. 1. termen popular de adresare persoanelor n vrst sau de rang mai mare; 2. termen folosit de femei pentru brbatul iubit;/eg. a term for calling or addressing an elder or older man, or a term used by a girl in addressing the beloved man;/psh. bd-r/bd-rn <pl.>- eg. "a master, an employer, a superior", psh. bae/bayah <fem.>- eg. "great, important, dignified, supreme"; lv. vadba- eg. "headship, leadership, control, direction, front office, guidance, lead, leading, front office, mastership, lead, top brass, control", lv. vadt- eg. "administrate, boss, mastermind, quarterback, spearhead, preside, administer, captain, head, conduct, guide, lead, rule, shepherd, handle, carry, to be in or to have authority ", lt. vadas- eg. "leader, chief, commander, caiptan"); bal: (ro. lighioan, monstru, dihanie, fiar groaznic;/eg. monster;/ psh. bal/balw <pl.>- eg. "trial, calamity, misfortune, accident, vengeance, evil, ill", bal. bla- eg. "evil spirit, devil; trial, affliction, difficulty, calamity" ; hd. bheyrryeg. "wolf", ossetian birh-eg. "wolf"); balamuc: (ro. 1. ospiciu, clinic pentru alienai

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mintali, cas de nebuni, 2. glgie, dezordine, zpceal;/eg. 1. asylum, madhouse, 2. clutter;/1. lv. balamutgs- eg. "rattlebrained, rattleheaded"- "zpcit, nuc, aiurit, zevzec"; 2. sg. balamts- lt. nenaudelis- eg. "disadvantage, damage, harm"; sg. balamts- lt. apgavikas- eg. "deceiver, cheat, fraud; swindler, knave"); barabar: (ro. n ir, n rnd;/ psh. barbar- eg. "equality, exactness, rivalry, competition, emulation" cf. sensului eg. "exactness" ?); bara-bara: (ro. argou: mpreal cinstit, jumtate-jumtate;/eg. equal;/ psh. barbar- eg. "equality, exactness, rivalry, competition, emulation", nep. barbara- eg. "equal". n ro. poate din rromani ?); barc, aro. varc, megl. barc: (ro. ambarcaie de dimensiuni mici, cu vsle, pnze sau motor;/eg. boat, barge;/lt. barka- eg. "wooden barge", lt. barkasas- eg. "launch, long boat"; it. barca, ngr., tc., bg. barka, alb. bark, psh. bargah- eg. "a rafter"); barem: (ro. mcar;/eg. unless;/psh. brey- eg. "once, one time; at last, at length"); Basarab: (ro. nume propriu;/ gr. basileus/basileos + psh. ar-bb/ arbbn- eg. "lords, possessors, masters" ? sau explicabil prin tc., cuman sau peceneg); bdran: (ro. necioplit, mojic, oprlan;/eg. bumpkin, churl, chuffy;/psh. budr- eg. "<n vest>injury, damage, detriment, loss, injury; anguish, affliction", psh. bad- eg. "evil, bad" sau poate conform psh. bd- eg. "flatulent, windy; when applied to a man, it means a useless good-for-nothing fellow, a poltroon"); <a se> blci: (ro. a se juca, a se zbengui n ap la scldat;/eg. swim, wade, wallow <in>;/bg. balakam, lt. velti- eg. "1. wash with a washing beetle; 2. beat, give smb. a thrashing", psh. ln-bo- eg. "swimming, floating on the water", psh. ln-bo kawul- eg."to swim, to float" poate sub forma bo- ln kawul, psh. ln-bo-zan/ ln-bo-zn- eg. "a swimmer". Ro. a se blci pare a avea aceeai origine cu ro. a se mbulzi ?); <a> blmji: (ro. a amesteca, a ncurca mai multe lucruri; a vorbi ncurcat, ngimat;/eg. confused;/psh. bey mjib- eg. "causeless, without reason", psh. balmagaey/balmagi or balmangey<fem.>- eg. "saltless, insipid, tasteless, weak, vapid". Ex. inc.); <a se> blngni: (ro. a merge nesigur, a se blbni;/eg. to dangle, to swing;/lt. balaganas/balaganikas- eg. "farce, toomfoolery, preposterous piece of buffoonery", lt. balaganininkas- eg. "showman"); brbat: (nep. ghar-pati/gharbati- eg. "master of a house, master; host"; psh. wris/ wrisn- eg. "an heir, a master, lord, owner"+psh. bd-r/bdrn <pl.>- eg. "a master, an employer, a superior", psh. bar-ban sor- eg. "a lighthorseman, a horseman lightly armed" poate cf. nume propriu Brbnan ?; psh. blrbawuleg. "to render pregnant, impregnate, bring with young, to get with child"; lv. vrietis- eg. "man <adult male>"; lat. barbatus- ro. "om cu barb" ?); brzun: (ro. 1. bondar; 2. grgun;/eg. bumble bee, humble bee;/lt. birzgl- eg. "gad-fly, horse-fly, breeze-fly""tun", psh. boawul - eg. "o make a buzzing noise <as flies>; to taint, corrupt, putrefy, to make fly-blown", psh. boedal/ boej <prezent>- eg. to buzz or hum as flies); <cale> btut/<a avea> de btut cale lung: (ro. cale umblat;/lt. batuotas- eg. "with shoes on, booted, in boots" cf. ro. bote/ciubote i hu. cobota ?); b: (ro. bucat de lemn, lung i subire, nuia, et. nec.;/eg. a stick, a rod;/ lt. basligalis- eg. "a small stake/picket", lt. baslys- eg. "stake, picket, jam", lt. besti- eg. "stick into, drive a stake into the ground"; hu. becihar- "b" cf. ro. beiga, psh. bet/bet-nah <pl.>- eg. "a cane, a rattan"; psh. butanah- eg. "quagmire, a bog, a marsh"); <a> bcsi: (ro. reg. 1. a ngrmdi, a ndesa; 2. a amesteca, a intercala; 3. a ncrca; 4. a bate, a maltrata; lv. bikstt- eg. "poke, goad, stir"); <a> bigui: (ro. 1. a blbi, a vorbi stlcit; 2. a vorbi incoerent; 3. a zpci, a descuraja;/eg. mumble, babble;/lt. baugumas- eg. "fearfulness, timidity, shy, terrible, fearful, frightful"; psh. bad goe- eg. "evil speaking, slanderous, an evil speaker, slanderer, calumniator"; mg. bolyongni- ro. "a grei, a rtci"); <a se> blbi: (ro. a pronuna nedesluit sunete sau cuvinte, repetndu-le i mpiedicndu-se n rostirea lor, din cauza unui defect natural, a emoiei sau a enervrii, a gngvi;/eg. babble;/lt. babaliuoti- eg.

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"mumble, babble, talk nonsense/rubbish; drivel", lt. balbasuoti- eg. "chatter, jabber, babble, twaddle, talk rubbish, drivel, talk nonsense"); bzdc: (ro. capriciu, toan, hachie;/eg. caprice;/psh. dagah-bz- eg. "deceitful, knavish, fraudulent, treacherous, etc.; a knave, a cheat, an impostor, a traitor, a betrayer", psh. dagah-bz- eg. "cheating, knavery, imposture, foul play, treason" poate sub forma bz- dagah; lt. bezdti- eg. "fart, to fart, to be farting"- "pr, a trage pruri"; lt. bizdinti- eg. "be idle, idle, loaf"- "a fi stupid, prost, tmpit, a trndvi, a tndli, a umbla hai-hui"; lt. bediaugsmis- eg. "joyless, cheerless, dismal"- "ntunecat, posomort, groaznic, groaznic, fioros, posomort"; cel mai logic este lt. bizdinti- eg. "loaf", dei s-a ncercat explicarea prin compunerea sbc. bazdrk i rus. bzdjoch "pr", cu dc "turbare" < sl. dik "slbatic"; ar putea fi i un derivat compus cf. psh. bzo- eg. "a monkey" cu sensul ro. maimureal, cf. ro a bzi sau poate cf. sl. brzo- ro. "repede" + psh. di kawul- eg. "to irritate, annoy, plague, tease, exasperate"; dacism slavizat ?); bzdganie, var. bi<z>diganie, bidihanie, bhanie: (ro. dihanie, artare, ciudenie, drcie;/eg. curious, freak apparition;/lt. bdius- eg. "poor, unfortunate creature", lt. bedion/ bedioniauti - eg. "monkey, ape", lt. bedionikaseg. "monkey, ape-like", psh. bzo- eg. "a monkey"); "<beat> turt" i "bietul <de el> !": (ro. 1. mort de beat, 2. regretat, trecut la cele venice; 3. amrt, ntr-o condiie proast;/eg. paralystic, pissed, roaring drunk;/1 i 2. lt. beturtis- eg. "indigent, poor person" ?; 2. sg. bieda- lt. nelaim, <dviem ratais kinkomas veimas>- eg. "misfortune, bad/ill luck" care a dat poate i ro. i vsl. obid; 3. sg. biednos- lt. neturtingas- eg. "poor, indigent", sg. biednos- lt. vargas- eg. "poor person, poor thing"; hu. bidn- "srac", vsl. bdn; psh. bey hes- eg. "for nothing, without reason" ar conduce la ro. obiecie mai degrab dect ro. biet ?,posibil ambele din aceeai rdcin ?; lat. vietus- "ofilit, slab", lat. vieto- "trecut, vechi", ss. bdjetisch); b<e;>jenie: (ro. fug vremelnic a populaiei cauzat de invazii, persecuii, asuprire; pribegie;/eg. roam, roving;/ lt. beemis- eg. "landless", vsl. banije; bret. beaji- eg. "to travel", psh. begnag- eg. "strangeness, the being foreign, not domestic", psh. begnah- eg. "strange, foreign, unknown, not domestic, not an acquaintance"; psh. jil- eg. "leaving ones country, exile, departure, desertion"); belaliu: (ro. anevoios, greu; mofturos, nzuros;/tc. belli, psh. be-lri- eg. "lost, astray, depraved, erring, wandering". Diferen de sens. Ex. inc. Ro. belaliu pare mprumut din tc.); bldie: (ro. 1. prjin lung i subire, par lung; nuia; 2. cotor, tulpin la unele plante erbacee;/eg. 1. pole; 2. stalk;/lt. beldikas- eg. "knocker"; lt. beldimas- eg. "knock, tap"); bestie (ro. fiar; om crud, nemilos;/eg. beast;/sg. bestj- lt. nenaudlis/vris- eg. "wild beast, brute, beast", slvn. btija/bstija, lat. bestia); beteug: (eg. handicap;/lt. beteisikumaseg. "lack of rights"?); bezmetic: (ro. zpcit, aiurit, nuc;/eg. giddy, hare-brained ?;/lv. bezmrgs- eg. "aimless, driftless, meaningless, objectless, purposeless", lv. baismgs- eg. "fearsome, uncanny, fearful, flagrant", lv. baismgs skats- eg. "fearsome sight" sau lat. amphisbeticus. Ro. bezmetic asimilat cu sl. bezum- nebunie sau vsl. bez matok " <stup> fr regin"; reprezint posibil un dacism slavizat: dacism contopit cu un simil slav sau un aport trziu gotic-aesti ?, contopit cu un simil slav ulterior cristalizrii strromnei, sensul fiind de "fr cap, fr lider, fr conductor", particula vsl. bez- "fr" i lt. be"without" nu au existat sau s-au pierdut n ro., pstrndu-se particula ne- ca n lv.; vsl. nu explic ro. bezmetic); bibi: (ro. termen de mngiere pentru cineva drag, iubit;/eg. dear;/fr. bibi, psh. b b/bb- eg. "a lady" ?); bineneles: (ro. desigur, firete, doar;/eg. certainly;/ fr. bien entendu; lt. vienintelis- eg. "only, quite alone, lonely, lonesome", lt. vienintelis galimas bdas- eg. "the only possible, way"); bine...numai: (ro. acord condiionat;/lt. vienumas- eg. "unity, wholeness, integrity"); <a> birui: (psh. bey yiraeyeg. "fearless, bold, dauntless"); bivol: (ro. vit cornut asemntoare boului, cu pr

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

negru;/eg. buffalo;/lt. buivalos- eg. "zool. buffalo" pentru ro. bivol, hitt., lyc. wawa- eg. "a bull" pentru ro. bou); bogat: (ro. 1. om avut; 2. mnos, roditor;/eg. rich, abundance;/1. vsl. bogat, lv. bagts; 2. lv. bagts- eg. "abundant, moneyed, wealthy, exuberant, opulent, rich, affluent, prolific, fertile, warm, full"); reg. bogz/puhace: (ro. bfni, buh- pasre rpitoare de noapte;/eg. owl;/lv. uzptgs nelga- eg. "owl", lt. pglys-eg. "ruff""porumbel, gugutiuc", lt. apuoklis- eg. "long-eared owl; little owl, owlet"; ro. reg. puhace- lv. pce, prss. pki- eg. "owl", lt. apuokas- "eagle-owl", pentru buh i bufni- it. gufo sau psh. wf/wf-nah<pl.>- eg. "a nightingale, a songster, a singer" cu un sens diferit); boier/cneaz (eg. noble;/lt. bajoras-bajorai desemneaz "lesser members of the nobility", n timp ce lt. kunigai-kunigas se refer la "greater nobles" cf. psh. ar-kn-i-dawlat- eg. "nobles, grandees, ministers of state" unde psh. ar-kn- eg. "pillars, props, supports" cu sensul de putere, for, statalitate ?; wfr. boer- eg. "farmer, country man"; nep. ba / badmi- eg. " great man, nobleman"); bolnd (ro. descreierat, nebun, smintit;/eg. crazy;/mg. bolond; psh. al-balnd- eg. "agitated, distracted, disordered, lost; affected, troubled, chagrined"); bolborosi: (ro. 1. A vorbi nedesluit, a bigui, a ngima; 2. A glgi; 3. Despre curcani: a croncni;/eg. mutter;/lt. burbuliuoti- eg. "bubble, verdant boil, mutter, mumble", lt. burbtelti- eg. "growl out"); boal: (ro. 1. maladie,afeciune, beteug; 2. calamitate, dezastru; 3. hoit, mortciune;/eg. sickness;/sb. bol(a)- ro. "boal"; psh. bal/balw (pl.)- eg. "trial, calamity, misfortune, accident, vengeance, evil, ill", bal. bla- eg. "evil spirit, devil; trial, affliction, difficulty, calamity"); bolnav: (ro. care sufer de o boal, suferind, beteag;/eg. sick;/ bg. bolnav, psh. boawuleg. "to make a buzzing noise; to taint, corrupt, putrefy, to make fly-blown" ?); bombni: (ro. a vorbi pentru sine, ncet, fr a articula rspicat sunetele;/eg. grumble;/lt. bambinti/bambtieg. "grumble, be peevish, murmur, mutter, growl"); bondar/bongar/bonzar/bnzar/bombar: (ro. insect mare care bzie i are ac veninos;/eg. bumble/humble bee;/psh. bawr/ bawr-gn <pl.>- eg. "a large black bee"+ psh. anrah -eg. "a hornet, a wasp"; pentru ro. bombar: psh. bambarah- eg. "a large red wasp or hornet"); <a> bor/bort: (ro. a vomita;/eg. vomit;/lt. bjaurtis- eg. "have an aversion for, loathe smth., be disgusted"); bor/a face <ceva> bor: (ro. 1. zeam acr preparat din tre fermentate n ap; 2. a crea confuzie, dezordine/eg. borsch;/ lt. bariai- eg. "1. borsch- beetrout and cabage soup; 2. palaidi bariai: confusion, muddle, disorder"; rus., ucr. borci); boar: (ro. pepene cu coaja verde i miezul galben;/eg. melon;/zazaki beila- eg. "melon" ?); brambura: (ro. de-a valma, n dezordine; la ntmplare, cum o da Domnul;/eg. turmoil;/psh. bm-brah- eg. "a whirligig"-ro. "volbur, vrtej, vltoare". Volbur i brambura din aceeai familie ?); Brila: (lt. atbraila- eg. "1. archit. cornice, ledge, 2. brim"- "1. margine, bordur, teras, 2. rm, mal"; ro. dintr-un cuvnt grecesc cu acelai sens ca lt. ?); brnc: (ro. erizipel;/eg. erysipelas, swelling;/lt. branka- eg. "swelling"- "inflamat, umflat, bub, buboi"; psh. bragey- eg. "the leprosy", psh. ppakah- eg. "a bump, a swelling, a protuberance" pare a contopi ro. bub + brnc); breasl: (ro. 1. organizaie nchis a meterilor; 2. organizaii profesionale muncitoreti i patronale; 3. meserie, profesiune;/eg. brotherhood, craft, gild, guild;/ vsl. bratstvo, lt. verslas- eg. "1. occupation, profession 2. trade, bussiness", lt. verslus- eg. "enterprise", lt. verslinis- eg. "co-operation"); bubu, aro. bumbunez: (ro. a produce un zgomot puternic, a rsuna;/eg. roar, rumble, growl;/lt. bbauti- eg. "roar, bellow, howl", lt. bubti- eg. "roar, roll, peal", lt. bubinti- eg. "beat, thunder", lt. bbt- eg. "bang !; crash!", lt. bbtelti- eg. "give a bang, crash"); buburuz: (ro. gndcel de form semisferic, cu elitrele roii ptate cu apte puncte negre: mmru, mriu, boul-lui-Dumnezeu, boul-Domnului, boul-popii, paparug; cocinella septempunctata;/eg. lady-bug, lady-bird;/sg. barbut- lt. boru- eg. "zool. lady-bird", posibil compus <bar>bu<t> + boru; ro. paparug cf. sg. barbut; ro.

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boul-lui-Dumnezeu, boul-Domnului traduceri cf. lt. "dievo karvyt"); bucini: (ro. anghelic, cucut, ptrunjel-cinesc, ptrunjelul-cinelui; bucini de balt: cucut de ap, cucut mic;/ lt. buinys- eg. "kiss"- "gur, srut, srutare"); buc: (ro. 1. manon metalic montat ntre dou piese asamblate; 2. Scobitur fcut ntr-o pies de lemn sau metal, n care intr capul piesei cu care se mbin; bucea;/eg. bush;/ucr. buka; lv. bukse- eg. "axlebox, bush, box": axle-box- "cutie de unsoare, lagr de osie, buc de lagr; cuzinet"; bush"buc, cuzinet"; box- "cutie"; lv. buksana- eg. "tow, skid, slip"); buimac: (ro. ameit, zpcit, nuc;/ eg. dizzy;/psh. bey mauki- eg. "out of season, out of place, unapt, inopportune, inconvenient", psh. bey maall- eg. "out of place; adv. improperly" corespunde ca sens i form. Psh. bey maah- eg. "uncouth, rude, uncivilized", psh. bey ma- eg. "without face, shameless, inhuman" corespund doar ca form. Psh. bey himmateg. "pusillanimous, unambitious, humble, lazy, indolent" sugereaz o apropiere de sens.); bujor: (ro. plant cu flori mari- Paeonia officinalis;/eg. peony;/lt. bijnas- eg. "bot. peony", sbc., bg. bour, alb. bojur, mg. bozsarosza); bulboac/bulboan: (psh. bor-bka- eg. "a whirlwind" ?); bulbucat: (psh. bor-bka- eg. "a devil" ?); bumb<i>: (ro.1. pop. nasture; 2. mic ornament arhitectural de form sferic;/eg. button;/lv. bumba- eg. "1. ball, sphere, 2. bomb", mg. gomb ? Psh. gumbah- eg. "a hard swelling, a protuberance, a gland, a knot, a tumour, a bubo, a scirrhus", psh. gun- eg. "round, globular, circular, orbicular; plump, squat; a bubo"); bura: (ro. ploaie mrunt, deas, adesea nsoit de cea; burni;/eg. rain;/psh. brn - eg. "rain which falls in the summer season injurious to the crops, also called wasah", zazaki yaxir varan/kurdish baran- eg. "rain"); reg. burac <Maram.>: (ro. sfecl;/eg. beet- Beta vulgaris;/lt. burokas, ltg. buruoks- eg. "bot. beet"); burni: (ro. ploaie mrunt i deas, adesea nsoit de cea; bur;/eg. rain;/psh. brn<=+>wasaheg. "rain which falls in the summer season injurious to the crops, also called wasah") ; <a se> burzului: (ro. a se mnia brusc, a se bursuca, a se rsti la cineva; a se schimba n ru; a se rscula, a se rzvrti; a se zbrli;/lt. burzdulis- eg. "fidget"- "neastmprat, zvpiat"); reg. <n> butul <cuiva>: (ro. n ciuda, n pofida cuiva; Maram.-P.367;/eg. despite;/lv. buteg. "exist, be, been, possess, have, consist", lv. btne- eg. "fiin, creatur"); <a> bui/bu<itur,eal>: (ro. 1. mbrceal, trnteal, a izbi; 2. lovitur nfundat cu pumnul, izbitur;/lv. bkis- eg. "thump, thud"- "bufnitur, lovitur, pocnitur surd, a cdea cu bufnitur", cf. bg. bua, sbc. buiti); buzdugan: (psh. cawgn bz- eg. "a game like cricket played on horseback, playing at the game" ?); "cap de bibilic": (ro. om prost;/eg. dumb;/lt. bybiagalvis- eg. "dickhead"); can: (aro. cnat- ro. "ulcior"; ro. can : vas cu toart care servete la but;/eg. can;/germ. Kanne, bg.,rus., cana, psh. kum / umn <pl.>- eg. "a large jar, a boiler, a still or alembic" ? Ciornescu l consider un cuvnt germ. trziu n ro.); candel: (psh. andl/ andlnah- eg. "a hanging lamp, a chandelier, a shade"); caraghios: (ro. comic, neserios;/eg. comic;/ aro. caraghios, megl. crghioz; tc. kara gz- ro. "ochi negri- fanfaron din teatrul turcesc"; bg. karagioz; psh. ar-jagjagalaeyeg. "the name of a game played by children" ?); catr: (ro. mul;/eg. mule;/ psh. tar sau acar/nep. khacar- eg. "mule". Tc. katir, cum. chater, bg. katr); cpstru: (ro. poriune de harnaament care se pune pe capul calului;/eg. halter;/lat. capstrum, alb. kapistr; psh. ap- eg. "1. a rope of cotton, hair, or hemp; 2. a halter for a horse" corespunde i ro. "capt de a" ?) ; cpu i reg. chicheri: (ro. artropode parazite care se nfig n pielea animalelor i omului i se hrnesc sugndu-le sngele- Ixodes; Melophagus ovinus;/eg. tick, a parasite;/alb. kpush; lv. ekstis- eg. "tick" ?, reg. acri, crcel: lv. rce- eg. "harvest-bug, tick", reg. eche- lv. tikis- eg. "tick" ?); <a> cra: (ro. a duce ceva dintr-un loc n altul; a transporta n cantiti mari;/eg. transport/lat. *carrare ?; lv. erra- eg. "wheelbarow, barrow"); a se crbni: (ro. a se cra, a o terge;/eg. to clear off;/psh.

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

arbt/ arbtn <pl.>- eg. "a debauchee, a rake, a libertine" sau psh. ar-bah- eg. "a wheeled-carriage, a gun-carriage, a cart, a tumbril" cf. i ro. haraba); crbu: (ro. insect din ordinul coleopterelor duntoare culturilor agricole, cu aripi dure castanii, care apare la nceputul lunii mai; Melolontha melolontha: bondar, vruh, gndac de mai, ginu, gonglu; Rhizotrogus solstitialis: crbuel, hricar, gndac-de-hric;/eg. beetle, bug, chafer i cockchafer i thumber bug: Melolontha vulgaris, gold bug: Lessidinae- crbu auriu;/ pl. chrabszcz, lt. karkvabalis, port. escaravelho- eg. "zool. may-bug, cockchafer"; dar i cat. escarabat, sp. escarabajo, port. besouro, slv. chrobk- "gndac"; lt. bys- eg. "insect"); crpnos: (ro. vnjos cu referire la lemn, zgrcit, egoist cu referire la om;/lt. garbanos- eg. "curly, frizzly"- "ncreit, ondulat", posibil cu sensul de noduros; cu referire la om posibil prin contaminare de sens cu nzuros, insensibil, de nenduplecat. Ex. inc.); ctinel: (ro. ncet, lin. domol, cu grij;/eg. slow;/ar putea fi explicat prin lv. kani- pisoi, lt. katinas- "motan, pisic"); crcium: (psh. mai-warak/ mai-nah- eg. "a wine shop, a tavern"); crd/aro. grdelu: (ro. turm;/eg. herd;/ psh. go-r sau go-hr/go-ri sau gohri <pl.>- eg. "a flock, a herd, a drove" ? pendru aro., ro. corespondent eg. herd; sbc. krd; slvn. krdelo); crpaci: (ro. meseria care peticete, care repar nclmintea, haine; persoan care lucreaz prost;/eg. cobbler;/bg. krpa, lv. kurpe- eg. "shoe, low shoe", lv. kurpnieks- eg. "bootmaker, shoemaker, cobbler"); cnep, var. cnip, megl. cnip: (ro. plant textil;/eg. hemp;/lv. Kaepes, prss. kanapjas, lt. Kanaps. Este considerat derivat dintr-un lat. *canapa, forma vulg. de la clasicul cannabis, cf. it. canapa);
cnep- (bg.)- Konoplja (cr.)- konop (ch.)- Canapa (it.), Kaepes (lv.)- Kanaps (lt.)- Konopie (pl.)- Cnem (cat.)Chanvre (fr.)- Cnhamo (port., gal.)- Camo (sp.)- Hampa (su.)- (ucr.)- Konope (slv.)- Konoplja (sloven.)- Qanneb (maltez)- Hemp (eg.)- Hanf (germ.)- Hamp (norv.)- kanapjas (prss.)- chonv (rumantsh grishun)- coniv (sursilvan)- tgonev (sutsilvan)- tgoven (surmiran)- chanv (puter i vallader)

cteodat: (ro. uneori;/ eg. sometime;/lv. kaut kad, sb. kadikad- eg. "sometime, sometime or other", lt. kartais- eg. "sometimes, at times, now and then ", lt. kitada- eg. "once, once upon a time, sometime, formerly, in the old days"); ceahlu: (ro. vultur brbos; /eg. eagle;/ mg. csagol/csahol - eg. "care url"; psh. cakas- eg. "a perch for a birds, a roost for a falcon"; nep. chila- eg. "eagle", psh. sikraey- eg. "a hawk, a falcon" sau psh. capah- eg. "to swoop as a falcon". Pentru muntele Ceahlu, cel mai pb.: psh. cakas+ psh. sikraey, pentru vulturul denumit ceahlu: nep. chila +psh. sikraey ?); ce-cum-cnd: (eg. whathow-when;/lt. kas-kur-kada, sg. kas- kam-kumet; psh. kom- eg. "what? which? generally applied to objects inanimate"); cerg (ol, velin, scoar; aro. cerg/ciorg- ro. "cerg, ptur, cuvertur", megl. cerg- "cort" ?;/eg. cloth; darn;/sg. cravuot- lt. adyti- eg. "darn"; tc. erge- "cort"; cf. DER: ngr. tsrga, alb. tserg, sb. erga, magh. cserga, cserge, ig. erga, cu accepii care oscileaz ntre "cort" i "ptur". n ro. pstrat sensul din sg.; hd. chogh- eg. "a sort of dressing gown" poate mai aproape de ro. tog ?); cep, aro. cep, megl. omp, istr. ep: (ro. dop tronconic de lemn, canea;/eg. tap;/lt. iaupas- eg. "tap, stop cock, faucet"; considerat derivat din ntlnirea lat. cippus cu bg., slvn., ch. ep; poate fi form autohton cf. lt. ?); ceter: (ro. scripc, vioar;/eg. fiddle, violine ;/lat. cithera/cithara; psh. cr-trah- eg. "a kind of rebeck or four-stringed violin"); ciopor: (psh. sapar- eg. "a thatched roof, the thatch of a house, a hut of reeds or grass", psh. sapar-kaey- eg. "a flake, a pellicle, a scale, a shaving, a film, a layer, a stratum, any scaly matter in layers" sau psh. capar/ caparnah - eg. "a royal messenger, a courier"); chel: (ro. care nu are pr, pleuv; aro. keleshu, kel<,ji,i>/eg. bald, bald-headed;/se afirm c ar fi un cuvnt cunoscut numai n Mold. i Munt.; tc. kel; psh. kal/kalah <fem.>- eg. "bald from age, having no hair on the head". Probabil ro. influenat de tc.); chin: (ro. necaz, grij;/eg. throe, moil, laceration;/mg. kin, sbc. kini/kina, tc. kin; psh. knah- eg. "malice, spite, rancor, resentment, hatred, grudge". Ex. inc.); chiseli: (ro. fiertur acidulat preparat din fructe crude sau din plante cu gust acru; amestec de produse fierte, a crui

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componen nu mai poate fi stabilit; terci; atestat i ca fel culinar specific Valahiei Morave;/eg. mash, pap;/bg., sbc. kiselica, rut. kyselyca cu sensul din ro.; ch. kyselice"marmelad de fructe", ch. kysel- "murat"; rus. kisel- "jeleu de fructe"; lt. kisielius- eg. "pap, paste, jelly made with potato flour"); chimir: (ro. bru, cingtoare lat din piele, aro. chimere, megl. chimer;/eg. girdle, belt;/tc., bg. kemer; psh. kamar band- eg. "a girdle, a zone, a waist belt"; psh. kamar ksah- eg. "a waist-belt with powder horn, and other furniture for a soldier" duce la ro. chimir + ro. tisu); cio: (ro. familiar, la revedere !; curent n zona localitii sibiene Avrig ca ciau la ntlnire i desprire, poate deformare a it. cio ?;/eg. bye-bye;/lv. au, pl. cze- eg. "hi"); cmbru, var. cumbru, aro. cumburic: (ro. plant erbacee cu frunze aromate folosite drept condiment, Thymus serpyllum, Thymus lanuginosus;/eg. thyme-"cimbru, lmi"; savory-"cimbru"; brotherwort- "cimbru de cmp";/lt. iobras/iobrelis- eg. "bot. thyme", ch. ibr, pl. br, mg. csombor, csmbr. Ro. presupus din ngr. , dar pare un autohton care a dat mg.; pl., ch. deriv pe filier lt.); clic: (psh. el nah- eg. "kindred, clansman"); cioc-boc/ciocni-bocni: (psh. cag-o-bag- eg. "clamor, noise, din, tumult, hullaballoo"); ciocan: (psh. cawgn- eg. "a bat or club with which a game resembling cricket is played, but on horseback" ?); ciocnitoare: (pasre sedentar care ciocnete coaja copacilor;/ eg. pecker;/ psh. skaheg. "the beak of a bird"+ psh. koun-tar- eg. "a pigeon, a wood-pigeon", psh. a-rna koun-tarah or a-ra koun-tarah-eg. "a wild or wood-pigeon". Ex. inc.); ciocoi: (ro. parvenit, boier; fecior n cas, servitor angajat la un boier;/eg. gigman, vulgarian;/psh. cg/cgah <pl.>- eg. "alert, active, in spirits, healthy, vigorous, fat, stout, obese" poate un vechi sens de gras, obez ? Psh. ckar- eg. "a servant, a retainer, a help"); ciorchine: (ro. grup de fructe dezvoltate dintr-o inflorescen; strugure; et. nec. sau un lat. ?;/eg. bunch, cluster;/lt. vynkek- eg. "bunch of grapes"; lt. kuoktas eg. "tuft, flock, wisp"+ lt. ryelis- eg. "bunch, bundle, parcel"+lt. kek- eg. "cluster" +lt. vynuog- eg. "grape"; lv. vnogu ekars- eg. "bunch of grapes" sub forma ekars vnogu a condus la ciorchin ? ); ciuca <btilor>: (ro. btaia de joc, ap ispitor;/eg. fall guy;/ltg. cyuka- lv. cka- eg. "hog, swin, pig, porker". Ex. inc.); cicure, istr. cicur: (ro. mo, smoc de pr; pompon; ceapraz; ciorchine/eg. tuft;/lv. ukurs- eg. "gable, crest, comb", lv. cekuls- eg. "forelock, shock, crest, cop, tuft, tussock, hassok, bob, topknot" explic sensul de smoc de pr); a ciuguli: (ro. a ciupi boabe, frme;/eg. pick at, peck at, preen, tick;/ psh. cirgaey/cirgui- eg. "a chicken, a pullet" ? Ex. inc.); <a> ciumpvi: (ro. a ciunti;/eg. razee;/lt. trumpavilnis- eg. "shortwooled, short-haired"); ciupi: (ro. a apuca cu vrful degetelor sau cu unghiile de pielea sau de carnea cuiva, strngnd-o i provocnd durere; a pica;/eg. nip, pinch, tweak, plunk;/lt. apiuopti, apiupinti- eg. "grope, feel"- "a pipi" explic sensul ro. de a pica; lt. iaupti- eg. "compress, press" explic sensul ro. de a apuca cu unghiile pielea i a strnge, provocnd durere); ciurd/crd: (eg. herd;/psh. sr-waeyeg. "an animal, a quadruped, a horse, a camel, a beast of burthen, cattle", psh. go-hr/ gohri- eg. "a herd, a drove" sub forma hr- go ); ciung: (ro. despre oameni: care are o mn retezat, ciunt; despre copaci: cu crengile tiate ;/eg. armless, handless;/eusk. changu- fr. "mutil", aro. ciungu, alb. tunk; mg. csonka; it. cionco; sg. ciongs, ciuongs- lt. skersvjis"draught, draft"- "curent de aer" ? poate n ro. anchilozat de la curent ? Psh. cang- eg. "the hand expanded, a claw, a talon, the fingers", psh. cung/ cungnah <fem.>- eg. "a handful, as much as the hand will contain", psh. sangal/ sangali <pl.>- eg. "the arm from the elbow to the wrist, or to the end of the fingers", psh. sng/ sngnah<pl.>- eg. "1. the wing of a bird, the branch or bough of a tree; 2. acute pain", psh. sng gwas- eg. "broken winged, distressed, afflicted"); ciuruc: (ro. lucru fr valoare, rmi bun de aruncat, rest care nu mai e bun de nimic; om vrednic de dispre;/eg. rest ?;/tc. rc-ro.

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"putred, stricat"; psh. cuka- eg. "a small knife" din psh. c-ah- eg. "a knife, a long knife or dagger, a cleaver" ? Ex. inc.); cimea: (megl. cem, ro. fntn <se spune numai despre fntnile construite artificial >;/eg. font, well;/bg. ema, sb. esma, tc. eme, psh. casmah- eg. "a fountain". Considerat din tc.); istr. cmet- K.57: (ro. gospodar, ran;/eg. churl, cottager;/lt. kumetis- sg. komieios- eg. "cottage, peon, cottar, farmlabourer, farm-hand, hired man", slvn. kmet- "ran", cf. gd. comati); creang/<a umbla> creanga: (ro. creang: ramur a unui copac, crac; ro. <a umbla> creanga: a hoinri fr rost, a pierde vremea; aro. creang sau aro. grang/eg. bough, branch; eg. dangle around;/bg. granka- ro. "ramur"; psh. king wlaey- eg. "crookedness, distortion, wryness, twist", psh. kng- eg. "askew, awry, crooked, distorted, twisted, all on one side", psh. kngedal- eg. "to become contorted, twisted, crooked, to grow askew or awry, to grow all on one side"; psh. sngah- eg. "the branch of a tree, a bough" ?; psh. aan/aannah <pl.>- eg. "the stump of a tree or shrub, a branch, stubble left in the ground after reaping, etc." ?; psh. / - eg. "a bough or branch of a tree; the branch or arm of a river", psh. - dr/- dr- eg. "branchy, having numerous boughs or branches" ? Poate n ro. derivat din ro. "ncrengtur" ?); <a> crpa: (familiar: a mnca foarte mult, cu lcomie;/eg. eating greedy;/psh. ap/ apahr <pl.> - eg. "the sound produced by chewing carrots and the like, a crunch or craunch, a smash, quash, crash, the sound of a sudden blow, or of a sword on the flesh, etc", psh. ap wahal- eg. "to crunch, to smash, to quash, to strike suddenly" ?); coam (ro. creast, culme;/eg. crest;/ psh. kamar- eg. "the middle of a mountain, a precipice, a cliff, an escarpment, the high bank of a rive"); cocean: (ro. tulpin de porumb folosit ca nutre, cotor, tiulete;/eg. corn cob;/psh. osah- eg. "an ear of corn, a bunch"; bg. koan, scr. koanj); cocioab: (ro. cas mic de locuit, srccioas, drpnat; /eg. hut;/ slvn. koa- eg. "hut", psh. syab- eg. "a roof, a covering, a house, a home, a place of shelter, where one may lay one's head"); cocolo: (ro. bucat modelat sferic, bulgre, bo, ghemotoc; bulgre nefiert de mncare, bol, bulz;/eg. clod;/lt. kezulas- eg. "bundle, lump, clod"- "ghem, bulgre, cocolo", lt. gabalas- eg. "piece, bit, lumo, bar, cake, slice", lt. kukulis- eg. "culinar: doughball, dumpling", lv. kukurznis- eg. "clod, blob", lv. kunkulis- eg. "clot", lv. kunkuains-eg. "lumpy"- "plin de cocoloae". Pentru sensul culinar lt. kukulis, pentru sensul general lv. kukurznis, lv. kunkulis ? Considerat formaie onomatopeic); cojc: (ro. hain, vest tipic din blan de miel sau berbec, cu prul pe dinuntru, piele tbcit tiat n form de cazac, avnd mneci;/eg. coat, jacket;/lv. aitdas kaoks/aitdas puskaoks- eg. "sheepskin", lv. kaoks- eg. "pelt, coat, fur coat", vsl. kouch); <de> colo colo: (ro. ncoace i ncolo, peste tot;/eg. chase about;/psh. l l- eg. "here and there, rarely" ?); col: (ro. punct de ntlnire a muchiilor unui obiect; dinte, canin, proeminen ascuit;/eg. corner;/lt. kert/keria- eg. "corner, home". Considerat derivat din bg. kolec, scr. kolac"ru" ?, pl. kolec- "a nepa" explic sensul de dinte, canin. Pentru sensul de punct de ntlnire a muchiilor unui obiect propun lt. kert/keria); <a> congela/cancer: (ro. a solidifica prin rcire; "a fi cancer afar"- foarte frig, ngheat;/eg. congealment;/fr. congeler, lat. congelare; psh. kangal/kangalah <fem.>- eg. "ice, anything congealed or frozen by the cold; dense, solid, compact, close", psh. kangal kedal- eg. "to freeze, to become frozen, to congeal". Totui, ro. ngheat circul paralel cu ro. congela i este posibil ca cel de-al doilea s fie un mprumut recent <nu pare a fi n aro.>? n schimb, cancer cu sensul de frig, dei de circulaie redus, poate fi un autohton ? Ex. inc.); cote/cotinea /cotenea: (ro. adpost pentru psri, porci sau cini; capcan pentru prins pete n iazurile cu stuf;/eg. coop, cote, dog house, kennel, pigeonry;/sl. kotc; lv. koteda- eg. "chalet, bower, cottage"); co (coarc, paporni;/eg. basket;/sg. kiuocis, lv. ocis- lt.

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krepys- eg. "bag, basket"; vsl. ko); creast: (ro. partea cea mai de sus a unui munte, a unei case, a unui copac, a unui val de ap;/eg. crest;/lt. kratelis- eg. "edge", lt. kraigaseg. "ridge, summit of a roof", lt. kratas/ kratelis/kratinis/kratutinis- eg. "edge, border", lt. kratin- eg. "mathematical: side"); crup: (ro. partea de dinapoi i de sus a trunchiului unor mamifere, cuprins ntre ale i baza cozii;/eg. croup, crupper, ham;/lv. krpes- eg. "mane, crest, comb" ?; lv. kupris- eg. "hump, humpback, hunch"); cucurigu: (ro. interjecie ce imit cntecul cocoului;/eg. cock-a-doodle-doo;/lt. kakariek, lv. kikerig, lat. cucurrire, bg. kukurigu, pl., rut. kukuryku, sb. kukurijek); cucuruz: (ro. 1. tiulete de porumb; 2. porumb; 3. con de brad i alte conifere; 4. plante, petasites alba i petasites officinalis ;/1. corn cob; 2. corn; 3. fir cone, pine cone; 4. plants;/1. lt. kankoris- eg. bot. "pine cone, nub"; 2. Prss. kekeras/nep. kerau/psh. kk - eg. "pea", lv. kukurznis- eg. "clod, blob", lv. kukurza- eg. "maize, corn"; 3. lt. kankoris- eg. bot. "pine cone, nub", lv. iekurs- eg. "cone"; 4. lt. kibis- eg. "burdock"); ci, istr. cuu, istr. vli- cuie- K.60: (ro. pies mic turtit la un capt i ascuit la cellalt, diblu; crampon; cuier, crlig; neptur, junghi;/eg. nail;/lv. skuja- eg. "needle", lat. cuneus, alb. ku); cum-necum: (ro. oricum;/eg. anyhow, anyway;/sg. kam nekam-lt. "kai kur"; lt. kur ne kur- "eg. here and there"); curat: (ro. ngrijit, lipsit de murdrie;/eg. clean;/din lat. curare; informativ, psh. korah- eg. "new, unused, unbleached, unworn <as clothes>"); curis, aro. curios: (ro. care strnete curiozitatea, ciudat, neobinuit, straniu; indiscret;/eg. curious thing;/lt. kuriozaseg. "queer, curious thing; curiosity, odity", it. curioso, fr. curieux, ngr. ); curs: (ro. micare a unei ape curgtoare n direcia pantei, albie;/eg. course, flow;/lat. cursus; psh. u/ unah <pl.> - eg. "a watercourse; a ravine dry in summer; the sandy bed of a river or rivulet; the dry bed of a river"+ psh. rak- eg. "rut, track, path, mark of anything drawn along, course of a stream or current, a mark left by anything that has passed along, a line, a mark". n ro. poate un neologism !?); ct: (ro. pliu, ndoitur; rid;/eg. fold, frill, ply, pucker;/lt. kutai- tiv, lt. kantas- "cut", lv. aula- eg. "tegument, shell"); daci-nainte: (eg. hence;/lt. daninti- eg. "make more frequent, increase the frequency of" ?); dngt: (ro. sunetul prelung al clopotului, bangt;/lt. dangus- eg. "sky", lt. dangtis- eg. "lid, cover". Atunci cnd clopotele anunau moartea cuiva, semnificaia a trecut de la "s-a ridicat la cer" la "sunet care anun moartea", ajungnd sunet prelung al clopotului cu sensul de prere de ru, de jale. Ex. inc.); daraver: (eg. affair;/lt. derybos- eg. "negotiations, talks"); dar...<nc>: (ro. cu toate acestea, totui;/eg. but, still, anyway;/lt. dar- eg. "still, yet"); drz: (ro. curajos, viteaz;/eg. brave;/lt. drsa- eg. "courage, boldness, audacy"); dambla: (eg. apoplexy ;/lt. drambloti- eg. "walk clumsily, awkwardly" ?); dmb: (ro. form de relief mai mic dect dealul, colin, deluor;/eg. a hillock;/lt. damba- eg. "dam, dike, dyke"; lt. ups damb- eg. "river dam, dike", magh. domb); <a> drdi sau drdi: (ro. a tremura sau a clnni de frig, de fric; a plvrgi;/eg. quaking;/ pentru sensul de "a tremura de fric sau de frig": psh. dadedal- eg. "to ache, to suffer pain, to be in pain"; pentru sensul de "a plvrgi": aro. drdrire, megl. drdres cf. bg. durdoria- ro. "a plvrgi", tc. dirdir- ro. "guraliv"); degeaba/geaba: (ro. n zadar, zadarnic, degeaba;/eg, vain;/tc. caba, psh. ajab/ a-jabah- eg. "more, or most wonderful; wondering, being astonished, causing surprise or admiration"; psh. a-jbah- eg. "wonder, astonishment, miracle, prodigy". Poate i psh. tas- eg. "empty, void, devoid, having no sense or ideas, foolish, useless"+ psh. jak- eg. "hence foolish talk, nonsense, a useless matter". Psh. abas /abasah- eg. "vain, idle, absurd, trifling, profitless; in vain, idly, absurdly" ? Ex. inc.); deja, i: (ro. n acest sau acel moment, nc de pe acum sau de pe atunci;/eg. already, yet;/lt. jau- eg. "already", fr. dj. Ex. inc.); deloc: (ro. nicidecum, aro. dot;/eg. not at all;/ considerat compus de tipul de+loc; psh. lag- eg. "a little, small, scarce, few, scanty, seldom, less; a little, slightly, not much, in some degree"; psh. lag-lag- eg. "a small quantity, very little,

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little by little". Ex. inc.); de lng: (ro. de alturi;/eg. alongside;/lt. dalininkas- eg. "sharer, joint owner, partner" ?); <a> deretica: (ro. a face ordine, a face curat;/eg. clean, cleanup;/lt. doroti- eg. "1. put in good order; 2. work up, treat, process"); devlma: (ro. persoan care stpnea n devlmie cu altele o suprafa de teren, prta la o afacere, ran devlma;/eg. condominium;/lt. bevalikumas- eg. "weak will power, lack of will power" ?); dezm: (eg. wantoness;/ psh. z-ms- eg. "trial, proof, essay, examination, experiment; temptation"); drag<>: (ro. iubit, scump;/eg. beloved;/lt. draug- eg. "company, family, friend", lt. draug- eg. "together", lt. draugininkas- eg. "sociable person", lt. draugyst- eg. "friendship, amity", lt. draugas- eg. "friend", lt. draugas- eg. "sociable, companionable"; lv. draugs- "prieten", cf. vsl. drag "preios", bg., sbc. drag, mg. drga); dor, aro., megl. dor: (ro. nostalgie, ptima, rvn, nzuin; poft, atracie erotic;/eg. nostalgia, homesick, wistfulness;/lt. doruoju- eg. "own free will" contaminat cu lat. dolus cu sensul de durere, psh. dil-rm- eg. "beloved object, as a son, etc." sau psh. dil-rmah- eg. "a sweetheart, a mistress" poate sub o form "contractat" ? Lt. dorinti- eg. "ennoble"- a nnobila; lt. dora- eg. "morals, honesty"; lt. doras- eg. "moral, honest; good, proper, fit"); estimare/a estima: (eg. estimate;/lat. aestimare, fr. estimer, psh. is-timl/ is-timlnah <pl.>- eg. "custom, daily practice, exercise, use", psh. istiml- eg. "used, usual", psh. is-timl kawul- eg. "to use, to exercise" ?); fagure: (ro. strat de cear constnd din celule mici hexagonale, pe care le fac albinele lucrtoare, pentru a depune mierea i oule;/eg. honeycomb;/lat. favulus, lt. medaus koriai, bitkoriseg. "honeycomb". Dacism latinizat?); fapt: (ro. aciune svrit de cineva, isprav;/eg. act, fact;/lat. factum, lt. faktas- eg. "fact"); fazan, aro. faano: (ro. pasre slbatic de mrimea unei gini, vnat pentru carnea ei gustoas;/eg. pheasant;/lt. fazan, lv. fazns, rg. fasan); fclie: (ro. lumnare lung i groas de cear, tor;/eg. torch;/lt. fakelas- eg. "torch", bg. faklija, sbc. faklja); "fr cap": (lv. bezvecku, bez veckiem- eg. "parentless"); figur: (eg. figure;/lt. figra- eg. "figure"); flanel, aro. flanel: (ro. estur de bumbac sau ln, moale, pufoas, clduroas: vest sau mbrcminte de ln n form de pieptar;/eg. flannel, vest;/lt. flanel- eg. "flannel"; fr. flanelle, it. flanella); fluier, aro. fluier: (ro. instrument muzical de suflat, dintr-un tub subire cu multe orificii;/eg. flute, pipe, reed, whistle, penny trumpet; shank, fistula;/arb. flojr<>- it. "flauto, piffero", hu. floerca, floera- "fluier"; lt. fleita- eg. "flute"; posibil reproduce un vechi IE de tipul eg. flute <lt. fleita>+eg. reed de forma fluierte ? conservat de tgd. i iliro-mesapic ?); <a se> furia: (ro. ascuns, ferit, pe neobsevate;/eg. slinky;/psh. fur-at- eg." leisure, freedom, ease" ? Ex. inc.); gnd: (psh. nd- eg. "an instructor, a teacher, a preceptor, a learned man". Ex. inc. Mg. gond); gard: (aro. gardu;/eg. fence, hurdle;/lt. gardas- eg. "pen, fence, enclosure; stall"; lt. gardel- eg. "lattice, grating", nep. ghar-duwr- eg. "home" ?); gaur: (psh. wr gaey- eg. "a hole made in the ground by digging clay for making pots, a clay-pit", psh. aw-raey- eg. "a clay-pit" ? Psh. gor- eg. "a grave, a tomb, a sepulchre", psh. gor-handah- eg. "a ravine, a chasm, a pit, a grave"); gselni: (ro. situaie de efect gsit i exploatat de cineva <ntr-o oper literar, de critic etc.>;/psh. asaaey- eg. "a straw, or anything of no value" ?); <a> gzdui: (psh. gazedal- eg. "to repose, to recline, to stretch out, to lie along, to lie down, to lie flat, to retire to rest"); glgi/gargarisi: (ro. a curge provocnd un zgomot ritmic; a sorbi o butur cu nghiituri mari i cu zgomot; considerat onomatopee;/eg. gargle;/lt. gargaliju, gargaliti- germ. "gurgeln, rcheln"- eg. gurgle, gargle, stertorous- "a glgi, a gargarisi, a rgui", psh. gar-gaah- eg. "gurgling; a flame "); glm: (ro. umfltur, glc, bolf;/eg. bump, bulge;/psh. gar-makah- eg. "a small pustule" ?; psh. gar-makey- eg. "the prickly heat " ?; psh. waram- eg. "a swelling, a tumour" ?); gndac/ gndcel: (pentru nume de alint pentru copii; psh. gunaey- eg. "little, small, low in stature, squat, dumpy, dwarfish. 2. A little

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fat man, a dwarf. 3. A venomous spider" ? Ex. inc.; pentru insect: psh. gndah- eg. "disliked, offensive, loathsome, nauseous, repulsive, revolting, disgusting, disagreeable; a disgusting, stinking person"); gnganie/goang: (ro. insect;/eg. small insect;/pentru goang: psh. gng/gn-gan <pl.>- eg. "the dung beetle <Scarabus>"; pentru gnganie: vsl. gongnanije); gngav: (aro. gngvetsu, aro. gngu; ro. blbit;/eg. stammer;/ vsl. gongnav; psh. gung/gungah- eg. "dumb", psh. gungaey- eg. "a dumb person"; psh. gung kawul- eg. "to make or render dumb"; psh. gngaey- eg. "an owl", psh. gungosaey- eg. "discourse, mention, talk, report, talking over past events; sound of conversation, muttering, hum, chattering; the sound of footsteps, etc."); aro. grgaljiu: (ro. foc cu flacr mare;/eg. flame, flare;/psh. gar-gaah- eg. "a flame; gurgling"); aro. grguljiu: (ro. piatr rotund;/eg. a round stone;/lat. ?; psh. gar-gaey- eg. "a pebble, a small round stone"); grl: (ro. ap curgtoare mic, bra al unei ape curgtoare;/eg. effluent;/bg. grlo; psh. waah- eg. " a watercourse; a ravine dry in summer; the sandy bed of a river or rivulet; the dry bed of a river" ?); gz: (ro. insect zburtoare mic;/eg. bug;/ pl. giez; psh. azandah - eg. "a creeping thing, an insect, a reptile"; psh. glawzah - eg. "the honey bee"; psh. asak- eg. "a species of bug or wood-louse"; psh. gozakarkaey- eg. "a kind of beetle <Scarabus>", psh. cinjaey- eg. "a worm, an insect"); genu<n>chi (aro. dzinucljiu, megl. zinuclu; ro. parte a piciorului care cuprinde regiunea articulaiei femurului cu tibia;/eg. knee;/lat. genuc<u>lum; psh. zn/ zngn- eg. "the knee, the lap", psh. zangn/zangannah- eg. "the knee", rromani chang/ armeana estic unk - eg. "knee", cat. genoll/friulian zenoli- eg. "the knee"); gest: (ro. micare exterioar a corpului prin care se exprim o idee, un sentiment etc. sau se d mai mult expresivitate vorbelor; purtare, fapt care are o anumit semnificaie;/eg. gesture;/lat. gestus, fr. geste, lv. ests- eg. "gesture, movement, motion"); ghete: (ro. cizm ; bocanc;/eg. tramper, boots;/ lt. getrai- eg. "gaiters, leggings, spats"- "jambiere, ghetre, carmbi". DEX indic it. ghetta); gige: (ro. n limbajul copiilor: frumos, drgu;/eg. handsome;/lt. didiai- eg. "greatly, very highly, dear". Ex. inc.); <a> gin: (ro. a observa, a privi, a bga de seam;/eg. to observe;/ lt. inia- eg. "news, information; information, intelligence; knowledge", lt. inija/ inios- eg. "knowledge"); gnga: (ro. plpnd, firav, delicat, fin;/eg. delicate;/lt. dzingalas- eg. "little bell". Ciudat, dar lt. jgingas- eg. "strong" este opus ro.; Ex. inc.); giuvaier/ giuvaericale: (ro. bijuteri<e,i>, podoab; aro. giuvairi, aro. givarico;/eg. gem, jewel; jewel<le>ry <pl.>;/tc. cevher/cevahir <pl.>; ngr. dzsovairik; psh. jawhir/jawhirnah <pl.>- eg. "a jewel, a gem"); gol: (psh. gr- eg. "a cavern, a pit, a cave"); <a> goli: (ro. a scoate coninutul unui vas, recipient, a deerta, a rmne pustiu;/eg. clean out, discharge;/ltg. gols- lv. beigas- eg. "finis, close, conclusion, ending, finish, termination, death, end, last"); <a> goni: (ro. a urmri, a alunga, a izgoni;/eg. cast out, chase ;/sg. guont- lt. ikeikti/iplsti - eg. "scold, rail, abuse"; vsl. goniti); gri: (ro. a vorbi, a spune, a rosti; aro. grescu;/eg. talk;/sb. grajati- "a croncni" ? Psh. guanj- eg. "a low sound or voice, a whisper of anything, speaking with suspicion or timorous caution, breathing", psh. guanj cawul- eg. "to whisper, to speak with caution and suspicion", psh. gn-gah kedal- eg. "to lisp, to speak indistinctly or through the nose" mai apropiat de ro. gnguri; skt. ghurghuryat- eg. "to murmur, hum, whisper", bal. gal- eg. "statement, talk", sindhi ggaalhi- eg. "speach, talk, story"; nep. kur- eg. "speech, talk, language"); gru/grne: (ro. plant erbacee din familia gramineelor, din ale cror boabe se face fin- Triticum; smna acestei plante;/eg. corn;/lat. granum, lv. grauds- eg. "corn, granule, grain, berry, foresight, stone", psh. ganam- eg. "wheat"); grebl: (ro. unealt agricol cu ajutorul creia se strng paiele, fnul, se mrunesc bulgrii, se niveleaz solul;/eg. rake;/lt. grbliai, lv. grbeklis, hu. hreblea/hrebli, alb. grabuj- eg. "rake"-

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"grebl"); greeal: (ro. abatere de la adevr, eroare;/eg. error, mistake;/vsl. griti, lv. grks- eg. "sin, transgression", lv. grksdze- ltg. spoveds- eg. "shrift, confession". Psh. galat- eg. "an error, a mistake, a blunder"+psh. sahwah- eg. "an error, mistake, fault, blunder, omission, inadvertency"); grindin: (ro. a bate piatr;/eg. hail;/it. grandine, psh. gala wo-redal- eg. "to hail", psh. gala- eg. "a hailstone, hail" ?); grohoti: (ro. grmad buci roc rezultate din sfrmarea rocilor;/eg. debris, detritus, scree;/ psh. gar-kanah - eg. "a rolling stone from a mountain; a stone thrown from a hill or the battlements of a castle"; psh. gaah/gaah waah- eg. "a large round stone or pebble" ?); gugutiuc: (ro. pasre asemntoare cu porumbelul slbatic;/eg. ring dove;/bg. gugutuk; psh. gugst/ gugstgn - eg. "a ring-dove"); gur: (ro. gaur, orificiu;/ eg. mouth;/lat. gla cf. it.,cat. gola, fr. gueule; psh. ulah- eg. "the mouth, orifice, entrance", psh. go-lah- eg. "a mouthful" ?); halat: (hain lung pentru protecie purtat n timpul lucrului, hain comod i lung care se poart prin cas, hain lung i larg purtat de orientali;/eg. wrapper, dressing gown;/bg., rus. chalat, tc. halyat/hilat, psh. alt, alat or ilat /altnah <pl.>- eg. "a dress, or robe of honor presented to a person by a prince" ?); hangar/angarale: (psh. an-ga- eg. "a building, a house containing many stories" cf. fr. hangar; pentru ro. angarale- eg. ngr. angaria. Totui, n ro. ambele cuvinte par de mprumut.); hambar: (aro. hmbari; ro. magazie de cereale, grnar, jitni;/eg. barn, grange;/ mg. hambr, bg. hambar, tc.,iran. ambar, ; lv. kambaris- eg. "chamber", hitt. haruna- "a barn", psh. am-br- eg. "1. a heap, a stack, a barn, a granary; 2. a stack or rick of corn, a granary, a grain store".); hapciu: (ro. cuvnt care imit zgomotul produs de strnut;/eg. atchoo !, atishoo !, tish-ho !;/lt. ai- eg. "thanks", rspunsul la hapciu fiind ro. noroc <insisten: "se spune noroc !"> ? Comunicare secret n perioada cuceririi romane: se transmiteau mesaje, urndu-se deopotriv ans ? Dar i lt. apiuopti, apiupinti- eg. "grope, feel"- a pipi , conf. ro. ciupi; sens de a gdila, a determina strnutul ? i lt. iaudti- eg. "sneeze"); reg. haraba: (ro. car;/eg. cart;/psh. ar-bah- eg. "a wheeledcarriage, a gun-carriage, a cart, a tumbril"; tc. araba); harababur: ( ro. dezordine, ncurctur, glgie, scandal;/eg. glory-hole, stour;/tc. ana babulla, psh. as-bb/ asbbna- eg. "goods and chattels, furniture, stores, baggage". Un sens "amestecat" de bagaje aruncate n car de-a valma ? Ex. inc.); harbuz: (ro. pepene verde, lubeni, bostan, curcubet;/eg. watermelon;/lv. arbzs, lt. arbzas, pl. arbuz, rus. , ngr. , hd. tarbz, nep. tarbuja- eg. "watermelon". n tc. poate proveni din ad-stratul greco-bythinofrigian, pb. dintr-un iniial garbuza/karbuza cu transformarea lui g/k n h ca n hu.);
pepene verde- shalqi (alb.)- (bg.)- sndria (cat.)- lubenica (cr., slvn.)- meloun (ch.)- vandmelon (dan.)- watermeloen (ol.)- watermelon (eg.)- pastque (fr.)- sanda (gal.)- Wassermelone (germ.)- (ngr.)- trded (mg.)- anguria (it.)arbzs (lv.)- arbzas (lt.)- dulliega (maltez)- vannmelon (norv.)- arbuz (pl.)- melancia (port.)- (rus.)- (sb.)- meln (slv.)- sanda (sp.)- vattenmelon (su.)- karpuz (tc.)- (ucr.)

harcea-parcea: (psh. prcah- eg. "a fragment, a piece, a scrap, a rag, cloth, clothing", psh. cr prah- eg. "broken rice, the bullet of a gun, divided into four" sau poate psh. arjal-barjal- eg. "entangled, entrapped <as a bird in a net>, noosed" ?. n psh. deasemenea din turc ?); hat/hotar: (ro. rzor, hotar; frontier;/eg. borderline;/ucr. hat- ro. "zgaz", psh. add/addnah- eg. "1.boundary, extent, limit, extremity; 2. an impediment; 3. a definition; 4. a starting post", psh. sar-add/sar-addnah- eg. "boundary, limits, confines, frontier, extremity" conduce la sintagma hatul/hotarul rii; psh. tar-ah- eg. "manner, mode; position, establishment"; mg. hatr; sl. chotar ); hatr: (ro. poft, plcere;/eg. relish;/ tc. hatir, psh. tar-ah- eg. "manner, mode; position, establishment". Pare totui din tc.); <a> hrui: (eg. affair, harassment;/psh. so kawul- eg. "to attack, to charge, to assault, to make a sortie, onslaught" poate sub forma kawul so; mg. harcag; lt. atagaeg. "obstinate, refractory creature"; lt. atagarioti- eg. "doing everything the wrong, other way/round; contradict, thwart, cross"); hrb: (ro. ciob, sprtur, lucru vechi, stricat; om

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bolnav, neputincios, btrn;/eg. junk;/bg. hrbel, psh. arb- eg. "bad, depraved; ruined, abandoned, spoiled, lost, deserted, depopulated, waste"; psh. arb- eg. "ruin, desolation, ill, mischief, evil, destruction"); hr<>it:(ro. trecut prin necazuri i nevoi, deprins cu rul i neajunsurile; clit;/eg. experienced;/psh. ho-yr (W.) or ho-yr (E.)eg. "intelligent, clever, sensible, wise, endowed with judgment or capacity, careful, prudent, discreet, cautious, attentive, alert, awake, watchful, accurate, sober" ? ); haha: (ro. micare ritmic repetat;/psh. sah-sah- eg. "uncomfortable, irritating, stinging, tormenting"); hei !: (ro. 1. Exclamaie care exprim o chemare sau prin care se atrage cuiva atenia; 2. Exclamaie care exprim: voie bun, satisfacie, plcere, admiraie, nerbdare, rezerv, contrarietate, surprindere, regret. Aici tratat cu sensul: ascult !, atunci cnd cineva nu rspunde la salut ca i cum n-ar nelege, ar fi strin i se ndeprteaz este ultima form de apelare pentru a-l opri; un germanic: gepid sau gotic?;/eg. hi !;/su. hej, norv., lv. hei); hrib, var. hrib: (ro. reg. Mold. ciuperc de pdure comestibil, cu piciorul alb, gros i cu plria brun-glbuie, mntarc- Boletus edulis;/eg. boletus;/lt. grybas, rut. hryb - eg. "mushroom"- "ciuperc"); huidum: (ro. persoan mare i gras, matahal;/eg. hulk, thumper;/Et. nec., psh. a-zam/ a-zamah - eg. " greater, greatest"); a hurduca: (ro. a scutura, a zdruncina, a zgli;/eg. jolt;/psh. akah wahal- eg. "to push, to shove, to precipitate; to overshadow" poate sub forma <wa>hal akah; psh. akah waal- eg. "to receive a shove, push, or jolt"); iap: (ro. femela calului;/eg. mare;/lat. equa, psh. s-pah- eg. "a mare"); ic, megl. ioc: (ro. nimic, defel, ctui de puin;/eg. nought;/lt. joks- eg. "no whatever, none whatever": Ex. inc.; tc., cum. yok); ipac: (ro. la fel, de asemenea, aijderea, tot aa;/eg. idem, also, like, too;/lt. ypa- eg. "especially, particularly", sl. ipak- slavism cultural ?); in: (ro. 1. plant erbacee textil i oleaginoas Linum usitatissimum sau Linum flavum; 2. fir obinut prin prelucrarea inului i pnz fcut din aceste fire;/eg. flax;/lt. linas, pl. linai- germ. "Flachs"- "in, fuior, pnz de in"; lat. linum); ite: (ro. care acioneaz sau reacioneaz repede; expeditiv, prompt; care se produce repede, prompt; care fuge, alearg, nainteaz repede, rapid; n grab, repede, imediat, ndat;/eg. agile, fast;/lt. judjimas- eg. "motion, moving"; vsl. ljut); ispt: (ro. nv.: cercetare, examinare, studiu; experien;/eg. temptation;/lv. izpte- eg. "trial", lv. izptiana- eg. "investigation, reconnaissance, search", lv. izptit- eg. "explore, investigate, prospect, search, sound, to go over, to read up", vsl. ispytati); stria: (ro. nume de vnt;/eg. a wind name;/lt. striai- eg. "slantwise, obliquely"); ncovoiat: (ro. a face s devin sau a deveni curb, a se ndoi, a se arcui;/eg. hooked, inflected, curved;/sl. kovati- ro. "a furi" ; psh. kog-wog- eg. "very much bent, quite crooked"; psh. kagwlaey/kag-wl <pl.>- eg. "crookedness, bend, twist, wryness"); ncrengtur (psh. kng- eg. "askew, awry, crooked, distorted, twisted, all on one side", psh. kngedal- eg. "to become contorted, twisted, crooked, to grow askew or awry, to grow all on one side". Ex. inc.); n niciun caz/nicidecum: (eg. in no way/by no means;/lt. niekaip- eg. "in no way, by no means", lt. niniekas- eg. "absolutely nobody/nothing, absolutely no one, nothing whatever, at all"); n (prin) orice chip/ pe orice cale: (psh. pah har l key or key- eg. "under any circumstances, by hook or by crook, by all means, howsoever"); <a n>cerca: (ro. a testa, a cuta, a tri un sentiment;/eg. to prove;/lat. circre, alb. krkoj, it. cercare, cat., sp., port. cercar, fr. chercher; ro. provine din lat., totui, informativ reproducem: psh. seal- eg. "to thrust, to probe, to stab, to pink, to stuff into, to cram, to force or ram in, to press or squeeze into, etc." la viitor wu-seah or wu-sea); ncotro: (eg. where/ skt. kutra- eg. "where"; psh. cartah- eg. "where? in what place?"); ndat: (psh. an-dak/ andakah <fem.>- eg. "little, few, small" ?); ndrt: (eg. behind;/lt. dairytis- eg. "turn back to look at something, glance back, behind, look round, look about"; lv. dert, ltg.

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pidart/dert- eg. "bet, wager, suit, punt, back, to go on"- "a da napoi"; psh. da-wrustoeg. "behind, in the rear, out of sight" ); <a> nfa, aro. nfa, megl. anfa: (ro. a nfura n scutece, a bandaja, a acoperi strns de jur mprejur;/eg. enswathe, bind, clout, swaddle;/lt. fasuoti- eg. "pack up", lat fascire); a <se> nroi <n foc>: (ro. despre metale- nroit n foc, incandescent;/eg. glowing, red hot;/psh. ron or ron kawuleg. "to light, to render luminous or lustrous, to illuminate, to brighten". Ex. inc.); ntre: (eg. between;/lt. tarp- eg. "between, among/ amongst, amid"); <a> nvrti: (ro. a se rsuci, a se roti;/eg. gyrate, turn round, wind up;/vsl. vrteti, lt. vartaliotis- eg. "turn, toss and turn", lt. vartymas- eg. "turning <over>", lt. vartyti- eg. "turn, turn over; look over <through>; roll <smth> <in ones hand>", lt. vartytis- eg. "turn over, roll", lt. vartytis nuo vieno ono- eg. "turn from side to side"; psh. war-tah- eg. "a maze, a labyrinth, a whirlpool, embarrassment, difficulty"); <a> mbia: (eg. tubbing;/psh. lambawul- eg. "to render clean, to bathe, to wash, to cleanse, to dip, to immerse, to absterge"); <a> mbia: (ro. figurat, cu sensul de a atrage;/eg. sell on;/se indic posibilele lat. ambire- ro. "a nconjura", lat. invire- ro. "a obliga" sau lat. invire- ro. "a ndruma". Psh. an-biy- eg. "prophets" ? Ex. inc.); <a> mpila: (ro. sensul de a mpovra cu dri, a asupri, a oprima;/eg. opress, grind down, coerce;/lt. pilietis- "cetean, supus", lt. pilietybe- "cetenie", lt. pilietinis- "civic, civil"); <a> izvori: (eg. spring well;/ psh. sar-zwaah- eg. "a declivity, a slope, descent" ?); javr: (psh. jwlan- eg. "a fool, a milksop, a loon, a dolt, an ass"); jder: (ro. carnivor din familia mustelidelor, cu blan preioas brun-nchis, sngeap; blana acestui animal;/eg. marten: Martes martes, pekan: Martes;/sbc. dero- "lacom" ?; jder: lt. vrelis- eg. "young beast", lt. vrena- eg. "skin of a beast", lt. vrija- eg. "wild beasts", lt. vris- eg. "1. wild-beast, 2. brute, beast"; blana jderului: lt. vrininkas- eg. "fur farmer, fur breeder" ); <a>/<a se> jeli: (ro. a se plnge, vita, tngui, cina; a boci un mort; a deplnge, comptimi, regreta;/eg. bewail, cry, lament, mourn;/corespunde lv. loties, lv. loans- eg. "yammer, complain, grumble, lament", ltg. laste- lv. sdzbaeg. "plaint, complaint, grievance, information, bill", psh. jala- eg. "a scream, a shriek, a roar, a bellow; calling with a loud voice"; vsl. aliti); <a nu fi> jegos/"fig. jeg": (ro. a nu fi murdar; n expresie: a nu abuza? <incert>; fig.: om de nimic /eg. exaggerate; dud, stumbler/"a nu abuza": lt. jga- eg. "strenght, force"; "om de nimic": psh. jel kawul- eg. "to show or manifest ignorance or stupidity". Ex. inc.); jivin: (ro. animal slbatic <fioros>, dihanie, jiganie, jigodie, lighioan;/eg. tyke, twerp;/sbc., bg., slvn. ivina, pl. ywina"efective de animale sau psri", din sl. iv "viu"; lt. vyn- eg. "rat"- "obolan", psh. jnwar- eg. "an animal, a beast", psh. jawaey- eg. "a person, an individual, a body, a creature, a mortal, a party"); june/junime: (ro. tnr, flcu, burlac, brbat nensurat; tineret, tinerime;/eg. a.young; b.young people;/lt. jaunas- eg. "young, youthful", lt. jauniseg. "youth", lat. juvenis; lt. jaunimas/jaunuomen- eg. "youth, young people"; psh. jnaeg. "a young girl, a girl, a young unmarried woman", psh. jn- eg. "a virgin, a maiden, spinster", psh. jawn/ jawnwn- eg. "young, juvenile"); juninc: (ro. vac tnr, ntre doi i trei ani, care nc nu a avut viel; junc;/ eg. heifer;/lat. junix, -cis; lt. jauniklis- eg. "1. young/little one, 2. cub, calf, hatch"); juvete: (ro. nume generic dat petilor mruni;/eg. small fish;/lt. uvyt- eg. "small fish, small fry", lt. uvis- eg. "fish", lv. zivseg. "fish". Considerat et. nec.); reg. lcar: (ro. privighetoare-de-stuf, Acrocephalus;/eg. nightingale;/lv. lakstgala, lt. laktut- eg. "nightingale"); <a se> lfi: (ro. a sta comod pe ceva, ntinzndu-se n voie; a huzuri, a se rsfa; nv. i reg. a <se> proslvi; /pentru sensul de "a sta comod, ntinzndu-se": posibil mg. leffenni- "a blbni, a atrna"; pentru sensul de "a huzuri" i "a se proslvi": psh. lfey kawul or lfey wahal- eg. "to boast, to brag".); lli: (ro. a cnta monoton, la nesfrit o melodie, nlocuind de obicei cuvintele cu

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silaba "la" repetat;/eg. sing-song;/lt. liliuoti- eg. "lull, lull to sleep; sing to sleep; heave, wave, sway, rock, sing". Lt. apropiat de formaia repetitiv din cntecele Maram.ene: "iuiu-iu i iar iu". Psh. lalo-lalo- eg. "a lullaby, a song to soothe a child, solace".); lptuc, aro. lptuc, istr. ltuc: (ro. salat verde;/eg. romaine- lactuva sativa longifolia;/lt. latkai/ laktkai- germ. "Salat", lat. lactca- "salat"); luz: (ro. femeie aflat n primele sptmni de la natere;/ ngr. lehsa, bg. lehusa; psh. lwag-zah - eg. "a goat, ewe, cow, or female buffalo when in milk, sent to one's friends to retain for a time" ?); lng: (ro. psh. lndey- eg. "below, under, beneath, down"); lep: (ro. lovitur cu palma; joc de copii n care se folosete atingerea cu mna;/eg. clout, tig;/sg. lep- lt. "letena"- ro. "palm, mn"; lt. lepis- eg. "slack/sluggish person; nincompoop; ninny"; psh. lapah- eg. "the space in the palm of the hand, closed so as to hold anything, a handful" ); reg. lic, megl. leic: (ro. plnie;/eg. funnel, hopper;/sg. leika- lt. piltuvas- plnie, lv. lktjs- eg. "hopper", rus. leika, sbc. levak- "plnie"); lele/leli: (ro. mtu, sor mai mare; iubit, mndr; femeie rea sau imoral;/lt. ll- eg. "doll", lt. llyt- eg. "dolly, chrysalis, pupa, pupil of the eye", lv. lelle- eg. "puppet, doll", lellte- eg. "dollface, popsie, popsy, dolly, doll", psh. lail- eg. "a mistress in general", psh. l-ley- eg. "dear, beloved, darling, a word of endearment; a darling, a favorite", psh. l-lan- eg. "a sweetheart, a lover". Informativ berber i araba maghrebian lalla- fr. "dame, demoiselle". Pentru sensul de mtu- bg. . Aro. lele, lal similar cu arb. ll/- it. "fratello maggiore". Un lt. llys- eg. "zool. goatsucker, nightjar"- "caprimulg, papalud, rndunic de noapte" sau psh. lo-la- eg. "a whore, a courtezan" ar fi o explicaie pentru sensul depreciativ de femeie stricat, desfrnat); le: (ro. mortciune, hoit; aro. lee, le;/eg. offal, carrion;/tc. le, alb. lje, bg. le, lat. lixium, psh. l <W.> or l <E.>- eg. "a dead body, a corpse, carcass; a steep or scarped place in a mountain inaccessible" ); licr/<a> licri: (ro. a sclipi, a luci, a plpi;/ eg. glint, schimmer ;/ psh. laah- eg. "a great flame with smoke, a blaze"); lin, aro. inar: (ro. pete Tinca vulgaris;/ eg. tench, Tinca Tinca;/lt. lynas- germ. "Schleie (Fisch)", vsl. lin, ch., pl. lin); loaz: (ro. sectur;/ psh. lwe-jand- eg. "a sponger, a hanger on, one who comes when dinner is ready, a parasite"); lopat: (eg. spade, shovel;/sg. luopeta/lopeta- lt. kastuvas- lv. luopsta/lpsta - eg. "spade, shovel" ; coinciden fonetic ntre sg. i ro.); lut: (ro. argil;/ eg. clay;/ lat. lutum, it. Loto; psh. lah- eg. "a clod of earth, a clod, a clot"; psh. leaey- eg. "hard clay"); mac: (ro. numele unor plante din familia papaveraceelor cu flori roii i semine mrunte, uleioase, nchise ntr-o capsul; plante opiacee;/eg. corn poppy papaver rhoeas;/lt. aguonas, lv. magone, bg.,ch., pl., ucr., sbc. mk); maidan: (psh. mai-dn/ mai-dnnah- eg. "a plain, a field, an area; a field of battle, a parade ground"); mciuc, var. Trans., Ban. mocioac, aro. muc, megl. mcioc, mciuc, ceamug: (ro. bt mare, mult ngroat i adesea ferecat la un capt, chilom, mciulie;/eg. bludgeon, cosh, cudgel;/pl. maczuga- mciuc, ciomag; psh. macak/ macakn <pl.>- eg. "a shepherd's crook, a stick with a crook at the end of it", lt. kuoka- eg. "bludgeon, cudgel, club"); mcar: (aro. macar- ro. "cel puin, chiar dac, mcar"; ro. cel puin, barem;/eg. unless;/ngr. makri, alb., sbc., bg., slvn. makar, tc.,ud., iran. magar, it. magari, psh. magar- eg. "unless, perhaps, only, except, but, however", psh. maaey or muaey- eg. "<vest> even, equal, level in rank or degree, on a par with, up to the mark, equivalent" cf. ro. "mcar c..."); <a fi> mhnit: (ro. a ntrista, a supra, a apsa;/eg. sorry, tear ;/psh. minat- eg. "laborious, industrious, laboring, hard-working, difficult, unfortunate", psh. minat kawul- eg. "to toil, to labor, to work hard"); mgar: (eg. donkey; sg. makar<i>s- lt. rimbas, pliektuvas, lazda muti- eg. "whip, lash, scourge""bici, a biciui"; cr. magarac; psh. makkr- eg. "a cheat, a knave, an impostor" pentru sensul figurat al ro. mgar, psh. gorah-ar/ gyarah - eg. "the wild ass or onager" posibil sub forma ar- gorah sau psh. acar- eg." a mule"); mgdu: (ro. lungan, vljgan;/eg.

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maypole;/psh. gd/ gdah <fem.>- eg." <E.> Long, lengthy, extended, prolonged, protracted, elongated, stretched out"); mjar: (ro. pescar sau negustor de pete;/eg. fishermanor, fishmonger;/din ro. maj <mg. mzsa, psh. mahaey-gr- eg. "a fisherman" sau poate influenat de sl. maa- ro. "unsoare" ?); mlai-mare: (ro. bleg;/ psh. malmateg. "reproach, blame, rebuke, censure", psh. malmat- eg. "reproached, blamable, reprehensible"); aro. mndii/mndipsescu/mndz: (aro. mndii- ro. "farmece, magie"; aro. mndipsescu- ro. "fermeca, vrji"; aro; mndz- ro. "blestem"; psh. mantar- eg. "a charm, a spell, an incantation, a philter", psh. mantar wayal- eg. "to exorcise, to charm, to bewitch" ? n aro. considerat din ngr. Echivalentul din ro. ar fi familia ro. a mini- minciun, care are o deviaie semantic fa de original, doar daca nu are alt origine.); mndru, mndr: (ro. falnic, orgolios; frumos, drgu; iubit<>, prieten<>;/eg. handsome; friend;/ sensul de "iubit, prieten": psh. mandaraey- eg. "small, little, short in stature; a little man" i psh. mandara- eg. "a little woman; an ornament for the ears; a pearl" ? Diferen semantic. Pentru sensul de "frumos, drgu" poate psh. man-zr- eg. "approved of, agreeable, chosen, acceptable, admissible, admired"); mndica/mndia: (?; Posibil utilizat extrem de rar; aro. mandis- eg. "vrjitoare"; psh. mn-dnah- eg. "a female in general, a wife, a married woman"); mr: (ro. arbore fructifer;/eg. apple;/lat. melus; psh. maah- eg. "an apple"); mrgrit<ar>: (aro. mrgritaru; ro. perl;/eg. pearl;/ngr., bg., sbc. margarit; ngr., alb., bg. margaritar; psh. mar-galarah- eg. "a pearl", poate cf. ro. mrge<a,lu>); mrgic: (ro. fiecare dintre boabele de piatr, sticl, mrgean sau lemn, de diferite forme i culori, folosite ca podoab;/ eg. bead;/lat. margella; psh. margacicaey- eg. "a kind of grain about the size of a pea made into necklaces and other ornaments for women", psh. mar-galarah- eg. "a pearl", psh. mardakaey- eg. "a ball, a bullet, a pellet, a marble, etc."); <a> mri: (ro. a vorbi neclar, printre dini, manifestnd nemulumire, enervare;/eg, snarl;/ psh. mah- eg. "complaint, murmur, lamentation"; psh. marawur- eg. "vexed, displeased, angry, offended"; psh. marawur-wlaey- eg. "vexation, displeasure, umbrage, pique; huff, pet, a passion" care amintete i de ro. moravuri); <a, a se> mnji: (ro. a se murdri, a se pta; a mzgli;/eg. dauber, tarry;/sl. maa- ro. "unsoare", rus. maati/manuti- ro. "a unge cu grsimi", psh. man-garaey kawul- eg. "to mediate, to intercede, to compromise, to make peace". Din sensul de compromis s derive i ro. mnji, influenat poate i de termenul slav ? Acelai sens de compromis conduce i la expresia ro. "a mnca rahat" ? Psh. manja/ manjaaeyah- eg. "a term of abuse" care conduce i la ro. argotic mnzoc- sens figurat pentru organul sexual masculin ?); reg. Mold. mnzlu/ mnjlu (ro. biat de spltoreas;/eg. son of a laundrywomen;/ psh. mn-al/mn-dz <prezent>- eg. "<vest> to wash, to cleanse, to purify, to clean, to lave, to absterge"); <a> mscri: (ro. a vorbi de ru, a huli;/ eg. smut;/ psh. masarah- eg. "drollery, buffoonery, a jest, a saying" ; psh. masarah kawul- eg. "to joke, to jest, to play the buffoon"; psh. masa-rc- eg. "a buffoon, a jester, a droll"); mieros: (ro. despre vorbe, privire, zmbet: care exprim bunvoin i amabilitate aparent, dulceag;/eg. cajoling, glossy, greasy, inisnuating;/lt. mielai, mielas- "amabil, atrgtor"); miez: (ro. mijloc, centru, punct central; inim, buric, glbenu; pulp, mduv; esen, partea moale a pinii; aro. njeadz, njedzu/eg. core, kernel, meat, pulp;/lat. mdius sau mdia ; psh. mi-yan/mi-yannah <pl.>- eg. "the middle of anything, the centre", psh. pah mi-yan- eg. "in the midst, in the middle, in between" cf. ro. amiaz); migdal, reg. Ban. badim, aro. mighdal: (ro. pom fructifer mediteraneanPrunus amygdalus;/eg. almond;/lt. migdolas, pl. migdaowy, rus., ucr. , ngr. . Reg. badim se explic prin sbc., bg., alb. i tc.);
migdal- bajame (alb.)- (bg.)- d'ametlles (cat.)- badem (cr.)- mandlo (ch.)- mandel (dan.)- amandelboom (ol.)almond (eg.)- amande (fr.)- amndoa (gal.)- Mandel (germ.)- (ngr.)- mandula (mg.)- mandorla (it.)- mandeu (lv.)-

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor migdolas (lt.)- mandel (norv.)- migdaowy (pl.)- amndoa (port.)- (rus.)- (sb.)- manda (slv.)- Mandelj (sloven.)- de almendras (sp.)- badem (tc.)- (ucr.)

milog: (ro. ceretor, persoan care se roag cu insisten, njosindu-se, pentru a obine ceva, calic;/eg. scrounger;/considerat derivat din ro. mil: aro. njil, sl. mil sau contaminare a lui mil cu olog; psh. mihr/mihrnah- eg. "love, friendship, kindness, affection"+ psh. lwagah- eg. "<est> hunger, appetite, craving, longing, yearning". Psh. malang- eg. "kind of darwes" ? Poate din expresia ro. "a umbla cu miloaga" cu un vechi sens de "a mnca de poman" a derivat milog cu sensurile actuale ? Ex. inc.); reg. miin: (ro. vizuin, brlog, ascunztoare;/eg. burrow, couch, den, lair;/lt., lv. midzenis- eg. "lair"); molu: (ro. fr energie, fr voin;/eg. languid;/lat. mollis; psh. malk- eg. "delicate, handsome; also fair". Ex. inc.); mocan: (ro. cioban din regiunile muntoase mai ales ale Trans.;/eg. shepherd;/ lv. mctjs- eg. "pastor, sheperd, padre, parson" + lv. gans- eg. "herdsman, shepherd"); morcov: (ro. plant leguminoas din familia umbeliferelor, cu rdcina groas conic, de culoare galben-roietic i cu gust dulce, folosit n alimentaie; Daucus carota sativa;/eg. carrot;/lt. morka, pl. marchew, ch. mrkev, hu. morcva, ucr. , bg. morkov); mormi: (ro. despre animale: a scoate sunete groase, joase, scurte; despre oameni: a vorbi nedesluit, nazal, exprimnd o nemulumire, a bombni, a mri;/eg. mutter, mumble;/lt. murmenia, murmenti- germ. "murmeln"- a murmura, a mormi, a bolborosi, lt. murmulis; lv. murmint- eg. "burble, mumble, mutter, throat, splatter, murmur, to speak in ones beard", lt. marmaliuoti- eg. "mutter, mumble, sink, bubble, effervesce", lt. marmeklis- eg. "mutter, mumble"); muc i sfrc: (lt. vakigalis- eg. "candle-end" ?; psh. marg jwk- eg. "life and death, living and dying". Ex. inc.) ; mucegai, var. mucigi, mucezeal, mui: (ro. nume dat ciupercilor saprofite sau parazite care se dezvolt pe suprafaa substanelor organice, pe ziduri, pe pietre etc. sub forma unui strat ca psla, cenuiu sau verzui, i care provoac degradarea mediului pe care se dezvolt; p. ext. igrasie; mucezeal;/eg. mould;/lt. msai- eg. "mould", lt. msoti- eg. "grow mouldy/musty" explic reg. mui; lat. mcdus); murdar: (ro. soios, slinos, jegos;/eg. dirty;/psh. murdr- "polluted, impure, squalid, ugly, profane"; psh. murdr- eg. "pollution, impurity, profanity", psh. murdrawul- eg. "to make or render impure, to pollute, to profane"; skt. apamard- eg. "what is swept away, dust, dirt", punj. almal- eg. "dirt" + punj. ghor- eg. "dirt"; hd. mail/mal- eg. "dirty"+hd. gand- eg. "dirty" sau hd. dhab- eg. "blemish, stain, dash", nep. dhamilo- eg. "dirty, dim, not clear, muddy"+nep. gaddar- eg. "mud, dirt, swamp" sau chiar eg. muck+dirty sau eg. mudded. Tc., alb., sb. murdar. Termenul pare a fi IE, exemplu eg. dirty reproduce ultima parte a cuvntului ro. n DEX indicat ca fiind din tc.); <a> mustci: (ro. a rde pe sub musta, a zmbi reinut; a strmba din nas, a fi nemulumit de ceva ;/eg. smile;/psh. msedal- eg. "to smile, to simper, to smirk, to grin", psh. muskaey- eg. "smiling, laughing", psh. muskaey kawul- eg. "to smile, to laugh" ?) ; musafir: (psh. musfir- eg. "a traveller, a stranger, a passenger". Deasemenea, n tc. i ab. Cuvnt "universal" ?); mueel: (psh. ma-soskaey- eg. "the name of a plant which grows in low ground, and is used by alchemists on account of its yellow colour" ?, dar termenul normal este: psh. maror- eg. >"camomile". Ex. inc.); <a> muina: (ro. a adulmeca, a mirosi, a cuta;/eg. smell, smelt;/ro. aduce fonetic cu lv. musint- eg. "foment, incite, instigate" i lv. musinos- eg. "coat-trailing, seditious, rebellious, incendiary", dei sensul e altul); nad: (ro. reg. Maram. i Trans. stuf, papur, pipirig, trestie;/eg. cane, reed;/lt. nendr- eg. "bot. cane, reed"); nai: (psh. nai- eg. "a reed, a tube, a pipe, a flute, a cane", iran. nei-ro. "trestie", tc. nay, ney); nbdi: (ro. acces de furie, de mnie;/eg. hot temper;/sbc. neobuzdan- "nbdios"; lv. nabadzgs- eg. "indigent, necessitous, needy, penurious, beggarly, low", lv. nabags- eg. "pauper, poor, poor beggar, poor body", lv. nabadzgi- eg. "barely, poorly, baldly, low"; lv. nebaidies- eg.

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"never fear !"; psh. badalawul- eg. "to change, to barter, to alter, to vary, to shift, to diversify", psh. nbalada-eg. "inexperienced". De la sensul "n nevoie" a devenit "recalcitrant sau fr team" ?); nprstoc: (ro. epitet dat unui copil mic, persoan mic de statur;/eg. gnome;/lt. Nyktukas- eg. "gnomes" ?, bg. naprstok, nep. nar-pic- eg. "a devil in human form"); ntru: (ro. care vdete lips de inteligen, prost, neghiob, tmp, tont, ntng, netot, nerod, nuc;/eg. buffer, cabbage head, clot, donkey, dupe, jackass, jay, pumpkin, thickhead;/psh. natalaey- eg. "pillaged, rifled, ransacked, despoiled, carried off, stripped" pare cel mai pb.; lt. neturtas/neturtingumas- eg. "poorness, poverty, indigence", lt. neturtlis- eg. "poor person", lt. neturtingas- eg. "poor, indigent", lt. neturtliai- eg. "the poor, the have-nots" ?, pentru ro. nuc: hd. naukar- eg. "servant" sau psh. n-wif- eg. "unskilled, unacquainted, ignorant, inexperienced" sau psh. n-wfiyat- eg. "inexperience, ignorance"); nvli (ro. a invada, a intra; a se repezi, a asalta;/eg. encroachment;/ psh. mulk nwal- eg. "to conquer a country" unde psh. mulk- eg. "a country, a kingdom, a realm, a region", psh. n-wal- eg. "to take, to get, to lay, to catch, to take or catch hold of, to possess one's-self of, to resume, to appropriate", vsl. navaljati- ro. "a tr" ?); nvd, reg. nevd: (ro. unealt de pescuit format dintr-o plas mare prevzut la mijloc cu un sac, cu care se nconjur i se adun petele de pe suprafee ntinse de ap;/eg. fishing net, mesh, seine;/lv. vads- eg. "seine, dragnet, sweepnet, duct", vsl. nevod); neauzit, nemaiauzit: (ro. att de ieit din comun nct nimeni nu a auzit pn acum de ceva asemntor, nemaipomenit;/eg. unheard;/lv. nesadzirdts- eg. "unheard"); <a> necji: (ro. a se mnia, a se enerva;/ eg. grieve;/sl. nakazati- ro. "a pedepsi", bg. ncaz, psh. gam-gn- eg. "sorrowful, grieved, sad, woful" ?); necopt/netot: (ro. necopt: imatur, fr experien; netot: prost, neghiob, tont, nuc;/eg. imature; blinkard, blockish, dunderhead, lunkhead;/necopt: lv. kopt- eg. "groom, tend, foster, attend"- "a crete, a ngriji"; netot: lt. nekoks- eg. "por, bad"); nedeie: (ro. petrecere cmpeneasc popular de origine pastoral organizat de obicei cu prilejul unei srbtori sau al unui hram; loc <plan> pe vrful unui munte;/ eg. fete, feast;/lv. deja- eg. "danse", lv. dejas- eg. "dancing", lv. dejot- eg. "dance, reel, to foot it, to cut a rug", alb. valle- eg. "dance", psh. nas/ nasedal- eg. "to dance; to wave, to shake <as the branches of a tree by wind>" ?, psh. nandrah kawul-eg. "to make a show, display, pageant, spectacle, parade, etc.; to get up an entertainment" ?; nep. nchne- eg. "dancer" ? Dacismul "deie" slavizat i contopit cu vsl. nedlja - "duminic"? Ex. inc.);
dans- valle (alb.)- (bg.)- dansa (cat.)- ples (cr.)- tanec (ch.)- dance (ol.)- dance (eg.)- danse (fr.)- dance (gal.)- Tanz (germ.)- (ngr.)- tncot (mg.)- danza (it.)- dejas (lv.)- dacs (ltg.)- okiai (lt.)- (norv.)- taniec (pl.)- dance (port.) (rus.)- (sb.)- tanec (slv.)- ples (sloven)- danza (sp.)- dans (su.)- (tc.)- (ucr.) duminic- e diel (alb.)- (bg.)- diumenge (cat.)- nedjelja (cr.)- nedle (ch.)- sndag (dan.)- zondag (ol.)- sunday (eg.)- dimanche (fr.)- domingo (gal.)- Sonntag (germ.)- (ngr.)- vasrnap (mg.)- domenica (it.)- svtdiena (lv.)sekmadienis (lt.)- il-add (maltez)- sndag (norv.)- niedziela (pl.)- domingo (port.)- (rus.)- (sb.)nedea (slv.)- nedelja (slvn.)- domingo (sp.)- sndag (su.)- pazar (tc.)- (ucr.)

negrit/negreit: (ro. negrit: inexprimabil, excepional, nemaipomenit, extraordinar; ro. negreit: fr nicio ndoial, desigur, sigur, fr doar i poate, n mod neaprat;/eg. unspeakable, unspoken; certainly, sure/lt. negreit, opus lt. greit/greitas- eg. "quick, rapid, fast, prompt, speedy". Sensul a fost contaminat i variaz de la "fr grab" la "indiscutabil" i uneori "fr discuie sau imediat" prin contopirea i confuzia lui negreit cu negrit i negreit. Cred c acesta este/a fost un dacism slavizat, inclusiv cu influenarea sensului prin confuzii i pierderea sensului originar. Ex. inc.); nemilos: (ro. nendurtor, aspru, crud, nemilostiv;/eg. cruel, despiteous, inclement, rusthless, savage;/lv. nemloseg. "unloving, loveless"); nepregetat: (ro. harnic, neobosit, continuu, susinut, perseverent; / eg. weariless, assiduous;/lv. neprtgs- eg. "frenzied, witless, frantic, mindless, phrenetic, delirious, desperate, insane, lunatic, insensate, wanton, blind"); nepreuit: (ro.

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incalculabil, insetimabil;/eg. dear, priceless;/lv. neprecjies- eg. "unmarried, unwed, wifeless, sole, unattached, single", lv. neprecjusies- eg. "maiden", lv. neprects- eg. "unwed"); neruinat: (ro. lipsit de ruine, bun-sim, impertinent, neobrzat, imoral, depravat, stricat;/eg. shameless, outrageous, unchaste;/ din ne+ruinat, ruinat din lat. roseus cf. DEX; lv. ierosint- eg. "propound, suggest, initiate, propose, broach, whet, provoke, raise, vote, pose, bring, brought, to put the case, to take to court, to make a suggestion" cf. sensurilor pentru whet i provoke, lv. ierosinos- eg. "proponent, suggestive"; sau poate ro. ruine un compus de tipul urmtor: psh. lus- eg. "naked, bare, stark, nude, denuded, exposed; poor, destitute" + eg. na<ked> ); nesbuit: (ro. nechibzuit, nesocotit/eg.foolish;/lv. nesabiedrisks- eg. "asocial, unsocial, unsociable, antisocial"); nesimire/nesimit: (psh. nm-saaey- eg. "half a man, a thing, an ass, a coward, a poltroon" sau psh. nm-siraey- eg. "a pain affecting a half of the head, a species of headache". Ex. inc.); nestabil: (ro. care nu are stabilitate, instabil; despre un corp chimic: care se descompune sau se transform cu uurin/eg. instable;/ lv. nestabils- eg. " nonpersistent, unstable, insecure, unsteady"); nervos, nervozitate: (ro. tensionat, iritat, nerbdtor, surescitat;/eg. nervousness; /lv. nervozs- eg. "nervy, brittle, nervous", let nervozitte- eg. "nervousness, fidget, brittle temper"); istr. nicacr-K.54: (ro. nicicum, nicidecum, nicicacum, nicidect;/eg. nowise;/lt. niniekur- eg. "nowhere, whatever", sbc. nikako- "nicidecum". Poate fi influen slav ?); nicieri, reg. nicirea, nicrea, nicri, nicirea, aro. necalurea, megl. niclura: (ro. n niciun loc, n nicio alt parte, n niciun alt caz, la nimeni, niciunde;/eg. nowhere;/lt. niekur- eg. "nowhere, not... anywhere", lt. niniekur- eg. "nowhere, whatever"; informativ, sg. nikam, lv. jebkur cu sensul de nicieri; nicieri- posibil dacism latinizat prin intermdiul lat. nec aliubi, nec aliuba; istr. ndir, sbc. nigde/nikud<a>- "nicieri"-K.64; psh. hcartah- eg. "nowhere", psh. hcari or hcareyeg. "never, at no time"); nicicnd (psh. hcari or hcarey- eg. "ever, at no time"); nici... nici: lyc. nice...nice- eg. "neither..., nor..."; niciodat: (eg. never;/lt. niekada/niekados, sg. nikumet- eg. "never, ever", istr. ncad, sbc. nikad<a>, ch. nikdy- "niciodat", psh. hs wat- eg. "never, at no time"); nimeni/nimic: (eg. nobody, nothing;/lt. niekas/ niekieno/niekis, sg. nieks- eg. "nobody, nothing"); nimic: (eg. nothing;/lt. niekniekis, ch. nic- eg. "nothing"); ni: (ro. firid;/eg. niche, alcove, blockout, recess;/lv. nia- eg. "niche, alcove, bay, recess", fr., eg. niche); nuia: (ro. vergea lung, subire i flexibil, obinut dintr-o tulpin sau dintr-o ramur tnr de copac; varg, b;/eg. birch, cane, gad, rod;/lv. nja- eg. "bludgeon, cudgel, niblick, shillelagh, bat, billy, stick, cane, spoon" explic mai bine ro. nuia ca autohton dect lat. novella); numr/<a> numra: (ro. cifr; a socoti; aro. numiru;/eg. number, to count;/lat. nmrus/ nmrre, prezent n toate limbile neo-romanice; alb. numr; psh. numa/numaah <fem.>- eg. "before, previously, ere now, formerly, prior, etc.; fixed, determined, appointed, pledged; betrothed, promised, engaged" ?; psh. numa kawul- eg. "to determine, to fix, to engage, to betroth" ?); nunt: (aro. numt; ro. ceremonia de cstorie, cununie;/eg. wedding;/lat. nuptiae; psh. nik/nik-nah <pl.>- eg. "matrimony, marriage; copulation"; psh. nik taal- eg. "to marry (to perform the ceremony as a priest)"; psh. nik kawul- eg. "to marry, to take a wife". Ro. nunt poate fi justificat din celebrarea de cstorii colective, deci o contracie a unei expresii de tipul "nik-nah taal"); obid: (sg. bieda- lt. nelaim, <dviem ratais kinkomas veimas>- eg. "misfortune, bad/ill luck", psh. abdl- eg. "a saint, a devotee" ? poate cu un sens iniial de nfrnare, rbdare); oricnd: (ro. indiferent cnd, totdeauna;/eg. ever, forever;/lv. arvien+lv. jebkad- eg. "ever"); orice: (ro. indiferent ce, oriice;/eg. whatever ;/ Psh. har so- eg. "how much soever, to whatever degree, etc", psh. har saheg. "whatever, whatsoever", psh. har har sok- eg. "every one soever"); oricum/oriicum

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(psh. har sn- eg. "by every means, in some way or other"); oriunde (psh. har yow -eeg. "every where, in all places"; psh. har -e- eg. "everywhere, every place"); <a se> or: (ro. 1. a se mnia, a se nfuria, a se rsti la cineva; a se mhni, a se supra; a se nspimnta, a se ngrozi; 2. a face grimase, a se strmba din cauza unei buturi sau mncri neplcute la gust;/eg. infuriate, scare;/lt. atarus- eg. "rude, impolite, offensive", lt. atarumas- eg. "rudeness, impoliteness, offence"; psh. zr- eg. "sickness, disorder, disease; trouble, affliction, injury", psh. zrawul- eg. "to afflict, to injure, to torture, to trouble", psh. zur-dah- eg. "afflicted, sad, vexed, dispirited, displeased, weary"; bg. ocerea); pa: (ro. la revedere; salut folosit la desprire; sensul de: "gata ! hai, du-te !";/eg. bye-bye;/lt. pa- ndeprtare ?, germ. pa, mg. p, lv. pa- eg. "along, through, per, by, down, about, over"; hitt. pai- eg. "to go"); palm/a bate palma: (ro. partea dinuntru a minii, de la ncheietura cu antebraul, pn la vrful degetelor;/eg. palm, slap;/lat. palma, lt. palmi- eg. "palm"; punj. bechan palna- eg. "to keep onee promise"); par: (ro. b, stlp, nuia; aro., megl. par/ lat. palus, psh. pr- eg. "a wooden rake or instrument for raking together"); pan (ro. tehn. pies <de lemn, metal etc.> de forma unei prisme triunghiulare, folosit la detaarea sau fixarea unor obiecte;/ psh. pnah- eg. "a wedge for splitting wood; a mode of torture"); paparud: (ro. strvechi dans ritual de invocare a ploii, nsoit de cntece i chiuituri, i executat de o fat sau de o femeie mpodobit cu verdea;/eg. rainmaker?;/lv. papardes, lt. papartis, sbc., slvn. paprat, pl. papro , slv. papra, rus. , ucr. - "ferig", bulg. peperuda- "paparud", psh. wu-ao-redah- eg. " to make or cause to rain", dar i psh. pardah po (W.) or pardah po (E.)- eg. "keeping a secret" poate sub forma po pardah, unde psh. pardah- eg. "a curtain, a screen, cover, veil; secrecy, privacy, modesty", psh. pardah po or pardah po- eg. "concealment of a blemish" ?);
ferig- fier (alb.), (bg.), falguera (cat.), paprat (cr.), kapradina (ch.), fern (eg.), fougre (fr.), Farn (germ.), pfrny (mg.), felce (it.), papardes (lv.), ertvnai (lt.), bregne (norv.), papro (pl.), samambaia (port.), (rus.), (sb.), papra (slv.), Paprat (sloven.), helecho (sp.), ormbunke (su.), ereltiotu (tc.), (ucr.)

<a> pate: (ro. a puna, a pstori; despre vite: a se hrni, rupnd cu gura iarb, plante;/eg. depasture;/lt. apsti-eg. "eat/gnaw round; eat somewhat; eat all around"); <a>, <a se> pcli: (ro. a nela, a trage pe sfoar, a amgi;/eg. cheat;/lv. atpaka"napoi", lv. pakalpot- eg. "oblige, do", lv. piekukuot- eg. "suborn, bribe, corrupt, tamper, palm; to buy over; to oil the wheels", lv. piekukuojams- eg. "bribable, venal, corrupt, purchaseable, corruptible"; lt. pakala- eg. "wedge, heel", lt. pakalikas- eg. "flunkey, toady, hanger-on", lt. pakalimas- eg. "soling, nailing", lt. paklimas- eg. "1. raising, lift 2. rise, increase of wages 3. advancement, promotion", psh. l-o-l- eg. "conversation, confabulation, clack, babble, controversy, altercation" cf. ro. pcleal ?); pclici: (ro. 1. farseur, persoan care are obiceiul s pcleasc, 2. numele unui joc de copii care se joac cu un set de cri de joc speciale, n care pierde cel care rmne cu singura carte fr pereche;/eg. twicer;/1. pentru farseur: lt. upakalis- eg. "cheeks"-obraji; 2. pentru jocul de cri: lv. pakaa- eg. "ass, posterior", lv. pakajais- eg. "hind, hinder, rearward, back, hindmost, posterior"); plc (ro. grup mic, neorganizat de oameni, de psri, de plante, etc. ; <n evul mediu> unitate militar cu efectiv redus;/eg. crowd, ruck;/vsl. plk- ro. "grmad", psh. pak/ paknah - eg. "a crowd, a throng, a press, a mob, a horde, a posse, a body, a tribe, a gang, a knot, a crew, a swarm, a shoal, a bevy, a flock, a herd, a drove, a corps, a troop, a squad, a company, a squadron, etc."); pmnt: (ro. Terra, scoar terestr i respectiv materia din care este alctuit aceasta, sol, ntindere de uscat, continent;/eg. earth, soil, land, mould;/lat. pavimentum?; lv. pamatot- eg. "substantiate, base, motivate, fortify, ground", lv. pamats- eg. "groundwork, basement, bedrock, foundation, ground", ltg. pamats- lv. fundaments- eg. "foundation, base", psh. bmn- eg.

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"earth, ground", skt. bhmir/bhmih- eg. "earth"); pstrnc, pstrnac, pstrnac, postrnac: (ro. plant legumicol cu rdcina fusiform, alb-glbuie- Pastinaca sativa;/eg. parsnip;/lt. pastarnokas, lv. pastinaks, pl. pasternak, rus. , bg. );
pstrnac- pastinak (alb.), (bg.), Xirivies (cat.), pastrnjak (cr.), pastink (ch.), parsnip (eg.), pastinaak (estonian), pastarnokas (lt.), pastinaks (lv.), pastinaca (it.), Pastinak (germ.), paszternk (mg.), pastinakk (norv.), pasternak (pl.), cherivia (port.), (rus.), (sb.), patrnk (slv.), Pastrnjak (sloven.), chiriva (sp.), palsternacka (su.), (ucr.), yaban havucu (tc.)

ptrunjel, reg. ggu, ptlgele, ptrunjic, petersil: (ro. legum rdcinoas -Apium petroselinum, Petroselinum hortense;/eg. parsley;/ltg. pterzuole, lt. petraole, lv. ptersi, ch. petrel, slv. petrle, rg. peterschigl, alb. pjetroseli. Ro. ptrunjel pare apropiat de lt. i ch., regionalismul ro. petersil simil lv. i rg.); prg<> (ro. faz iniial a coacerii fructelor, legumelor i cerealelor; roade timpurii;/eg. early harvest;/vsl. prga- ro. "gru timpuriu"; psh. barg gwa<edal>- eg. "to bud, to unclose, to blow, to bloom", psh. barg gwaawul- eg. "to cause or make to bud or bloom"); ptur (ro. nvelitoare dintr-o estur groas i deas, de ln, bumbac, pr; pled, cerg, cuvertur;/eg. blanket;/ psh. pa/pagn <pl.>- eg. "a kind of woollen cloth, or blanket", psh. pacoraey- eg. "a veil, a sheet, a mantle, generally made of chintz" ? ); perciun<e>: (aro. perci- ro. "chic, coam de pr, cosi, plete" ?; ro. favorit; <rar> smoc de pr de pe fruntea cailor;/eg. a lock of hair;/ngr.,sbc., slvn., bg. percin, alb. perc, tc., iran. perem; psh. par-cam/ parcamnah <pl.>- eg. "a lock of hair particularly waving over the forehead, the tail of a horse used as a standard"); pici: (eg. brat, little child;/lt. pikius- eg. "1. pikiurna 2. devil, deuce", sg. pkis- lt. "velniukas"- eg. "little devil; naughty boy"); piersic: (ro. fructul piersicului, sferic, crnos, suculent, acoperit de o culoare glbuie-roiatic;/eg. peach;/lt. persikas, lv. persiku, rus., ucr. );
piersic- Pjeshk (alb.)- (bg.)- Breskve (cr.)- Fersken (dan.)- Peach (eg.)- Pssego (gal.)- Persiku (lv.)- Persikas (lt.)- Pssego (port.)- (rus.)- (sb.)- (ucr.)

<a> piguli: (ro. 1. a ciuguli, a ciupi boabe, frme; 2. a fura puin cte puin;/ eg. dab, nip, pick at, peck at, preen, tick;/are un corespondent indirect n lt. pigus- ieftin, lt. paukiukas- eg. "nestling, fledgeling, thick"); pitulice: (ro. numele mai multor psri cnttoare divers colorate: a) pasre mic, cu ciocul ascuit, cu penele brune-ruginii pe spate i cenuii-albicioase pe pntece; ochiul-boului, reg. bourel, cioclejel, gtejel, mprtu, mprel, pnru, sfredelu, ofrac, ochiul-boului- Troglodytes troglodytes; b) mic pasre migratoare insectivor, cu pene brune-verzui pe spate i cenuii pe pntece. Reg. pituli, slcri- Phylloscopus collybita;/eg. wren;/lv. pacepltis- eg. "wren"Troglodytes troglodytes, reg. slcri- it. scricciolo, ch. stzlk, pl. strzyyk, lt. Karetait, cr. cari, un IE strlkartit ?); reg. pipri/papric/piparc/pipru/pipruc <ardei>: (ro. plant erbacee cu flori albe i cu fructe bace verzi, roii, galbene, ntrebuinate n alimentaie- Capsicum anuum; eg. Pipri: papric, (Trans. i Ban.) piparc, (Mold.) pipru, (Buc.) pipruc- lt. paprika, lv. pipari); pis-pis: (ro. se folosete pentru a chema pisica;/ psh. pas-pas- eg. "words used in calling a cat"); pisc: (ro. vrf de munte; cioc de psri;/eg. peak;/psh. pis-kah- eg. "a point, nib, spike, a cone, peak, corner, end, extremity"); pisic<,u>: (ro. felin din specia Felis domestica;/eg. kitten;/lt. apsikaiuoti- eg. "kitten", psh. pisaey- eg. "a he cat"; psh. pis- eg. "a she cat"); pisoia: (ro. diminutiv al lui pisoi; titlu de alint pentru cineva;/psh. psarlaey- eg. "a kid or lamb when about a year old" ? Ex. inc.); plie: (ro. 1. locuitor de la grani nsrcinat cu paza frontierei rii n prile de munte, grnicer, strjer; 2. locuitor de la munte, muntean;/ eg. churl, franklin, freeholder, householder ;/lv. pauja- "harvest", ar fi din aceeai familie cu rze: lv. raa- eg. "cash crop, yield, crop, harvest, subsistence crop"); pleosci/plesci: (ro. zgomotul produs de baterea din palme, de bici, de blcit sau la mncat;/eg. smack, crack, clap, click, lap, swash;/scr. pljotiti; lt. pliaukti/pliaukti- eg. "smack, crack, clap,

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click, lap, swash"); <a> pleoti: (ro. 1. a se deforma, a se lbra, a se turti, a strivi; 2. a apleca, a lsa n jos capul sau urechea;/eg. slouch;/scr. pljotiti; lt. plsti- eg. "widen, broaden; increase, enlarge, expand; develop; spread; stare <with bulging eyes>"; lt. blikti- eg. "grow, become flat"; lt. bliukinti- eg. "flatten, make flat"); ploni, poluc, stelni: (ro. pduche de lemn, reg. prscu, poluc, stelni; Cimex lectularius;/eg. bug;/ro. ploni: lt. blusintis- eg. "flea oneself"- purice, ro. poluc: lt., pl. pluskwa, mg. poloska- ploni; ro. stelni: sbc., slvn. stjenica, ch., slv. tnice- ploni); praz, reg. poroi, poroaic, pur: (ro. plant erbacee legumicol, nrudit cu ceapa, cu tulpin groas, nalt i bulb crnos- Allium porrum;/eg. leek;/lt. pras <porai>, lv. puravi, ch. pr, pl., slvn., rg. por, pl. porw, ucr. , bg. ); prpastie: (ro. povrni nalt i abrupt, hu, abis, genune;/eg. abyss, coomb, gulf;/ lt. kratelis- eg. "edge" ? care a dat poate i ro. creast, ch. propast- "prpastie", dintr-un vsl. propast?); <prea->pre: (ro. foarte excesiv, sensul excesiv, "pn peste poate";/eg. too, very;/ lt. pra- arogant, lat. prae; sensul foarte coincide vsl. pr); prieten(os>: (ro. amical;/eg. friend, friendly;/sg. prietelios- lt. biiuliseg. "friend, pal, buddy"); privighetoare, reg. Trans. presur: (ro. pasre migratoare mic care cnt plcut, filomel- Luscinia; lcar- Acrocephalus;/eg. Nightingale;/lt. <vieve>rsys + <vyturys>=<privi>+ <ghetoare> prin latinizarea dacismului- eg. "skylark" i reg. presur- lt. vieversys. Pentru vsl. slavk cf. prss. salowis, pentru germ. Nachtigall- lt. lakstgala);
privighetoare- bilbil (alb.)- slavuj (cr.)- slavk (ch.)- Nachtigall (germ.)- Nightingale (eg.)- usignolo (it.)- flemle (mg.)lakstgala (lv.)- laktut (lt.)- (sb.)- slavk (slv.)- Slavo (sloven.)- ruiseor (sp.)- nattergal (norv.)- blbl (tc.) (rus., ucr.)- Salaws, Salowis (prss.)

pocal: (ro. vas de diferite forme i mrimi, cu deschiztur larg, folosit mai ales pentru but;/eg. beaker, bowl, goblet ;/lv. pokls- eg. "bowl, cup", germ. Pokal, sbc. bokal); <a> pocni: (aro. agudescu; ro. a rsuna cu un zgomot scurt i sec, a detuna;/eg. smack;/nep. phuknu- eg. "to blow"); posac: (ro. taciturn, morocnos, prost dispus;/eg. mopish;/slv. Potiten- eg. "mopish", lt. posakis- clieu, expresie, exprimare, lv. pusakls- eg. "gravelblind, purblind". Tradiional este raportat la vsl. posekati- "a tia", la vsl. posek- "incizie", vsl. poseka- "doborre". Probabil dacism slavizat cf. lt. cu influenare prin slav); puicu<>: (ro. iubit, iubiic;/eg. girl friend, lady love;/lt. puikiai- "delicat, strlucitor", lt. puikus- "drgu, deosebit, elegant"); pui(cu)<or,>/puiu: (ro. termen familiar de adresare copilului;/eg. child, kid, boy;/sg. puiis- lt. "berniukas, vaikzas"- eg. "boy", ltg. puikyns; puikes; puika- lv. zns- eg. "boy, scout, lad"); p**: (ro. membru viril;/eg. penis;/lat. pulla format din lat. pullus- ro. "pui" ?; psh. colak/colaknah (pl.)- eg. "the penis of a child until circumcised" ? Psh. ap-lat/ ap-latah <fem.> - eg. "low, obscene, dirty, filthy", psh. ap-latey abarey- eg. "low or obscene language"); pung<,a>: (ro. scule cu bieri de piele, mai rar de pnz, de material plastic, cu una sau mai multe desprituri, n care se in banii i alte obiecte mici; om necinstit; et. nec.;/eg. bag, carrier bag;/lat. medieval "punga" prin intermediul limbii greceti ?; lv. kuis- eg. "stomach, belly, breadbasket <slang>, the inner man"- "stomac, co de pine, om ascuns"; psh. panga-faroseg. "a pedlar, a cadger, a hawker"- "vnztor ambulant" ?); pche<a>, pute<a>, puscea: (ro. vezicul dureroas pe limb;/eg. dot, inflamation on tongue;/aro. pucl'e- "cium", lat. pstla, sg. pukis/pukielis- lt. takas/takelis- eg. "dot", dar i aro. pu'sk- "oet" care totui nu explic la fel de bine ca sg. pukis: ro. pche; similar fonetic vbalt. Pukaitis- eg. "a peculiar earth deity living under elderberry bushes was Pukaitis, who ruled over good little subterranean manikins called Barstukai <or Parstukai> and Kaukai" GM.194); puin: (ro. un pic, insufficient; aro. psn/p<u>n, megl. puon;/ eg. a little, paucity;/et. nec.; DER: lat. medieval pussinu/pittinus cu sensul de mic- probabil, dar insuficient documentat sau lat. paucus sau putus; psh. kucinaey- eg. "small, diminutive, puny" pare cel mai

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aproape de ro. puin. Sau psh. paskaey- eg. "a few, some, less, a little, an indefinite quantity, a small portion, scanty, thinly scattered, hardly or scarcely any". De amintit i psh. kihtar- eg. "small, little, less, junior, mean" i psh. kihtar- eg. "smallness, littleness, meanness, mediocrity, insignificance"); rabrbur: (ro. plant erbacce utilizat ca purgativ, revent- Rheum officinale;/eg. rhubarb;/lt. rabarbaras, germ. Rhabarber, mg. rebarbaraeg. "rhubarb", psh. ratb or rutb- eg. "fresh, green, moist, verdant" ?); a <se> rfui: (ro. a lmuri cu cineva o nenelegere;/ eg. discordant;/ psh. rafh- eg. "repelling, removing, settling, completing, finishing"; psh. rafh kedal- eg. "to be decided, removed, or repelled" ? Psh. raf-at- eg. "eminence, dignity, nobility, elevation, altitude". Ex. inc.); rang: (ro. bar de fier teit la un capt servind de prghie sau deplasarea de corpuri grele; tang, rzu, parng;/eg. crowbar, gad;/lv. runga- eg. "bludgeon, cudgel, shillelagh, bat, club"- "bt, ciomag, retevei", lv. rankena- eg. "stick"; psh. <sow>rangawul- eg. "to thrash, to beat, to drub, to bruise, to cudgel", psh. sowrangawunah- eg. "a thrashing, a beating, a drubbing, a cudgeling "); rc: (ro. ceart, sfad;/eg. row, run-in, disagreement ;/psh. raah- eg. " malice, spite, rancour, hatred, grudge". Ro. rc din rci ?); rgaz: (ro. amnare, psuire ; linite, tihn;/ eg. respite, pause, interlude, peace;/psh. gw/gw- eg. "peace, settlement, mediation, intervention, parley, negociation, making up a quarrel", psh. ruat- eg. "discharge, dismission, leave, indulgence"; psh. rukhsat- eg. "holiday"; hd. rukhsat- eg. "leave, dismissal"); <a> rspndi, aro. arspndire: (ro. 1. a mprtia, a extinde, a risipi; 2. a dezvlui, a propaga;/eg. disperse;/are echivalent n lt. spindu, spindti- germ. "glnzen, strahlen"- eg. "to shine, to glitter, to irradiate", vsl. raspditi); rtcire (ro. ntunecare a minii, nebunie; nu exist n aro.;/eg. abberation, madness;/DEX indic lat. erraticare<erraticus; psh. atah jrah (W.) or atah grah (E.)- eg. "foolish, cowardly, nonsensical, dastardly; a poltroon, a milksop, a coward"); rz<e,a>, var. rez<e,a>: (ro. n Mold., ran proprietar, boierna care aparinea unei colectiviti de oameni liberi care nu plteau impozite i datorau numai sprijin militar;/eg. churl, franklin, freeholder, householder;/lv. raa- eg. "cash crop, yield, crop, harvest, subsistence crop", lv. raotjseg. "producer, manufacture"; lv. rags- eg. "fertile, productive, prolific, fecund", istr., sbc. tva- eg. "seceri, recolt", psh. ra- eg. "acquiescence, consent, assent, will, leave, permission" ?. Un sg. reja- lt. jauja- eg. "barn for storing crops, treshing barn"- "hambar" are corespondentul n psh. rasah- eg. "a heap of grain, provision, supply". Sensul ro. rze este de om liber, autodecident i aparine poate familiei lv. raa, raotjs: ro. rege"stpnitor". Pare a fi un dacism conservat n arealul carpilor i costobocilor absorbii de carpi. Tradiional corelat cu mg. rszes- "copropietar" care pare a fi mprumut IE i a crui pronunie a influenat fonetica var. reze i reza); rzor: (ro. brazd;/eg. bed, side land, balk, baulk;/lt. reti- "a tia", gal. reixa- eg. "harrow"); rgi: (ro. a scoate un zgomot caracteristic, provocat de gazele din stomac;/ eg. break wind;/lt. raugeju, raugmi, raugti i lt. riaugmi, riaugeti- germ. "rulpsen"- "a rgi, a vrsa", vsl. rygati, ngr. , psh. ra <E.>/ ra-nah <pl.>- eg. "a gasping or guggling noise produced in the throat when crying violently or sobbing, a paroxysm or outburst of grief, convulsive weeping or sobbing". Ro. pare relaionat de lt. i ngr.); rn: (ro. fiecare dintre cele dou laturi ale corpului, coast, latur, old; flanc, parte;/eg. side, huckle;/lv. bruot- eg. "arm"?); r<i,>diche: (ro. plant erbacee legumicol din familia cruciferelor cu rdcin crnoas comestibil- Raphanus sativus;/eg. radish;/lt. ridkas/ridiklis, lv. redss, ch. redkvicka, pl. rzodkiew, ucr. cu acelai sens, lat. radicla); <a> risipi/(a) respinge: (ro. 1. a dispersa, a mprtia; 2. a izgoni, a fugri; 3. a cheltui, 4. a distruge; 5. a prpdi;/eg. dissipate, scatter, spend, sprinkle; disallow, dismiss, foreclose;/lt. spingu,

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spingeti (?)- germ. "glnzen", ro. respinge avnd un sens figurat; vsl. rasypati); <a> roi: (ro. aciunea albinelor de roire ntr-un nou stup;/eg. hive, swarm;/ lt. avilys, sg. aulis- eg. "(bee) hive", dintr-un <r>aulis ca n sg. ?); rom<a,>ni: (ro. reg. mueel;/eg. camomile;/pl. rumianiec, ucr. romanec, ltg. romule/ romuleni- lv. kumelte- eg. "camomile"); romn, armn: (lat. romanus, psh. aam/ aamnah <pl.>- eg. "a prop, a bar of wood placed against a door, a support, a pillar" poate cu sensul de cetean, supus; unii l leag de rahman cf. brahman ?); <a> rostui: (ro. a pune n ordine, a face un rost;/eg. put in order;/lt. apruoti- eg. "put in order, tidy up"); rugin: (ro. 1. substan brunrocat, poroas, sfrmicioas, format prin oxidare pe obiectele de fier, 2. idee, mentalitate nvechit;/eg. rust;/lat. aerugina cf. DEX; pentru sensul 2., lv. iersjis- eg. "rusty- figurative sens"); ruginiu (psh. rajedal/ rajej/ rajeg- eg. "to fall as the leaves of a tree in autumn, or as fruit; to let fall, to be dispersed, scattered" ); oaie, aro. oai/uits, megl. oai, istr. oie: (ro. mioar- Ovis aries;/eg. sheep, ewe;/lv. aita/aitda - eg. "sheep", lt. aviena, avis, lat. vem sau ovis care nu s-a pstrat dect n <a>romn. Ch. ovce, ovecka, slv. ova, pl. baranina/owca, sp. oveja/borrego, prss. awwins- eg. "ram", prss. kamistin- eg. "sheep". Reg. pcuin poate fi explicat prin it. pecora, pecorella. Apropierea este mare fa de lv. aita i chiar eg. ewe; dacism regional influenat de ctre latin ?); oleac/olecu/olec<u>oar:(ro. puin, niel;/ eg. a little;/ngr. olighki; nep. ali kati- eg. "few, a little", psh. lakuey- eg. "a little, slightly, not much, in some degree", psh. lag <n est>/lagah <fem.>- eg. "a little, small, scarce, few, scanty, seldom, less; a little, slightly, not much, in some degree"); oricum-vedem: (lv. jebkur veid- eg. "anywise"); oricare/oarecare: (eg. whatever, wheter, whichever;/ Psh. har kr- eg. "all sorts of work, every sort of business", psh. har-krah- eg. "one who does all sorts of work, a man of all work"); tova: (ro. uniform, neted, egal, drept; despre oameni: fr talie sau form;/ eg. smooth;/lv. tautba- eg. "naionality, folk"); osteni<t>: (ro. a obosi, a vlgui, a stnjeni; a se obosi, a se czni, a se strdui;/eg. wearied, done;/ch. ustati/ustani- ro. "oboseal" din vsl. ustati/ustana- ro. "a termina"; vsl. istniti- ro. "a se obosi"; psh. staaey/stai <pl.>- eg. "tired, wearied, fatigued, bored, disgusted, jaded, knocked up", psh. stomn- eg. "tired, wearied, fagged, worn out, fatigued, bored, disgusted, jaded" ?); sngeap: (ro. jder, veveri;/eg. marten, pecan, squirrel;/psh. sanjb/sanjp- eg. "ermine, the grey squirrel", tc./iran. sinceb, prezent i n ngr., dar nu n aro.); sat: (ro. aezare rural a crei populaie se ocup n cea mai mare parte cu agricultura;/eg. village;/lat. fossatum, arb. fsht- it. "villagio", lv. sta- eg. "the courtyard to a homestead, also homestead", ltg. stys- eg. "home", lt. sodius- eg. "village", psh. skin/skinn- eg. "an inhabitant, a dweller", psh. stal- eg. "to keep, to preserve, to protect, to defend, to guard, to shelter, to shield", psh. stni/stnki- eg. "a protectress, defendress", psh. stnaey/ stnkaey- eg. "a preserver, a protector, a guardian, a defender", psh. simt or samt- eg. "a way, path, side, quarter, part, towards" ?); satr: (ro. cuit mare, secure;/eg. chopper;/tc.,ab. satir ?, psh. stl- eg. "a large crooked knife, a cleaver, a chopper" ? Ex. inc. n ro. posibil din tc., n psh. din ab.); sarcasm: (ro. expresie insulttoare, batjocur usturtoare;/eg. acrimony, irony, sarcasm, sneer;/lt. sarkazmas-"ironie". Poate fi i n lt. i n romn neologism? n ro. cel mai pb. din ngr.); sarma: (aro. srm, srmadz, ro. gluc nfurat n foaie de varz sau de vi;/tc., bg., sb. sarma, psh. srmah/srmaey <pl.>- eg. "a kind of potherb" sau mai puin pb. psh. sarman- eg. "skin, leather, the hide of an animal" ?); sritor: (ro. care vine grabnic n ajutorul cuiva, care e oricnd gata s ajute pe cineva;/eg. serviceable;/lat. salire; psh. s/ s-n- eg. "1. earnest, eager, endeavouring, assiduous, zealous; 2 an attempter, an endeavourer, a zealous person". Ex. inc. ); srman: (ro. nevoia, biet, nenorocit;/eg. poor;/bg., sbc. siromah; psh. be sar-o-smn- eg.

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"destitute, indigent, helpless; brainless, stupid" sau psh. sarman- eg. "skin, leather, the hide of an animal"- fr nimic ?); scai, aro. scliu, megl. scal': (ro. plante cu spini sau cu epi precum ciulinul;/ eg. bur, burr, thorn;/considerat ca provenind din sbc. kalj, dei contestat prin faptul c sbc. provine din ro.; totui, ro. scai i scaiete au corespondene n lt. erszketis/erktis- germ. "Dornpflanze, Stachel"/eg. "blackthorn, sloe", pl. erszkeczaigerm. "Dornen, Dornenhecke"- eg. "thorns", lv. rkis- eg. "thorn, prick, prickle, barb, spine", lt. brzgai- eg. "brushwood, underwood, undergrowth, thicket, copce, coppice", psh. az-gaey- eg. "a thorn"); <a se> sclda/<a se> spla: (ro. a face baie, a se mbia;/eg. bathe;/lv. izpeldties- eg. "to have a bathe, to have a dip, to have a swim", psh. sapawul- eg. "to winnow or clean grain, to rinse" ?; a se sclda: lat. excaladare i a se spla: lat. expellavare ? Posibil dacisme latinizate care reprezint variaii fonetice i nuane semantice ale aceluiai cuvnt original); scrnvie/scrn: (ro. excremente, megl. skrmro. "urdoare";/ eg. turd;/ sl. skrvna- "poluare" cel mai pb., psh. g- eg. "the penis of a man or beast". Ex. inc.); scurt: (ro. hain groas, de obicei vtuit sau mblnit, lung pn deasupra genunchilor;/eg. kirtle, coat;/psh. kur-tah- eg. "a kind of tunic, a shirt, a waistcoat or jacket" corespunde ro. scurt i eg. coat); sla, aro., megl. sil: (ro. dezgust, constrngere, for, silnicie, violen, presiune;/eg. abhorrence, stiffness;/lt. syla- germ. "Kraft"- "for"; lt. sile- germ. "Trog, Schweinetrog"- "troac de porci"; ch., bg. sila"putere"); s<i,e,>lite: (ro. locul pe care fusese sau pe care era aezat un sat; vatra satului; loc pentru cas; loc necultivat, bun pentru cultura cerealelor sau loc plantat cu pomi n apropiere sau n vatra satului; reg. pune;/eg. hearth of a hamlet or village;/lt. alis- eg. "1. side, aside, take aside, turn aside, deviate 2. land, country, foreign country", vsl. selite, sbc. selo- "sat"); sfer: (psh. sipahr- eg. "the sphere, the celestial globe, the sky, fortune, time, the world" ); slab: (ro. uscat, usciv, fr grsime, fr rezisten;/eg. faint, feeble, skinny;/lv. slbs- eg. "flabby, flaccid", vsl. slab: ch. slab, sbc. slab- "slab"); slan: (ro. slnin, strat de grsime ntre pielea i carnea porcului;/eg. bacon;/lv. slniseg. "layer, flake, lamina, strata, mine, region, deposit, flat" cu sensul de strat); Slnic: (ro. exploatare de sare;/eg. salt mine;/lv. slnis- eg. "layer, flake, lamina, strata, mine, region, deposit, flat" cu sensul de min; sg. lamninks- lt. iuklynas- eg. "dust-heap, rubbishheap"); <a> sluji: (ro. a fi angajat, a munci n gospodria cuiva, a servi, pop. stagiu militar;/eg. serve;/vsl. sluba, sbc. sluiti, ch. sluba-"slujb", ch. sluha- "servitor", hu. sluha- "argat"; prss. sluzms/ sluzimas- eg. "tax for military service"); socru: (aro., megl., istr. socru, aro. socuru; ro. tatl unuia dintre soi, n raport cu cellalt so;/eg. father-inlaw;/lat. oc<e>rem; psh. sar/sarn- eg. "a father-in-law" ?); spin, aro. schin, megl. spin : (ro. ghimpe, epu, achie, ciulin;/eg. prick, spine, thorn;/lt. spitna- germ. "Dorn der Schnalle"- eg. "buckles thorn" ?; lt. spitule- germ. "die Nadel in der Schnalle"; lt. spyglys- eg. "needle, spine, thorn"; lat. spnus; it. spino; sp. espino; port. espinho; eg. spine; tocharian spin- eg. "a hook, a peg"); smiorci: (ro. a trage cu zgomot i repetat aerul pe nas din cauza plnsului sau a unui tic nervos, a scnci, a miorci, a se lamenta, a se sclifosi;/eg. blubber, mewl, slobber, sniff, snivel, whimper;/cu sensul de prefcut: lt. smuikuoti- "a cnta, a interpreta"; lt. smuikas- "scripc, vioar", hu. smcoc- "arcu"; Cu sensul de a trage repetat aerul pe nas: sg. smorglis- lt. "sloga"- smiorcit, a-i trage nasul; vsl. smrkati, istr. mrcav- "mucos"-K.57 dar cu circulaie mai restrns); smuc: (ro. a trage brusc, cu putere pentru a scoate, smulge, desprinde, deplasa ceva sau pe cineva din locul unde se afl; a zbate, a face micri repezi spre a scpa din locul unde este prins sau legat;/eg. jerk, lug;/ vsl. smuati; lt. smugis- "ciocnire, izbitur, lovitur, palm, oc"; lt. smukti- "a fuge, a trece"; lv. smags- "greu"); smuct: (ro. 1. vorb smucit: vorb iute, repezit; 2. trsnit, icnit, nebun;/eg. jerkily, daffy, maddish;/ lv. izmocts- eg. "haggard, worn to a shadow, tired out"- "tras la fa, cu ochii dui n fundul capului", lv. izmukt- eg.

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colloquial "high tail", lv. izmoct- eg. "Martyr; macerate; to grind out"); snop: (ro. a bate foarte tare, a zdrobi n bti, a fclui, a stropi, a tbci, a toropi;/eg. wallop, beat up, blast hell out;/lt. snapas- eg. "beak, bill"- "cioc", poate cu sensul "a da / lua peste bot" ?); <a se> speri, aro. aspar, aspreare, megl. spar, sprui, spreari: (ro. a se umple de fric, de spaim, a se nfricoa;/eg. scare, frighten;/lv. spriegums- eg. "tensity, stretch, (technics): strain, stress, intensity, pressure, voltage", lv. spriegumu izraisos- eg. "tensive", lv. sprgt- eg. "burst, detonate, explode, go, to go off", psh. spadal or spaal/ spa <prezent>- eg. "to undo, to unravel, to unfold, to unclose, to unloose, to open the eyes <as the young of a cat or dog>" ?; psh. sper-kaey- eg. "grayish, of a hoary or ash colour" sau psh. spera-kaey- eg. "a poltroon, a low, mean, or miserable fellow, a term of abuse" poate mai apropiate de ro. a spurca ?. Tradiional, considerat ca provenind dintr-un lat. expavre ?); <a> sparge: (psh. sparaey- eg. "a skewer, a packing needle, the peg of a plough of iron or wood", psh. spargah- eg. "a well". Ex. inc.); spirt: (ro. extrem de harnic, de iute la treab, de prompt;/eg. fast, fleet, glibly;/lt. vitrus - eg. "quick, brisk, smart". n eg. pretty semnifica n vechime "ingenious".); sprinar: (ro. 1. van, inutil; 2. volubil, zglobiu, nebunatic;/eg. lively ?;/psh. spn jraey- eg. "an elder <lit. a white beard>". Legtura e incert, doar c n ro. deseori expresia ironic "E sprinar moul !" face referire la faptul c cineva n etate este nc n putere. Psh. spn zah- eg. "true, just, sincere, (lit.) white-hearted". Exemplu extrem de incert.); spor: (psh. spar/ sparnah- eg. "a shield, a target"); sporovi: (ro. a vorbi mult i fr rost; a flecri, a trncni; a tifsui;/eg. patter;/psh. spor-wlaey- eg. "dryness, plainness, simplicity, roughness". Ex. inc.); spontan: (ro. care se face sau se produce de la sine, fr vreo cauz exterioar aparent; care se face de bunvoie, fr a fi silit de nimeni; care apare brusc, pe neateptate; care acioneaz cu promptitudine; care nu este contient;/eg. spontaneous;/lat. spontaneus, fr. spontan; psh. suun dn- eg. "intelligent, skilled in language, a poet" ?); spovedanie: (ro. mrturisire;/eg. confession;/ vsl. ispovdati, ltg. spoveds- lv. grksdze- eg. "shrift, confession"); <a> spune: (aro. <a>spun<ere>, megl. spun<iri>, istr. spur; ro. a expune, eprima, indica, a zice, a povesti, a denuna, a reclama ;/eg. tell, say;/lat. exponre; psh. suun/ suunn <pl.>- eg. "speech, language, thing, business, matter, affair". Cuvnt general n limbile IE pe filier latin. Prezena cuvntului n psh. evideniat doar informativ.); spuz (aro. spuz; ro. 1. cenu fierbinte amestecat cu jeratic; 2. glm, umfltur, erupie;/eg. ash;/1. aro. spuz, lv. spoi- ltg. spdri/spdrai- eg. "bright"; lv. spos- ltg. spdrys- eg. "glittering, shiny, bright, incandescent, lucid, shining"; 2. psh. spuzah- eg. "the bladder"- "bic". Lat. spodium); sul: (ro. dalt, cuit;/eg. chisel;/psh. asulaey- eg. "a chisel"); istr. stbla-K.59: (ro. trunchi;/eg. stem, tree trunk, trunk;/lv. stumbrs- trunchi; lat. stabilis- "stabil" ?); stnc: (ro. bloc mare de piatr n muni, de obicei cu pereii drepi i coluroi, stan;/eg. stone, rock;/vsl. stan+sg. kl, poate dintr-un vechi IE compozit stnkmuo="bloc de piatr" ? care a dat eg. stone, dan., su. sten, ol. steen, germ. Stein, norv. stein, vsl. stan; psh. sangeg. "a stone, weight"; psh. stan/stani <pl.>- eg. "a needle, a post, a pillar, a prop, a column", psh. sarah- eg. "a rock, a large hewn stone"; dar i lv. akmens, lt. akmuo/akmeninis, pl. kamie, sbc., slvn. kamen, bg. , ucr. , rus. . Dintr-o variant IE kar<bedr>= "exploatare n munte" ? cf. prss. grbs, grabis- eg. "mountain" au derivat cat. piedra, port. pedra, ngr. , sp. piedra, it. pietra, dar i eg. rock, alb. gur, sg. kl, posibil istr. rpa- "piatr"; prss. stabs, stabis de tranziie ntre cele dou); stncu: (ro. pasre neagr-cenuie, cu cioc i picioare negre, mai mic dect cioara; stanc, ceuc, cioac, cioric, ciovic, lisarc- Coloeus monedula;/eg. daw, jackdaw;/lt. kuosa- eg. "zool. daw, jackdaw", ro. dintr-un vechi IE stnkuosa ?); stlp: (ro.

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lemn lung, gros, fixat n pmnt, care servete pentru a susine ceva; element masiv de construcie, care servete la susinerea unei cldiri, pod, etc;/eg. pillar, pole;/lt. stulpas, sg. tolps, ltg. stulps- "coloan, par, pilon, prjin, ru "; hu. stop, vsl. stlp- "stlp"); str: (ro. element de compunere care arat vechimea, originea ndeprtat, deprtarea;/psh. star/starah <fem.>- eg. "great, large, big, bulky, wide, capacious; deep <as a well>"; isl. str- eg. "big"); stim: (eg. esteem;/it. stima, fr. estime, psh. is-timeg. "hearing, listening, giving ear to"); strd<anie, uin>: (eg. exertion, aspiration;/lv. izstrdjumi- eg. "ware", lv. izstrdjums- eg. "ware, manufacture", lv. izstrdana- eg. "manufacture, manufaturing, development", vsl. stradati); suveic: (eg. shuttle;/lv. uvjaeg. "dressmaker, modiste, seamstress, sempstress, sewer, needlewoman"); arg: (ro. despre cai, rar despre alte animale: trcat, rocat deschis; cu prul de pe corp galben deschis ?/eg. reddish or yellowish;/lv. sarkangs/iesarkans- eg. "reddish", psh. sur- eg. "red" sau psh. sargah- eg. "a horse with white eyes or white forehead". Un posibil autohton influenat de mg. srga- ro. "galben", descrierea culorii devenind improbabil, de la rou deschis la galben deschis ? Analizele pentru atribuirea etimologic trebuie s in seama i de arealul de cunoatere a cuvntului: dac este i n afara spaiului de influen mg.); arl: (ro. cine, potaie;/eg. pooch, dog;/psh. carlan/carlann- eg. "a rascal, a knave, a blackguard, a miscreant, a ruffian" sau psh. salat/ salatah <fem.>- eg. "lazy, indolent, heavy, dull" sau psh. psarlaey- eg. "a kid or lamb when about a year old". arl pb. din aceeai familie cu arlatan, dar dac arlatan pare neologism, arl poate este un cuvnt vechi); eztoare: (aro. tsicna-prefte ?; ro. adunare restrns la sate n serile de iarn, la care participanii lucreaz i totodat petrec, spunnd povetim glume, ghicitori;/eg. bee ;/Considerat din ro. edea; psh. suun sz/ suun szah<pl.>- eg. "an orator, a speaker, a poet", psh. suun sz- eg. "eloquence, elocution, oratory, composition" ?); i: (ro. conjuncie;/eg. and, also;/ vechi lv., ltg. i, lt. ir - eg. "and, also", lat. sic); irag: ( ro. grup de soldai n linie de btaie; mulime de obiecte de acelai fel, nirate ca mrgelele pe un fir, de sfoar sau de srm;/eg. range, row;/ mg. sereg, pol. szereg, psh. sah- eg. "a line of men arranged in small knots or parties for battle or for hunting, either halted or walking" sau psh. cir-ah- eg. "a rag, a tatter, a shred, a fraction"); o: (ro. strigt cu care se asmut cinii; n expresia "o, o pe el" !, sensul: "cine, sari pe el !" ?;/ "o"lt. uo- eg. "dog", hitt. suwana- eg. "dog" ; "o pe el !": lt. uolis, uolikas- "salt, sritur", lt. uoliuoti- "a sri"); oim: (ro. pasre rpitoare Falco laniarius, Falco peregrinus;/eg. falcon;/ mg. sly<o>m, iran. ahin, psh. sah-n/ sahand - eg. "a kind of falcon" ?; skt. syen- eg. "eagle, falcon, hawk", hd. shyen- eg. "a hawk, falcon"); opron/opru: (ro. construcie rudimentar care servete ca adpost pentru vite sau unde se in unelte, nutre;/eg. cot, sconce, shed;/germ. Schoppen; psh. co-p/ copnah <pl.> sau copl/ coplnah <pl.>- eg. a "summer-house, a temporary dwelling, a pavilion, generally made of the branches of trees", psh. sapar- eg. "a thatched roof, the thatch of a house, a hut of reeds or grass"); ubred: (ro. despre oameni: firav, plpnd, despre lucruri: lipsit de trinicie, fr rezisten, despre teorii, argumente: fr fundament;/eg. fragile, insecure, unsubstantial;/lv. uzbrukums- "atac"; lt. subruzdimas"agitaie, fierbere". Et. nec. ?); <a> uoti: (ro. a vorbi ncet, n oapt;/ eg. whisper;/lt. iiuoti- eg. "sing to slepp; rock to slepp"); tabr: (psh. abar- eg. "family, household, including parents, children, and servants"); <a> tbr: (ro. a se repezi la cineva cu violen, a da nval, a se npusti; a sri cu gura la cineva;/eg. set about, work over;/psh. t/ tnah <pl.>- eg. "a band of raiders; a raid, a foray"; lt. barimas- eg. "scolding, abuse, bad language, swearing", lt. barimasis- eg. "wrangle, squabble"); <a> tr<>i: (ro. a tr picioarele sau nclmintea n mers, frecndu-le de pmnt i producnd un

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zgomot specific; a trage dup sine trnd de pmnt;/eg. shamble, shuffling;/lt. terktieg. "clatter, rattle"- "huruit, zngnit", lt. terkti- eg. "clatter, rattle, chatter"- "huruit, zngnit, trepidaie"; lt. trypsjimas/trypsti - eg. "tramp, stamp"); teac: (aro. teac; ro. toc, aprtoare;/eg. scabbard;/lat. theca; psh. tic or tekah or tekaey- eg. "the sheath or scabbard of a sword, dagger"); teleleu (ro. pierde-var, hoinar; mg. telel, psh. eyl leg. "romping, fun, frolic, prank, antic, etc.; dalliance"; psh. eyl l kawul- eg. "to romp, to gambol, to dally, to fondle"- ro. "a se ine de fleacuri, zburdalnic"; pentru pierde-var: psh. -wrah- eg. "vagabond, wanderer, dissolute". Informativ i eg. tol-lol - ro. "aa i aa, ceac-pac".); tertip: (psh. tartb/ tartbnah- eg. "arrangement, disposition, method, order", psh. tartb kawul- eg. "to order, to arrange, to compose"); "te rog, nu te deranja <ironic>" <"i se rupe">: (lt. nesirpinkite- eg. "<please> dont worry !, dont bother ! ". Ironicului "te rog, nu te deranja", dac persoana nu reacioneaz, i se adaug categoricul "i se rupe ! "); ttea: (ro. pop. sensul de bunic, strbunic; reg. tete cu sensul de tat;/prss. tts/thetis- germ. Grovater/grandfather", lt. didelis- eg. "1. big, 2. large, numeorus, 3. strong, 4. important, 5. great", sg. tt- lt. ttis- eg. "dad, daddy, father"; rus. teatea; greaca pontic tetes- eg. "father"); <a> ticlui: (ro. a aranja, njgheba, ntocmi; a pune la cale potrivind, inventnd, nscocind; a compune, a redacta uor;/eg. cook up, devise, make up, trump up;/lt. tikslumas- eg. "precision, exactness, accuracy, punctuality"); tj: (ro. sensul de bar metalic, cilindric, fcnd parte dintr-un sistem tehnic, ca element de legtur sau de ghidare;/eg. draw bar;/lt. ti- eg. "sludge, slush, mash"); <a> tip: (ro. a merge, a umbla;/eg. walk;/lt. tipenti- eg. "tiptoe; take short steps, trip along, mince"); toamn: (aro., megl. toamn, istr. tomne; ro. anotimpul dintre var i iarn;/eg. autumn;/lat. autumnus; psh. tom-nah/ twamnah- eg. "rennet, leaven, ferment. The root, origin, principle, essence, seed, foundation, etc." ? Ex. inc.); tot, tot, toi, tote: (ro. cu sensul de ntreg ansamblu;/eg. all;/lt. tauta- eg. "people, nation", prss. tut- eg. "country, land", lv. tauta- eg. "demos, nation, people, country, folk, nationality", il. teuta- eg. "people, a tribe"; lat. totus); <a> trage: (eg. pull, tug;/sg. traukas- lt. trauksmas- eg. "draught, pull", lt. traukti- eg. "pull, draw, tug"); trei: (eg. three;/lt. treji, trejetas- eg. "three", lat. tres, lyc. trei, trije); <a> trsni, aro. trizns, trizniri: (ro. a se produce, a cdea trznete; a izbi, a lovi cu putere;/eg. thunderbeat; a detona, a bubui; a nnebuni;/lv. trokotjs- eg. "rioter"- rsculat, turbulent, lt. drioksti- eg. "thunder"; sbc., slvn. tresnuti- "a trsni"); <a> trnti: (ro. a arunca <cu putere> izbind de ceva, a azvrli un obiect, o povar;/ eg. bang, clap to, curl up, fell, flunk, hurtle, knock down, plunk;/lt. trenkti- eg. "crash, bang, strike, hit, knock; fling, throw violently, drop with a crash/bang, knock down"; lt. trinktelti- eg. "bang, slam"; bg. trtja); troac: (eg. manger, through;/psh. or/ ornah or orn <pl.>- eg. "a manger, a trough; a stable, a stall" cf. i fr. accueillir- ro. "a gzdui". Poate cf. i ro. ctun ? ); <a> trosn: (ro. despre lemne: a produce un zgomot specific prin rupere, crpare, ardere; a pocni, a plesni din bici; a-i pri cuiva ncheieturile;/eg. clack, crackle, whang;/lv. trokains- eg. "rundy, bustling, obstreperous, rambunctious, rip-roaring, rumbustious, uproarious, blatant, clamant, clamorous, noisy, rackety, riotous, roaring, rowdy, loud, tumultuous, disorderly", lv. trokot- eg. "clamour, racket, rag, create", lv. troksnis- eg. " bobbery, din, uproar, ado, noise, racket, tumult, bark, barque, rag, pother, noise"); reg. tulipan <lale>: (ro. plant erbacee din familia liliaceelor, cu bulb alungit, cu tulpin nalt, care face o singur floarec mare, de diverse culori, tulip Tulipa gesneriana;/eg. tulip;/alb., pl. tulipan, rus. , lv. tulpe, lt. Tulp);
lalea- lala (sloven.), (ucr.), tulipan (alb.), (bg.), tulip (ch., slv., eg., fr.), (sb.), lala (cr.), lale (tc.), tulipan (pl.), tulpe (lv.), Tulp (lt.), tulipn (sp.), (rus.), tulip (mg., finlandez), tulbisortide (estonian), tulipa (galiian, cat., port.), (ngr.), llah (psh.)

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turturea: (ro. porumbel slbatic;/eg. Columba turtur, turtle, turtle dove;/lat. turtrem, psh. totakaey/ totakaraey- eg. "a swallow", psh. ku-kua or ku-kua kaw-tarah <pl.> eg. "a turtle-dove" ? Ex. inc.); andr/ndri: (ro. 1. a-i sri <cuiva> andra; 2. achie, bucic;/eg. spall, splint;/sensul 1: psh. san- eg. "shake, agitation, waving motion", psh. sanal- eg. "to shake, to clean by shaking, to agitate"; sensul 2: swalah- eg. "a piece, a portion, a bit, a fragment, a morsel" + psh. kandarey kawdarey- eg. "shard, a piece or fragment of a broken vessel, or any brittle substance". Psh. sanah- eg. "side, brim, edge, brink, margin, rim, verge, fringe, edging, hem" ? Sensul 2: ex. inc.; slv. condra, mg. candra, cond(o)ra, rut. cyndra); ar: (eg. land, country;/ lat. terra, psh. ar- eg. " earth, a portion of land", psh. sar/sarnah- eg. "the head, the top, the point of anything", psh. sar/sarnah - eg. "pasture, forage, pasturing, grazing", psh. sar- eg. "forage, pasture, food" ?, psh. sarah- eg. "deep pit or well in which grain is stored"; nep. dharatal- eg. "surface (of the earth)", punj. dhartee- eg. "earth", psh. wrah- eg. "earth, dust, clay", psh. sar zamn- eg. "the earth, country, territory", psh. sarkr- eg. "government, estate, property, a district of several parganahs", psh. sardr- eg. "chiefship, rule, domination, lordship, supremacy", psh. sarwar- eg. "leadership, rule, sway", psh. sarwar/ sarwarn <pl.>- eg. "a leader, a chief, a principal"; lt. tvyn, sg. tievn, ltg. tvaine, lv. tvija, tvzeme-"native land, fatherland, motherland"; lt. tvik- eg. "native land, country, home"; lt. terti- eg. "soil, make dirty"; sbc. trava, ch., slv. trva, bg. , ucr. , lv. zle, lt. ol, prss. zls/soalis- eg. "grass" i lt. terlenti, slvn. tla- eg. "soil", tocharian tsiraue- eg. "power, strenght", tocharian tsras'i- eg. "strong"; ltg. teiri/teiri/vys/ leidza/vysleidza- lv. glui- eg. "downright, all, exactly, quite, altogether". Dei pentru un popor de pstori ro. ar ar fi trebuit s aib sensul lt. ol, prss. zls/soalis contaminat de lat. terra, cuvntul tocharian tsiraue n care s-ar subnelege sensul de organizaie statal, for, coerciie pare mai plauzibil); reg. arc/<cior,r>cu/ sarcoi/caraga/ tiric<,ea>: (ro. pasre din familia corvidelor, de mrimea unui porumbel, cu coada lung, cu penele de pe spate negre, lucioase, iar cu cele de pe piept i de pe partea inferioar a aripilor albe- Pica pica;/eg. maggie, pie;/arc, ciorcu, sarcoi, rcu <coofan>: mg. szarka ?, lt. arka, psh. sar- eg. a kind of hawk or falcon, an eagle", psh. srakah- eg. "the name of a bird <Turdus salica>, also a maina <Gracula religiosa>" ?, reg. caraga- lv. agata i psh. gjakah- eg. "a magpie",, reg. tiric, tiricea- ch. straka; psh. sar- eg. a kind of hawk or falcon, an eagle"; mg. szarka); <la> anc: (ro. la momentul potrivit;/eg. just in time;/ nep. tikai- eg. "exactly" ?); clie (ro. cioc, barbion;/eg. goatee;/ sg. cekelis- lt. klitorius- eg. "clitoris, clit"); <o> r: (ro. 1. ruptur, zdrean; "a se face r": a se rupe, a se face buci sau a se ghemui de fric; 2. "o r": puin, niel;/sensul 1: psh. srah/ srey <pl.>- eg. "an incision, a cut, a slit, a strip. a ribbon, a slip, a shred"; psh. srah joawul- eg. "to divide into slips or shreds, to tear into strips or ribbons"; sensul 2: psh. swalah- eg. "a piece, a portion, a bit, a fragment, a morsel"; psh. sao- eg. "somewhat, a few, some, something, more or less, a certain quantity or degree indeterminate, a part greater or less; in some degree or quantity, slightly, not much", psh. sao-sao- eg. "a little, little by little, by degrees"); <a> ri/ rita: (ro. a cdea sau a face s cad pictur cu pictur, a curge sau a face s curg cte puin, cu intermiten <producnd un zgomot caracteristic>;/eg. ? ;/psh. sir/ sira-hr <pl.>- eg. "the sound produced by ejection of anything liquid and in small quantities, <as in flux or diarrha, squirt, spurt, sputter, the sound produced from a lamp when there may be water mixed with the oil"; psh. sir-kah- eg. "1. a spot, a splash, a sprinkle <as of mud>, a gush, flow; 2. a throb, a beat or strong pulsation, palpitation <as from a wound or boil>, throbbing, beating", psh. ciklah/ eg. "a small quantity, particularly liquids, as a thimbleful, a

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sprinkling, a droplet, a dash, etc."); rn: (ro. 1. pmnt sfrmat mrunt; 2. pmnt cu care se acoper sicriul, se astup groapa, mormntul;/eg. clay, dust;/psh. sah- eg. "waste or fallow land", psh. sar/sarnah - eg. "pasture, forage, pasturing, grazing", psh. saah lr- eg. "a foot-path, a by- path, a narrow road impracticable for horses, etc."; psh. sar/sarnah- eg. "the head, the top, the point of anything" care explic denumirea Srun dat de aromni pentru Salonic, dar poate i ro. ar ? Fonetic corespunde ro. rn, nu i semantic. Pare a intra i n silabele finale din ro. cpn; lt. terlenti- eg. "soil", lt. terliotieg. "1. soil, dirty, blog, 2. daub, scribble", lt. terti- eg. "soil, make dirty, pollute, contaminate; soil, sully, tarnish", luw. taluppi- eg. "clay"; irish taln/talamh/ talaimh- eg. "land"); ran: (persoan care triete n mediul rural i se ocup cu agricultura;/ eg. boor, chuff;/ Psh. carey-kr/ carey-krn <pl.>- eg. "a cultivator who merely supplies his own labour in the cultivation, the farmer furnishing seed, etc.; a ploughman, a man-servant", psh. c-raey- eg. "a servant, a servitor, a dependant, an attendant", Psh. c-ra- eg. "a hand-maid, a female servant, an abigail, a waiting maid", psh. saaey- eg. "a man, a human being, an individual"; psh. saah- eg. "1. single, unmarried. 2. Alone, solitary. 3. Unique. 4. Light, simple, unincumbered, light as to baggage -as a force in light marching order"; psh. saah-waaey/saah-wa -eg. "a traveller unincumbered with baggage, or unattended; one who can travel by a foot or by-path"; psh. paras-tr/ paras-trn- eg. "a slave, an adorer", psh. t/ tnah <pl.>- eg. "a band of raiders; a raid, a foray", psh. s-tar/ s-tarn <pl.>- eg. "a man who runs before one's horse and holds him when the rider alights, a running footman or groom" ?); rnoi: (ro. bdran, mitocan, mojic;/eg. boor, chuff, peasant;/lt. terlius- eg. "sloven, dauber", sg, termenti- lt. terlioti- eg. " daub, scribble", sg. terlion- lt. terliojimas- eg. "daub, scribble", psh. s- eg. "rude, clownish <person>, unmannered, a clodhopper, a clown; out of work, unemployed, fallow"); rm<uri>: (ro. mal, coast, fie de pmnt de-a lungul unei ape mari;/eg. beach, <sea>shore, front, <sea> bank;/Ciornescu: lat. termn/ termonem ?; psh. sarmah- eg. "side, margin, extremity, towards"); nc: (ro. cel, copila;/eg. puppy, infant, small child;/psh. tankaey- eg. "1. a babe, a suckling of any animal, a young ox unfit for the plough, a young horse too young for the saddle, a colt; 2. unripe, tender, immature, green"; psh. cangoaey- eg. "a cub, a pup, a kitten", psh. cangoa- eg. "a female cub", psh. songaey- eg. "a dwarf, a pigmy", psh. songa- eg. "a female dwarf", psh. cng- eg. "wide open, unclosed, open, grinning, opening the mouth"; mg. cenk); <,i>ngu: (peiorativ : flcia, bietan;/eg. boy;/psh. cngah/cng ulaey- eg. "open-mouthed, grinning"; psh. cngedal- eg. "to grin, to open, to unclose, to grind the teeth, to open the mouth, to snarl"? Ex. inc.); a ri/cu rita: (psh. sir/ sira-hr eg." the sound produced by ejection of anything liquid and in small quantities, (as in flux or diarrha), squirt, spurt, sputter, the sound produced from a lamp when there may be water mixed with the oil"); elin, reg. <s,>eler, aro. selin: (ro. plant rdcinoas- apium graveolens;/eg. marsh parsley;/lv. selerija, pl. seler, lt. salieras, bg. );
elin- selino (alb.)- (bg.)- celer (cr.)- cleri (fr.)- sedano (it.)- seler (pl.)- (ucr.)- selerija (lv.)- salieras (lt.)

igu/igaie: (ro. varietate de oi cu ln fin;/ psh. cirgaey or cargaey-eg. "an animal with a white face <as a horse, etc.>". Ex. inc.); reg. inglu <prin Mold., Trans., Maram.>: (ro. clopot, zvon, talang;/eg. bell;/lt. vangalas/vangulis- eg. "handbell, bell", lt. dzingalas- eg. "little bell", psh. gin-gaaey- eg. "a small bell, a hawk's bell"; psh. zanglah- eg. "a small bell, the bell of a tambourine, a cymbal"); <a> ipa: (ro. a zbiera, a se rsti, a scoate sunete ascuite;/eg. bawl, shout;/ lv. stiprs, stiprums, stipri- eg. "intense, strong, tenacious, violent, hard, heavy", lt. stiprus eg. "strong, firm, powerfull, fierce, severe, hard, intense, violent " ?); <a juca>onoroiu: (psh. can-caaey- eg. "a child's rattle, a rattle fixed on the head of a spear". Ex. inc.); reg. a uca: (ro. a sruta;/eg.

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to kiss;/ psh. sakah- eg. "taste, flavour, relish, savour, tasting". Ex. inc.); uic: (ro. butur alcoolic tare, obinut din fermentarea i distilarea prunelor i a altor fructe;/eg. plum brandy, brandy;/psh. sk or sk/sknah or sknah- eg. "drink, beverage, liquor, potion"; psh. skal- eg. "to drink". Psh. sir-kah- eg. "vinegar" ?); urloi: (ro. fluierul piciorului, prin extensie partea piciorului de la genunchi n jos; fiecare dintre tuburile sonore ale cimpoiului; jgheab, eav prin care curge apa din izvor sau din cimea; urur de ghea;/psh. curlawul- eg. "to make revolve, to cause to turn <as the earth> on its own axis", psh. swurlae- eg. "a gimlet, an auger"- ro. "sfredel, burghiu" ? Ex. inc.); ti/uti/a ni: (ro. exprim ideea de sritur neateptat;/ psh. satedal <W.> or satedal <E.>- eg. "to fly, to flee, to escape, to take to flight, to retreat, to elope, to run away, to decamp"); uliu: (aro. sfrntealjiu; ro. erete, gaie, coroi, pasre din specia Accipiter;/eg. kite, goshawh, pigeon hawk;/mg. ly, lt. ylius- eg. "insinuating, pushful, intrusing person", lv. javturis- eg. "hawk" ?; lv. <mait>u lija- eg. "vulture", psh. jurrah- eg. "a species of hawk or falcon, a tercel goshawk", nep./punj. jurr- eg. "a falcon" corespund aro. yeraku-ro. "uliu", aro. yerkin- ro. "oim", psh. al-bau-bau- eg. "a scare-crow, a bugaboo, a bogie, etc. to frighten children" improbabil, dar poate...?); uluit: (cuprins de admiraie, mirare, emoie; uimit, surprins;/dazed, amazed ;/DEX: din ro. ului < rus. ulovitro. "a prinde, a surprinde" sau sb. ulovit- ro. "a prinde vnatul" ?; psh. halwk/hal-wkah <fem.>- eg. "amazed, completely astonished, at a loss what to do" ar explica ro. uluit; psh. wit laey/wit li<fem.>- eg. "open-mouthed, agape, flabbergasted, all agog, struck all of a heap, amazed, astonished, inquisitive, gaping, on the tip-toe of expectation, over curious" mai apropiat poate de ro. uituc ?); undeva: (eg. somewhere;/lv. deva eg. "dose, ration, allowance, charge, dietary, dosage, feed, kick" ; <"unde ?", "undeva"- pus deoparte, raionalizat> ?); urzic, aro. urdzca, megl. urzic, istr. urzik: (ro. plant din familia urticaceelor; Urtica dioica, U. urens;/eg. nettle;/ar putea fi explicat i prin pl. pokrzywkaeg. "nettle", dar i prin lt. dagys- germ. "Klette, Dorn, Distel"- eg. "bur, thorn, thistle" i lv. dadzis- eg. "bur, burdock"- ro. brusture dintr-un (bur)dadzis ? sau un vechi IE brld()ds ? Dar gal. i port. urticceas, sp., cat. ortiga aduc fonetic cu ro. urzic. Un lv. urdzt are sensul eg. "purl, bicker, brawl, ripple, lisp, whisper", care pare a fi "efectul" aciunii de a fi urzicat ? Psh. g-zakaey- eg. "a species of thorny plant", psh. g-zaey- eg. " a thorn, a prickle"; lat. urtca);
urzic- qlloj me hithr (alb.), (bg.), ortiga (cat.), kopriva (cr.), kopiva (ch.), brndenlde (dan.), netel (ol.), nettle (eg.), ngese (estonian), nokkonen (finlandez), ortie (fr.), urticceas (gal.), Brennnessel (germ.), (ngr.), csaln (mg.), ortica (it.), ntre (lv.), krevet (lt.), nesle (norv.), pokrzywka (pl.), urticceas (port.), (rus.), (sb.), ihava (slv.), Kopriva (sloven.), ortiga (sp.), nsslor (su.), srgan (tc.), (ucr.)

uor: (aro. li<c>shoru;/eg. easy; easily;/ lat. lvis+sufixul or; psh. sahl- eg. "easy, not difficult, trifling, simple; easily"; psh. muyassar/muyassarah <fem.>- eg. "attained. attainable, procurable, obtainable, easy, favorable, facilitated", ud. muyassar- eg. "facilitated, easy, possible, feasible"; psh. sn- eg. "easy, convenient, facile, commodious, not difficult", ud. aasan- eg. "light, facile, easy", psh. sarsar- eg. "easy, trivial, trifling, facile, careless". Pb. cf. psh./ud. muyassar ?);<a> uura: (aro. njishuredzu-mi; cu sensul ro. a despovra;/cf. ro. uor/aro. li<c>shoru; psh. uj-rat/ uj-ratnah- eg. "wages, hire, reward" ? Ex. inc.); vad: (ro. loc situat pe cursul unui ru, unde malul e jos i apa puin adnc, permind trecerea prin ap de pe un mal pe altul; albie, matc a unei ape curgtoare; canal de irigaie, jgheab; loc de trecere; drum, cale; p.ext. loc de scpare, de salvare;/eg. ford;/ lat. vadum, lv. vads- eg. "dragnet, sweepnet, vasa, duct ", lt. vad- eg. "easily driven/led", psh. wat- eg. "a gorge, a defile, a ravine, a pass"); v<a,>lu: (ro. pop. vai !, aoleu !. Ar putea exprima o ngrijorare, o ntrziere sau trecerea neateptat a timpului;/lt. vluoti- eg. "1. be late 2. be slow", lt. vlus- eg. "late, tardy", din aceeai familie cu eg.

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late); varz: (ro. plant legumicol;/eg. cabbage;/ lv. varacs- eg. "corn, wart", lv. varzaeg. "1. crowd, gang; 2. pack". Ex. inc.); <a se> vicri: (ro. a se tngui, a se vita, a se cina;/eg. yammer;/ltg. vaicuot- lv. lgt- eg. "implore, beg, crave, pray, conjure"; lt. viaukseti- a chelli, a scheuna; lt. vaikcioti- a colinda; lt. vaikas- copil, fiic, fiu, lt. verktieg. "1. cry, weep, shed tears 2. lament, deplore"); <a se> vita: (ro. a scoate vaiete, a geme de durere, de jale; a se tngui, a se lamenta, a se viera; refl.: a-i exprima necazul, durerea;/eg. bemoan, complain, cry, lament, yammer;/lt. vaitoti- eg. "moan, be moaning"); vj<i>: (ro. vj- imit zgomotul vntului, curgerea apei, etc; ro. vji- zgomot, uier caracteristic, despre snge: a pulsa cu violen;/eg. roar, whiz<z>;/lt. vjuoti - eg. "1. blow 2. rise the wind", lt. vijoti- eg. "twist, wind, reel, weave" ?); <a se> vntura i venetic: (ro. a umbla mult, a bate drumurile, cf. expresiei vntur lume- "aventurier";/eg. carpet bagger, play boy;/lt. vientulys- eg. "solitary, lonely man, single, bachelor", lt. vienutlis- eg. "quite alone"); vrtos/nvrtoa: (ro. vrtos: puternic, voinic, viguros; tare, ndesat, dur; ro. nvrtoa: a se ntri;/eg. amain; indurated; /lt. tvirtas- eg. "strong, firm, tough, hard, solid"; lt. tvirtuolis- eg. "sturdy/robust person"; lt. tvirtjimas- eg. "strengthening; consolidation"; lat. virtuosus<virtus,-utis); <n> vzul: (ro. public;/lt. vieai- eg. "publicly, in public", lt. vieas- eg. "public, open"); reg. vek'e: (ro. btrn, Maram.-P.387; lv. vecks- eg. "elder", friulian vecjo- eg. "old"); vergea, istr. ver: (ro. b, varg, nuia; bar ngust i flexibil de metal sau de lemn, cu folosiri diverse;/eg. birch, rod, twig, wand, wattle;/lt. vzdas- eg. "stick, bludgeon, cudgel, club"); vste: (ro. 1. tire, noutate, zvon; 2. faim;/eg. knowledge, message;/sensul de noutate, zvon: lv. vstseg."message, word", ltg. viests- lv. zia- eg. "message, news, word, item"; sensul de faim: vsl. vst- "faim"); veveri, aro. virviri/kunave, megl. ververi: (ro. mic mamifer roztor care triete n arbori-Sciurus vulgaris;/ vsl. vverica, lv. vvere- eg. "squirell", lv. vverte- eg. "bun"); viespe: (ro. insect himenopter asemntoare albinei;/eg. wasp;/lt. vapsva, germ. Wespe, prss. Waps/Wobse, ch. vosa, hu., sbc., bg. osa- eg. "wasp", lat. vespis=vespa); vijelie: (ro. furtun, vnt puternic cu descrcri electrice i precipitaii ;/eg. storm, blizzard;/ lt. vjelis- eg. "breeze", lt. vjas - eg. "wind, breeze, gale", vbalt. Vjopatis- eg. "Lord of the wind in Dausos, blows bad souls into oblivion"); viroag (ro. rp mic, mocirloas, format de apa ploilor, de inundaii sau prin prsirea albiei de ctre un ru;/eg. gill, gulch, guly;/psh. war-ah- eg. "a small channel in a field for irrigation purposes". Poate mai aproape de ro. vlcea ?); "vi se pare": (ro. se rspunde la o acuzaie nedovedit: "nu eu, oricare altul";/eg. not me, every other;/lv. visi prjie- eg. "all the others, every other", lv. visparastkais- eg. "as common as muck, common or garden", lv. vispr- eg. " generally, all in all, at all"); "vino lng... ": (ro. a se poziiona alturi de...;/lt. vieningas- eg. "united, unanimous, indivisible", lt. vieningai- eg. " unanimously"); viel: (ro. 1. puiul mascul al vacii pn la vrsta de un an, 2. pui de cerb, 3. rani militar acoperit cu piele de viel;/eg. calf, fawn;/lat. vitellus, it. vitello, arb. v, -i- it. "vitello" ;1. puiul mascul al vacii: lt. veris/ verelis, sg. veriukas - eg. "calf, bull calf"; 2. puiul de cerb: lt. veriuotis- eg. "calve, fawn", hu. vea- "oaie" cf. ltg. vuka- lv. aita-"oaie" sau ltg. vucyns- lv. auns- eg. "ram, tup"); vizu<n,ne>: (ro. loc de adpost pe care-l amenajeaz n pmnt unele animale slbatice; ascunztoare; cocioab, bordei;/eg. den, lair;/lv. ieogojums- eg. "fencing, enclosure, closure, lair" sau lv. ieogojums + lv. midzenis- eg. "lair, den, haunt, lie"); volbur (ro. vrtej;/eg. whirligig;/ psh. bor<-bka>- eg. "a whirlwind" ?; + psh. <bm->brah- eg. "a whirligig". Ex. inc.) ; vorb: (ro. cuvnt, spus, zis, gnd;/eg. word;/vsl. dvorba, lt. vardas- eg. "name, appellation, reputation", lv. vrds, prss. wrds, norv., su. ord, germ. Worte- eg. "word", ltg. vuords- eg. "name", bg. dialect shopi, macedonean , , sbc. zboriti-eg. "to speak", aro. zbor- "vorb,

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cuvnt", lt. verbuoti- eg. "recruit, win over to ones side" ?, lt. verbuotojas- eg. "recruiter" ?, lv. valoda, ltg. volda/voldys- eg. "tongue, language", ltg. vrdneica- eg. "dictionary", gael. beurla- eg. "a language". Interesante slvn. beseda, lt. odis - eg. "word" sugereaz ro. "buz, buze"); vrabie: (ro. 1. Passer domesticus: reg. brabete, <Trans., Ban., Buc.> pasre, <Olt., Ban.> vrbete. 2. vrabie-de-trestie: Emberiza schoeniclus= reg. presur-de-trestie, vrabie-de-stuf;/eg. sparrow;/vsl. vrabi, bg. , cr. vrabac, sloven vrabec, ucr. , pl. wrbel, slovac vrabec, rus ; lt. virblis- eg. "sparrow", lt. virbliukas- eg. "young sparrow", lt. virbliktis- eg. "little sparrow", psh. ab-bl- eg. "the swallow"- ro. rndunic ?); <n> zadar: (ro. inutilitate, n van;/eg. unhelpful, vain, vainly;/vsl. za dar- ro. "de dar"; psh. zd/zdnah <pl.>- eg. "food, provisions", psh. zdi-rh- eg. "provisions for travelling, way charges". Totui, toate exemplele din psh. nu pot explica ro. zadar. Ex. inc.); zaiafet, zaifet: ( ro. chef mare, osp, chiolhan;/eg. shindig, wing-ding;/psh. -fat- eg. "a banquet, entertainment, hospitality, invitation", pashto fat kawul- eg. "to feast, to treat, to entertain", tc. ziyfet); zarv: (ro. glgie, trboi;/eg. bustle ;/psh. arb- eg. "a blow, beating; violence; striking, emphasis; stamping, coining", psh. arb rasawul- eg. "to injure, to show violence towards"; psh. zr rasawul- eg. "to injure, to afflict, to torture"; vsl. zarvati, de la rvati- ro."a lupta" ?); zarzr: (fructul zarzrului/corcoduului; un fel de cais mai mic; variante zarzn, zarzl, zarzara, zrzlie;/eg. small apricot;/bg. zarzala-zarzalija, tc. zerdali, iran. zerdalu, psh. zard-l- eg. "an apricot", psh. mr-araey- eg. "the name of a tree resembling the date"); zgan (ro. vulture-brbos ;/eg. eagle;/ tc. zagan, ngr. zagnis, hu. gane; psh. ganjaey- eg. "a vulture" sau psh. zagan/ zagann - eg. "a kite"- ro. "pasre de prad, om hrpre; uliu, erete, uligaie") ; <a> z<,>ngni: (ro. a produce prin izbire sau lovire un sunet metalic specific, a zorni, a zdrngni;/eg. clink, jingle, chatter, chink/lt. dzingti- eg. "ring", lt. dzingsti- eg. "clank, clang, ring, jingle", lt. dzingtelti- eg. "tinkle, give a tinkle, jingle", lt. dzinguliuoti- eg. "jingle, ring"; psh. jag/ jagnah - eg. "a sound, sound, noise, voice, accent, strain, intonation", psh. ganj/ganjahr - eg. "the tinkling of a bell, the ring of money, chime, jingle, clink"; psh. ganjw- eg. "a child's rattle", psh. zang- eg. "a bell, a bell which dancing women fasten to their feet, a cymbal"); zpad: (ro. omt, nea, ninsoare;/eg. snow;/vsl. zapaditi- "a cdea" ?, lv. ieputint- eg. "snow", lv. ieputints- eg. "snowbound"; wakhi zam- eg. "snow"+ishkasmi varf- eg. "snow"; psh. sapak- eg. "a flake of snow, a pellicle", psh. wore-dal - eg. "to rain, to fall, as snow or hail, to drizzle, to mizzle, to drop, to trickle, to distil", nep. turo- eg. "hoarfrost, frost; dew; snow". Dacism poate slavizat contaminat de vsl. zapaditi de care a fost complet substituit ? Surprinztor roshani ziniz/shugni zinij- eg. "snow" corespund i ro. nea, nep. hi); zu: (ro. pe legea mea, jur pe Dumnezeu; aro. nii dzu- ro. "niciun cuvnt";/eg. really;/lat. deus; psh. jo- eg. "a word or exclamation used by way of affirmation or oath", psh. ude jo- eg. "By God! so help me God! " unde n zebaki khudai- eg. "God", psh. y ud-e-a- eg. "Oh God!", psh. st pah sar jo- eg. "I swear or vow by thy head!"); zvor: (psh. jgoraey- eg. "a keeper, a protector, a preserver, a defender, a guardian"); zambil: (psh. canbel- eg. "the name of a flower <Jasminum grandiflorum>"); zmb<i,re>: (ro. a surde;/eg. laugh at;/lt. zambatyti- eg. "talk nonsense/ rubbish, chater, drivel"; sg. zambaila- lt. plepys/taukalius- eg. "chatterer", psh. zanbal- eg. zanbal, verb trans. To wink, to blink, to close the eyelids (as a cat in the sunlight)to wink, to blink, to close the eyelids <as a cat in the sunlight> zanbal, verb trans. To wink, to blink, to close the eyelids (as a cat in the sunlight); arvanitika i arb. zmbra- alb. "je dashuruar"- ro. "a fi ndrgostit" care par mai aproape de ro. "a face zmbre"); istr. <o>zrni-K.47: (ro. a se face boabe, la gru, la porumb;/eg.pill;/ vsl. zrnoboabe, prss./sudovian zirne- eg. "grainseed"; lt. irnelis- eg. "farm. pill" ; sudovian zirne-

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eg. "grainseed"; psh. zaaey- eg. "a seed or kernel in general"); zbanghiu: (ro. 1. despre ochi: saiu; 2. despre oameni: neastmprat, fluturatic, zvpiat, aiurit;/eg. 1. bosseyed; 2. giddy, gaga;/1. rromani bango-eg. "bent, lame"-ro. "rsucit, strmbat, schilodit", nep. bgo- eg. "crooked, bent, twisted; untoward; froward; perverse"; 2. lt. vangus- eg. "idle, lazy, sluggish, limp, slack, dull, slow" ?); zbrcit: (ro. ridat, cutat;/eg. ridgy;/bg. bra, psh. zbarg- eg. "great, large, reverend, venerable, grand; a great man, a noble, a saint, an elder, an ancestor", psh. zbarg- eg. "grandeur, greatness, eminence, seniority, nobleness". Ex. inc.); reg. zdrmboiet: (ro. bosumflat, posomort, Maram.-P.388;/eg. mopish;/ lt. zvimblys- eg. "cry-baby"); a <se>zdreli (ro. a se rni uor, superficial; a se juli; a se jupui;/eg. to grate ?;/psh. zdo-yal- eg. "to rub, to grind, to grate, to rasp, to rub down, to pare, to scour, to wear away, to smooth, to polish; to draw" ?); a zice: (psh. szis- eg. "collusion, combination, confederacy, conspiracy, plot, cabal", psh. szis kawul- eg. "to plot, to combine, to get up a conspiracy"); zgmbi: (ro. copil mic, pici, puti;/eg. kid, brat, chit;/lt. zvimblys- eg. "cry-baby"); a se zgi: (psh. gayandaey- eg. "a catamite, a man addicted to fornication" ; psh. gayanda- eg. "a libidinous woman, a whore, a fornicatress"); <a> zgndri: (ro. 1. a-i irita o ran rupnd-o, scrpinnd-o, rcind-o; 2. a aa, a ntrta, a sci, a rscoli, a readuce n memorie ;/ eg. rake up, stoke;/sensul 1: lv. izgriezums- eg. "cut-out, clipping, cutting, scrap", psh. jgan joawul- eg. "to scoop out or make a socket in anything, to dent, to mortice"; jgan- eg. "a dent, a notch, a socket, a notch made in a piece of wood to split it" , psh. jgan war-kawul- eg. "to make a notch or dent, to notch" ? Psh. jagunaey- eg. "a term of abuse; a peg in a yoke, which prevents it slipping from the neck of the animal" sau psh. gnhraey- eg. "a tumor, a bump, a bubo" ; sensul 2. lv. gandarjums- eg. "gratification, satisfaction, atonement, fulfilment" poate sensul figurat de a zgndri orgoliul cuiva ?; psh. swandar/ swandr <pl.>- eg. "a steer, a young bullock"; psh. skunal- eg. "to pinch, to tweak, to pain, to hurt, to gall" poate mai aproape de ro. scandal ?); zgrci: (ro. cartilaj;/eg. gristle, cartilage;/psh. kracaey- eg. "gristle, cartilage". Ro. cf. psh. kracaey si eg. gristle; DEX ro. zgrci derivat din ro. zgrcit < sl. sgriti ?); zgoand: (ro. glum, pozn, ghiduie;/eg. joke;/psh. jagunaey- eg. "a term of abuse"); <s,z>gmot: (ro. sunet, rumoare; zarv, scandal;/eg. clamour, roaring;/ slv. gomot, sbc. glomot ?; pl. grzmot, lt. grzmie- eg. "thunder", lv. izplatt baumas/baumas- eg. "bruit, rumour, to spread rumour"; psh. zwag/ zwagnah <pl.>- eg. "noise, sound, clamour, murmur, rustling", psh. jag/jagnah <pl.>- eg. "a sound, sound, noise, voice, accent, strain, intonation", psh. jagawul- eg. "to make a noise, to play or sound a musical instrument, to cause to speak or raise the voice"); a <se> zori (ro. a lucra febril, a se grbi; violen, for; urgen, nevoie;/eg. hurried;/1. pentru sensul de "a lucra febril": psh. zrnah- eg. "swift, speedy, quick, nimble, rapid", psh. zr-zr- eg. "speedily, swiftly, fleetly, suddenly"; 2. pentru sensul de "violen, for": psh. zor zor- eg. "strong, mighty", tc. zor- ro. "sil, for"; psh. zoral- eg. "to vex, to provoke, to fret, to irritate; to compel, to force, to coerce, to constrain, to use compulsion, main force, etc.; to digest, to cause digestion" ?); zori: (aro. <a>ndzari; ro. timp al zilei cnd rsare Soarele, faptul zilei, auror;/eg. dawn;/bg. zor- ro. "auror", bg. zor- ro. "n zori, dis-de-diminea"; psh. sar or sar- eg. "the dawn of the morning, dawn of day". Psh. sar explic i aro. harasm care poate proveni pe filier greac.); zori-de-zi: (ro. dis-dediminea;/eg. daybreak;/psh. sar ez- eg. "rising with the dawn, early rising", psh. sar ez laral or sar ez kawul- eg. "to rise with the dawn" ?) ; zorzoane/oroale/aramuri: (ro. obiecte mrunte lipsite de valoare <i de gust>, folosite drept podoabe, nflorituri;/ pentru zorzoane: psh. an-or/an-ornah <pl.>- eg. "ornament, embellishment, impression, figure, flowers worked on anything", psh. an-zorwaey- eg.

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

"ornament, embellishment, decoration, impression, mark"; pentru oroale/aramuri: psh. an-or kawul- eg. "to ornament, to embellish, to mark".); zmeur: (ro. fructul unui arbust cu ramuri ghimpoase, flexibile, cu fructe roii aromate, comestibile;/eg. raspberry- Rubus idaeus;/lt. emuog- eg. "bot. <wild> strawberry"+sufixul "r" ? ca n eg. rasp<berry> sau lat. Rubus, nep. aiselu- eg. "raspberry <generally wild; yellow in color>"; psh. zma- eg. "an alkaline tree, the seed or berry and leaves of which are used in washing" ?); znamie: (ro. reg. om slab i pocit, pocitanie;/eg. malformed;/lv. izemt- eg. "withdraw, withdrawn, withdrew, to draw out, to rub off, to take out"- "a retrage, a retracta, a da napoi" ?); zuluf: (ro. bucl, crlion; aro. dzuluf;/eg. kink;/bg. zuluf, tc., iran. zlf, psh. zulfah- eg. "a curl, a lock of hair, a ringlet"); zvcni: (ro. a bate repede, puternic, a palpita, sri, ni, a se repezi pe neateptate;/eg. tatoo, tug, whiplash; jerk;/lt. vitrus- eg. "quick, brisk, smart", lt. vak- eg. "candle", lt. vakigalis- eg. "candle-end" cf. expresiei ro."muc i sfrc" ?; psh. jwk- eg. "life, existence, being, entity, subsistence, animation"); <a> zvnta: (ro. a face s piard din umezeal, a zbici, a usca puin;/eg. dry;/ lt. diovinti- eg. "dry, dry up, wither, consume, waste"); zvrlug: (ro. sensul persoan sprinten i neastmprat;/eg. ?;/ lt. varliktis- eg. "small boy; naughty/mischievous child, little imp"); reg. zvon <prin Ban.>: (ro. clopot, talang;/eg. bell;/lt. vangalas/vangulis- eg. "handbell, bell", lv. zvans- eg. "bell, ring, rung", lv. zvani- eg. "bell", ch. zvon, sbc. zvono- "clopot").
Nume proprii romneti care pot primi explicaii i pe filier iranian (sarmatic) sau sunt din fondul autohton comun cu limbile indo-iraniene: Achim (psh. akm- eg. "a sage, a physician, a philosopher" sau psh. ir- eg. "last, final, latter, extreme". Ex. inc.); Adam/Adamescu (psh. damaey- eg. "a man, a human being, an individual" sau numele biblic Adam); Aldea (psh. alah- eg. "a circle, a ring, an assembly, a fraternity; a knocker for a door" cu sensul de "fraternity" ? ); Aram (posibil i explicaia prin psh. rm- eg. "slothful, idle; a lover of ease", psh. rm- eg. "ease, rest, comfort, repose", psh. rmedal- eg. "to be at ease, to become tranquil, quiet" cf. numelui propriu fr. Aramis; psh. aam/ aamnah <pl.>- eg. "a prop, a bar of wood placed against a door, a support, a pillar", dar i prin ro. aram); Babo (psh. <alah> bah gos- eg. a servant, a slave, one who wears a ring in his ear as a badge of servitude, unde psh. alah- eg. "a circle, a ring, an assembly, a fraternity; a knocker for a door"); Antinia (psh. artinah/ ar-tnah- eg. "a wife, a woman, a female" poate n ro. cu sensul de slbiciune sau fragilitate, cf. ro. tnr/tnr, lat. tenerus sau tener ); Badea/Bdru (psh. bae/ bayah <fem.>- eg. "great, important, dignified, supreme", psh. bd-r/bd-rn <pl.>- eg. "a master, an employer, a superior" ?); Badiu (psh. bd- eg. "flatulent, windy; when applied to a man, it means a useless good-for-nothing fellow, a poltroon" ? Sau din ro. bdie ?); Balica (psh. blig/bligah <fem.>- eg. "reaching its end, consummate, arrived at the age of maturity; an adult"); Bnic (psh. nighbn- eg. "a guard, a keeper, an observer" poate sub forma bn-nigh); Brbnan (psh. bar-ban sor- eg. "a light-horseman, a horseman lightly armed"); Br/ Barariu/ Rebreanu (psh. re-br- eg. "a person who acts as gobetween or match-maker in cases of marriage or betrothal", psh. re-brah- eg. "a female go-between", psh. re-br- eg. "match-making, the business of a match-maker, or of a marriage compact", psh. re-br kawul- eg. "to act the go-between or match-maker in cases of betrothal <the business of an old woman, generally>" ?); Bardar/Varga (psh. brdrah aah- eg. "a pregnant woman", psh. brbrdr- eg. "means of conveyance, carriage, beasts of burden", pb. brdr- eg. "burden", psh. bardah- eg. "a female slave, a captive, a servant", psh. bar-dah- eg. "a male slave, a captive, a servant". Ex. inc.); Boghiu (psh. bg- eg. "a mutineer, a traitor, a rebel", psh. bag- eg. "rebellious, mutinous" ? Poate exist alte explicaii i n mg. ?); Bota (psh. botah- eg. "seizing the person of a villager and retaining him as a hostage or pledge for the debts of another, a custom amongst the Afgns" ? Ex. inc.); Buda/Budeanu (psh. bddah/ bagn- eg. "an old man" sau psh. bd- eg. "being, existence". Ex. inc.); Buta (psh. but/but-n <pl.>- eg. "an idol, image, statue; a beloved object, a mistress"); Chesaru (psh. sar el- eg. "the chief or head man of a tribe" sub forma el sar ?); Cioac (psh. cakah- eg. "perfect, expert, experienced, applied to a robber" ?); Cioloc (psh. clk- eg. "active, alert, clever, ingenious, dexterous, expert, fleet"); Ciovic (psh. cawk-dr- eg. "a watchman, a guard", psh. cawka- eg. "a stool, a chair, a bench; guard, watch, watching"); Ciurea/Giulea (psh. c-raeyeg. "a servant, a servitor, a dependant, an attendant", psh. c-ra- eg. "a hand-maid, a female servant, an abigail, a waiting maid", psh. ch-aey- eg. "a person of the lowest caste, a sweeper, one employed in the meanest and dirtiest occupations", psh. c- eg. "dumb, stammering", psh. jolh- eg. "a weaver" sau psh. garat or gurrah- eg. "proud, haughty, arrogant", psh. o-e-wlaey- eg. "sonship, the state of being a son, filiation"); Chiper (psh. capar/ caparnah - eg. "a royal messenger, a courier"); Crian (psh. s / sn- eg. "a large and bulky person, tall and stout, a stalwart or strapping fellow", psh. sah- eg. "large, big, great, stalwart, spanking, burly, brawny"); Cocea (psh. kocaey- eg. "a nomad; nomadic, wandering"; psh. kocedal- eg. "to march, to decamp, to set out, to depart"); Coja/Gu/Cocea/Gogea (psh. wjah- eg. "a man of distinction, a rich merchant, a gentleman", psh. wajah- eg. "an eunuch" ?); Cojar: (psh. gjar- eg. "a cowherd, a herdsman"); Damian: (psh. mn-dah- eg. "a male kept for breeding purposes, generally applied to a male buffalo, a bull, a he-goat, or a ram". Ex. inc.); Drscu (psh. dhah- eg. "an attack made on a village by day or night, with violence, a raid, foray, etc.; a gang of robbers, raiders, or forayers"); Dicu: (psh. di kawul- eg. "to irritate, annoy, plague, tease, exasperate" sau sl. dik- "slbatic"); Dima/Nicodim/Codin (psh. -dim- eg. "a servant, a help"); Dina (psh. mndnah- eg. "a female in general, a wife, a married woman" ); Jora/Giulea (psh. jo- eg. "1. healthy, well, in good health, vigorous, strong. 2. Arranged, prepared, framed, devised, effected. 3. adv. Exactly, precisely" sau psh. jolh- eg. "a weaver");

83

Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor Gale ( psh. li- eg. "pure, genuine, a friend"); Grbea/Grbacea (psh. gurbat/gurbatnah - eg. "emigration, being far from country and friends, travelling" cf. i ro. "a se crbni" sau din ro. grbov ?); Gean/Geoan (psh. canah- eg. "haggling, chaffering, bartering", psh. canah wahal- eg. "to haggle, to bargain, to chaffer, to beat down, to cheapen" sau psh. wn- eg. "young, youthful" ?); Giuglea/Giugaru (psh. cugaey- eg. "hump-backed, bent from age or weakness" sau psh. ckar- eg. "a servant, a retainer, a help"); Giurc (psh. jel kawul- eg. "to show or manifest ignorance or stupidity" ?); Giurea (psh. araey- eg. "a spy, a scout, a vidette, one who ogles or peeps"); Gorun (psh. gor-wn- eg. "a herdsman, a grazier, a drover" sau psh. guanj cawul- eg. "to whisper, to speak with caution and suspicion"); Gu/ Gue (psh. gasaeyeg. "left-handed, having the left hand stronger than the right; a left-handed person" sau ro. gu); Hulici (psh. haul- eg. "terrified, horrified, terror-struck, dismayed". Ex. inc.); Lascr/ Lacu/ Lcric (psh. lakar or lakar- eg. "a soldier, a camp-follower, belonging to an army" sau numele biblic Lazr); Mandache (psh. mu-taid- eg. "a believer, a faithful friend, a servant, an adherent"); Magearu/Madgearu (psh. mujarrab- eg. "tried, proved; expert, skilful" ? sau psh. mujarrad- eg. "alone, solitary, single, unmarried, incorporeal, immaterial"); Mgureanu (psh. mlg-waey- eg. "a man who collects or sells salt" ?); Mandeal (psh. daulat- mand- eg. "opulence, wealth, happiness, prosperity" poate sub forma mand- daulat ?); Manta/Mantale: (psh. mantar- eg. "a charm, a spell, an incantation, a philter", psh. mantar wayal- eg. "to exorcise, to charm, to bewitch". Ex. inc.); Marica (psh. ma-rikah- eg. "a party of arbitrators or persons sent to make peace between two tribes, etc.; the business of making peace or any arrangement between two parties"); Mrza (psh. mr-z- eg. "a prince, a title of some noble Persians; a title given to a secretary"); Minea/Mirea (psh. mnah- eg. "love, affection, liking, inclination, regard, partiality, attachment, devotion, friendship"; psh. mihr/ mihrnah- eg. "love, friendship, kindness, affection". Psh. meah/ menah or manah <pl.>- eg. "a husband, a master, a lord". Ex. inc.); Murgoci (psh. murgecaey- eg. "a man or boy who drives away or frightens the birds from a corn field"; psh. mrag cawul- eg. "to augur by throwing or pitching the stones" sau din ro. murg); Nsui: (psh. nas/nasah <fem.>- eg. "bad, unlucky, inauspicious; unlucky planet", psh. nasat/ nasat-nah- eg. "unluckiness, inauspiciousness, abomination". Ex. inc.); Neaga/Negoi (psh. nigh- eg. "a look, a glance, a sight, a view, aspect; watching, observation; care, custody", psh. nigh kawul- eg. "to observe, to regard, to view, to oversee"); Negrea (psh. nigrah- eg. "a beautiful woman, a mistress" sau din ro. negru") Ni (psh. nis- eg. "agitation as of a tree from the wind, stir, shake, tremor, trepidation, quiver, commotion, turmoil"); Preda (psh. pra-daey- eg. "strange, a stranger". Ex. inc.); Rafira (psh. raf-at- eg. "eminence, dignity, nobility, elevation, altitude"); Rcu/Roca (psh. raah- eg. "malice, spite, rancour, hatred, grudge, resentment", psh. rask- eg. "malice, envy, emulation, jealousy, grudge"); Rizea (psh. rizlah- eg. "low, mean, vile, worthless" ca n ro. derizoriu care este pb. neologism. Ex. inc.); Rogoz/Rooga (psh. rog jo/ rogah-joah <fem.> - eg. "well, healthy and strong". Pentru Rooga poate sub forma ro-joah-gah. Ex. inc.); Oprea (psh. aop-rah- eg. "foreign, strange, unacquainted; a stranger, a foreigner"); Sndulescu/Sndlache (psh. sndey wa-yaleg. "to lament, to bewail". Ex. inc.); Ssrman (psh. be sar-o-smn- eg. "destitute, indigent, helpless; brainless, stupid" ?); Sprlea (psh. sparlanaey- eg. "a rider, a horseman", psh. sprl- eg. "riding on horseback"); erban/ orban (psh. sr-bn/ srbnn- eg. "a camel keeper", psh. srwn/ srwnn- eg. "the keeper or owner of a camel" posibil prin extensie la un alt animal dect cmila sau poate ro. erb); ora (psh. ak sor/ k sorn - eg. "a washer of gold, or sand from which gold dust is extracted". Ex. inc.); ora/Surea/ulea (psh. sr/ srah <fem.>- eg. "a rambler, a rascal, a man of bad character", psh. sl/ slah <pl.>- eg. " an interrogator, an asker, a beggar", psh. sall/ sallah <fem.>- eg. "one who is unable to take anything in his hands <from sickness>, paralytic, palsied", psh. sall-o-sl- eg. "palsied, paralytic" sau pe alte filiere posibile, ca de exemplu ulea din german cu sensul de ucenic ? Ex. inc.); Todea/Istode: (psh. is-tidd/ is-tiddnah <pl.> -eg. "readiness, proficiency, capacity, means, ability" ?); igara (psh. sigrah- eg. "a pregnant animal, a pregnant woman" ?); onea/Gionea (psh. cnaey- eg. "a dwarf, an elf, a mannikin"); ugui<u>: (psh. cugaey/ cuga <pl.>- eg. "blinkard, seeing with the eyes half shut; a blinkard" sau din ro. a uguia); urlea/rlea (psh. culur- eg. "a mean ignoble person, a blackguard", eg. churl- ro. "bdran, necioplit, mojic; zgrcit, avar" ? ); Zagra/Zegrea/Zegreanu (psh. jagah or jagaah- eg. "strife, contention, altercation, quarrel, squabble" sau psh. zaerah- eg. "a heap, a store, a granary, provision" pentru localitile cu acest nume din care deriv numele propriu de persoane ? Ex. inc. ); Zgondea (psh. jagunaey- eg. "a term of abuse" ?). Toponime i hidronime romneti care pot primi explicaii i pe filier iranian (sarmatic) sau sunt din fondul autohton comun cu limbile indo-iraniene: Armeni (psh. rm- eg. "ease, rest, comfort, repose", psh. rmedal- eg. "to be at ease, to become tranquil, quiet" ); Zarand (psh. zarandah- eg. "a water-mill, or windmill, or a mill turned by camels or bullocks", psh. jarandah- eg. "a watermill or wind-mill"); Cri<ul,an,anu,oaia,tior> (lt. kristi- eg. "fall, drape, drop, to go down"; lt. krioklys- eg. "waterfall, cataract, cascade"; lt. kryius- eg. "cross", lt. krymai- eg. "crosswise", psh. s wlaey- eg. "bigness, stoutness, stalwartness, brawniness, strength"), Negoiu (psh. nigh- eg. "a look, a glance, a sight, a view, aspect; watching, observation; care, custody", psh. nigh kawul- eg. "to observe, to regard, to view, to oversee" ); Raru (psh. rh-rau- eg. "a vestibule, a gallery, a passage; a launder". Ex. inc. ).

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

Dl. Sorin Paliga ncadreaz i spaiul locuit de ruteni n ceea ce dnsul denumete arealul vatr-urd-strung. Influenele cuvintelor romneti pastorale intrase n graiurile rutenilor sunt bine cunoscute- PS.-43. n general, lingvitii i istoriografii rusini minimizeaz aportul influenelor pre-romane i a celor latinofone venite dinspre spaiul romnesc. Dincolo de posibila absorbie a unei pri a dacilor mari i costobocilor n amestecul de triburi slave, pecenego-cumane, gotice, elemente romneti din evul mediu timpuriu (sec. IX- XV) i-au adusul aportul propriu la generarea prin brasaj i amestec a populaiei i limbii rutene. De amintit succint, dei nerelevant pentru subiectul analizat, c fragmentele de evangheliar i mineele (lecturile lunare) de la Mukachevo i Imstychovo conin urme de limb romn care sugereaz copierea n afara spaiului rusinilor din arealul carpatic. "Polustavul" de la Uzhhorod, o colecie de 209 pagini de rugciuni zilnice i reguli monahice din a doua jumtate a secolului al XIV-lea, considerat ca fiind copiat la Mnstirea Peterilor din Kiev, prezint adnotri marginale n limba romn i ntr-o limb maghiar cu erori gramaticale dintr-o perioad ulterioar nedatabil, fapt ce conduce la supoziia c manuscrisul a aparinut cndva mnstirii Cruevo. Limba slav s-a impus asupra segmentelor marginale de populaie geto-dac neromanizat datorit circumstanelor religioase: prestigiului limbii slavone bisericeti i datorit circumstanelor social-politice: forma de organizare statal i feudal. Influenele vechi romneti sunt recunoscute de Paul Robert Magocsi asupra lemkilor, boiko, huulilor, dar totui minimizate sau considerate ca mai degrab forme de organizare juridic dup dreptul valah a unor segmente de populaie deja slavizat. De altfel, Magocsi i ali autori n special dintre lemki apreciaz c este mai degrab vorba de slavi (n spe) rusini sau cel mult populaii deja slavizate care practicau dreptul valah. Subscriu parial la aceast aseriune, cu meniunea c este vorba mai degrab de populaii autohtone geto-dace aflate la periferia procesului de romanizare i supuse procesului de slavizare (daci mari i costoboci), care au conservat unele particulariti, consolidate cu elemente romneti sau mixate etnic din Transcarpatia i Maramureul de nord obligate s migreze sub presiunea cuceririi maghiare i colonizrii slave, precum i a friciunilor ulterioare datorate contactului cu autoritiile i colonitii maghiari i feudalitatea ungar sau maghiarizat. Totui, aportul populaiei geto-dace slavizate sau romneti n creuzetul naiunii ucrainene constituie doar o anumit pondere: minoritar (un sfert, o treime posibil cel mult) i nu trebuie totui supraestimat, dar desigur nici minimizat. Janusz Rieger menioneaz la lemki urmtoarele cuvinte de origine valah: rumegaty, klag, brynda, kurastra, yntya, komarnyk, dama, zastra, grun, vakelja, jafr, atuna, valbija, carok, dar atribuie greit limbii maghiare cuvntul baa i respectiv gazda (care ar fi mai degrab un reg. Trans., de influen veche panonic nemaghiar sau iliric, cf. psh. gazedal- eg. "to repose, to recline, to stretch out, to lie along, to lie down, to lie flat, to retire to rest", nep. grhasthya- eg. "the life of a householder, the second stage in a Hindu's life"; bret. gwaz<ed>- eg. "husband" i lyc. kzzta- relaionat cu hitt. hassant- "a son").

CAP 4. SCURTE CONSIDERAII PRIVIND APORTUL DACILOR LIBERI I A UNOR MIGRAII ROMNETI DE EV MEDIU LA CONSTITUIREA POPULAIEI I A LIMBII RUTENE (RUSINE)

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

Ivan Krasovs'kyj n lucrarea "Surnames of the Galician Lemko's in the 18'th Century" menioneaz urmtoarele localiti care practicau dreptul valah fie ca urmare a unor colonizri de ev mediu, fie a faptului c dreptul valah ar fi servit mai bine intereselor nobililor n raport cu stenii dependeni (aa cum justific Krasovs'kyj extinderea dreptului valah n satele galiciene): Odrekhova (Odrechowa); Shavne (Szawne); Voltushova (Woltuszowa); Balutianka; Volya

Klymkivska (Vil'ka); Zavadka Rymanivska (Zawadka Rymanowska); Komancha (Komancza) 1512; Moshchanets' (Moszczaniec); Kamianka 1526; Lypovets' (Lipowiec); Cheremkha (Czeremkha) 1527; Poliany Surovychni 1549; Volosate (Wolosate); Matiasheva Volya 1567; Tarnavka 1570; Pulavy 1570; Dushatyn 1578; Berezhnytsia Nyzhnia; Mychkiv 1580; Zavoji; Rudavka Rymanivska 1589. Dei nu sunt menionate explicit ca practicnd dreptul valah, alte localiti au probabil populaie valah sau cel puin mixt pe baza numelui localitii i a patronimelor prezente: Reped', Skladyste, Zubens'ko, Kostewa, Poliana, Fl'orinka, Berezka, Krynycia, Wyslyk W., Berest, Chertez, Stuposiany, Monastyrec', Banycia, Krasna, Terstiana, Dal'owa, Zahir'ia, Chystohorb, Sukowate, Labowa, Sil'nicya, Prusyk, Muszynka, Chorna Woda, Wolowec', Pantna, Radocyna, Uliucz, Matijewa, Bodnarka, Tyriava Voloska.

Analiznd patronimele populaiei lemki, Krasovs'kyj conchide c absena <pe care dnsul o constat> a numelor cu origini romneti <-moldovene> ar indica faptul c nu se poate vorbi de o colonizare valah n mas a Carpailor Vestici; absena patronimelor romneti sau strromne se datoreaz faptului c multe patronime vizibil de origine romn Domnia Sa le explic prin limba rusin (trsturi de caracter, activiti lucrative, etc.), dei multe patronime redate de dnsul chiar indic corelaii posibile cu limba romn sau cu substratul su autohton (comun cu rusina): Kosar (a mower- cosa), Kukhar (a cook-buctar),
Pastukh (a shepherd- pstor), Pochtar (a postman- pota), Arendach (a tenant- arenda), Bacha (an old respected shepherdbaci), Vladyka (an Orthodox or Greek Catholic bishop- vldic), Bohach (a rich person- bogat), Bohachyk (son of a rich person- fiul unui bogta), Gazdayka (little master of the household- gzdoaic), Diak (a church cantor- diac), Volokh (a Walachian- valah), Strashko (the terrifying one- stranic), Borsuk (badger- bursuc), Holub (dove- hulubel), Huska (goosegsc), Tsap (billy goat- ap), Duda (pipe, reed- nume propriu Duda), Tsymbala (kettle drum- ambal), Borshch (rich beet soup- bor), Dziama (boiled beef- zeam), Zhentychka (whey- jinti), Kyselytsia (a tasty somewhat sour soup known in Polish as zurek- chiseli), Varga (thick lip- nume propriu Varga, n ro. nuia), Laba (paw, large hand), Kopyto (hoof- copit), Slota (rainy weather- zloat), Kalichka (cripple- n rusin schilod, n ro. calic), Kyrpan (turned up nose- n rusin nas ncovoiat; ro. nume propriu Crpan, de la crpnos- zgrcit), Plaskyj (flat- pleac), Slutyj (enfeebled- n rom. slutul), Khraptsio (snorer- n rusin care sforie; n ro. crpcean- crap), Bolybriukh (stomach ache- n ro. transformat din boloboc ?).

O analiz separat pe materialul patronimelor lemki din secolul al XVIII-lea pentru localitile semnalate ca practicnd dreptul valah sau patronimele cu rezonan romneasc extinse i la alte localiti, red urmtoarele nume de familie dup algoritmul urmtor: Ro.Corespondentul apreciat de autor romnesc- Corespondentul rusin (n parantez localitile, inclusiv frecvena acestor patronime) :
Ro. Arenda - Arendacz (Muszynka); Ro. Ababei- Babej (Komancza); Ro. Amza- Homza (Tarnawka 3); Ro. BabiucBab'iak (Reped', Cheremcha); Ro. Baciu- Bachur (Poliana), Bacza (Moszczanec'), Bachnak (Kam'iana), Waszczyszyn (Reped' 2); Ro. Badea/Bdi- Badyda (Wolosate); Ro. Balica- Balyk (Zahir'ia, Sukowate); Ro. Balota- Balola (Sukowate 6); Ro. Banciu- Bencz (Rudawka R. 3), Benczyk (Odrechowa 3); Ro. Baran- Baran (Zubens'ko 2, Terstiana 6); Ro. Barna- Warna (Wolowec', Dal'owa, Zawadka R., Kam'ianka 4, Komancza, Krynycia, Odrechowa 5, Sukowate, Tarnawka); Ro. BartoBartusiak (Skladyste 3); Ro. Basarab cf. psh. ar-bb/ arbbn- eg. "lords, possessors, masters"- Basarab (Zubens'ko 3, Kostewa), Basaraba (Poliana 2), Wasarabyk (Pawlokoma), Bezzubyj (Wolosate); Ro. Btrn<u,a>- Butwan (Zahir'ia 2), Watula (Zawadka R.); Ro. Br/Bala- Bal' (Bos'ko, Wolosate, Zawadka 4, Tarnawa); Ro. Belea, Belei- Belej (Rajs'ke); Ro. Bercea- Bercza (Zubens'ko), Bercznyj (Lypowec' 2); Ro. Bernea- Wernej (Odrechowa 3); Ro. Blnar/Blan- Blanar (Krynycia), Bliama (Selys'ka 2); Ro. Bob- Bob (Wolosate), Bobak (Bos'ko 3, Labowa, Nowa Wes'), Bober (Dal'owa 3, Nowa Wes' ), Bobyk (Zawadka R., Terstiana); Ro. B<o>lndu- Balanda (Zawadka R.), Belunda (Skladyste 4); Ro. Borcea/Varz ?- Warchacz (Fl'orynka 4), Warchol (Zawadka R. 2); Ro. Bordei- Berdej (Sukowate 3); Ro. Boril- Baryla (Nowa Wes'), Barylka (Sukowate); Ro. Brnz- Bryndza (Rajs'ke 8), Bryndziak (Horodok); Ro. Bucur- Bowcarows'kyj (Nowa Wes'); Ro. BursucBursak (Bos'ko); Ro. Clun/Crciun- Kolczun (Banycia, Krasna), Klecun (Szczawne), Krasows'kyj (Wil'ka); Ro. Cal/Caval ?Kabala (Tarnawa 2), Kawalko (Muszynka), Kawejczyk (Labowa), Kawka (Zawadka R.), Kawowczyk (Odrechowa), Kawczak (Poliana 2), Kowaliw (Szczawne 2), Kowal' (Poliana 2, Sukowate 2, Uliucz, Szczawne 2); Ro. Cas/Ca- Kasza (Moszczanec' 2); Ro. Capr- Kapral (Monastyrec' 2, Odrechowa); Ro. Clin- Korin' (Wolosate); Ro. Cine ?- Kaniuk (Fl'orynka 3); Ro. Crcel ?- Krechel' (Krynycia); Ro. Chiu- Kit (Bos'ko, Wyslik W. 3, Zawadka R., Kam'ianka 3, Chertez 5); Ro. Cioc- C'ok (Pantna); Ro. Ciorb- Szczerba (Zawadka R. 3, Kam'iana, Lupkiw 2, Nowa Wes' 3), Dziurbil' (Szczawnyk 3); Ro. Cheag- Kyiak (Odrechowa 3); Ro. Clipa- Klepacz (Mochnaczka 2, Skladyste 4), Klepczak (Mochnaczka 2); Ro. Cocean- Kochan (Wolowec', Zawadka Rym., Rajs'ke 2, Fl'orynka 2, Szczawne 3), Kocan (Wyslik W., Wolowec', Reped', Uliucz), Koczan (Wolosate, Moszczanec' 2, Muszynka, Sukowate); Ro. Cocor- Kocor (Roztoka M. 3, Skladyste 2), Kocur (Fl'orynka); Ro. Coco- Krokosz (Chertez 2); Ro. Coma- Komcza (Lukawycia); Ro. Copaci- Kopacz (Wolowec'); Ro. Copil- Kopylec' (Komancza 2, Moszczanec' 2, Tarnawka), Kopyl'c'o (Stuposiany N. 2), Kopyl'czak (Labowec', Skladyste), Kopij (Lypowec' 3); Ro. Copit- Kopytko (Moszczanec' 2), Kopyczko (Zahir'ia); Ro. Corbu- Korba (Kam'ianka 2, Terstiana), Korbak (Wyslik W. 3); Ro. Coru- Koruc (Odrechowa); Ro.

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Cost/Costiuc- Kost (Terstiana), Kostyk (Odrechowa, Sukowate); Ro. Crainic- Krajnyk (Uliucz 2); Ro. Cri- Krysa (Zawadka R., Zahir'ia), Krysyna (Reped' 2); Ro. Cruceru sau Gleat ?- Heletczak (Wolosate); Ro. Cuncea- Kunc'o (Szczawne); Ro. CupceaKrypoczka (Monastyrec'), Krypy'o (Dal'owa); Kopcza (Lypowec', Mochnaczka 4); Ro. Dncu- Dynko (Bos'ko 3); Ro. Diac- Diak (Berezka, Sil'nycia); Ro. Damian- Dam'ian (Skladyste); Ro. Danciu- Dankewycz (Monastyrec'), Danczak (Zawadka R. 2, Kostewa 5, Uliucz); Ro. Drecea/Drac- Dracz (Bos'ko 3, Odrechowa 3); Drab'iak (Krynycia 3); Ro. Drgan- Drahan (Bos'ko); Ro. Fecior- Feciura (Nowycia 2), Ficor (Smerek), Ficula (Dal'owa 5); Ro. Florea- Fl'oryk (Matijewa 2); Ro. Gaur, Guran, Gavra, Gavril, Gavriliuc- Wawro (Zahir'ia), Hawra (Kam'ianka), Hawran (Wyslik W., Mochnaczka 5, Uliucz), Hawrylyk

Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

(Berezka), Hawryliuk (Bil'carewa), Hawryliak (Brunary N., Hrab, Zydiws'ke, Kostariwci 3, Krynycia 4, Myscowa, Ol'chowec', Rozdillia, Rop'ianka 2, Solotwyny 6, Tyliawa 4, Jawirnyk R. 2, Jaszkowa 2), Hawrycz (Prybysziw), Hawrysz (Ozynna 2); Ro. Ganea- Hanycz (Reped'), Kaniuk (Fl'orynka 3); Ro. Gluc- Haluszka (Bos'ko 2, Krasna), Haluszczak (Wolowec'); Ro. Gunos- Honos (Zawadka Rym. 3); Ro. Glc- Halyk (Kam'ianka), Hal'ko (Odrechowa 2, Selys'ka); Ro. Gsc- Husak (Chertez), Huska (Odrechowa, Chertez), Hocko (Lypowec' 2, Reped' 3); Ro. Gelosu- Zaluz'kyj (Fl'orynka); Ro. Giurc/Giurea/Giulea- Jarko (Kam'iana), Dziura (Mszana 4, Oslawycia), Dziuhla (Perehrymka), Zyla (Dal'owa, Pantna); Ro. Giurgiu- Dziurdz'o/Dziurdzio (Komancza, Stuposiany); Ro. Globa- Hlowa (Zawadka R. 2); Ro. Grasu- Krasows'kyj (Wil'ka), Hasynha (Fl'orynka); Ro. Grniceru- Hranycznyj (Zawadka R. 2) ?; Ro. Gol- Kolyska (Zawadka Rym.), Woluka (Oslawycia 2); Ro. Gorun/Goran- Horun (Szczawne 4), Hryn' (Reped' 4, Fl'orynka), Hryn'o (Komancza 2); Ro. Gu- Huta (Odrechowa) ?; Ro. Grecu- Hres'ko (Zawadka R. 3), Hryczyszyy (Krynycia, Chertez); Ro. Groza- Hroza (Fl'orynka 2); Hroz'o (Zawadka R. 2); Ro. Haiduc- Hojdycz (Skladyste), Hojdysz (Kins'ke 2); Ro. Ilie- Iliasz (Wil'ka 3); Ro. Iliu- Uliuta (Zawadka R.); Ro. Ignat- Hnat (Zawadka R. 2), Hnatyk (Odrechowa 4); Ro. Lacu- Lacko/cko (Wolosate), Laczkowec' (Fl'orynka 2); Ro. Lazr- Lazor (Zawadka R. 2, Reped'), Lazorko (Odrechowa); Ro. Lobod- Loboda (Krynycia 2); Ro. Lucaci- Lukacz (Kostewa, Szczawne); Ro. Lupu- ukuw (Kostewa), Lupej (Zdynia 3), Laca (Dal'owa), Lapka (Monastyrec'), Lyk (Terstiana), Lyczak (Fl'orynka 2); Ro. Mau- Mac' (Lypowec' 5); Ro. Manciu- Mankowycz (Komancza 4, Reped', Chystohorb 7); Ro. Mare- Malesz (Fl'orynka, Jaszkowa); Ro. Mazre- Madara (Odrechowa 4), Madzara (Terstiana), Mazur (Reped'); Ro. Maxim- Maksymczak (Fl'orynka 4); Ro. Mndruleac- Manduliak (Zahir'ia 2); Ro. Mnzac- Madzyk (Monastyrec'), Mandziak (Stuposiany 2); Ro. Mrza- Murdza (Labowa 3, Monastyrec' 2); Ro. Migdal- Mihdala (Sukowate); Ro. Murgil- Murszylo (Monastyrec'); Ro. Musca- Mucha (Wyslik W. 2, Moszczanec'), Muszka (Reped' 2), Muzyka (Kostewa); Ro. Neamu- Nimczyk (Zawadka R. 2, Sil'nycia); Ro. Pancu- Panko (Fl'orynka 2); Pankowycz (Komancza), Panczak (Berest 2); Ro. Ptru/Ptra- Patrosz (Komancza 5, Chystohorb 2), Petrasz (Lypowec'); Ro. Pcal- Pacala (Smerekowec'); Ro. Pcnici- Packanycz (Muszynka); Ro. Pele/PielePelesz (Komancza 2); Ro. Picior- Pichura (Kostewa 3); Ro. Pleuv<u>- Keleszowec' (Wolosate); Ro. Rada- Rad'o (Reped' 3); Rajda (Fl'orynka 2); Ro. Rogoz- Rogosz/ Rohosz (Fl'orynka 2); Ro. Roman- Roman (Berezka 2, Zawadka R., Kostewa 2, Moszczanec'), Romanyk (Kam'ianka 2, Komancza 2); Romans'kyj (Kam'ianka); Romanczyk (Krasna, Lukowe 3, Szczawnyk); Romaniak (Muszynka, Fl'orynka 4); Ro. Srcan- Sarakun (Muszynka, Reped'), Sorokanycz (Brunary W. 2, Poliany S. 2), Sroczak (Sil'nycia); Ro. Severin- Sawaryn (Poliany S.); Sawarna (Tarnawka 2); Ro. Someanu- Zamoszczenyk (Wolosate); Ro. iret- Syrej (Wolowec'); Syreczko (Berezka), Syrota (Hladysziw) ?; Ro. Ursu- Orszuliak (Muszynka); Ro. Tntlu- Tantala (Rajs'ke); Ro. Ttuc- Tatyk (Poliana); Ro. Trgove- Tyrkawec' (Pantna); Ro. Tilica- Tylyczka (Dal'owa); Ro. Valah, VolosWalach (Berezka 2), Walaszczak (Krynycia 4, Mochnaczka), Wolosac'kyj (Komancza), Wojlach (Sukowate), Wlasla (Kam'ianka), Wolosac'kyj (Komancza), Wolosynczows'kyj (Prybysziw), Woloszyn (Cheremcha 3, Jastrabyk 3), Woloszczynowycz (Korolyk Wol. 3) ; Ro. Vcaru- Wakera (Reped', Chystohorb 3), Wakerak (Chystohorb), Wacura (Selys'ka); Ro. Veselie/Vslie- Basalyha (Muszynka); Ro. Vtrai ?- Watral' (Mochnaczka 4, Muszynka); Ro. Vrabie- Worobel' (Odrechowa, Foliusz), Woroblyk (Berezka 2), Worobczyk (Odrechowa), Wrobel' (Berezka, Szczawne); Ro. Zbir ?- Zwir (Krynycia 3).

Gd. Cotiso sau ro. Cote ?- Kotys (Balutianka 2, Dal'owa 2, Cheremcha, Jawirnyk Rus'); Etnonimul Dac<u>- Daciak (Kostariwci), Duciak (Odrechowa), Dac'o/ Dacio (Wyslik W.), Daszyk (Petrusza Wolia 3), Deciak (Szkliary 2), Dec'o/ Decio (Szkliary 2), Dasows'kyj (Dariw), Daszyk (Petrusza Wolia 3), Duciak (Odrechowa); Ro. Gelu/Gerula/Geril ?- Hela (Fl'orynka 4), Zeryla (Banycia 2); Ro. Gh<e,i>deon ? - Kidon' (Matijewa, Skladyste); Ro. Urd- Urda (Wirchomlia M. 4, Koneczna); Ro. Sila/Silnicie/Zila/Zilier- Zyla (Dal'owa, Pantna), Zylycz (Kam'iana 2), Zil'nyk (Wyslik W.), Ro. Zoril- Zorylo (Jas'onka) precum i Byczok (Szkliary), Byrda (Banycia, Dal'owa 3, Poliany S., Szkliary 5); Dynd'och (Dal'owa), Dziubelius (Labowec' poate Ciubr ?) Ginda (Wins'ke, Dal'owa, Zyndranowa, Posada Jasl., Skladyste); Hryla (Dal'owa 3); Kalaman (Reped' 2), Kalyniak (Chertez), Koszyk (Rajs'ke 2, Fl'orynka), Krypy'o/ Krzypcio (Dal'owa), Kurdyla (Dal'owa 4, Lypowec'), Kolotylo (Wolowec'), Marchunia (Szkliary 5), Skircza (Dariw 2), Skirczak (Wyslik W., Dal'owa 3, Szkliary), Szyk (Bos'ko, Dariw 3), Zbur (Kostariwci 3), Zmij (Poliany M. 2), Zozulia (Zawadka R. 3, Zahir'ia), Zubryl (Zahir'ia, Uliucz), etc.

Dintre patronimele care ar putea fi de origine geto-dac sau str-romn amintim:

Ponderea patronimelor <str>romne i romne este totui relativ redus, dar prezena romneasc, chiar i la circa IV- VII secolele de la bejenia generat de presiunea maghiar este vizibil, dei cu mare dificultate, printre numele aproape complet slavizate. n general s-au luat ca referin satele cu drept valah din secolul al XV-lea, dar ulterior s-a demonstrat c i alte sate prezint influene romneti, inclusiv influene dintre cele mai vechi precum localitile Dal'owa sau Szkliary ?, afirmaie ce rmne a fi confirmat ulterior. De altfel, diverse Valahii exist n toat zona muntoas nordic, precum Valahia Morav (Cehia), Walasi lscy n arealul goralilor (Polonia, de la Nowy Scz ctre Wadowice i grania cu Cehia ca urmare a bejeniilor nc din secolul al XIII-lea, unde n inutul Sandeului, la 1257 tria o populaie pastoral valah) sau fostul areal al lemkilor

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Valentin-Claudiu Dobre- Scurt, uimitoare i fabuloas istorisire despre enigmatica limb a geto-dacilor

(Polonia, localitatea Peremysl i Nowyj Sanc, astzi situai datorit mutrii forate nc din perioada celui de-al doilea rzboi mondial la grania cu Bielorusia). n ceea ce privete huulii, exist unele opinii c numele huulilor ar proveni de la gutani- adic goi. Huulii n grupa rusinilor prezint anumite particulariti, chiar dac, la fel ca majoritatea rusinilor pstreaz cuvinte autohtone geto-dace i str-romne n special din domeniul pastoral, iar aceste particulariti se reflect n faptul c huula prezint caracteristicile limbilor slave occidentale (precum ceha i polona), dar i unele asemnri sau "coincidene" cu limbile baltice. Acest fapt se poate explica prin aceea c n migraia lor spre sud, goii (adic locuitorii insulei Gotland) au antrenat poate ca aliai (i federai) i triburi baltice care au dat natere huulilor prin amestec n principal cu slavi, dar i cu costoboci i pecenegi. Nicolae Macovei a nceput un dicionar comparat romn huul n care ofer i explicaii etimologice la unele cuvinte huule (cu unele erori inerente, precum cuvntul hu. smcoc- "arcu" pentru care indic lt. smuikas- "vioar", dar cruia i corespunde ch. smyec- "arcu"). Un alt cuvnt interesant este hu. vea- "oaie" care ar corespunde ltg. vuka- lv. aita-"oaie", dar relaionarea direct trebuie temeinic studiat. Totui, personal consider c nu ar fi uimitor dac numrul cuvintelor n mod real de origine geto-dac din huul ar fi cel puin la fel de mare ca i n limba romn (exemple precum hu. or- "acvil" cf. toponimului Raru ? sau ro. nv. raru- "un fel de uliu" sau ganea- "vultur" cf. ro. zgan ?). n loc de ncheiere, aceast lucrare se dorete doar un nceput. Continuarea este fireasc i se va circumscrie ca un al doilea volum, care s reconstituie adevrurile istorice pe baza acestor uimitoare "coincidene" ntre diversele limbi moderne europene. Totui, relaionarea direct a geto-dacei cu lyciana, cu letona, latgalian i samogitian (poate parial cu hittita), posibil cu limbile celtice ?, dar i cu limbi indo-iraniene precum pashto, punjabi sau nepali i chiar cu sub-stratul cel mai arhaic al limbii engleze devine mai clar n urma demersului de explorare al acestei cri. Relaionarea direct cu lituaniana este greu de concluzionat datorit imposibilitii de a deosebi slavismele de dacisme. ns, relaionarea direct dintre trac i lituanian apare evident datorit acestei cri i explic slavizarea accelerat la sudul Dunrii, romanizarea fiind practic anulat. Deasemenea, contrar opiniilor unor mari istorici romni, hidronimele din arealul romnesc, departe de a fi slave, romneti recente sau geto-dace, par a fi pre-dacice, mai exact tracice (afirmaie care trebuie tratat cu rezerva cuvenit necesitii justificrii ei cu argumente mai solide). Traca i geto-daca nu erau limbi distincte, ci forme dialectale diferite ale uneia i aceeai limbi: traca n relaie direct cu vechea lituanian i limbile slave, geto-daca cu predecesoarele limbilor i dialectelor leton, latgalian, samogitian. Dimpotriv, diversitatea graiurilor pare mai mare n zona nordic a Dunrii, dect la sudul ei i n Anatolia i anume n spaiul traco-bithyn. n schimb frigiana era mai mult dect probabil nrudit, dar distinct de traco-geto-dac. Zeul lycian Leto, conservat n numele letonilor, precum i cuceritorii latini fac legtura cu rzboinicii i nenduplecaii geto-daci, care, supui unei romanizri intense i aspre, au dat o limb romn de origine latin cu particulariti proprii care ridic i vor mai ridica multiple semne de ntrebare lingvitilor i etimologilor. O continuare a acestei cri ct de curnd.

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