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LIMBA ENGLEZ - curs practic Anul I

Lect.univ.dr. Camelia NEAGU Asist.univ. Felicia BUCUR

Introducere SEMESTRUL I

Part I: Texts and Exercises


Part II: Grammar Explanations and Practice



Part I: Texts and Exercises


Part II: Grammar Explanations and Practice


Appendix 1 Appendix 2

Titular curs: Lect. univ.dr. Camelia NEAGU 1. Cadrul general al cursului: Cursul de limba englez, nivel mediu-avansat, i propune s le ofere studenilor din anul I din cadrul sistemului de nvmnt Deschis la Distan (IDD) posibilitatea de a recapitula cunotinele acumulate i de a-i nsui noi elemente noiuni introductive generale din limbajul economic. Cursul, att cel pentru semestrul I, ct i cel pentru semestrul al II-lea, este conceput n dou pri: I. Texte i exerciii de vocabular II. Gramatic: explicaii i exerciii Prima parte a cursului este structurat n trei capitole. Textele sunt nsoite de exerciii, care au rolul de a facilita procesul de nelegere. Fiecare capitol conine i o component prin care se urmrete dobndirea aptitudinilor necesare redactrii unor diverse documente, ca de exemplu: scrisori de diferite tipuri, curriculum vitae, rezumat. De asemenea, s-a pus un accent deosebit pe exerciiile de vocabular. Cea de-a doua parte a cursului se concentreaz strict asupra unor structuri de gramatic, urmrindu-se recapitularea principalelor valori, precum i prezentarea unor valori sau structuri noi, proprii unui nivel avansat de cunoatere a limbii. Explicaiile teoretice sunt nsoite de exerciii care permit recapitularea noiunilor existente, precum i fixarea celor noi. 2. Evaluarea La sfritul fiecrui semestrul este prevzut o examinare. A. Semestrul I: Condiii de intrare n examen: - redactarea unui CV, n limba englez, conform explicaiilor din primul capitol; - redactarea unei scrisori de intenie conform modelului din capitolul doi; - traducerea propoziiilor de la sfritul fiecrui capitol de gramatic. Examinarea propriu-zis va consta ntr-un test pe durata a 90 minute. B. Semestrul al II-lea Condiii de intrare n examen: - rezolvarea prii de WRITING din capitolul opt, respectiv nou; - traducerea propoziiilor de la sfritul fiecrui capitol de gramatic. Examinarea propriu-zis va consta ntr-un test pe durata a 90 minute.

3. Bibliografie obligatorie: A. Grammar and vocabulary - Vince, Michael. First Certificate Language Practice. Oxford: Macmillan, 2003 - Geoffrey Leech, Benita Cruickshank and Ros Ivanic, An A-Z of English Grammar and Usage, Longman, 2003 - B. J. Thomas, Intermediate Vocabulary, Longman, 2003 B. Texts - English for Business and Administration. Bucharest: Cavallioti Publishing House, 1998. - Brooks, Michael, and Horner, David. Business English. Bucuresti: Editura Teora, 1997 - Nastasescu, Violeta, and Turcu, Fulvia. Engleza de afaceri - curs intensiv. Bucuresti: Editura Uranus. 4. Bibliografie facultativ A. Grammar and Vocabulary - Pohl, Alison. Test Your Business English. London: Penguin, 1997. - Strutt, Peter. Longman Business English Usage. London: Longman, 1992. - Thomson, A.J. & Martinet, A.V. A Practical English Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 1984. - Thomson, A.J. & Martinet, A.V. A Practical English Grammar: Exercises 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 1984. - Thomson, A.J. & Martinet, A.V. A Practical English Grammar: Exercises 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 1984. B. Texts: - Sue Robbins with Kevin Manton, First Insights into Business, Studens Book, Workbook, Longman 2003. - Mackenzie, Ian. Financial English. Hove: Language Teaching Publications, 1995.

Semestrul I Part I: Texts and Exercises Unit 1: RECRUITMENT

SPEAKING 1. Talk to your partner. Try and answer the following questions: 1. How do people find work? Which are the steps they have to take? 2. When you go to a job interview, what do you have to carry along with you? How do Americans call it? What does it contain? READING 1. A job advertisement will usually ask you to send in a CV. Conventions as how to write one have been changing. Read the following text to see what is a personnel managers opinion on it, then answer these questions: 1. How many parts a CV should have? 2. What does each part should contain? 3. How should we order the information about our education and work experience? 4. Which are the words that the personnel manager uses about foreign languages? 5. Are our hobbies or interests important when we apply for a job? There has been a lot of variation in the way CVs are set out over the last few years, and indeed one still sees different formats arriving on ones desk. However, probably, the most common format these days, and certainly the one I most likely like to get because you can see at a glance whether it is worth reading the whole thing or not is the one that starts from the most recent job and works back, giving brief, but relevant information on each. There is a slight tendency, particularly among foreign (non-British applicants) to go for the hard sell. By this I mean almost to boast of their accomplishments and success in each post. But I confess I personally find it rather distasteful and it rather puts me off. Anyway, a good CV these days should begin by saying what it is: a CV. So, the persons name should be prominent. Then, there should be a brief section on personal details: address, telephone number, nationality and marital status. If you are applying for a post with a company in another country, or for a job that requires travel or the use of one or more foreign languages, you should add your proficiency in those languages: fluent, if you speak a language well; intermediate if it is OK, and basic if you can just about get by. Incidentally, if you have any nationally or internationally recognized examination demonstrating your proficiency, it is a good idea to mention that here (for

English: one of the Cambridge Certificates or the London Chamber of Commerce level 2 or 3 etc.). This should be followed by a section on qualifications and training, again, as I said earlier, beginning with the most recent and moving back, so that I can see what you have been up to since your initial training. One difficult thing for us in personnel when evaluating applications from abroad and we are getting more and more is the problem of equivalences. It is of no help whatsoever to go round putting down diplomas which only exist in your country, unless you also put in brackets afterwards an approximate British equivalent that I can relate to. Another bad habit I have noticed particularly with the French, for some reason is to put down the name of what is, presumably, some highly prestigious establishment within their own country, on the assumption that everyone knows about it. It was only recently, for example, that I discovered HEC was a if not the leading French business school. Before that when I saw on a CV diploma from HEC, my reaction was simply Oh, this person wasnt good enough to go to a university. A related difficulty is candidates who just put the English equivalent. I had this problem recently with a young man who claimed he had an MBA. At interview, however, we discovered he had simply translated Studii Aprofundate de Management (literally, a masters degree in management science), so the excellent level of English we were expecting from someone who had studied in the UK or the States did not materialize. This brings me to another point; it is important to state when and where you got a qualification. The next section and the most important is the one on work experience. Again, this should be in order of most recent first, so I can see what you are doing at present and have been doing recently. For those who are applying for their first job, it is useful to mention any periods of occupational training you may have undertaken in a company or companies, or any relevant summer jobs you may have had. In this section, too, just briefly, in almost note form, list main responsibilities and successes, and so on. Finally, we in Britain like to know something about a candidates life outside of work, so a short final section on outside interests is always useful. Again, for those applying for a first job, this can sometimes be a crucial section. If you have been secretary of your local tennis club or something, it may be the only opportunity you have had to demonstrate that you are fit for positions of responsibility. 2. Match the words in list A with the words in list B: A liceniat n conducerea ntreprinderii liceniat n arte liceniat n tiine umaniste diplom de studii aprofundate bacalaureat diplom de absolvire a unui colegiu liceniat n tiine B BA 2-year university diploma A level BSc MBA MA

3. Find words in the text that mean: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. from the very beginning, immediately; using few words, concise not serious or important aggressive way of selling something talk with too much pride and satisfaction make somebody feel dislike, disgust somebody in or to a foreign country or countries it may supposed to be true

WRITING CV (RESUME) a. Read the answers to the questions from READING, exercise 1. b. Taking into considerations these answers, write your own CV. Type it or word process it if possible. Pay attention to the layout and features discussed in class. VOCABULARY 1. Complete each sentence from a) to j) with one ending from 1 to 10. Use each ending once only. a) If you work hard, the company will give you 4. b) In a different job, I could get a higher c) The best way to find new staff is to put a/an d) Because he had stolen the money, we decided that e) She has a pleasant personality but hasnt got the right f) In the meeting we are going to discuss the g) As he has three young children he doesnt want to h) I think it would be a good idea to send in your i) Im afraid that in this job there arent very good j) We cannot give you the job without 1. qualifications for a job of this kind. 2. advertisement in the local press on Friday. 3. application for the job as soon as possible. 4. promotion to a more responsible position. 5. full time employment at the moment. 6. references from your previous employer. 7. dismissing him was the only possible action we could take. 8. prospects for the future at the moment. 9. salary and better conditions of employment. 10. appointment of a new sales representative. 2. Choose the most suitable word or phrase underlined in each sentence. a) The building workers were paid their income / salary / wages every Friday.

b) Shes only here for three weeks. Its a / an full-time / overtime / temporary job. c) When he retired he received a monthly bonus / pension / reward. d) Apparently she earns / gains / wins over $20,000 a year. e) While the boss is away, Sue will be in charge / in control / in place of the office. f) Could I have two days away / off / out next week to visit my mother? g) Paul was always arriving late, and in the end he was pushed / sacked / thrown. h) When I left the job, I had to hand in my application / dismissal / notice three weeks beforehand. i) How much exactly do you do / make / take in your new job? j) If you have to travel on company business, we will pay your costs / expenses / needs. k) Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word or words given, and so that the meaning stays the same. Do not change the words given in any way. 1. Terry works in a different place now. Terry has a new job now. 2. A good boss looks after everyone in the company. 3. Im sure you will learn a lot in this job. 4. This job is a good way to earn money, but thats all. 5. The firm gave me a rise after I had worked there a year. 6. The company was profitable last year. 7. I had to be interviewed at the head office. 8. My monthly salary is $1000. 9. Jill is employed by a firm of accountants. 10. We advertised the job in the paper. l) Decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space: Choosing a job One of the most difficult decisions in choosing what to do for a (1) B. For example, do you want to follow a definite (2) ________, and (3) ________ a low (4) ________ at the beginning, but have good (5) ________ in a company that trains its (6) ________? Or are you more interested in taking any kind of work, because you need a/an (7) ________? You may have to (8) ________ the fact that a good (9) ________ can be difficult to find. In that case, why not take a (10) ________ one? You will gain some useful (11) ________. Remember that even if you have the right (12) ________, you may have to (13) ________ lots of application forms before you are asked to (14) ________ an interview. But dont worry if you dont know what you want to (15) ________ exactly. Youll enjoy finding out! 1. A) salary 2. A) company B) living B) training C) employee C) business D) work D) career JOB EMPLOYER EXPERIENCE LIVING RAISED MADE ATTEND A YEAR WORKS PUT

3. A) earn 4. A) money 5. A) hopes 6. A) employers 7. A) money 8. A) face up to 9. A) work 10. A) temporary 11. A) experiences 12. A) qualifications 13. A) fall through 14. A) be 15. A) work PHRASAL VERBS

B) gain B) profit B) prospects B) crew B) cash B) go over B) labour B) overtime B) experienced B) exams B) get on B) attend B) job

C) win C) cheque C) futures C) staff C) account C) come up with C) job C) profitable C) experience C) letters C) turn down C) make C) do

D) take D) salary D) promotions D) persons D) income D) call off D) seat D) short D) experiencing D) degrees D) fill in D) advertise D) employ

1. Match the phrasal verbs in list A with their meaning in list B. One of the verbs has two meanings. A take after 7 take back take away take in take off take to take up 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. B begin to like someone understand an idea return something subtract include in an itinerary leave the ground (a plane) resemble someone use/occupy

2. Complete these sentences using the correct form of one of the phrasal verbs above. Use one of the verbs twice. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. When I met John I took to him at once. She spoke so fast I couldnt ___________ what she was saying. Correcting homework is important, but it ___________ a lot of time. Does your tour of Italy ___________ Florence and Venice? If you ___________ 32 from 100, what do you get? The CD recorder was faulty so I ___________ it ___________ to the shop. 7. I am not like my mum and dad; I ___________ my uncle George.


SPEAKING and VOCABULARY 1. Try and answer the following questions about yourselves. If you are still a student. 1. What job would you like to do in the future? 2. Do you think you have the right personal qualities and skills for the job? 3. Which of the items in the lists below would be most important in your job? If you have a job now. 1. What job do you do? 2. Why did you choose it? 3. What sort of personal qualities and skills do you need for your job? (Some of the words below may help you.) 1 patience honesty intelligence independence reliability efficiency confidence 2 humour ambition initiative stamina enthusiasm energy imagination creativity 3 4 good manners good communication leadership skills qualities a sympathetic a sense of humour manner ability to cope ability to work in a crisis under pressure

2. Now make adjectives where possible from the nouns in lists 1 and 2. 3. Look at these job advertisements. Which job would you prefer? Why?
TOURIST GUIDE Do you want to work for one of the most up and coming companies in International Tourism? Do you: know this area well? have experience in dealing with groups? speak at least two languages? We have a vacancy for a Tourist Guide. You will need patience, hood humour and excellent communication skills. A smart appearance is essential. Excellent prospects and salary. Apply in writing to: Personnel Manager, Eurotours, Granada, Spain (Please enclose your CV)

Trainee Sales Manager Required A confident, enthusiastic young person is required to train as a Sales Manager in our foreign book sales department. You will need excellent communication skills, plus a command of English. A smart appearance and pleasant manner are essential. Prospects are excellent for applicants who can take responsibility and who really want to get to the top. Apply in writing to: Shortman Publishing House 9, Clifton Street Kensington, London WC6 8LP WORK FOR NTV RADIO! New world service radio station is looking for talented young people for a variety of opportunities, both as presenters and behind the scenes. Applicants must be imaginative, reliable and self confident. Training will be given where required but a high degree of hard work and commitment will be demanded in return. Ability to keep cool in a crisis is essential! Applicants must speak good English. Salary negotiable, depending on experience. Apply in writing, to: NTV Radio, PO Box 892, London W1

4. What are all the qualities you think you would need for each of the jobs? Make some notes under these headings: Tourist Guide Sales Manager Radio Presenter

5. Look at the Tourist Guide advertisement. Underline the most important details which you should refer to in a letter of application. 6. Now imagine you are the Personnel Manager of Eurotours. What sort of person are you looking for? What do you need to hear from a good applicant? How formal would you expect their letter to be? 7. Here are some lines from the letters of application of different candidates. Choose the most appropriate and convincing sentence in each group and give reasons for your choice. 1) a. I am familiar with this type of work. b. I am totally knowledgeable about this type of work. c. I know this type of work. 2) a. I am quite interested in this type of work. b. I have a genuine interest in this kind of work. c. I am incredibly keen on and interested in this type of work. 3) a. I feel sure my studies recommend me for the job. b. I hope I am right for this sort of work.

c. I am sure I am the best person for the job. 4) a. I can make decisions when it is really necessary. b. I always make the best decisions. c. I am not afraid to make decisions if necessary. 5) a. I am well liked by everybody. b. I can maintain friendly relationships with people. c. I am a friendly person. READING 1. What information should be included in a letter of application? What would you like a future employer to know about you? What do you think the future employer would like to know about you? Make a list. 2. This is the letter one of the applicants wrote for the job of Tourist Guide. Read it carefully, then answer the following questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. Do you think Eurotours will be impressed by his letter? Has he supplied all the details requested? Is the language and style he uses formal or informal? Is this appropriate? Has he included any unnecessary information? 4 Green Street Kensington London 5 August, 200-

Personnel Manager Eurotours Calle Principal Granada 10 Spain Dear Sir/Madam,

I saw your advertisement for a Tourist Guide in this weeks edition of 15 Travel and would like to apply for the post. As my CV shows, I very well qualified for this job. I studied tourism at London University from 1997-2000 and obtained enclosed diploma. As you can see, this included a special course on tourism in Europe. Since leaving University, I have also done a number of training courses in 20 different aspects of the tourist industry (certificates enclosed). For the past year, I have been working as a courier here in England. In this job, my main responsibilities include guiding groups around the city and dealing with bookings and accommodation. Before that I had a job with Smiths Travel Agency in London. There 25 I answered telephone enquiries and dealt with holiday bookings. My mother is Spanish and I therefore have a perfect understanding

of Spanish people, their language and the country. I know Andalucia especially well as I have spent most of my holidays around this region. As regards languages, I speak Spanish and French fluently. In 30 addition to these, I am at present taking classes in German. I would now like to broaden my experience as a courier. I would also welcome the chance to work for a large company like yours, with the chances for promotion this would provide. In my spare time I play basketball for a local team of which I have 35 recently been made captain. I also help out with the local youth club. As you can see from my references, I have plenty of patience and good humour. In fact have been named Courier of the Month by our local tourist board on two occasions. I would be able to come for interview at any time. 40 I look forward to hearing from you. Yours faithfully, Chris Jones 3. The words in bold type are important because they help to link the text together. They refer back to words or information given earlier in the text. Find the words they refer to, as shown in the example. this job (line 16) -> Tourist Guide WRITING - Letter of Application a. Study this spidergraph. It is the plan Chris Jones made before he wrote the letter of application you read earlier.
Hobbies basketball youth club Availability for interview anytime Knowledge of area Mum Spanish Holidays - Andalucia

Languages Sp & Fr classes in German Past experience Smiths Travel Agency - telephone and holiday bookings


Training / Qualifications Diploma London Univ. Training courses Present job courier here in England -guiding & booking

References patience good humour

b. Write a letter of application for one of the jobs advertised at the beginning of this unit.

VOCABULARY 1. Match each job in list A with a place in list B. More than one answer may be possible. A cashier cook dentist B bank cockpit field cashier / bank farmer hairdresser librarian garage hotel concert hall mechanic miner musician studio office restaurant photographer pilot porter kitchen surgery church typist vicar waiter coal-mine salon library

2. Match each job from the list with the sentence which best refers to the job. accountant fire-fighter a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. refuse collector postman/woman estate agent carpenter plumber architect electrician optician chef vet

Yesterday I had to give an injection to an injured bull. I get rather tired of picking up rubbish all day. I can help you sell your house. I can make new doors for the wardrobe if you like. Make sure that the fish is fresh by looking at the eyes. Ill come round and replace all the pipes in the kitchen. Unless you keep the receipts youll pay more tax. The cause was either an electrical fault or a cigarette. Always turn the power off at the mains before you start. You can see the balcony on the plan for the second floor. Its a registered parcel. Can you sign here? This pair also protects your eyes from the sun.

VET _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________

3. Which person from 1 and 2 would you need in each situation? a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. One of the radiators has burst and flooded your bedroom. You are very short-sighted and get headaches when you read. You have to carry a lot of heavy bags at the airport. You think you need three fillings. Your fringe is too long and you want a perm. The floorboards in the living room need replacing. Your pet goat has started sneezing. You have read the menu twice and you are feeling hungry. When you turn on your cooker, the fridge turns off. Your car makes a funny whistling noise. PLUMBER ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________

PHRASAL VERBS 1. Complete each sentence with a word from the list. Use each word once only. call come draw face fall fill get go take turn

a. I think we should go over our plan again before we tell the managing director. b. Have you _________ up with any new ideas for advertising the new products? c. Our deal with the Chinese company may _________ through, but we can sell the machinery to the German firm if necessary. d. You have to _________ in this form, and return it to the personnel manager. e. She didnt _________ on with her boss, so she left the company. f. If they dont give us a better price, well _________ down their offer. g. Im afraid we have to _________ up to the fact that the company is losing money. h. Our lawyers are going to _________ up a new contract tomorrow. i. A multinational company is trying to _________ over our firm, but we want to stay independent. j. We had to _________ off the office party because of the economic situation. 2. Complete these sentences using the correct form of one of the phrasal verbs below. Use one of the verbs twice. turn off turn up turn back turn on turn out turn down

1. There is too much snow on the road. Im afraid were going to have to turn back. 2. That music is much too loud. Can you please _________ it _________. 3. Please _________ all the lights when you go to bed. 4. I have a radio in my car but I dont often _________ it _________. 5. I thought the test would be difficult but as it _________ it was easy. 6. We werent expecting Harry at the party he just _________. 7. We made her the offer of the job but she _________ it _________.


VOCABULARY 1. Which words do the following sentences define? 1. To inspire, to induce, to give a reason or incentive for someone to do something. A. motivate B. promote C. provoke 2. A person employed by someone else, working for money. A. earner B. employee C. employer 3. Relations between employers, managers and workers, management and unions. A. human relations B. labour relations C. labour unions 4. Having control of something as part of your job. A. command B. power C. responsibility 5. Money paid (per hour or day or week) to manual workers. A. earnings B. salary C. wages 6. A fixed regular payment made by employers, usually monthly for professional or office work. A. earning B. salary C. wages 7. Advantages that come with a job, apart from wages or salary. A. benefits B. profits C. supplements 8. To be raised to a higher rank or better job. A. motivation B. promotion C. sales promotion 9. Knowing that there is little risk of losing ones job. A. bureaucracy B. job safety C. job security 10. Having particular abilities, acquired by training. A. educated B. skilled C. talented SPEAKING 1. Which of the following statements seem to you to be generally true? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. People dislike work and avoid it if they can. Work is necessary to peoples psychological well-being. People avoid responsibility and would rather be told what to do. People are motivated mainly by money. Most people are far more creative and ingenious than their employers realise. 6. People are motivated by anxiety about their security. 7. People want to be interested in their work and, given the right conditions, they will enjoy it. 8. Under the right conditions, most people will accept responsibility and want to realise their own potential.

READING 1. You may have noticed that the statements above can be separated into two groups reflecting two very different ways in which employers can treat their employees. These two approaches were summarised by a well-known American theorist of the psychology of work, Douglas McGregor, who named them Theory X and Theory Y. Read the following text and then classify the statements above according to which theory they support. Statement Theory 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

THEORY X AND THEORY Y In The Human Side of Enterprise, Douglas McGregor outlined two opposing theories of work and motivation. What he calls theory X is the traditional approach to workers and working which assumes that people are lazy and dislike work, and that they have to be both threatened (for example, with losing their job) and rewarded. It assumes that most people are incapable of taking responsibility for themselves and have to be looked after. Theory Y, on the contrary, assumes that people have a psychological need to work and want achievement and responsibility. Later theorists argued that Theory Y makes much greater demands on both workers and managers than McGregor realised. Abraham Maslow, for example, spent a year studying at a Californian company that used Theory Y, and concluded that its demands for responsibility and achievement are excessive for many people. He pointed out that there always weak and vulnerable people, with little self-discipline, who need protection against the burden of responsibility. Even strong and healthy people need the security of order and direction. Managers cannot simply substitute Theory Y for Theory X. They have to replace the security provided by Theory X with a different structure of security and certainty. WRITING Summarising Read the text again and complete the following sentences, using your own words as much as possible. 1. According to Theory X, employers have to threaten workers because 2. According to Theory Y, employers should give their workers responsibilities because 3. Maslow criticised Theory Y because 4. Maslow argued that even though they might want to be given responsibilities at work

SPEAKING Discussion One of the most important functions of a manager is to motivate the employees under his or her authority. But how? What kind of things motivate you? Which of the following factors have been or will be important for you in your choice of a job? Classify them in order of importance. good administration and good labour relations good working conditions: enough space, light, heat and time, not too much noise, and so on an adequate wage or salary, and benefits such as paid holidays, sick pay, a pension, and so on job security a challenging, interesting creative job responsibility contact with people opportunities to travel holidays and

Are there any other important factors that are not listed here? WRITING Write a short account (about 200 words) of the factors that have been or will be important for you in your choice of a job. READING Another well-known theorist of the psychology of work, Frederick Herzberg, has argued that many of the featured listed above do not in fact motivate people. Read the following text and find out why. SATISFIERS AND MOTIVATORS It is logical to suppose that things like good labour relations, good working conditions, good wages and benefits, and job security motivate workers. But in Work and the Nature of Man, Frederick Hertzberg argued that such conditions do not motivate workers. They are merely satisfiers or, more importantly, dissatisfiers where they do not exist. Motivators, on the contrary, include things such as having a challenging and interesting job, recognition and responsibility, promotion, and so on. However, even with the development of computers and robotics, there are and always will be plenty of boring, mindless, repetitive and mechanical jobs in all three sectors of the economy, and lots of unskilled people who have to do them. So how do managers motivate people in such jobs? One solution is to give them some responsibilities, not as individuals but as part of a team. For example, some supermarkets combine office staff, the people who fill the

shelves, and the people who work on the checkout tills into a team and let them decide what product lines to stock, how to display them every couple of hours, as doing four different repetitive jobs a day is better than doing only one. Many people now talk about the importance of a companys shared values or corporate culture, with which all the company can identify: for example, being the best hotel chain, or hamburger restaurant chain, or airline, or making the best, the safest, the most user-friendly, the most ecological or the most reliable products in a particular field. Such values are more likely to motivate workers than financial targets, which ultimately only concern a few people. Unfortunately, there is only a limited number of such goals to go round, and by definition, not all the competing companies in an industry can seriously claim to be the best. READING - Summarising Read the text again and complete the following sentences using your own words as much as possible. 1. Hertzberg suggested that good labour relations and working conditions 2. According to Herzberg, the kind of things that motivate 3. The problem with saying that only challenging, interesting and responsible jobs are motivating is that 4. Ways of motivating people in unskilled jobs include 5. The problem with trying to motivate workers by the belief that their company is the best is that VOCABULARY 1. Complete each sentence with a word formed from the word given. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) Nowadays it is very important to get a good education. EDUCATE Our company helps _________ people to find new jobs. EMPLOY Paul has good ideas, but writes very _________. CARE Helen has become a _________ businesswoman. SUCCEED I hope to leave school with some useful _________. QUALIFY Mr Dale was my _________ for ten years, and paid me well. EMPLOY According to the _________, the French lesson starts at ten. TIME Cathy has three jobs, so she has a high _________. COME Johns _________ of history is amazing for a boy of his age. KNOW All the _________ in this company are given free meals. EMPLOY 2. Match each sentence a) to j) with a sentence 1) to 10) with a similar meaning. a) She was given the sack. 7) b) She got a rise c) She got a promotion. 1) She was given a better job. 2) She answered an advertisement. 3) She decided to leave.

d) e) f) g) h) i) j)

She retired She applied for the job. She resigned She was unemployed. She did it for a living. She was ambitious. She was conscientious.

4) She did the job carefully. 5) She didnt have a job. 6) She earned her money that way. 7) She was dismissed. 8) She wanted a better job. 9) She was old and stopped work. 10) She was given more money.

3. Complete each sentence with a word from the box. The words can be used more than once. business job living work

2. Jack makes his living working as a journalist. 3. She has just left to go to _______, Im afraid. 4. They worked very hard and now they have their own _______. 5. There are still two million people without _______. 6. Some _______-men came and dug a hole in the road outside. 7. The cost of _______ has risen greatly over recent years. 8. Stop interfering! This is none of your _______. 9. Lucy has got a very good _______ in an international company. 10. I cant come out tonight. Ive got too much _______ to do. 11. An early _______ by Picasso was sold for $2,000,000. PHRASAL VERBS 1. Complete these sentences using the correct form of one of the phrasal verbs below. look on turn on get on take on go on put on count on

1. Her application was successful so they took her on as an assistant manager. 2. Could you _______ the radio _______? Id like to hear the news. 3. Were going to _______ the show _______ at Christmas. 4. In New York people get mugged and passers-by just _______! 5. Im sorry I cant _______ working like this Ive had enough! 6. If you want to _______ in life, you have to work hard. 7. Can I _______ you to help me? You wont let me down? 2. Complete these dialogues using the correct form of one of the phrasal verbs below in each space. hold on leave on take on try on get on put through count on let down go on take up put on set up turn on

A: Hello, can you (1) put me through to Jane Smith, please?

B: Yes, (2) ______________ a moment, sir Im afraid shes out at the moment. Can I take a message? A: Id rather send a fax, if you dont mind (3) _______ it _______. A: Im pleased to tell you we have decided to (4) _______ you _______ as a sales manager. B: Thanks, I hope I dont (5) _______ you _______. A: Im sure you wont. Wed like you to (6) ______________ your duties immediately, if possible. A: If you want to (7) ______________ in this company, you have to work hard B: I do. Dont worry, I wont let you down. You can (8) ______________me. A: Im sure now, lets (9) ______________ with the letters. I dont think weve finished yet. A: Do you think this pullover suits me? B: Why dont you (10) _______ it _______? A: The programmes finished. Shall I switch the TV off? B: No, (11) _______ it _______ - I want to hear the news. A: Theyre (12) ______________ an exhibition of photographs at the Arts Centre. B: Yes, the whole thing was (13) ______________ by the local Arts Council. 3. Replace the underlined words in these sentences with the correct form of one of the phrasal verbs below. Make any other changes that are necessary. Use one of the phrasal verbs twice. take in 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. take after take up take off take to take down take back

He is just like his father. He takes after his father. Im afraid I didnt like John at first; it took me some time to like him. If I were you, I would return it to the shop and ask for a refund. I didnt realise what he was saying because my mind was on something else. Why dont you accept the offer of a job with the record company? If you pay cash, Ill give it to you for five pounds less. I made a note of the most important points in his lecture. I was deceived by his lies.

Part II: Grammar Explanations and Practice Unit 4: PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE AND PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS

FORM: Look at the example of how to form the present simple tense of the verb to work. All verbs except to be and the modals follow this pattern. I/you/we/they work / do not (dont) work He/she/it works / does not (doesnt) work Do I/you/we/they work? Yes, I/you/we/they do. No, I/you/we/they dont. Does he/she/it work? Yes, he/she/it does. No, he/she/it doesnt. !COMMON MISTAKES A common mistake is to forget to put the s ending on the he/she/it forms. All verbs except modals must end in s in the third person singular affirmative: WRONG: Our computer system work very efficiently. RIGHT: Our new computer works very efficiently. A second common mistake is to add the s to the he/she/it forms of negatives and questions. We add es form to the auxiliary (do), and not to the main verb (work): WRONG: I know Karl doesnt works in your department. RIGHT: I know Karl doesnt work in your department. (for spelling rules, see Appendix 1) USAGE: 1. Permanent situations: the present simple is used to talk about actions and situations that are generally or permanently true. My mother works in a bank. IBM is the largest computer company in the world; it manufactures mainframes and PCs and sells its products all over the world. 2. Routines and frequency: we use the present simple to talk about routines and things we do regularly. Specific adverbial phrases: usually, sometimes, often, never, always, from time to time, every day/week/month etc, in the morning/afternoon/evening, at night/ the weekends, on Mondays/Fridays etc, in spring/summer/autumn/winter etc. I usually get home at 7 oclock in the evening and I have dinner.

3. Facts: we use the present simple to talk about scientific or other facts which are always true. Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. Superconductors are special materials that conduct electricity and do not create any electrical resistance. II. Practice

1. Answer the following questions about your daily routine: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. How do you get to work / university in the morning? How long does it take to get to work / university? What do you do in the mornings? What do you do for lunch? What do you do in the afternoons? What time do you usually finish? What do you do at the weekends?


FORM: The present continuous is formed by using the present tense of the auxiliary verb be and the ing form of the verb. I am working / am not working. He/she/it is working / is not (isnt) working. You/we/they are working / are not (arent) working. Am I working? Yes, I am. / No, I am not. Is he/she/it working? Yes, he/she/it is. / No, he/she/it isnt. Are you/we/they working? Yes, you/we/they are. / No, you/we/they arent. (for spelling rules, see Appendix 1) USAGE: 1. Moment of speaking: the present continuous is used to talk about an activity taking place at the moment of speaking. Im afraid Mr Jackson is not available at the moment. He is talking to a customer on the other phone. Specific adverbs: now, at the moment, at present etc. 2. Current projects: the present continuous is used to talk about actions or activities and current projects that are taking place over a period of time (even if they are not taking place precisely at the moment of speaking). Barton is one of the largest local construction companies. At the moment we are building a new estate with 200 houses and we are

negotiating with the council for the sale of development land in Boxley Wood. 3. Temporary situations: the present continuous is used to indicate that an action or activity is temporary rather than permanent. Compare: Mrs Harding organises our conferences and book launches. (The present simple is used because this is a permanent situation) Mrs Harding is away on maternity leave, so I am organising them. (The present continuous is used because this is only true for a limited time - a temporary situation) Specific adverbs: today, this morning/afternoon/month/year etc, these days/weeks/months etc. (expressing a definite, limited period of time). 4. Annoying habit: the present continuous is used to describe an annoying habit. A frequency adverb is necessary (always, forever): You are always borrowing money from me! 5. Slow changes, transformations: the present continuous is used to describe current trends and slow changes that are taking place: The latest economic statistics show that both unemployment and inflation are falling, and that the economy is growing at an annual rate of 2.6%. Most used verbs with this value: grow, get, become. ATTENTION! There are a number of verbs which describe states rather than actions. They are not normally used in the continuous form. Common examples are: Verbs of thinking Verbs of the senses Verbs of possession Verbs of emotion Verbs of appearance Others believe, doubt, guess, imagine, know, realise, suppose, understand hear, smell, sound, taste, feel belong to, have (meaning possess), own, possess dislike, hate, like, love, prefer, regret, want, wish appear, seem contain, depend on, include, involve, mean, measure, weigh, require

Nevertheless, some of these stative verbs can sometimes be used in the continuous form, having an active meaning. Typical examples are: be, depend, feel, have, measure, see, taste, think, weigh etc. Compare these uses:

STATIVE MEANING ACTIVE MEANING Jack is often noisy. Jill is being noisy these days. Mike has a very nice car. Right now, we are having an interesting I think I like you. conversation. This fish tastes awful. David is thinking about getting a new job. I feel that you are wrong. I am just tasting the soup. This bag weighs a ton. I am feeling terrible. It depends what you We are weighing the baby. mean. I am depending on you. These differences apply to all tenses, not just to present tenses. II. Practice Answer these questions about yourself and your current projects. a. b. c. d. e. III. What new project are you currently working on? What are you doing at university these days? What courses are you doing? What examinations are you studying for? What other aims and objectives are you trying to achieve outside university? Consolidation

1. Choose the correct phrase underlined in each sentence: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) What time go you / do you go to bed on Saturdays? Why are you waiting / do you waiting outside the door? Dont ask Tim. He doesnt know / not knows the answer. I having / Im having my lunch at the moment. When you leave / do you leave the house? I dont understand. What is happening / is happen? Excuse me, does you know / u know the time? This is a great party. Im having / Am I having a lovely time? We cant use the lift because it dont works / doesnt work. What you are doing / are you doing here?

2. Read the answers and then complete the questions: a) Where does Sue live____? Sue? She lives at the end of Axwell Road. b) Do ________________________________? Jim? No, I dont know him. c) What ________________________________? At the moment? Im doing my homework. d) Are ________________________________? Here? No, Im sitting over there.

e) Do________________________________? Here? No, we change trains at the next station. f) Why ________________________________? Im wearing two pullovers because I feel cold! g) Is ________________________________? David? No, hes not staying with Tom. h) When ________________________________? Kate? She comes home at 6.30. 3. Rewrite each sentence so that the verb underlined is a negative contraction. a) Naomi and Bill are watching television. Naomi and Bill arent watching television. b) Peter likes chocolate cake. ___________________________________ c) Carol drives a little sports car. ___________________________________ d) Im using this pencil at the moment. ___________________________________ e) The children are having lunch in the kitchen. ___________________________________ f) The sun sets in the east. ___________________________________ g) I get up early on Saturday. ___________________________________ h) Kate is writing a novel. ___________________________________ i) Sue lives in London. ___________________________________ j) Were waiting for you. ___________________________________ 4. Complete each sentence with a present simple or present continuous form, using the words given. a) Do you like cheese sandwiches? you like b) What time ________________________? the sun rise c) What ________________________ at the moment? you read d) Sorry, I cant talk. ________________________ a bath. I have e) We ________________________ at school. not watch videos f) Look out of the window! ________________________. it snow

g) This is an examination! Why _____________________? you talk h) Ann ____________________ to school by bus every day. go i) ________________________a uniform at your school? you wear j) Pat has got an interesting hobby. ______________ a boat. she build 5. Choose the correct spelling from each pair of words. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) writing / writing diging / digging takeing / taking deciding / decideing swimming / swiming having / haveing lying / lieing readding / reading i) j) k) l) m) n) o) using / useing waiting / waitting washeing / washing riding / rideing flyeing / flying studing / studying going / goeing

6. Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) That cant be right! I dont believe / Im not believing it! Carol cant swim today. She has / is having a cold. See you in the morning. I leave / Im leaving now. What do you do / are you doing? If you drop it, it will explode! Stop doing that, Billy! You are / You are being very silly. I drive / Im driving! You can sit in the back with Martin. What do we eat / are we eating now? Im really hungry! Youre a great cook! This cake tastes / is tasting wonderful. Where do you go / are you going? I havent finished speaking to you! Chemistry is hard. Im not understanding / I dont understand it.

7. Put each verb given into present simple or present continuous. a) b) c) d) e) f) Ugh, dont show me that picture! I (hate) ____________ spiders! Who (you, go with) ____________ to matches on Saturdays? In the winter, what (you, wear) ____________? I cant stand horror films. I (think) ____________ theyre really silly! Diana (not, usually, sit) ____________ next to Helen. Why (you, look at) ____________ me like that? Have I done something wrong? g) Excuse me, but (this bus, stop) ____________ outside the Post Office? h) I (not take) ____________ the bus to school today. My mother (give) ____________ me a lift.

8. Choose a sentence from a) to f) which is the best continuation of the conversations beginning 1) to 6). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What do you usually do on your birthday? a What do you usually do when there is an earthquake? ___ Have you finished your homework? ___ What are you doing? ___ Are you in the school basketball team? ___ What do you do? ___ a. I have a party. b. I lie under the table c. I work in a travel agency. d. Yes, we play every Friday. e. Im still doing it. f. Its hot in here. Im opening some windows.

9. Put each verb given into present simple or present continuous. a) b) c) d) e) What (usually, you, do) do you usually do at the weekends? Dont worry about the cat. It (only) eat ____________once a day. I cant work out the answer. (you, know) ____________ what it is? Whats the matter? Why (you, stare) ____________ at me like that? Excuse me, but (you, speak) ____________ English? Im looking for a hotel. f) Helen (stay) ____________ with her brother while her house is being repaired. g) You should go on a diet. (you, put) ____________ on weight. h) (They, speak) ____________ French or German? I cant tell the difference.

10. Translate the following sentences using Present Tense Simple or Present Tense Continuous: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. M trezesc la ora 7.30 n fiecare diminea. De obicei copii beau lapte dimineaa, dar astzi ei beau ceai. Mereu mi d telefon i mi pune ntrebri stupide. Gheata se topete la soare. Este smbta seara. Familia Smith este acas. Doamna Smith se uit la televizor, domnul Smith citete ziarul, iar fiica lor Juliet se joac. Ei i petrec aproape fiecare smbta seara n acest fel. 6. Niciodat nu plec de acas fr umbrel. 7. Pmntul se nvrte n jurul soarelui. 8. Ce caui? mi caut stiloul.

A. PAST TENSE SIMPLE I. Explanations FORM: The positive form of PAST TENSE SIMPLE is formed by using the past tense form. Regular verbs add ed to the bare infinitive to form the past tense (See appendix 1 for spelling rules). For negatives and questions we use the past tense form of the auxiliary DO, that is DID, and the short infinitive. I/you/he/she/it/we/they worked / did not (didnt) work Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they work? Yes, I/you/etc did. No, I/you/etc didnt. Many common verbs do not add ed to the short infinitive to form the PAST TENSE SIMPLE. They are irregular verbs and have special forms for the Past Tense Simple and Past Participle. A full list of common irregular verbs is in Appendix 2. I went / did not (didnt) go to a very interesting presentation last week. Did I go? Yes, I did. / No, I didnt. The verb to be follows a different pattern: I /he/she/it was/was not (wasnt) We/you/they were/were not (werent) Was I /he/she/it/ ? Yes, I /he/she/it/ was. No, I /he/she/it wasnt. Were we/you/they ? Yes, we/you/they were. No, we/you/they werent. !COMMON MISTAKES A common mistake is to use the Past Tense form of the main verb in negatives and questions. We use DID, the Past Tense form of the auxiliary and the short infinitive: WRONG: Did you checked the figures? No, I didnt checked them. RIGHT: Did you check the figures? No, I didnt check them. USAGE: 1. Completed actions: the simple past is used to talk about completed actions in the past. Susan went into the station and bought a ticket.

As in the example above, the simple past is often used with expressions that refer to points of time in the past. Look at the following common examples and at the prepositions that are used with them: at on in no preposition 6 oclock/1.15/the end of the year/Christmas Tuesday/15th May/the 21st/New Years Day January/1997/the 1990s/summer yesterday/yesterday morning/last Monday/a few days ago/the day before yesterday

2. Habits in the past: the past simple is used to describe past habits or states. A time expression (or a time clause) is usually necessary. I always got up at six in those days. He ran 5 miles every day when he was young. II. Practice

Complete these sentences using the PAST SIMPLE form of one of the verbs below in each space. teach break choose become lie ride steal feel fall lay

1. The athlete __________ the world record for the 100 metres in 1996. 2. He __________ to study medicine because he wanted to help people. 3. After eating three pies and two ice creams he __________ sick. 4. We were so poor we __________ food to survive. 5. He __________ a millionaire when he was just 21. 6. She __________ Maths and Physics until she retired in 1998. 7. He got on his horse and __________ off into the distance. 8. While she made the food, her husband __________ the table. 9. He was so tired he __________ on the bed and went straight to sleep. 10. The building __________ down during the earthquake. B. PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS I. FORM: The PAST CONTINUOUS is formed with was/were + the ing form of the verb: I /he/she/it was/was not (wasnt) working. We/you/they were/were not (werent) working. Was I /he/she/it/ working.? Yes, I /he/she/it/ was. / No, I /he/she/it wasnt. Explanations

Were we/you/they working.? Yes, we/you/they were. / No, we/you/they werent. USAGE: 1. Points of time in the past: we use the past continuous to talk about an action or activity that was in progress at a particular moment of time in the past: At ten oclock yesterday afternoon, he was reading a book. 2. Interrupted past action: we can use the past continuous to talk about an action or activity that was already in progress, and which was interrupted by another action: While Sue was trying to open the door, Pete came and helped her. We can rephrase this sentence using when for the second part: Sue was trying to open the door, when Pete came and helped her. 3. Two or more parallel actions in progress: we use the past continuous to show that two or more actions were going on at the same time in the past: While mother was cooking, father was reading a newspaper and the children were playing in the garden. II. Practice

i. Explain the difference in meaning between these pairs of sentences. 1. a. The old man crossed the road. b. The old man was crossing the road. 2. a. It was snowing when we got to Sofia. b. It snowed when we got to Sofia. 3. a. People were dancing and singing when I got to the party. b. People danced and sang when I got to the party. 4. a. When I saw the bus I ran for the bus. b. When I saw the bus I was running for the bus. 5. a. Everything was going smoothly when the earthquake happened. b. Everything went smoothly when the earthquake happened. ii. Complete this text using the correct form (past tense simple or past tense continuous) of the verbs in brackets. We had just had a nice meal and I (1) __________ (look) out of the window, admiring the beauty of the clouds. Everything (2) __________ (go) smoothly and I said to myself, Flying is great! We (3) __________ (have) just half an hour to go before landing and I (4) __________ (feel) pretty relaxed when the rather large woman who (5) __________ (sit) next to me suddenly started telling me the story of her life. She (6) __________ (wear) a luxurious fur coat because she said she (7) __________ (feel) cold. She was so large

that she (8) __________ Take up not only her own seat, but half of mine too. She overflowed into my seat like a big, furry animal. As she spoke, I (9) __________ (pretend) to read my newspaper, squashed like a sardine in my seat. I (10) __________ (can) hear the womans voice droning on above the noise of the engines. Those (11) __________ (be) hard times, she said. In those days, there were twelve of us living under the same roof and we hardly (12) __________ (have) enough to eat. I thought she (13) __________ (do) her best to make up for it now. She had taken a bar of chocolate out of her handbag and (14) __________ (try) to unwrap it, which (15) __________ (be) difficult because it had melted and was sticking to the paper. III. Consolidation

1. Choose the correct word or phrase from each pair underlined. a) While I washed / was washing my hair, the phone rang / ringed. b) How did you felt / did you feel yesterday afternoon? c) When I reached / was reaching home I received / was receiving Davids phone call. d) Last summer I was going swimming / went swimming every weekend. e) When the dog bit / was biting Lauras leg, she screamed / was screaming. f) We sang / sung some songs and then ate some sandwiches. g) When you fell / felt over the cliff, what happened / was happening next? h) While Mary washed up / was washing up, she broke / was breaking a cup. i) I didnt see / didnt saw where the bus stop was, so I was missing / missed the bus. j) What did you do / were you doing when I phoned / was phoning you last night? There was no reply. 2. Rewrite each sentence according to the instructions given. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) I enjoyed the concert. Sue liked the party. You ate all the bread. Did Tom spend a lot? I felt well yesterday. Ann didnt buy a car. They won the prize. Paul doesnt speak Polish. I paid all the bills. Ruth made a mistake. (negative) (question) (question) (affirmative) (negative) (affirmative) (question) (affirmative) (negative) (question) I didnt enjoy the concert. ________________________. ________________________. ________________________. ________________________. ________________________. ________________________. ________________________. ________________________. ________________________.

3. Complete each sentence with a suitable time expression from the list. You can use an expression more than once. ago in last week at when while

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)

Two burglars broke into the house while we were watching television. __________ I met an old friend of mine in the city centre. What were you doing __________ the police officer knocked on the door. Jan met Sarah __________ half past eight outside the cinema. __________ Dick was preparing lunch, he cut his finger badly I first came to this town more than twenty years __________. Jim was studying to be a doctor __________ he met Sally. Tony bought his first motorbike __________ 1992. __________ did you start playing basketball? Most of the young people left this village a long time __________.

4. Choose a sentence from a) to h) which is the best continuation of the conversations beginning 1) to 10). 1. What was Carol doing when you knocked on the door? a 2. How did Brenda spend her holiday? ____ 3. What happened when the lights went out? ____ 4. When did you meet Kathy? ____ 5. What did Jean do when Tony called? ____ 6. Did Ann hear what David said? ____ 7. What did Pat do when the bell rang at the end of the lesson? ____ 8. Why did Helen leave so early? ____ a) She went sailing most days, and sunbathed at the beach. b) She put the phone down. c) She was listening to the radio in the kitchen. d) she went to meet her parents at the restaurant. e) She came to my brothers birthday party. f) While Tina was looking for a torch, they came back on. g) She wasnt listening. h) She put her books away and left. 5. Put each verb given into either past simple or past continuous. a) When Harry (wake up) woke up, we (tell) told him the good news. b) Where (you leave) _________ your wallet when you (go) _________ swimming? c) Everyone (wait) _________ for the concert to begin when a message (arrive) _________. d) When Tom (finish) _________ his letter, he (take) _________ it to the post office. e) Pam (want) _________ a relaxing holiday, so she (choose) _________ to stay on a small island. f) When I (study) _________ abroad, my parents (phone) _________ me every week. g) I (find) _________ my lost pen while I (look for) _________ my pencil sharpener. h) Ann (watch) _________television when Julie (arrive) _________.

i) When the lights (go out) _________, I (lie) _________ in bed reading. j) When you (go) _________ to the new Chinese restaurant, what (you eat) _________? 6. Choose the correct spelling from each pair of words. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) siting / sitting felt / fellt tryed / tried crying / cring wasnt / wasnt enjoyed / enjoied thoght / thought liveing / living C. PAST PERFECT SIMPLE I. FORM: The PAST PERFECT SIMPLE is formed with had + the past participle of the verb: I/you/he/she/it/we/they had worked. I/you/he/she/it/we/they had not (hadnt) worked. Had I/you/he/she/it/we/they worked? Yes, I/you/etc had. No, I/you/etc hadnt. USAGE: Previous and subsequent events: the past perfect simple is used to refer back to completed actions that happened before other events in the past. Compare: 1. When I arrived at the office, the meeting started. (I arrived at the office, and then the meeting started.) 2. When I arrived at the office, the meeting had started. (The meeting started before I got to the office. I was late.) In 1, it is also possible to use as soon as or after instead of when. In 2, it is also possible to use by the time instead of when. (The past participle or regular verbs end in ed, and have the same form as the past tense simple. For a list of irregular verbs, see Appendix 2.) Explanations i) j) k) l) m) n) o) shopping / shoping heard / heared hidding / hiding waited / waitted plaied / played whent / went fitted / fited

II. I.


Complete the sentences by putting the verb into the past perfect simple:

1) Did you manage to see the director or had he gone (to go) by the time you got there? 2) I couldnt go into the office yesterday morning because I ________ (leave) my keys at home. 3) We could not call our new product Mono, because one of our competitors ________ (already choose) this name. 4) I found out about the vacancy too late. When my application form arrived, they ________ (appoint) someone. 5) The bank returned the cheque to me because I ________ (not sign) it. II. Complete this letter using the correct form (past simple or past perfect simple) of the verbs in brackets.

Dear Martha, Happy New Year, though Im afraid the New Year has started badly for us. Last night, we (1) _________ (get) back home to find the front door open and the lock smashed. We (2) _________ (be) out all evening a friend (3) _________ (invite) us to celebrate the New Year with them and we (4) _________ (not get) back home till the early hours of the morning. It wasnt difficult to see how the burglars (5) _________ (break) into the house. The lock wasnt a very good one and they (6) _________ (pick) it with a screwdriver or something. As our next-door neighbours (7) _________ (go) away for the weekend, the thieves (8) _________ (take) their time and had managed to find most of the money we had so carefully hidden away under the mattresses and inside flowerpots. The first thing we (9) _________ (notice) was the incredible mess they (10) _________ (make). All the cupboards and drawers had been emptied onto the floor. It (11) _________ (look) as if someone (12) _________ (drop) a bomb onto our house. They had also Now finish the letter. Describe what else the thieves had stolen and what other damage they had done. Use some of the following verbs: rip, break, steal, knock over, find, smash, remove. III. Consolidation

1. Underline the error or errors in each sentence. Rewrite the sentence. a) When we had ate lunch, we were sitting in the garden. When we had eaten lunch, we sat in the garden. b) While I looked for my keys, I remembered I left them at home. _________________________________________________. c) Anna had used to play badminton when she had been at school.

_________________________________________________. d) When I got into bed, I was falling asleep immediately. _________________________________________________. e) When I was finally finding the house, I was knocking at the door. _________________________________________________. f) After Jill was giving Nick his books, she went home. _________________________________________________. g) Maria would live in Sweden when she was a child. _________________________________________________. h) I was using to get up early when I had gone sailing. _________________________________________________. i) The Vikings had sailed to North America a thousand years ago. _________________________________________________. j) Sue was sure she was seeing the tall man before. _________________________________________________. 2. Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence. a) While I had waited / was waiting / waited at the bust stop, I had noticed / was noticing / noticed a new shop which wasnt / had not been in the street the day before. b) I had gone / went out into the garden to fetch my bike, but found / was finding that someone stole / had stolen it. c) When George met /et / was meeting her somehow before. d) Helen got off / was getting off the bus, and walked / was walking into the bank when she realized / had realized / was realizing that she left / had left / was leaving her handbag on the bus. 3. Put each verb into past simple, past continuous or past perfect. More than one answer may be possible. The police suspected that Brian (a) had broken (break) the window at his house because he (b) ________ (want) to make them think that a burglar (c) ________ (steal) his valuable stamp collection. They (d) ________ (think) that Brian (e) ________ (do) this because he (f) ________ (need) the money. However, they (g) ________ (not know) that Brian (h) ________ (fly) to Brazil the week before, and (i) ________ (be) abroad when the burglary (j) ________ (take place). 4. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence and contains the word given. a) Michael took a deep breath and dived into the water. had After Michael had taken a deep breath, he dived into the water. b) Terry was fatter. didnt Terry ____________________________ to be so thin.

c) Gary was sure his keys were in his pocket. forgotten Gary was ____________________________ his keys. d) Last summer, Julia got up early every morning. to Last summer, Julia ____________________________ early every morning. e) I thought the book seemed familiar. had I thought ____________________________ the book before. f) When he was younger, David played tennis. used David ____________________________ when he was younger. g) we missed the bus so we took the taxi. had We ____________________________ the bus. h) In those days, we spent the summer in the mountains. would In those days, we __________________________ the summer in the mountains. 5. Translate the following sentences using Past Tense Simple or Past Tense Continuous: 1. Cnd am plecat de la poliie, Albert i soia lui mai vorbeau nc cu un poliist. 2. Pe cnd mi cutam ochelarii, a sunat telefonul; n timp ce mergeam sa rspund, cineva a btut la u; telefonul nc mai suna cnd am deschis ua, dar cnd m-am ntors el s-a oprit. 3. Am cunoscut-o pe verioara ta n 1998. 4. Cnd Peter era tnr alerga timp de o jumtate de ora n fiecare diminea. 5. Cnd l-ai vzut ultima dat? 6. Ce ora ai vizitat anul trecut?


A. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE I. FORM The PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE is formed by using the present form of the auxiliary verb have and the past participle: I/you/we/they have taken / have not (havent) taken. He/she/it has taken /has not (hasnt) taken. Have I/you/we/they taken? Yes, I/you/we/they have. No, I/you/we/they havent. Has he/she/it taken? Yes, he/she/it has. No, he/she/it hasnt. USAGE: 1. Present result of the past: We use the present perfect simple to talk about a present situation which is a result of something that happened at an unspecified time in the past. Therefore we do not use specific time expressions such as yesterday, last week, etc. I have given your report to the teacher. (I gave him your report and he has it now this is the present result) I have sent them the books they wanted. (I sent them. They are probably in the post now.) 2. Completed activities in the recent past: the present perfect simple is often used with words such as just, of late, recently, lately, up to now, so far, up to the present, already, yet etc., which refer to a period of time that is very close to the present moment. Im sorry, Mrs Smith is not here. She has just left. I have not seen Jack lately. Already is used in positive sentences. It often indicates that something has taken place slightly earlier than expected. Notice its position in the sentence: She has already shown me the figures. Yet is used in question and negatives. It shows that we expect an action will take place if it has not happened up to now. Notice the position of yet: Have you talked to Peter yet? I have not talked to him yet. 3. Unfinished periods of time: the present perfect is often used with prepositions or prepositional phrases indicating periods of time that have not finished yet. Common examples are: today, this morning, this month, this year, these days, these weeks, over the last few days, all day, all night etc. Explanations

This month we have received a lot of complaints. (The month has not finished, and there may be more complaints.) If we are speaking after one of these time periods, we use the simple past because we are referring to a period of time that has finished. Compare: Have you seen John this morning? (It is now 11.15 in the morning; the morning has not finished.) Did you see John this morning? (It is now 2.30 in the afternoon; the morning has finished.) 4. Indefinite periods of time: the present perfect is often used with words such as: ever, never, often, seldom, always, several times etc. to talk about general life experience. Have you ever worked abroad? (That is, in all your life up to now?) I have never been to America. (That is, not in all my life up to now.) The present perfect with ever is often followed by the simple past. We use the simple past to give more information about a completed action, when referring to a specific time or context: Have you ever been to Hong Kong? Yes, I have. I worked there two years ago. 5. For and since: The present perfect simple is often used with for and since to talk about things that began in the past and have continued up to now: They have not seen Alice since 2001/Christmas/she went to London. Since denotes the beginning point of a period of time that extends up to the present. Common examples: since 10.15/Monday/the 18th/last week/June/1999/I left school etc. These boys have been here for half an hour. For refers to a period of time that continues up to the present. Common examples: for ten minutes/five days/three months/two years/a long time/ages etc. To ask questions about periods of time, we can use How long ? + present perfect: How long have you been in England? I have been here since August. !COMMON MISTAKES: We do not use the present simple tense with for and since to talk about something that began in the past and has gone up to the present: WRONG: I am here since December. RIGHT: I have been here since December.

II. Practice 1. Use the verbs to make a form of the present perfect simple. Whats the matter? (you cut) Have you cut yourself? The ship (not sink) __________________ but its in a dangerous condition. (your sisters write) __________________ to you yet? I (have) __________________ a headache ever since lunchtime. Nadia (never see) __________________ any Chinese films. Someone (steal) __________________ Mr Grants bike. The passengers are tired because they (not sleep) __________________ all night. h) Im afraid we (just break) __________________ your window. Sorry! i) Davis (not win) __________________ a prize at this time, Im afraid. j) (you ever eat) __________________ Spanish food? Its great! 2. Put a time word or phrase from the list into each space yet never a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) for already since so far often just ever always a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

Carlos has lived in the city centre since 1996. Thanks for the present! Ive ______ wanted a pet goldfish! Have you ______ drunk pineapple juice? Its fantastic! Ive ______ heard some fantastic news! Ive passed my exams! Hurry up! Havent you finished ______? You are a slow-coach! Nina has worked in this company ______ five years. Ive ______ passed this building, but this is the first time Ive been inside. Ive ______ been on a big ship before. Its an interesting experience! Were very busy today. ______ weve sold over a hundred bikes. Can I have a different book? Ive ______ read this one.

3. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. a) We started working here three years ago. We have worked here for three years. b) This is the first time I have been on a plane. I _____________________ before. c) Thats strange! My pen isnt here! Thats strange! _____________________ disappeared! d) Nicky and Jan arent at this school any more. Nicky and Jan _____________________ this school. e) I saw a friend of yours a few moments ago. I _____________________ a friend of yours. f) Im still writing my letters. I _____________________ my letters yet. g) Is this your first visit to South America?

Have _____________________ before? h) Oh bother! My wallet is still in the car. Oh bother! I _____________________ my wallet in the car. i) Its a long time since we spoke to your sister. We _____________________ to your sister for a long time. j) Is Anna still asleep? Has _____________________ up yet? 4. Match the clauses in list A with the clauses in list B to form sentences in the past simple or present perfect simple: A 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) A lot of cinemas have closed He published a new novel People started to watch TV Millions of people have seen the play The Mousetrap I have seen her new film Television programmes have got worse She decided to become an actress She has finished a new film I went to my first concert B a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) since it opened in 1952. twice already last year. since the arrival of video. when I was twelve. when she was ten years old. about 50 years ago. but it hasnt opened yet. since they allowed private channels.

B. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS I. FORM The PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS is formed by using the present perfect of be (have been) and the ing form of the verb: I/you/we/they have been working / have not (havent) been working. He/she/it has been working /has not (hasnt) been working. Have I/you/we/they been working? Yes, I/you/we/they have. /No, I/you/we/they havent. Has he/she/it been working? Yes, he/she/it has. / No, he/she/it hasnt. USAGE: 1. Unfinished activities: The present perfect continuous is used with for, since and How long ? and other expressions of duration (e.g. all day etc) to talk about activities that started in the past and are still happening now. The activity may have been going on continuously or repeated several times: They have been producing cars here for 10 years. Explanations

(They started producing cars 10 years ago. They are still producing cars.) I have been trying to ring them all day. (I started trying to ring them this morning. I am still trying to ring them.) We can use the present perfect simple to express this value as well, but, sometimes, the continuous form of the present perfect is preferred if we want to emphasize how long an action has been in progress. 2. Finished and unfinished activities: We use the present perfect simple if we are talking about a recently completed action, whose result is sometimes relevant to the present, especially if we give details of how much or how many. We use the present perfect continuous when something is still going on. Compare: I have written a report for Janet. (It is finished.) I have been writing a report for Janet. (I am still writing it.) Notice that we do not have any definite time expressions with this value. II. Practice

Explain the difference in meaning between these pairs of sentences: 1. a. Have you read War and Peace? b. Have you been reading war and Peace? 2. a. We have just sold out of tickets. b. We have been selling tickets since March. 3. a. I have lived here since 1978. b. I have been living here since 1978. III. Consolidation

1. Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence. 1. I live here / have lived here since the end of last year. 2. Someone has just stolen / has just been stealing my bike. 3. Im afraid the last train left / has left an hour ago. 4. Yesterday I lost / have lost my wallet. 5. Thank you for your offer, but I have decided / decided not to accept. 6. Take your umbrella with you. It started / has started raining. 7. Were enjoying our trip. We have visited / visited two countries so far. 8. Im standing / I have been standing here for hours and I feel tired. 9. This has been / was a busy day and it isnt over yet! 10. I feel really tired. We went / have been to a party last night.

2. Put each verb given into either present perfect simple, past simple or present simple. a) Last week I (lose) lost my scarf, and now I (just lose) have just lost my gloves. b) I (work) ______ for Blue Bank at the moment but I (decide) ______ to change jobs. c) We (be) ______ here for hours. Are you sure we (come) ______ to the right place? d) (you see) ______ my calculator? Im sure I (leave) ______ it here earlier. e) We (have) ______ some coffee after that and then (catch) ______ the bus home. f) I (never eat) ______ octopus, but once on holiday I (eat) ______ some squid. g) I (hope) ______ you arent a vegetarian. I (cook) ______ you some lamb chops. h) Recently a lot of young people (take up) ______ in-line skating. i) When we (reach) ______ the cinema, there (not be) ______ any tickets left. j) Please come quickly! Nick (have) ______ an accident, and he (go) ______ to hospital. 3. Complete each mini-dialogue, using the verbs given, in either present perfect simple or present perfect continuous. 1. A: Terminator 3 is on at the Rex. (you see) Have you seen it? B: No, not yet. Shall we go? I (look forward) am looking forward to seeing it. 2. A: Whats the matter? You look really tired! B: I am! I (study) ______ all day, and I (not finish) ______ yet. A: Oh well, time for a break. 3. A: I (phone) ______ Carol all day, but theres no reply. B: I expect she (go) ______ swimming with her friends. 4. A: (you hear) ______ the news? B: What news? A: Someone (rob) ______ the bank at the end of the road. 5. A: Why is your leg in plaster? B: Thats a silly question! I (break) ______ it, of course. A: Someone (write) ______ Time for a break on the plaster! 4. Put one suitable word in each space. Weve had a very interesting trip (a) so far, and weve had some interesting adventures (b) ______ the last time we wrote. Weve (c) ______ to some beautiful islands, and (d) ______ a lot of interesting people. In fact (e) ______ weve made friends with some people in a village, and theyve been (f) ______ us the local language. I havent managed to learn much (g) ______, but Ann (h) ______ picked up quite a lot, and can speak well. Shes been (i) ______ every day, and she has (j) ______ me everything she knows.

5. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. a) I came to live here three months ago. I have been living here for three months. b) Mary is out at the shops at the moment. Mary ______________________ to the shops. c) I have had French lessons since March. I ______________________ French since March. d) Im sill reading this book. I ______________________ reading this book yet. e) Paul left the room a moment ago. Paul has ______________________ the room. f) Ten of the letters are ready. I ______________________ ten letters so far. g) Its ages since I last went to the cinema. I ______________________ to the cinema for ages. h) this is the first time I have eaten snails. I ______________________ snails before. i) I dont remember Helens phone number. I have ______________________ Helens phone number. j) David has a different opinion now. David ______________________ his mind. 6. Underline the errors in these sentences. Rewrite each sentence. a) My penfriend is writing to me for years but has never sent me a photo. My penfriend has been writing to me for years but has never sent me a photo. b) We have started this course three weeks ago. c) What have you been doing all day? Ive been written letters. d) When have you arrived in this city? e) You have ever been to India? f) Paula has been stayed in a hotel by the sea. g) Ive been feeling ill three weeks ago. h) I live in this city since I was born. i) I wait here a long time. Where have you been? j) Tony has leaved his books on the bus. 7. Translate the following sentences using Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Continuous: 1) Surorile mele tocmai au venit de la coal. 2) De ct timp dorm copiii? 3) A terminat Jack deja exerciiul? Au trecut doar zece minute de cnd i l-am dictat. 4) Ai ncercat vreodat s-l ajui? 5) Noi muncim n grdin de mai bine de trei ore i nu am obosit nc. 6) M gndesc la cele spuse de ea de doua ore i tot nu pot nelege ce s-a ntmplat acolo.

Unit 7: Means of expressing FUTURE TIME

I. Explanations

A. WILL USAGE: 1. Future facts: we can use will (or ll) + short infinitive to express a future fact. Common adverbs: tomorrow, next week/month/year, in the future etc. He will come back tomorrow. 2. Spontaneous decisions: We can use will to refer to the future when we make an instant or spontaneous decision to do something: A: Weve run out of paper for the printer. B: Ill go and get some from the stockroom. We often use will future after I think and I dont think: A: I think Ill go home now. Its getting late. B: Yes, you are right. I dont think Ill stay either. The negative of will is will not (wont): I wont stay long. Im in a hurry. 3. Predictions: we can use will to make predictions and to state facts that will be true in the future: Over the next few years, TV will make a great impact on consumer behaviour. EXERCISE: Make spontaneous decisions based on the comments below: 1. You wont be able to get to Paris. The traffic controllers are on strike. Really? Then Ill take a train through the tunnel. 2. Im sorry, the wine waiter says we have no more Chateau-Lafite 64. _________ 3. Im afraid we dont accept cheques. ___________________________________ 4. We cant deliver the fax machines you ordered for three months. ____________ 5. Im afraid that the British Airways flight on Tuesday is fully booked. _________ 6. One of our clients, Mrs Mason, rang two minutes ago. She sounded very upset about something. _______________________________________________

B. GOING TO FORM GOING TO is formed with the present simple form of be (am/is/are) + going to + the infinitive form of the verb: I am going to work / am not (m not) going to work. He/she/it is going to work /is not (isnt) going to work. We/you/they are going to work /are not (arent) going to work. Am I going to work? Yes, I am. /No, I am not. Is he/she/it going to work? Yes, he/she/it is. / No, he/she/it isnt. Are we/you/they going to work? Yes, we/you/they are. / No, we/you/they arent. USAGE: 1. Predictions: we use going to for making firm predictions when there is some physical evidence that an event will take place. Look at those clouds its going to rain! In many cases, however, it is possible to predict future events using either will or going to. There is little difference in meaning, but going to usually suggests that the event will happen soon. Compare: I dont think that the present government will win the next election. I dont think that the present government is going to win the next election. 2. Decisions or intentions: we use going to to talk about something we intend to do, or have already decided to do: The DV Group is going to open a new Fiat dealership this summer. EXERCISE: Use the verbs in brackets to say what the following people are going to do (to express their intentions or decisions) or to make predictions: 1. The Unions have been offered a 3.9% pay rise. (not accept). Theyre not going to accept it. 2. The stock market is very over-valued. (be correction) There is going to be a correction soon. 3. We have ordered over $1.5m of new equipment for this factory. (modernise) 4. Demand for oil is rising, but supply is falling. (price/rise) 5. Mrs Mason has booked three weeks leave in October. (have a holiday) 6. My boss is looking for another job. (leave the company)

C. PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS USAGE: Future arrangements: we can use the present continuous to talk about future arrangements and plans, particularly when the time and place have been arranged. We generally use it with a future time phrase: Im leaving at 6 on the first flight to Milan. NOTE! Going to and the present continuous have a similar future meaning, but going to emphasizes the idea that a decision has been made, whereas the present continuous emphasizes that something has been arranged. Compare: Im going to buy a new car this week. (Ive made a decision to buy a new car. I may or may not have something arranged with a car dealer.) Im buying a new car this week. (Ive already discussed about it with a car dealer.) D. PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE USAGE: Timetabled events: we use the simple present to talk about timetabled or fixed events in the future, which are usually beyond the speakers control. The train leaves in five minutes. Time clauses: we use the present tense simple in time clauses that refer to the future. Time clauses are generally introduced by words such as: when, before, as soon as, after etc. I will contact you as soon as I get the information. II. Practice

1. Choose the correct sentence 1) or 2), in each mini-dialogue. a) A: Can you come dancing tomorrow night? B: 1) Sorry, Ill play basketball. 2) Sorry, Im playing basketball. b) A: What are your plans for the summer? B: 1) Ill spend a month in the mountains. 2) Im going to spend a month in the mountains. c) A: What do you think about the weather? B: 1) Itll probably rain tomorrow. 2) Its raining tomorrow. d) A: What about tomorrow at about 5.30? B: 1) OK, Ill see you then. 2) OK, Im seeing you then.

e) A: Mary is buying a dog next week. B: 1) Really? What is she going to call it? 2) Really? What she calling it? f) A: It would be nice to see you next week. B: 1) Are you doing anything on Wednesday? 2) Will you do anything on Wednesday? 2. Put the verb given into a form of will, going to or present continuous. More than one answer may be possible. a) Have you heard the news? Harry (join) is joining / is going to join the Army! b) Sorry to keep you waiting! I (not be) _________ long. c) According to the weather forecast, it (snow) _________ tomorrow. d) Im sorry I cant meet you tonight. I (go out) _________ with my parents. e) Careful! You (knock) _________ that jug out of the table! f) In fifty years time, most people (probably ride) _________ bicycles to work. g) Our teacher (give) _________ us a test tomorrow. h) I (go) _________ to Manchester at the end of next week. i) Look out! You (hit) _________ that tree! j) I think our team (probably win) _________. 3. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. a) My party is on Thursday. I am having a party on Thursday. b) Tomorrows weather forecast is for rain. Its _________________ tomorrow. c) I predict a victory for our team. I think _________________ win. d) Tomorrow Ill be absent, teacher. I _________________ here tomorrow, teacher. e) Terry intends to finish painting the kitchen this evening. Terry _________________ painting the kitchen this evening. f) Meet me outside the station at 5.30. I _________________ outside the station at 5.30. g) Whats our arrangement for lunch? Where _________________ for lunch? h) Everyone expects lots of tourism in this country next summer. Everyone thinks a large number _________________ this country next summer. i) I dont plan to sell my bike after all. I _________________ my bike after all. j) Are you free tomorrow? Are _________________ anything tomorrow?

4. Underline the sentences which are incorrect. Rewrite them. a) I go swimming next Saturday. Would you like to come? I am going swimming next Saturday. Would you like to come? b) What are you going to discuss at the next meeting? __________________________________________________ c) The boat is turning over! I think it will sink! __________________________________________________ d) Sue is going to lend me her roller-skates. __________________________________________________ e) Ive read the weather forecast, and its definitely sunny tomorrow. __________________________________________________ f) David and Helen will be here at 9.30. __________________________________________________ g) There is a lot to do. Is anyone going to help you? __________________________________________________ h) Sorry, Im not seeing you tomorrow. I have to go to London. __________________________________________________ i) Where will you be tomorrow at this time? __________________________________________________ j) Bye for now. I see you later this evening. __________________________________________________ 5. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains will or going to. a) I plan to study engineering in France. Im going to study engineering in France. b) Ive arranged a party for next Friday. __________________________________________________ c) I predict a score of 3 0. __________________________________________________ d) Weve an appointment at the doctors, so we cant come. __________________________________________________ e) Paula is likely to get the job. __________________________________________________ f) Martins wife is pregnant again. __________________________________________________ g) Sarah doesnt plan to get married again. __________________________________________________ h) There is a possibility of snow tomorrow. __________________________________________________ III. Consolidation

1. Complete these sentences using the correct future forms (future simple, going to, present continuous, present simple) of the verbs in brackets. There may be more than one possibility.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Do you think the car starts / will start (start) if I turn on the ignition? Ive got to go now, but I _________ (see) you next week, OK? Look out! That ladder _________ (fall)! They say the weather _________ (get) worse in the next few days. I _________ (be) a pilot when I grow up, said the little boy. The train _________ (leave) in five minutes lets go! Now lets look at the timetable. We _________ (arrive) in Rome at 6.45 and we _________ (depart) at 7.30 for Naples. 8. We _________ (plan) to buy a new house sometime this year. 9. You _________ (fall) the exam if you dont study more. 10. I _________ (carry) those bags for you, they must be very heavy. 2. Choose the most suitable tense:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Why are you going to buy/ will you buy a new mountain bike? Dont phone between 8.00 and 9.00. Ill study/ Ill be studying then. Look out! That tree will fall/ is going to fall! Let me know as soon as Louise will get/ gets here. Great news! Jean and Chris will come/ are coming to stay with us. According to this timetable, the bus is going to arrive/ arrives at 6.00. I have a feeling that something strange is going to happen/ is happening in a minute. 8. The doctor says I will have/ I am going to have a baby! 9. Can you call me at 7.00, because Ill leave/ Im leaving tomorrow. 10. If you arrive late at the sale, the best things will go/ will have gone. 3. Put each verb in brackets into the most appropriate future time form. More than one answer may be possible.

1. I cant see you on Thursday afternoon. I will be visiting (visit) our Birmingham branch. 2. George __________ (not be) back until six. Can I take a message? 3. What __________ (you buy) with the money you won in the lottery? 4. I dont think you __________ (have) any problems at the airport. 5. __________ (you take) your dog to you in Scotland? 6. Can you answer the phone for me? I __________ (lie down) for a while. 7. All the hotels are full. Where __________ (we spend) the night? 8. Youd better not come in July. My mother __________ (stay) with me then. 9. What time __________ (your plane leave)? 10. Leave the car here. Maybe the police __________ (not notice) it. 4. Put each verb in brackets into a suitable tense. All sentences refer to future time. 1. 2. 3. 4. When I see (see) you tomorrow, I will tell (tell) you my news. As soon as we __________ (get) there, we __________ (phone) for a taxi. I __________ (go) to the library before I __________ (do) the shopping. We __________ (wait) here until the rain __________ (stop).

5. I __________ (get) some money from the bank when it __________ (open). 6. After you __________ (take) the medicine, you __________ (feel) better. 7. You have to stay until you __________ (finish) your work. 8. I __________ (let) you know the minute I __________ (hear) the results. 9. Before we __________ (paint) the wall, we __________ (have) a cup of tea. 10. We __________ (climb) over the wall as soon as it __________ (get) dark. 5. Put each verb in brackets into a suitable tense. All sentences refer to future time. 1. My friend are coming (come) to visit me this weekend. 2. Im so busy. I never get time to clean my car. I _________ (do) it for you. 3. John _________ (come) to clean my car for me tomorrow, as I never have time. 4. I _________ (look) around the shops. Do you want anything? 5. Would you like to order now? Yes, we _________ (have) steak and chips, please. 6. You still havent tidied your room although Ive been asking you for ages. 7. When _________ (you leave)? 8. Next Sunday, I _________ (get) the train to London and then _________ (fly) to Paris. 9. What time _________ (be) your train? 10. It _________ (leave) at 9 am and _________ (stop) at every station. 11. Oh, no! I _________ (give) a lift to the airport in my car. 12. Thats great, thank you. 13. I cant come on Sunday. I _________ (give) Rose a lift to the airport. 14. Dont forget to ring me and tell me what time to expect you. Dont worry, I _________ (not forget). 6. Translate into English using future tenses: 1. Delegaia va pleca la Londra de ndat ce va primi viza. 2. George nu crede c va putea s treac pe la ei ca s i ia rmas bun nainte de a pleca la mare. 3. Familia Thompson nu va ajunge acas nainte s nceap ploaia. 4. Va pleca la Cluj peste cteva ore. Trenul pleac la ora 10. 5. O s te doar burta dac continui s mnnci aa de multe dulciuri.


VOCABULARY AND DISCUSSION 1. Try and answer the following questions: 1. Can you define a business company? Think of three examples of companies. 2. What are the characteristics of A/B/C company? Think of size, type, profile, products, number of employees etc. 3. What do Ltd. and plc, following the name of a company, mean? 4. What do you need in order to start a business? 5. If you invest money in a business, you are an ...? 6. Where can you raise capital for your company from? 2. Now read the following text and see if your answers were good: Businesses can be of several types. They can be owned and run by one person (a sole proprietor) or by two or more people, called partners. A partnership can be backed up by investors (also called backers), who invest money in the business. Partners who invest money in a business but 5 do not own it are called sleeping partners. Both sole proprietors and business partners have unlimited liability for debts to creditors. Sleeping partners can have either unlimited or limited liability for debts. Larger companies are owned by shareholders (people who own shares in a company), who have limited liability for debts. If someones 10 shares amount to over 50% of the business, they are called majority shareholders and have a controlling interest in the company. A basic requirement for any business to start and expand is to have a certain amount of capital. One way of raising the money is to borrow it from a bank. In order to grant a loan or an overdraft, a bank will request 15 some security (also called collateral). Capital can also be obtained from investments. If the money is borrowed, it is called loan capital. If it comes from investments, it is called share or equity capital. A company with a high proportion of loan capital is said to be highly geared, while a low gearing company has a high 20 proportion of equity capital. 3. In the text above, the phrase limited liability has been used. How many times? Which line/s? What do you think it means?

4. Do you know which of the organisations (enterprises) listed below are privately and which are publicly owned? Can you supply examples for some of these types of organisation? public limited liability company (plc) (unlimited) partnership public corporation mixed enterprise (limited) private company multinational company limited partnership local government departments sole proprietor central government departments

5. The text that follows is about privately owned business organisations in Great Britain. Read the text and list information under the following headings.
Type of organisation Profit-andloss responsibility Public availability of accounts Day-to-day management of business responsibility




Sole traders


Private limited company Public limited company

Private ownership 1. Sole traders These are businesses which are owned by a private person who uses its own money to run the business. Consequently, the sole trader is entitled to all the profits, but he must also bear any losses which are incurred. A sole trader has no legal obligation to make his accounts publicly available; and he is responsible for the day-to day management of the business. Examples of sole traders are small shopkeepers, jobbing builders, plumbers and hairdressers. 2. Partnership These are unincorporated associations and the legal rules which govern them were established in the Partnership Act of 1890. The association or

partnership does not have a separate existence from its members, the number of which ranges from two to twenty. The partners provide the organisation, and the profits and losses will normally be shared in an agreed proportion depending on the individuals contribution to the partnership. The partners agree on the day-to-day running of the business: some members can be sleeping partners, in that they do not take part in the daily operations. Partners have unlimited liability: each partner is jointly liable with the other partners for any debts. Like sole traders, there is no obligation for the partners to publish their accounts. Well-known examples of partnership occur in the professions such as solicitors, accountants and estate agents. But partnerships can be formed by any group of people carrying on business with a view of making a profit; consequently, partnerships are found in all types of trade and business activity. 3. Private limited companies This type of organisation is a corporation incorporated by the Companies Act 1948-85. The number of members can range from two to fifty and they provide the financial resources for the undertaking. Membership of the company is restricted to private individuals: members of the general public cannot buy shares in a private limited company. The profits are distributed to the members as dividends on their shareholding. Losses are borne by the company. The dayto-day management of the company is carried out by a board of directors. Private limited companies are often local family businesses and are common in the building, retailing and clothing industries. 4. Public limited companies Public limited liability companies, despite their name, are the best known form of private company. They are corporations and obtain their share capital from members of the public. They are similar to private limited companies in that profits are distributed as dividends to shareholders and liability of members is restricted to their shareholdings. Any losses are borne by the company. Management of the company is conducted by a board of directors, who are responsible to the shareholders. Most industries include public limited companies and many of them, by developing a corporate image, have become household names: Barclays, Rowntree-Mackintosh, Tate & Lyle, EMI, Beecham, Ford and Courtaulds are public limited companies. Some public limited companies have developed into massive organisations such that a few private corporations are as large as some sovereign states. 6. Match each type of organisation with the type of economic activity it is engaged in: TYPE OF ORGANISATION 1. public limited liability company 2. public corporation 3. central government departments WHAT THEY ARE ENGAGED IN a. personal services, e.g. hairdresser, painter, decorator b. administrative services to the public, nationwide c. large-scale organisations, e.g. construction, manufacturing

4. partnership 5. (limited) private company 6. multinational company

d. services to local community e. key areas of economic activity; profitable for public concern f. personal services, small industrial commercial concerns 7. local government g. large-scale organisations, variety of interest departments areas activities 8. sole proprietor h. medium-sized or small organisations, building, wholesalers, manufacturing, transport WRITING Not so long ago, in our country there were no private companies. Do you think it was good or bad? Justify your answer. (10 15 lines) VOCABULARY 1. Put each of the following words in its correct place in the passage below: Industry produce economy shipyards boom products plants export import natural resources markets slump

The health of a big, developed countrys (a) economy depends largely on its industry. Factories have to keep busy. They must (b) __________ and sell their (c) __________ in large quantities. (d) __________ must make and sell ships, car (e) __________ must make and sell cars. A period of industrial success, when everything goes well and large profits are made is called a (f) __________. On the other hand, a period when there is not much industrial activity is called a (g) __________. To maintain a high level of production is not simple. For example, Japan, a very successful industrialised country, has very few (h) __________ such as oil or coal, and has to (i) __________ them from other countries in order to keep its industries going, and thus to supply needs at home and also to (j) __________ its goods to its overseas (k) __________. Agriculture livestock harvest crops irrigate agricultural self-sufficient dams fertile fertilizers farmers

A country which wishes to be (a) __________ in food will encourage its (b) __________ to produce as much as possible so that it will not be dependent on food imports. If there is not much rain, (c) __________ must be built on rivers to provide water to (d) __________ the land. If the land is not naturally rich, chemical (e) __________ must be used to make it (f) __________. Then (g) __________ (of wheat, rice etc) will grow, the (h) __________ will be good, and

in addition the (i) __________ (cattle, sheep etc) will have grass to eat. If this does not happen, the (j) __________ sector of the countrys economy will suffer and the country will have to import food from abroad. 2. The following phrases are from a letter and a memo. They are all mixed up. Put them in the correct order. 1) I have asked the Secretarial Supervisor to come and speak to you and she may wish to arrange a later demonstration for her staff. 2) Please ring my secretary to arrange a time to meet the Sales Manager. A later demonstration can be arranged for members of your staff to see it. 4) Dear Ms Devereux,

3) From: Vicenta Enjuanes, Purchasing Manager 5) Subject: Demonstration of word processor 7) We would be pleased to have you with us on the 3 of April as you suggest. 9) The Sales Manager of Smart Offices Ltd will visit the firm on 3 April to demonstrate the AX3000 word processor which I am sure you will be interested in seeing. 11) I look forward to meeting you. memo 6 PHRASAL VERBS

6) To: Secretarial Supervisor 8) Thank you for your letter of 12 March offering to come to our firm to demonstrate the AX3000 word processor.

10) Yours sincerely, Vicenta Enjuanes, Purchasing Manager

12) V.E. letter

Complete these sentences using the correct form of one of the phrasal verbs below in each space. Use each phrasal verb more than once. go out 1. 2. 3. 4. go off go through go down go on go up

Im going through a hard time at the moment. I cant _____________ - Ive had enough! I set the alarm to _____________ at seven oclock. Whos Mary _____________ with nowadays?

5. The show _____________ very well with audiences. 6. There was a fire and the building _____________ in smoke. 7. Im _____________ to the north of the country to visit friends. 8. She just _____________ without saying anything. 9. The temperatures _____________ today; its colder. 10. What was _____________ your mind before the operation? 11. She _____________ of the building and through the main gate. 12. Dont keep _____________ about your ex-boyfriend. Its boring! 13. Prices are always _____________, arent they? 14. This cheese has _____________. Throw it away. 15. Lets _____________ these figures. We must make sure they are accurate. 16. Please _____________ and finish your story.

VOCABULARY 1. Most firms can be divided into three parts: capital (shareholders) management labour The management structure can be represented as in the diagram: SHAREHOLDERS BOARD OF DIRECTORS (headed by the chairperson) CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER (CEO) (known also as the Managing Director) SENIOR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS (General Manager + senior managers) MIDDLE / LINE MANGERS A director is a senior manager who sits on the board under the authority of the Chairperson or President. The Board is responsible for deciding overall company policy and capital expenditure. The CEO or MD is the link between the Board and senior management. Middle managers (also known as line managers) are responsible for running sections or departments within a firm. They are accountable to senior management for their particular area of responsibility as illustrated in the organization chart.
Senior Management

Senior Executive Officer: Personnel

Senior Executive Officer: Research

Senior Executive Officer: Production

Middle Management

Product. Engineer

Product. Control Maintenance

Product. Manager Superintendents Supervisors Workers

Personnel Department

Materials Department

Industrial Department

Cost Control

In a general manner of speaking, an executive is any senior person in the hierarchy of a firm. He/she makes important decisions that are carried out by subordinates. The American English counterpart of General Manager is Executive Vice President / Chief Operating Officer.

Like the managing director, some directors are also concerned with the day-to-day running of the firm. In this capacity, they are known as executive directors (AE: inside directors). Those who sit on the Board but have no direct interest in the running of the firm are called non-executive directors (AE: outside directors). DISCUSSION A. What is management? Is it an art or a science? An instinct or a set of skills and techniques that can be taught? B. What do you think makes a good manager? Which four of the following qualities do you think are the most important? a) being decisive: able to make quick decisions b) being efficient: doing things quickly, not leaving tasks unfinished, having a tidy desk, and so on c) being friendly and sociable d) being able to communicate with people e) being logical, rational and analytical f) being able to motivate and inspire and lead people g) being authoritative: able to give orders h) being competent: knowing ones job perfectly, as well as the work of ones subordinates i) being persuasive: able to convince people to do things j) having good ideas Are there any other qualities that you think should be added to this list? C. Which of these qualities can be acquired? Which must you be born with? READING This text summarises some of Peter Druckers views on management. As you read about his description of the work of a manager, decide whether the five different functions he mentions require the four qualities you selected in your discussion, or others you did not choose. WHAT IS MANAGEMENT? Peter Drucker, the well/known American business professor and consultant, suggests that the work of a manager can be divided into planning (setting objectives), organising, integrating (motivating and communicating), measuring, and developing people. First of all, managers (especially senior managers such as company chairmen and women and directors) set objectives, and decide how

their organisation can achieve them. This involves developing strategies, plans and precise tactics, and allocating resources of people and money. Secondly, managers organise. They analyse and classify the activities of the organisation and the relations among them. They divide the work into manageable activities and then into individual jobs. They select people to manage these units and perform the jobs. Thirdly, managers practise the social skills of motivation and communication. They also have to communicate objectives to the people responsible for attaining them. They have to make the people responsible for performing individual jobs form teams. They make decisions about pay and promotion. As well as organising and supervising the work of their subordinates, they have to work with people in other areas and functions. Fourthly, managers have to measure the performance of the staff, to see whether the objectives set for the organisation as a whole and for each individual member of it are being achieved. Lastly, managers develop people both their subordinates and themselves. Obviously, objectives occasionally have to be modified or changed. It is generally the job of a companys top managers to consider the needs of the future, and to take responsibility for innovation, without which any organisation can only expect a limited life. Top managers also have to manage a businesss relations with its customers, suppliers, distributors, bankers, investors, neighbouring countries, public authorities, and so on, as well as deal with any major crises which arise. Top managers are appointed and supervised and advised (and dismissed) by a companys board of directors. Although the tasks of a manager can be analysed and classified in this fashion, management is not entirely scientific. It is a human skill. Business professors obviously believe that intuition and instinct are not enough; there are management skills that have to be learnt. Drucker, for example wrote over 20 years ago that Altogether this entire book is based on the proposition that the days of the intuitive manager are numbered, meaning that they were coming to an end. But some people are clearly good at management, and others are not. Some people will be able to put management techniques into practice. Others will have lots of technique, but few good ideas. Outstanding managers are rather rare. WRITING Reread the last paragraph of the above text. Do you agree with the opinion that some people are clearly good at management, and others are not? Justify your answer. (10 15 lines)

VOCABULARY 1. Complete the following sentences with these words: achieved performance board of directors resources communicate setting innovations supervise manageable

a) Managers have to decide how best to allocate the human, physical and capital resources available to them. b) Managers logically have to make sure that jobs and tasks given to their subordinates are ___________. c) There is no point in ___________ objectives if you dont ___________them to your staff. d) Managers have to ___________ their subordinates, and to measure, and try to improve, their ___________. e) Managers have to check whether objectives and targets are being _______. f) A top manager whose performance is unsatisfactory can be dismissed by the companys ___________. g) Top managers are responsible for the ___________ that will allow a company to adapt to a changing world. 2. The text contains a number of common verb-noun expressions (e.g. achieve objectives, deal with crises etc.). Match up these verbs and nouns to make common collocations. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. allocate (g) communicate develop make measure motivate perform set supervise a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. decisions information jobs objectives people performance resources strategies subordinates

3. Complete the dialogue between the Managing Director (MD) and the Personnel Manager (PM). Choose form the words in the box. The first has been done for you. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) sales MBA how to take decisions accounting for managers communications distribution specialised management-training courses h) results i) j) k) l) m) new technology cost and price decisions manage promotion and marketing learn about management structures n) read the balance sheet o) computer systems


John we must think about (1) specialised management-training courses for our junior managers. Yes, our promising younger people need to (2) _____ _____ _____ _____. They need to know (3) _____ _____ _____ _____, and the (4) _____ of these decisions. And, of course, (5) _____ _____ _____ is essential. And they must know how to (6) _____ _____ _____ _____. Without it, they will never (7) _____ successfully, and they wont know anything about stock control, costing, pricing you name it. Yes, (8) _____ _____ _____ _____ depend on knowing this. Of course, thats not the only thing they need to know. (9) _____ _____ means that they need to know about things like (10) _____ _____. What else? (11) _____, for example. Yes, and I think that the (12) _____ _____ _____ departments need managers with this background, as well as the (13) _____ department. Even the (14) _____ managers could benefit, too. Perhaps we should only appoint managers with a Harvard (15) _____!

PHRASAL VERBS 1. Complete these sentences using the correct form of one of the phrasal verbs below. call back get back hold back hand back play back bring back go back

1. Whenever I hear that tune it __________ happy memories. 2. What time did you __________ home last night? 3. The witness hasnt told us everything, said Holmes. She must be ____ something ____. 4. I cant __________ to college now Im much too old! 5. Im just about to eat my lunch. Can I _____ you _____ in a couple of minutes? 6. When the thief was caught, he had to __________ all the money he had stolen. 7. When we _____ the cassette _____, the tape was blank it hadnt recorded. 2. Replace the underlined words in these sentences with the correct form of one of the phrasal verbs below. Make any other changes that are necessary. look back call back keep back bring back give back take back cut back on

1. Ill lend you my book if you promise to return it. give it back 2. He asked his old girlfriend to go out with him again, but she refused to accept him again. 3. When I phoned she was busy and she still hasnt returned my call. 4. Dont think about the past, think about the future. 5. Excuse me, Im returning this plate because its cracked. 6. If you withhold important evidence form the police, you could get into trouble. 7. Well have to reduce our expenses. We cant afford to spend so much.

Unit 10: LABOUR

DISCUSSION Answer the questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What skills are required for the job that you hope to obtain? How much and what kind of training is required for that job? Have you ever had a job that required no training? How might you classify jobs according to the skills and training they require? Give some examples of these different kinds of jobs.

READING 1. After reading the text, answer the following questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. How do economists define labour? What three groups of labourers are mentioned? What are the distinguishing characteristics of these three types of labour? What kind of worker is someone who makes tools? Which of the three kinds of work is the most specific? To an economist, labour is the supply of human resources which can be used in the production of goods and services. Labour can be classified into three types: skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled. Each of these types has certain characteristics which distinguish it from the other two. These distinguishing characteristics are the degree of skill and training required of the worker and the specificity of the task performed. Skilled labour is labour which either has expertise in a particular skill, like tool making or printing, or which has received professional training, such as doctors, teachers, and lawyers. A semiskilled labourer is a person who has reached a very high degree of skill over a very limited range of activities. Such labour can be trained very quickly. A welder in a motor vehicle assembly plant is an example. Similarly, one manufacturer of business machines believes that an operator can be fully trained in two days. Unskilled labour, as its name implies, requires little specialised training. Skills can be acquired on the job itself, and as the labourers grow used to the work, they become more efficient. For example, when the canals were built in Britain and later when the railways were laid, the entrepreneurs who built them found that it took a full year for strong, healthy farm boys to become diggers. These young men had to learn to use their energy economically so that they could work long hours without tiring. Although a great deal of specialised training was not necessary, the strong body and character that the job required were not produced in a single day. The idea of specificity is also important in classifying labour. Generally speaking, skilled labour tends to be more specific than







semiskilled or unskilled labour; skilled labourers usually perform only those tasks for which they have special skill or training. For instance, a dentist must be employed in dentistry in order to use his or her special skills. For a dentist to work in the fields planting corn would be a waste of these skills. Of course, it might help the dentist a lot to find out about the life of a farmer, but this would not substitute for the efficient use of the dentists services in caring for peoples teeth. A welder in an automobile factory is a less specific type of labour. This labourer might be equally useful repairing cars or welding the steel framework of a new building.

2. Answer the following questions, referring back to the text that you have just read: 1. 2. 3. 4. In line 3, these types refer to the types of ______________. In line 11, such labour refer to ____________ labour. In line 13, similarly introduces anther example of ______________. An author frequently repeats a word throughout a text in order to help connect the different parts of the text. For example, the word labour is used in every paragraph and helps to provide a connection among the different paragraphs in the text. What other words are repeated in the same or similar forms in the text? 5. Sometimes an author uses synonyms to show connections among the different parts of a passage. What synonyms for the words task and worker are used here, in the text?

VOCABULARY 1. Read each definition below and choose the word from the list that best matches each definition. Then write that word in the blank. acquire manufacturer 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. assembly professional characteristic range distinguish substitute efficient tend imply

acquire to obtain by ones own efforts or behaviour. _______________ to make noticeable or different. _______________ amount of variation, extent. _______________ to be likely, usual. _______________ related to a job requiring advanced education and special training. 6. _______________ putting together of parts; a gathering together of people. 7. _______________ a person or firm that produces things on a large scale. 8. _______________ to suggest. 9. _______________ producing effectively with little waste in time, effort or money. 10. _______________ typical outward appearance; quality or behaviour typical of a group, class or individual. 11. _______________ to put or use in place of another.

2. Fill in each blank with a word from the list. Each word is used only once. acquire manufacturer assembly professional characteristic distinguish range substitute efficient tend imply

One manufacturer of airplanes has opened up a new _______________ plant in California. This new plant employs people such as engineers who design the airplanes and semiskilled workers who perform a wide _______________ of activities. Some of the employees have just graduated from technical schools, but most employees have been _______________ from the companys large plant in Georgia, which closed three months ago because of labour problems. The workers _______________ to like this new plant because it is clean and _______________ and the company pays the workers excellent salaries. There is a very low rate of absence in this new plant. Even if someone is absent, it is not a serious problem because one worker can usually _______________ for another. The efficiency expert at the plant feels that a low absentee rate _______________ good working conditions for the workers. The companys profits have been quite good so far this year. The company believes that this is due not only to the quality of its product, but also to the _______________ of its employees, which are their willingness to work overtime, their efficiency, and their pride in their work. These qualities _______________ these employees from other airplane assembly plant workers, who usually have high absentee rates and little pride in their work. 3. Which of the job titles below would best describe the following?

unskilled worker supervisor director union official executive manager

safety officer public relations officer labourer personnel officer administrator

1. The person who represents the workers interests in disputes with the management in a factory 2. A person who has a high (but not the highest) position in a company and whose job is to make important decisions. 3. An important person in a company who sits on the Board. 4. A worker whose job requires no special training. 5. A person generally in charge of the day-to-day administration in a company. 6. The person who makes sure there are no risks of accidents from machinery, etc. 7. A person whose job is to keep an eye on the day-to-day work of other workers. 8. A person who does hard physical work. 9. The person who handles applications for vacant posts. 10. The person who gives out information to the press for a company.

4. Read the following expressions related with work: hours of work to work shift-work (nights one week, days next) to be on flexi-time (flexible working hours) reasons for not working to go / be on strike (industrial dispute) to get the sack (thrown out of your job) to be fired (more formal than get the sack; often used as a direct address: Youre fired!) to be dismissed (more formal than be fired) to be made redundant (thrown out, no longer needed) to be laid off (more informal than to be made redundant) to give up work (e.g. in order to study) to be on / take maternity leave (expecting a baby) to be on / take sick leave (illness) to take early retirement (retire at 55) to be a workaholic (love work too much) to be promoted (get a higher position) to apply for a job (fill in forms etc.) Using some of these expressions, say what you think has happened / is happening. e.g. Im not working now; the baby is due in three weeks. She is on maternity leave. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. I lost my job. They had to make cutbacks. He is enjoying life on a pension, although he is only 58. One week it is six-to-two, the next is nights. They have made her General Manager as from next month! I was late so often, I lost my job. I get in at nine oclock and go home at five. Your trouble is you are obsessed with work!

Now make a sentence for each of the verbs you have not used. 5. Whose job do these things belong to? e.g. bucket ladder leather window-cleaner chalk forceps stapler microphone barn needle

1. board 2. scalpel 3. tippex 4. make-up 5. tractor 6. sewing machine

overhead projector mask filing cabinet script plough scissors

6. Match the following words with their definitions below. TRADE PROFESSION UNSKILLED JOB A. job that requires no special skill or training B. way of making a living especially a job that involves making something; occupation be a butcher, carpenter, tailor, etc. by trade Basket weaving is a dying trade C. paid occupation, especially one that requires advanced education and training, eg architecture, law or medicine advising college leavers on their choice of profession the acting, legal, medical, etc. profession Would you call the following a trade, a profession or an unskilled job? 1. vet 2. chef 6. dressmaker 7. cleaner PHRASAL VERBS 1. Replace the underlined words in these sentences with the correct form of one of the phrasal verbs below: look over look into look through look on look out look after look up 3. plumber 8. tailor 4. architect 9. refuse-collector 5. electrician 10. lawyer

1. The police are investigating the crime. looking into 2. If you cant remember the number, you can always find it in the telephone book. 3. If you are not careful, you are going to have an accident one day. 4. Can you please read the text quickly and find all the phrasal verbs? 5. You should examine the property carefully before you decide to buy it. 6. Who takes care of the kids when you go out in the evening? 7. It was terrible while the little old lady was being mugged, several passers-by just stood there watching! 2. Complete these sentences using the correct form of one of the phrasal verbs below: let down pull down 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. come down take down put down knock down turn down

A good friend never lets you down. The show is over. You can ________ the poster now. They offered her a lot of money for the house but she ____ them ____. As the old lady was crossing the road she was ________ by a bus. It was such an old house they decided to have it ________. You should draw up a contract and ____ everything ____ in writing. Prices in the sops never seem to ________: they are always going up.

Part II: Grammar Explanations and Practice Unit 11: REPORTED SPEECH
I. Explanations A. What is REPORTED SPEECH? We often tell people what other people have told us. This is called REPORTED or INDIRECT SPEECH. We usually change tenses and references to people, places and times. e.g. Ill talk to Mr. Jones tomorrow, said Mike. Mike said that he would talk to Mr. Jones the following day. B. REPORTED SPEECH without tense changes Statements are often repeated immediately, and the reported verb is in a present tense. In this case there are no tense changes e.g. Jack is on the phone. He says hes going to the cinema and do we want to go too? C. REPORTED SPEECH tense changes after a past tense reporting verb Statements are usually reported with a past tense verb and an optional that. All tenses that follow move back into the past. This is sometimes called backshift. DIRECT SPEECH Present Tense Simple I need some help Present Tense Continuous We are having our lunch. Past Tense Simple I wrote two letters to her. Present Perfect Simple I have lost my keys. WILL I will be home at 6.00. AM/IS/ARE GOING TO They are going to come back. MUST I must finish this before I go. INDIRECT SPEECH Past Tense Simple She said (that) she needed some help. Past Tense Continuous She said (that) they were having their lunch. Past Perfect Simple He said (that) he had written two letters to her. Past Perfect Simple He said (that) he had lost his keys. WOULD She said (that) she would be home at 6.00. WAS/WERE GOING TO She said (that) they were going to come back. MUST He said (that) he must finish it before he went.

Note that some verbs do not change: WOULD WOULD COULD COULD MIGHT MIGHT SHOULD SHOULD OUGHT TO OUGHT TO Note that sentences in direct speech have speech marks (inverted commas) around the spoken words. Indirect or reported speech does not use speech marks. Note that PAST PERFECT in REPORTED SPEECH can be a report of either Past Simple or Present Perfect. I have lost my keys!, said Joe. I lost my keys yesterday, he said. Joe said (that) he had lost his keys. He said (that) he had lost his keys the day before.

D. No changes after a past tense reporting verb If the report is about something which is always true, it may not be necessary to backshift. I like apples more than I like oranges. She said she likes apples more than she likes oranges. Budapest is the capital of Hungary. He said that Budapest is the capital of Hungary. Some speakers prefer to backshift in sentences of this kind. E. Speakers in REPORTED SPEECH Speakers can be mentioned at the beginning or at the end of the sentence in Direct Speech: e.g. Jack said, Were going to miss the train. Were going to miss the train, said Jack. Speakers are mentioned at the beginning of the sentence in Reported Speech: Jack said (that) they were going to miss the train. F. OTHER CHANGES In reported Speech, references to people, places and times often changes, because the point of view changes.

SPEAKERS WORDS tomorrow yesterday here this/these today tonight next last the day after tomorrow ago

REPORTED STATEMENT the next day/ the following day the day before there that/ those that day that night the next / the following previous/ before in two days time before / previously

G. VERBS EASILY CONFUSED: SAY , TELL, SPEAK Speak describes the act of talking. Simon spoke to me in the supermarket yesterday. Say describes the words used. It is followed by optional that. Its warm today, she said. She said (that) it was warm. Tell describes giving information. It needs an object. It is followed by optional that. You have won first prize, she told.* (incorrect) She told me (that) I had won first prize. II. Practice

1. Underline the errors in these sentences. Rewrite each sentence. 1. Sally told that she had lost her keys. Sally said that she had lost her keys. 2. Chris said me that he must leave early. 3. Maria and Tony said they shall see us tomorrow. 4. Tom said, Im coming to your party. 5. Sue said that she had wrote a letter to Lisa. 6. Steve said us that he was arriving at 8.00. 7. I had bought a new bike Pam told us. 8. Whats the matter? Ellen told. 9. Jim says that he had needed some help. 10. Joe said that he doesnt feel well yesterday. 2. Rewrite each sentence in reported speech, ending as shown. 1. Anna told us that she had finished. I have finished, Anna told us. 2. George said that he would be back at 6.00. ____________________________,George said.

3. Helen said she was going to go shopping. ____________________________, said Helen. 4. Paul said he wanted to make a phone call. ____________________________, said Paul. 5. Tina told the teacher she had forgotten her homework. ____________________________, Tina told the teacher. 6. David said he had to be back by 3.30. ____________________________, David said. 7. Jan told me she would let me know. ____________________________, Jan told me. 8. Bill said he was going to be late. ____________________________, Bill said. 3. Match each sentence in direct speech with its summarised version in reported speech. 1. Look, sorry about this, but Im afraid Im going to be a bit late. (c) 2. Actually, I have no idea at all where I am! 3. The thing is, I know its silly but Ive missed the bus. 4. Anyway Ill be back in next to no time. 5. I did ring, you know, earlier in the evening. a. She said she would be back soon. b. She said she had missed the bus. c. She said she was going to be late. d. She said she had already rung. e. She said she didnt know where she was.

4. Complete each sentence, using say, tell or speak in an appropriate form. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Jim told me that he was playing in the school basketball team. I _______ to Helen and she _______ she would phone you. Youre lucky, _______ Steve. I _______ you that you would win! A translator _______ the President what everyone was _______. Look, I _______ her, why dont you _______ me what you mean? I_______ my teacher that I _______ Chinese, but she didnt believe me. Please dont _______ anything during the test, our teacher _______ us. I _______ my friends about my party, and they _______ they would come.

5. Rewrite each sentence in reported speech, beginning as shown. 1. I wont be there because Im having a party said Helen. Helen told us that she wouldnt be there because she was having a party. 2. Ive lost the map and I dont know the way, said Jack. Jack told me that he __________________________________________. 3. When I finish the book, Im going to watch television, said Carol. Carol said that when __________________________________________.

4. Im doing some homework but I wont be long, said Mike. Mike said that he ____________________________________________. 5. I like swimming but I dont go very often, said Mary. Mary told us that she _________________________________________. 6. I got up late and I missed the bus, said Richard. Richard said that he __________________________________________. 7. Im going to visit friends in Fiji but Im not sure when, said Jill. Jill told us that she ___________________________________________. 8. I want to buy it, but I havent brought any money, said Tony. Tony said that he ____________________________________________. 6. Translate into English: 1. Elevul mi-a spus c nu i-a fcut tema. 2. Funcionarul ne-a spus c biroul se va deschide la ora 10. 3. Doctorul ne-a spus c pacientul a fost operat ieri. 4. Btrnul ne-a spus c el nu ncuie niciodat ua din spate. 5. Prinii mei mi-au spus c vom avea musafiri sptmna viitoare.


I. TYPE IF CLAUSE Present Tense Simple 0 If you press this button Dac apei pe buton Present Tense Simple 1 If we walk so slowly, Dac vom merge aa de ncet Past Tense Simple If I had a helicopter Dac a avea un helicopter Past Perfect Simple Explanations MAIN CLAUSE Present Tense Simple the machine starts. maina pornete. Future (will + Infinitive) we will be late. vom ntrzia. Present Conditional (would + Infinitive) I would fly to school. m-a duce cu el la coal.. Past Conditional (would + have + Past Participle I would not have lost the plane. nu a fi pierdut avionul. - imaginary, hypothetical -possible, achievable VALUE

- true, real

If I had left home earlier Dac a fi plecat de acas mai devreme,

- impossible condition, past hypothetical

A. TYPE 0 describes what always happens. When or if can introduce this sentence: Its a tropical country, and so if it rains hard, everyone stays indoors. When it rains hard, everyone stays indoors. B. TYPE 1 is sometimes called a real condition. It describes what someone thinks will happen in a real situation. Situation: You are at the supermarket with a friend. Your friend has put some eggs in one bag, and is trying to pick up lots of other bags. You say: If you carry too many bags, you will drop the eggs. If you drop the eggs, they will break. C. TYPE 2 is sometimes called an imaginary condition. It refers to things that might happen in the future, or things that you can

imagine happening. We do not know whether the action can be accomplished or not, we only know that the first clause depends on the second. Situation: You are watching the stars one night with a friend. You start talking about aliens. You say: If some aliens landed on earth, I would make friends with them. If they didnt speak English, I would use sign language. We usually were for all persons in CONDITIONAL 2 IF SENTENCES. If I were an astronaut, I would enjoy being weightless! If she were a famous actress, she would earn a lot of money. D. TYPE 3 is sometimes called an impossible condition. It refers to things in the past and it is impossible to change things that happened in the past. The action would have been possible at a certain moment in the past, but the subject missed the opportunity, so it is not possible anymore. Situation: You went for a long walk, but you did not take your umbrella. It rained, and you got wet. If I had taken an umbrella, I would not have got wet. If I had heard the weather forecast, I would not have gone out. E. NOTE UNLESS means only if not. We use it to say that something will only happen in certain circumstances: We will go out for a walk, unless it rains. I wouldnt ask you to help me unless you were my best friend. Conditional sentences usually begin with IF. However, in everyday speech, we often use IMAGINE or SUPPOSING. Imagine you saw a snake, what would you do? (If you saw a snake, what would you do?) Supposing you owned a helicopter, what would you use it for? (If you owned a helicopter, what would you use it for?)



a. Conditionals 1 and 2 1. Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each pair. 1) If were / we would be late for class, our teacher will be / was angry. 2) If we lived / would live on another planet, wed see / we will see the Earth in the sky. 3) If we take / will take a taxi, well arrive / we arrived sooner. 4) If we dont hurry / wont hurry, well be / we would be late. 5) If we were / are birds, we would be able to / are able to fly. 6) If you dont wear / wouldnt wear your pull over, youll feel / you felt cold. 7) If I studied /will study harder, I would get / get better marks. 8) If I had / have a motorbike, Id ride / I rode it to school. 9) If you lend / will lend me your bike, Ill let / I let you borrow my skateboard. 10) If I had / would have lots of money, Id give / I gave some to all my friends. 2. Complete the sentence for each situation using the verbs given. 1) You are standing very close to the edge of a swimming pool. You are wearing all your clothes, not a swimming costume. A friend says: If you (fall in) fall in, your clothes (get) will get wet! 2) You are sitting in the classroom on a hot day. You are day-dreaming about going to the beach. You think: If today (be) _______ a holiday, I (go) _______ to the beach. 3) You cant answer a question in your English book. You ask a friend to help, but she doesnt know the answer. She says: If I (know) _______ the answer, I (tell) _______ you. 4) You are walking towards the bus-stop with a friend. Suddenly the bus arrives. The bus-stop is far away, but you think there is a chance of catching the bus. You say: If we (run) _______, we (catch) _______ it! 5) You are planning to go to the beach tomorrow with some friends. You are not sure about the weather, because it sometimes rains at this time of the year. You arrange to meet tomorrow afternoon and say: If it (rain) _______, we (go) _______ to the cinema instead. 6) You are very busy, because you have lots of work to do, and you also play in two teams. a friend asks you to join a computer club. You say: If I (have) _______ more free time, I (join) _______ the club. But its impossible at the moment because Im too busy! 7) You are discussing the idea of underwater cities. People are describing the advantaged and disadvantages of living under the sea. You say: If we (live) _______ under the sea, we (eat) _______ fish all the time! 8) You are worried about a test next week. You ask your teacher for some advice. She says: If you (study) _______ for one hour every day, you (pass) _______ the test.

3. Complete each sentence using if, unless or would. 1. If you had asked me to help you, I would. 2. John _______ win more races if he trained harder. 3. Come on! _______ we hurry, well miss the plane! 4. _______ you like to see my stamp collection? 5. What _______ you do if you saw a snake? 6. Well have lunch outside in the garden, _______ its too cold. 7. The manager wont be long. _______ you take a seat, please. 8. Im sure that Carol _______ go to the cinema with you, if you asked her. 9. _______ you feel like a chat, phone me tonight. 10. I dont feel happy _______ I swim every day. 4. Complete each sentence a) to j) with an ending from 1) to 10). a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) If you play the music too loud, 8 If the North Pole melted, If we dont have enough ice-cream, If I found someones wallet, If a burglar broke into this house, If my train isnt late, If you were famous, If my father lends me the money, If you took more exercise, If you tell me what you want, 1. the alarm would go off. 2. Ill buy a new bike. 3. Ill be in Paris a t 6.00. 4. you wouldnt see me anymore. 5. you would feel better. 6. the water would flood many cities. 7. Ill buy it for you. 8. youll wake up the neighbours. 9. well get some more. 10. Id take it to the police station.

5. Complete each sentence as either a Conditional 1 or a Conditional 2 sentence using the verb given. 1. If I (have) had arms five metres long, I (be able) would be able to reach the top of that shelf. 2. Dont worry, youve just got a cold. If you (take) ______ an aspirin, you (feel) ______ much better. 3. Vegetarians believe that if nobody (eat) ______ meat, everyone (live) ______ longer. 4. If I (become) ______ a famous rock star, I (buy) ______ my parents an enormous house. 5. It says No Parking. If you (leave) ______ the car here, the police (give) ______ you a parking fine. 6. Its not far. If you (follow) ______ this path, you (come) ______ to the station. 7. If people in cities (use) ______ bikes instead of cars, there (not be) ______ so much pollution. 8. Actually its a very friendly dog. If you (touch) ______ it, it (not bite)______ you. 9. If you (leave) ______ your books on the desk, I (give) ______ them back to you at the end of the lesson. 10. If you (own) ______ a pet tiger, your friends (not visit) ______ you!

b. Conditionals 2 and 3 1. Rewrite each comment beginning as shown. 1. Supposing you had wings, what would you do? What would you do if you had wings? 2. Why dont you leave now? Thats what Id do. If _____________________________ 3. Imagine you lived on Mars. How would you feel? How _____________________________ 4. I think you should buy a bike. Thats what Id do. If _____________________________ 5. Imagine you were rich. What would you do? What _____________________________ 6. Supposing Jim came with us, what would you say? What _____________________________ 7. Why dont you take the bus? Thats what Id do. If _____________________________ 8. Imagine you owned a robot. What would you do? What _____________________________ 2. Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence. 1. If you phoned / had phoned me yesterday, I had given / would have given you the news. 2. If you took / would have taken more exercise, you might feel / had felt better. 3. If Tim drove / had driven more carefully, he wouldnt have crashed / didnt crash. 4. If you had come / came to see the film, you would have enjoyed / had enjoyed it. 5. If Id known / I would know it was your birthday, I would send / would have sent you a card. 6. If people helped / had helped one another more often, the world might be / was a better place. 7. If your team had scored / scored more goals, it had won / could have won. 8. If you would have worn / wore a coat, you wouldnt get / didnt get wet. 3. Complete the sentence for each situation. 1. Helen didnt leave early, and so she missed the bus. If Helen had left earlier, she wouldnt have missed the bus. 2. I didnt buy more milk, so I didnt have enough for breakfast. If I ______________, I _______________ enough for breakfast. 3. We forgot to take a map, so we got lost in the mountains. If we _______________, we _______________ in the mountains. 4. I didnt go to bed early, so I didnt wake up at 7.00. If I _______________ early, I _______________ at 7.00.

5. Mike didnt make a shopping list, and he forgot to buy some coffee. If Mike _______________, he _______________ some coffee. 6. I didnt realise you were tired when I asked you to go for a walk. If I ___________, I _______________ for a walk. 7. The Romans didnt sail across the Atlantic, so they didnt reach America. If the Romans _______________, they _______________ America. 8. I didnt turn left at the station , and I lost my way. If I _______________, I _______________ my way. III. Consolidation. Conditionals 1, 2 and 3 and other cases 1. Supply the correct tense of the verbs in brackets: a. I wont call you if nothing (to happen). b. If the engine (not to be cold), dont pull out the choke control. c. I will call the electrician if the lights (to fail) again. d. If more governments (to wake up) to what is happening, perhaps he would be able to avoid the disaster. e. It would be risky if you (to drive) this old car to Spain. f. I would take the day off if I (to have) stomachache. g. I (to stop) working if I won a lot of money. h. If they (to change) more money, they could have stayed in a hotel. i. Perhaps dad wouldnt have been so surprised if he (to hear) the boys talking about it. j. Even if I had run as fast as I could, I (to miss) the bus. 2. Complete the following conditional structures: a. If it doesnt rain for months . b. If a driver sees a zebra crossing the street . c. I shall be happy if . d. I should be rich and successful if. e. I won the prize unless . f. If I went to visit London, . g. I should have called you if . h. I would have bought myself a new car in case. i. Had I been in your place . j. Unless he had told me differently . 3. Translate into English: 1. Dac i vei face datoria, vor fi mulumii. 2. Dac ne-am fi oprit acolo, am fi ajuns napoi foarte trziu. 3. Nu fura merele dac ceilali biei nu-l ndemnau s o fac. 4. Dac l vei ntreba ce nseamn pentru el reclama, i va spune ceva ciudat. 5. Dac ai lua un ziar, ai gsi probabil un numr de cuvinte pe care nu le nelegi. 6. Dac din ntmplare nu voi veni la timp, nu m atepta. 7. Dac a fi n locul tu, a face orice mi-ar spune. 8. Dac a fi fost att de obosit, mi-a fi luat cteva zile de concediu. 9. n caz c m-ar fi cutat, sora mea nu m-ar fi dat la telefon. 10. S fi tiut ce m ateapt, nu m-a fi angajat acolo.


I. Explanations

A. WISHES about present states These wishes use the past simple after the verb WISH. The time referred to is an imaginary or unreal present. I wish I knew the answer to this question. (In this case, I do not know the answer.) I wish I didnt have so much work to do. B. WISHES about past events These wishes use the past perfect after the verb WISH. The time referred to is past time. I wish I had gone to your party last week. (In this case, I did not go.) C. WISHES about future events: COULD Wishes using COULD refer to ability or to future time. I wish I could drive. (Ability) I wish June could meet me next week. (Future time) D. WISHES about future events: WOULD (annoying habits) These wishes use WOULD after the verb WISH. They often take the form of a complaint about a bad habit. I wish Peter wouldnt chew gum all the time. IF ONLY 1. If only is used instead of WISH to make emphatic wishes. If only I knew the answer to this question! If only I had gone to your party last week! 2. In speech, ONLY is often heavily stresses. ITS TIME 1. Its time followed by a person is followed by an unreal past tense. Sorry, but its time we went home. This has a similar meaning to a Conditional 2 sentence: If we went home, it would be better.

2. High can be added for extra emphasis. Its high time you learned to look after yourself! 3. Its time can also be used with the infinitive + to. Its time you started work! (Youre being lazy) Its time to start work. (A statement of fact) ID RATHER 1. Id rather followed by a person is followed by an unreal past tense. Id rather you didnt tell John about this. This has a similar meaning to a Conditional 2 sentence: If you didnt tell John about this, it would be better. 2. Id sooner can be used in the same way and has the same meaning: Actually, Id sooner we left now. II. Practice

1. Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) I am sunburnt. I wish I hadnt sunbathed / didnt sunbathe for so long. I dont feel well. I wish I could stay / stayed at home tomorrow. Im not a good swimmer, but I wish I could swim / would swim well. I wish I had / have a lot of money! I wish I could see / saw you tomorrow, but its impossible. I wish Jim didnt sit / doesnt sit next to me. Hes so annoying! If only we had / would have some money we could take the bus. I hope you enjoyed / enjoy yourselves at the dance tomorrow. 2. Choose the correct continuation for each sentence. 1. Ive got lots of work to do, and Im tired, but I cant stop, B. I wish I could take a rest. A. I wish I had taken a rest. 2. I wasnt paying attention in class, and now I cant do my homework. A. I wish I listened to my teacher. B. I wish Id listened to my teacher 3. Sarah painted her room green, but she doesnt like it. A. She wishes shed painted it blue. B. She wishes she painted it blue 4. This is a very puzzling moment! A. I wish Id known the answer. B. I wish I knew the answer. 5. Its really cold and miserable here in the winter. A. I wish we lived in a warm place. B. I hope we live in a warm place.

6. I cant repair my bike because I havent got any tools. A. If only I would have a screwdriver. B. If only I had a screwdriver. 7. Im worried about my basketball team. Perhaps they wont win! A. I wish they play well. B. I hope they play well. 8. You promised not to tell anyone my secrets but you did! A. I wish I hadnt told you. B. I wish I didnt tell you. 3. Complete each sentence with a suitable form of the verb given. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Im soaked to the skin! If only I (bring) had brought an umbrella! This pullover was really cheap. I wish I (buy) __________ two of them! I like your university. I wish (go) __________ there too. I must get in touch with Sue. If only I (know) __________ her phone number! This bus is really slow! I wish we (take) __________ the train instead! Im disappointed in this camera. I wish I (not buy) v it. I answered three questions well. If only I (finish) __________ the whole test! I cant understand anything Marie says! I wish I (speak) __________ French. 4. Complete each sentence in a suitable way. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Im hungry. If only I had a sandwich in my pocket. Enjoy your holiday. I hope __________ time. This is a lovely place. I wish we __________ before. Its a pity you live so far away. If only you __________ in my street! Ellen is a fantastic dancer. I wish I __________ as well as her. III. Consolidation

1. Rewrite each sentence using I wish + Past Simple: 1) Id love to live in Australia. I wish I lived in Australia. 2) I hate having to go to school on Saturdays. 3) Why dont we go away more often? 4) Why dont we have a bigger house? 5) Id love to speak more languages. 6) Id love to be able to cook. 7) Why is the school so expensive? 8) I never have enough money: it would be nice to have more. 9) I have having to do homework every night. 10) Id love to be a film star. 2. Rewrite these sentences using I wish + Past Perfect: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) I decided to work in London. I wish I hadnt decided to work in London. We didnt go to Alans party. We went to live with my parents in Surrey. I decided to stop working as a bus driver. We put our money into a grocery shop.

6) We borrowed $3,000 to start the business. 7) We didnt realize that a supermarket was opening nearby. 8) The grocery shop closed down. 9) We lost all our money. 10) It was a mistake to leave Manchester. 3. Mr and Mrs Reynolds are worried about their children. Write what they want them to do, using I wish + would. 1) John never comes home before 12 oclock. We wish he would come home before 12 oclock. 2) Sheila isnt very polite to her grandparents. 3) Peter doesnt wash very often. 4) Susan isnt working very hard for her exams. 5) John doesnt help with the housework. 6) Id like Peter to give up smoking. 7) Sheila takes too many days off work. 8) I dont like John playing football all the time. 9) Sheila and Susan are very unkind to Peter. 10) John doesnt wear a tie very often. 4. Answer Yes or No and circle (i) or (ii): 1. I wish I had a big car. a. Do I have a big car? No. b. Am I talking about (i) the present? (ii) the past? 2. I wish I had gone to university. a. Did I go to university? ______ b. Am I talking about (i) the present? (ii) the past? 3. I wish she would take the new job. a. Has she agreed to take the new job? ______ b. Am I talking about (i) the present/future? (ii) the past? 4. I wish they hadnt phoned the police. a. Did they phone the police? ______ b. Am I talking about (i) the present/future? (ii) the past? 5. I wish she spoke French. a. Can she speak French? ______. b. Did she speak French? ______ c. Are we talking about (i) the present?

(ii) the past? 6. I wish she would speak French. a. Can she speak French? ______. b. Is she speaking French? ______ c. Are we talking about (i) the present/future? (ii) the past? 7. I wish I could agree with you. a. Do I agree with you? ______. b. Am I going to change my mind? ______ c. Are we talking about (i) the present? (ii) the past? 8. If only he had agreed with us. a. Did he agree with us? ______. b. Are we talking about (i) the present? (ii) the past? 5. Underline the correct verb form in each sentence. 1) I wish it stopped/would stop raining. 2) I wish it hadnt snowed / wouldnt snow yesterday. 3) I wish I knew / Id know the answer to your question. 4) I wish you wouldnt be / arent so rude. 5) I wish they visited / theyd visited us when they were in town. 6) I wish Id speak / I spoke better French. 7) I wish they hadnt been / wouldnt have been so unfriendly. 8) I wish Ive refused / Id refused when you suggested the idea. 9) I wish I had / I would have more time to do this job. 10) I wish she would / had come to work on time in the future.


I. Explanations

A. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE Verbs which have objects are called transitive verbs. In this sentence milk is the object. Diane drinks milk every morning. Verbs which do not have objects are called intransitive verbs. Diane walks to college. Only transitive verbs can be made passive. B. PASSIVE: FORMATION RULES The passive is formed with the verb be and the past participle. The object of the verb becomes the subject in a passive sentence. TENSE Present Simple Present Continuous Past Simple Past Continuous Present Perfect Simple Future Simple We build hundreds of houses every year. Hundreds of houses are built every year The authorities are questioning two men. Two men are being questioned. The police arrested one protester. One protester was arrested. At this time yesterday they were repairing the road. At this time yesterday the road was being repaired. We have chosen Helen as the new president. Helen has been chosen as the new president. They will play the match on Sunday evening. The match will be played on Sunday evening.

C. CONTEXTS OF USE Putting emphasis on important information: Hundreds of houses are built every year by the Government. In this sentence, it was what it was done, the number of houses built, which is given emphasis. Emphasised information usually comes at the beginning of the sentence. Compare:

The Government has built hundreds of houses this year. In this sentence, more emphasis is given to who did it, the Government. Spoken and written

Passive tends to be used more in writing, and in formal speech. D. WITH THE AGENT BY Passive sentences often include information about who did it. This person, thing, organisation etc. is called the AGENT. Stones were thrown by angry football fans. E. WITH THE INSTRUMENT WITH Passive sentences may include information about what was used to perform an action. This is called the instrument and is introduced using with. The windows were broken with a baseball bat. F. WITHOUT THE AGENT It is not always necessary to mention the agent. There are several reasons for this. The passive is often used because who did it is not known or the speaker does not want us to know, it is obvious, or remains impersonal, perhaps because an authority is involved. Not known Brendas motorbike was stolen last night. If we knew who had stolen it, we would mention the name of the person. It is not necessary to add by someone. Obvious One protester was arrested. It is not necessary to add by the police, because we know that it is always the police who do this. However, some people prefer to include this information. Impersonal Sometimes a group of people is responsible for an action, and who did it is not mentioned. Students are asked not to smoke. We assume that the school authorities have made this decision.

G. VERBS WITH TWO OBJECTS Some verbs can have two objects. These verbs include: buy, give, lend, offer, promise, sell, take, send. Peter gave Karen a present. Peter gave a present to Karen. Sentences with these verbs can be made passive in two ways. Karen was given a present by Peter. A present was given to Karen by Peter. H. PROBLEMS WITH PASSIVE To be born is a passive form but does not have an obvious passive meaning. I was born in Uruguay. Some verbs may have a passive form in other languages, but are not translated into passive in English. II. Practice

1. Underline phrases which are not necessary in these sentences. Not all the sentences contain unnecessary phrases. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) My wallet has been stolen by someone. We were taught by a different teacher yesterday. Nick was operated on at the hospital by a doctor. The meal was served by a waiter in a red coat. We were shown round the museum by a guide. Two letters were delivered this morning by the postman. Three men have been arrested by the police. Yesterday a window was broken by someone.

2. Complete each sentence with a passive verb. 1. The police questioned George. George was questioned by the police. 2. Millions of people watch this programme. This programme ______________ by millions of people. 3. They will finish our new house at the end of the month. Our new house ______________ at the end of the month. 4. They have elected a new president. A new president ______________. 5. They are rebuilding the damaged stadium. The damaged stadium ______________.

6. They have closed the mountain road. The mountain road ______________. 7. Students write most of this magazine. Most of this magazine ______________ by students. 8. A burglar stole my television. My television ______________ by a burglar. 9. Somebody will meet you at the bus station. You ______________ at the bus station. 10. United won the cup last year. Last year the cup ______________ by United. 3. Underline the errors in these sentences. Rewrite each sentence. 1. Many pet dogs are losing every year. Many pet dogs are lost every year. 2. The ill man was been taken to hospital. ________________________ 3. A new bridge is be built across the river. ________________________ 4. All the food at the party was ate. ________________________ 5. Nothing will being decided before next Saturday. ________________________ 6. The match is playing on Friday evening. ________________________ 7. The robber unlocked the door by a false key. ________________________ 8. This book was writing by Sams father. ________________________ 4. Rewrite each sentence beginning with the words given. 1. Archaeologists have discovered a new tomb in the Valley of the Kings. A new tomb has been discovered in the Valley of the Kings. 2. The President will open the new sports stadium on Saturday. The new sports stadium ________________________________________. 3. One of the most famous painters in the world painted this portrait. This portrait ________________________________________________. 4. They will announce the results of the competition tomorrow. The results _________________________________________________. 5. They are redecorating our school during the summer holidays. Our school _________________________________________________. 6. The police in New York have arrested three terrorists. Three terrorists ______________________________________________. 7. Our company sells more than a thousand cars every week. More than a thousand cars _____________________________________. 8. They are building a new museum in the city centre. A new museum ______________________________________________.

9. Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928. Penicillin ___________________________________________________. 10. Two million people use the London Underground system every day. The London Underground system _______________________________. 5. Rewrite each sentence with a passive verb so that the peoples names are not mentioned. 1. The authorities have closed the casino. The casino has been closed. 2. Someone broke into the flat last week. 3. People all over the world speak English. 4. The authorities have opened the new swimming pool. 5. Someone left this purse in the classroom yesterday. 6. The city council has banned traffic from the city centre. 7. People have elected a new government. 8. The clubs have postponed the match. III. Consolidation

1. Give passive equivalents to the following active sentences: a. The dog frightens her. b. The team is carrying out an interesting experiment. c. You found the door shut. d. She was cooking dinner when he came. e. They have built three blocks of flats by now. f. They had been digging the garden for two hours when it started to rain. g. Somebody will do justice. h. She said somebody would announce him. i. Did your mother tell you we had left? j. They have given him the job he was looking for. 2. Make passive sentences using the tense required by the adverbials: 1. (promise, an electric train, little Jimmy) for his birthday. 2. (arrange, the furniture) right now. 3. (embroider, my grandmother, this tablecloth) when she was a girl. 4. (destroy, the little hut, the wind) during the storm. 5. (analyse, the problem) tomorrow. 6. (attack, the monkeys, the explorers) the previous day. 7. (congratulate, he) when I saw him. 8. (throw away, that junk) this morning. 9. (look, into the matter) next week. 10. (not live, in this castle) for 200 years. 3. Translate into English: 1. Toate aceste case au fost distruse de recentul cutremur. 2. Anglia a fost cucerit de normanzi n secolul al unsprezecelea. 3. Aceste cri se citesc cu uurin i de aceea sunt preferate de turiti. 4. Sunt sigur c acest cntec a fost ascultat de mai bine de zece ori de ctre prietenii ti.

Appendix 1
1. PRESENT TENSE, 3rd person singular form With most verbs, we add s to the verb in the 3rd person and make no other changes: he/she/it runs With verbs that end in o, -ch, -ss, -sh, and x, we add es: he/she/it goes he/she/it teaches he/she/it misses he/she/it rushes he/she/it fixes With verbs that and in a consonant and y, we remove the y and add ies: he/she/it tries 2. ING FORM With most verbs we add ing to the verb and make no other changes: build building try trying With one-syllable verbs that have a short vowel sound, and end in a consonant, we double the consonant and add ing: sit sitting run running If the vowel sound is long, we dont double the consonant: read reading speak speaking If the verb ends in a silent e, we delete the e and add ing: take taking drive driving 3. PAST TENSE regular verbs With most regular verbs, we add ed to form the past tense: look looked stay stayed If the verb ends in a silent e, we just add d: like liked behave behaved If the verb ends in a consonant + -y, we remove the y and add ied: try tried deny denied If the verb has a short vowel sound and ends in a consonant, we double the consonant: stop stopped ban banned

Appendix 2
LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS 1. Verbs which are the same in all three forms: INFINITIVE cost cut hit hurt let put set shut PAST TENSE cost cut hit hurt let put set shut PAST PARTICIPLE cost cut hit hurt let put set shut TRANSLATION INTO ROMANIAN a costa a tia a lovi a rni a lsa a pune a fixa a nchide

2. Verbs which have the same form for PAST SIMPLE and PAST PARTICIPLE INFINITIVE bend bring build burn buy catch dig dream feed feel find get have hear hold lay learn leave lend lose make mean meet read say PAST TENSE bent brought built burnt bought caught dug dreamt fed felt found got had heard held laid learnt left lent lost made meant met read said PAST PARTICIPLE bent brought built burnt bought caught dug dreamt fed felt found got had heard held laid learnt left lent lost made meant met read said TRANSLATION INTO ROMANIAN a ndoi a aduce a construi a arde a cumpra a prinde a spa a visa a hrni a simi a gsi a obine, a primi a avea a auzi a ine, a menine a pune, a aeza a nva a pleca, a prsi a da cu mprumut a pierde a face a nsemna a ntlni a citi a zice, a spune

sell send shine shoot sit sleep slide smell spend stand teach tell think understand win

sold sent shone shot sat slept slid smelt spent stood taught told thought understood won

sold sent shone shot sat slept slid smelt spent stood taught told thought understood won

a vinde a trimite a strluci a trage a sta jos, a se aeza a dormi a aluneca a mirosi a cheltui, a risipi a sta n picioare a preda, a nva a spune a crede, a se gndi a nelege a ctiga

3. Verbs which have the same form for the INFINITIVE and the PAST PARTICIPLE INFINITIVE become come run PAST TENSE became came ran PAST PARTICIPLE become come run TRANSLATION INTO ROMANIAN a deveni a veni a alerga

4. One verb has the same form for the INFINITIVE form and the PAST SIMPLE. INFINITIVE beat PAST TENSE beat PAST PARTICIPLE beaten TRANSLATION INTO ROMANIAN a bate

5. Verbs which have all forms different. INFINITIVE be begin bite blow break choose do draw drink drive PAST TENSE was / were began bit blew broke chose did drew drank drove PAST PARTICIPLE been begun bitten blown broken chosen done drawn drunk driven TRANSLATION INTO ROMANIAN a fi a ncepe a muca a sufla a sparge a alege a face a desena, a schia a bea a conduce

eat fall fly forget freeze give go hide know lie ride ring rise see shake sing speak steal swim take tear throw wear write

ate fell flew forgot froze gave went hid knew lay rode rang rose saw shook sang spoke stole swam took tore threw wore wrote

eaten fallen flown forgotten frozen given gone hidden known lain ridden rung risen seen shaken sung spoken stolen swum taken torn thrown worn written

a mnca a cdea a zbura a uita a nghea a da a merge a ascunde a ti a fi situat, a sta ntins a clri, a merge a suna a rsri a vedea a scutura a cnta a vorbi a fura a nota a lua a rupe a arunca a purta a scrie