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UNIVERSITATEA HYPERION
FACULTATEA DE TIINE ECONOMICE







COMUNICARE N AFACERI
N
LIMBA ENGLEZ
- SUPORT DE CURS N FORMAT ID -






AUTOR: Lect.univ.dr. Dominte Carmen




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I NTRODUCERE


Cursul de Comunicare n afaceri n limba englez se adresez studenilor nscrii la
programul de studiu ID, organizat de Facultatea de tiine Economice.
nsuirea de ctre studeni, sub aspect teoretic i practic, a cunotinelor fundamentale privind
componena, structura i dinamica lexicului i gramaticii limbii engleze contemporane. Formarea
deprinderilor de folosi limbajul de specialitate n scop comunicativ i dezvoltarea aptitudinilor de
exprimare oral sau n scris.

Iat deci care sunt obiectivele principale ale acestui curs, obiective concretizate n competenele pe
care le vei dobndi dup parcurgerea i asimilarea sa:

nsuirea sub aspect teoretic i practic a noiunilor de baza si a conceptelor privind componena
structura i dinamica lexicului i a gramaticii limbii engleze contemporane;

analiza principalelor concepte i termeni necesari studiului limbii engleze contemporane;

stimularea gandirii independente a cursantilor si crearea interesului acestora pentru cunoaterea
limbajului de specialitate;

dezvoltarea deprinderilor i aptitudinilor de exprimare att oral ct i n scris pe baza cunotinelor
dobndite.noiunilor de comer i coresponden comercial

capacitatea de analiz a limbajului de specialitate

dobndirea de cunotine generale i specifice n domeniul limbii engleze

contemporane de specialitate

capacitatea de evaluare i autoevaluare personal

capacitatea de a lucra n grupe i n echipe

capacitatea de a transpune n practic cunotinele dobndite

dezvoltarea aptitudinilor de comunicare ntr-o limb strin

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capacitatea de a lucra independent i n grup

preocuparea pentru obinerea performanei n activiti interpersonale i de grup



Cursul Comunicare n afaceri n limba englez este structurat n unsprezece uniti de
nvare (capitole), fiecare dintre acestea indicnd urmtoarele elemente: timp estimativ de studiu
pentru asimilarea informaiei; competene specifice unitii de nvare; cuprins al unitii de nvare;
teme de control; bibliografie specific unitii de nvare.
Evaluarea cunotinelor const n evaluarea final, concretizat prin examenul susinut n
perioada de sesiune.
COMUNICARE N AFACERI N LIMBA ENGLEZ

2011

4


CUPRI NSUL SUPORTULUI DE CURS
I . Unitatea de nvare nr. 1 STRUCTURE AND
PRESENTATION

I.1. Letterheads 10
I.2. References 11
I.2.1. Per pro 11
I.3. Company position 12
I.4. Enclosures 12
I.5. Tema de control a unitii de nvare nr. 1 12
I.6. Bibliografiaspecificunitii de nvare nr. 1 12
I I . Unitateade nvare nr. 2 - CONTENT AND STYLE
II.1. First paragraph 15
II.2. Middle paragraph 15
II.3. Final paragraph 15
II.4. Simplicity 16
II.5. Abbreviation 16
II.6. Figures 16
II.7. Tema de control a unitii de nvare nr. 2 16
II.8. Bibliografiaspecificunitii de nvare nr. 2 17
III. Unitatea de nvare nr. 3 - ENQUIRIES
III.1. Opening 19
III.2. Asking 19
III.3. Suggesting 19
III.4. Closing 20

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III.5. Tema de control a unitii de nvare nr. 3 20
III.6. Bibliografiaspecificunitii de nvare nr. 3 21
IV. Unitatea de nvare nr. 4 - REPLIES AND
QUOTATIONS

IV.1. Replies to letters of enquiry 22
IV.2. Quotations 24
IV.3. Tema de control a unitii de nvare nr. 4 25
IV.4. Bibliografiaspecificunitii de nvare nr. 4 26
V. Unitatea de nvare nr. 5 ORDERS
V.1. Placing an order 27
V.2. Advice on despatch 28
V.3. Tema de control a unitii de nvare nr. 5 28
V.4. Bibliografiaspecificunitii de nvare nr. 5 28
VI. Unitatea de nvare nr. 6 PAYMENT
VI.1. Invoices 30
VI.2. Statements of account 30
VI.3. Settlements of accounts methods of payments : home trade 30
VI.4. Settlements of accounts methods of payments : foreign trade 32
VI.5. Tema de control a unitii de nvare nr. 6 33
VI.6. Bibliografiaspecificunitii de nvare nr. 6 34
VII. Unitatea de nvare nr. 7COMPLAINTS AND
ADJUSTMENTS

VII.1. Writing general complaints 35
VII.2. Replying to letters of complaints 36
VII.3. Tema de control a unitii de nvare nr. 7 37
VII.4. Bibliografiaspecificunitii de nvare nr.7 37
VIII. Unitatea de nvare nr. 8 CREDIT
VIII.1. Forms of credit 38

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VIII.2. Requirements for granting 39
VIII.3. Asking for credit 39
VIII.4. Replying to requests for credit 40
VIII.5. Asking about crediting 41
VIII.6. Tema de control a unitii de nvare nr. 8 42
VIII.7. Bibliografiaspecificunitii de nvare nr. 8 42
IX. Unitatea de nvare nr. 9 BANKING
IX.1. Types of banks 43
IX.1.1. Merchant banks 44
IX.1.2. Commercial banks 44
IX.2. International banking 44
IX.2.1. Bills of exchange 44
IX.2.2. Documentary credits 45
IX.3. Tema de control a unitii de nvare nr. 9 46
IX.4. Bibliografiaspecificunitii de nvare nr. 9 46
X. Unitatea de nvare nr. 10 TRANSPORTATION AND
SHIPPING

X.1. Road transport 49
X.2. Rail transport 49
X.3. Air transport 49
X.4. Shipping 49
X.5. Documentation 50
X.6. Tema de control a unitii de nvare nr.10 50
X.7. Bibliografiaspecificunitii de nvare nr. 10 50
XI. Unitatea de nvare nr. 11 INSURANCE
XI.1. Insurance procedures 52
XI.2. Fire and accidents insurance 53

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XI.2.1. Fire insurance 53
XI.2.2. Accidents insurance 54
XI.2.3. Claims 54
XI.3. Tema de control a unitii de nvare nr.11 55
XI.4. Bibliografiaspecificunitii de nvare nr. 11 55
XII. TESTUL DE AUTOEVALUARE 56
XIII. BIBLIOGRAFIA SPECIFIC NTRGULUI SUPORT
DE CURS
57
XIV. NOTIELE CURSANTULUI 58




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Unitatea de studiu nr. 1: DSTRUCTURE AND
PRESENTATION
Timpul de studiu individual estimat: 3 h

Competenele specifice unitii de nvare:
Dup studiul acestei uniti de nvare cursanii vor putea:
s scrie corect adresa expeditorului i adresa adresantului.

s foloseasc formulele de deschidere i de ncheiere a unei scrisori economice.

s poziioneze corect n pagin data, adresa, formulele de salut.

s poziioneze corect adresa expeditorului i adresa destinatarului pe plic.



Cuprinsul unitii de nvare:
I.1. Letterheads (pag. 10)
I.2. References (pag. 11)
I.2.1. Per pro (pag. 11)
I.3. Company position(pag. 12)
I.4. Enclosures (pag. 12)
I.5. Tema de control a unitii nr. 1 (pag. 12)
I.6. Bibliografia specific unitii nr. 1 (pag. 12)




1. The senders address
In correspondence that does not have a printed letterhead, the senderss address is
written on the top right-hand side of the page.


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2. The date
It is written below the senders address, sometimes separated from it by a space.

3. The receivers address
This is written below the senders address and on the opposite side of the page.

4. Order of inside addresses
After the name of the person and/or company receiving the letter, the order and
style of the addresses are: name of house or building, number of building and
name of street or road, name of town and postcode, name of country.

5. Salutations
Dear Sir opens a letter written to a man whose name you do not know. Dear Sirs is
used to address the company. Dear Sir or Madam is used to address a person of
whom you know neither the name nor the sex.

6. Complemantary closes
If the letter begins Dear Sir, Dear Sirs, Dear Madam or Dear Siror Madam, it will
close with Yours faithfully. If the letter begins with a personal name, Dear Mr
James, Dear Mrs Robinson, it will close with Yours sincerely.

7. Signatures
Always the typed name will be placed after the handwritten signature.








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Example:

Worick House, Worick Street, Forest Hill London
SE 23, 1 JF, UK
Ms B. Kaases
Bredgade 51
Copenhagen K
Denmark
Dear MsKaases,
Thenk you for your enquiry which we received today.
I am enclosing our ctalogue and the price list for the equipment you said you were
interested in. I would like to draw your attention to pages 31-38 in the catalogue where
you will find full details of the Omega range.
We would welcome any further enquiries you have, and look forward to hearing from you.
Yours sincerely
p.p. Soundsonic Ltd.
D.Sampson
Sales Manager


I.1. LETTERHEADS

The printed letterhead of a company gives a great deal of information about it.

1. Type of company.
The abreviationLtd. After the companys name tells that the company has limited
liability, which means that the individuals that own the company or part of it, i.e.
the shareholders, are only responsible for their holding and no more than that if the
company goes bankrupt. The abreviationPLC means Public Limited Company and

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it is used to show that the companys shares can be brought by the public; Ltd
continues to be used for private limited companies whose shares are not available.
In the USA the term Incorporated - Inc. is used.

2. Board of Directors.
The name of the Chairman, or, in the USA, the President, who runs the concern,
will be given, as well as the names of the Directors, who decide the overall policy
of the firm.


3. Addresses.
In addition to the address of the office from which the letter is being sent, the
letterhead may also give the address of the head office or registred office if
different and the address of any branches or other offices the company owns.

4. Registered number.
This usually appears in small print, sometimes with the country or city in which
the company was registered. The VAT number (Value Added Tax) may also be
given.


I.2. REFERENCES
References are quated to indicate what the letter refers to (Your Ref.) and the
correspondence to refer to when replying (Our Ref.)

I.2.1. PER PRO
The term per pro (p.p.) is sometimes used in signatures and means for and on
behalf of.



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I.3. COMPANY POSITION

When signing on behalf of your company, it is useful to indicate your position in the
firm in the signature.


I.4.ENCLOSURES

If there are any enclosures, eg. Leaflets, prospectus, etc., with the letter, these may be
mentioned in the body of the letter. But many firms in any case write Encl. or Enc. at the
bottom of the letter, and if there are a number of documents, these are listed.

I.5. TEMA DE CONTROL A UNITII NR. 1

Answer the questions:

a. Where should the references be written?
b. What does Ltd. and PLC mean?



1.6. BIBLIOGRAFIA SPECIFIC UNITII NR.1

1. Ashley, A., Commercial Correspondence, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1991,
first published 1984.
2. Chiriacescu, Adriana; Murean, Laura; Barghiel, Virginia; Hollinger, Alexander,
Coresponden de afaceri n limbile romn i englez, Editura Teora, Bucureti,
1996, prima ediie 1994.

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3. Godwin, Joy and Strutt, Lyn, Test Your business Vocabulary in use,
AdvancedLevel, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005.

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Unitatea de studiu nr. 2:CONTENT AND STYLE

Timp de studiu individual estimat: 2 h

Competenele specifice unitii de nvare:

Dupstudiul acestei uniti de nvare cursanii vor putea:

s plnuiasc coniutul de idei al unei scrisori comerciale.

s poat ncadra coninutul de idei n lungimea optim de redactare a unei scrisori
comerciale.

s mpart ideile principale ale scrisorii n cele trei paragrafe recomandate

s se poat exprima cu acuratee i claritate n scris.


Cuprinsul unitii de nvare:
II.1. First paragraph (pag. 15)
II.2. Middle paragraph (pag. 15)
II.3. Final paragraph (pag. 15)
II.4. Simplicity (pag. 16)
II.5. Abbraviations (pag. 16)
II.6. Figures (pag. 16)
II.7. Tema de control a unitii nr.2 (pag. 16 )
II.8. Bibliografia specific a unitii nr. 2 (pag. 17)



The length of the letter depends on the subject of the letter, it may be a simple
subject, eg. thanking a customer for a cheque, or quite complicated, eg.

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explaininghow a group insurance policy works. The style and the kind of language
used can also affect the length.


II.1. FIRST PARAGRAPH

The first paragraph sets the tone of the letter and gives the reader the first
impression, example: Thank you for your letter dated 8
th
of July in which you
asked about our range of cosmetics. As you have probably seen in our
advertisements in fashion magazines, we appeal to a wide group from the teenage
market through to more mature woman, with our products being retailed in leading
stores throughout the world.


II.2. MIDDLE PARAGRAPH

This is the main part of the letter and it concerns with the points that need to be
made. In the middle paragraph of the letter, the planning is most important.


II.3. FINAL PARAGRAPH

When closing the letter, you should thank the person for writing and encourage
further enquiries or correspondence. You may also wish to restate one or two of
the most important of the points you have made in the main part of the letter,
examples:
We are sure that you have made the right choice in choosing this particular line
as it is proving to be a leading seller. If there is any advice or further information
you want, we shall be happy to supply it, and look forward to hearing from you.



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II.4. SIMPLICITY

Commercial correspondence often suffers from an old-fashioned style of English
which complicates the message and gives the reader the feeling that he is reading a
language he does not understand.


II.5. ABBREVIATIONS

These are useful, but both parties need to know what the abbreviations stand for:
c.i.f. means cost, insurance and freight, f.o.b. means free on board, o.n.o. means or
nearest offer. Some international organizations, eg. NATO, are known in all
countries by the same set of initials, but many are not, eg. EEC (European
Economic Community) and UNO (United Nations Organization).


II.6. FIGURES

Numerical expressions can also cause confusion. For, example, the decimal point
in British and US usage is a full point rather than a comma as used in most
continental European countries.


II.7. TEMA DE CONTROL A UNITII NR. 2


1. What should the first, the middle and the final paragraph contain?

2. Why the following letter is incorrect?



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Dear Mr. Rohn,
I have already written to you concerning your outstanding debt of 591.00 dollars.
This should have been cleared theree months ago. You dont seem to want to
cooperate in paying us, and therefore we will have to sue you if your debt is not
cleared within the next ten days.



II.8. BIBLIOGRAFIA SPECIFIC UNITII NR. 2

1. Brookes, Michael and Horner, David, Business English, Engleza pentru
afaceri, Editura Teora, Bucureti, 1999.

2. Mascull, Bill, Business Vocabulary in Use, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, 2002.
















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Unitatea de studiu nr. 3:ENQUIRIES
Timpul de studiu individual estimat: 2 h

Competenele specifice unitii de nvare:
Dupstudiul acestei uniti de nvare cursanii vor putea:

s cunoasc diferite tipuri de cereri

s redacteze scrisori comerciale adecvate fiecrui tip de cerere n parte.

s redacteze diferite rspunsuri pentru fiecare tip de cerere.



Cuprinsul unitii de nvare:
III.1. Opening (pag. 19)
III.2. Asking (pag. 19)
III.3. Suggesting (pag. 19)
III.4 Closing (pag. 20)
III.5. Tema de control a unitii nr. 3 (pag. 20)
III.6. Bibliografia specific unitii nr. 3 (pag. 21)




An enquiry can be made by telephone, telegram, telex or postcard. If you need to give
more information about ypurself or ask the suplier for more information, you will need to
write a letter.

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The contents of this will depend on three things: how well you know your
supplier, whether your supplier is at home or abroad, and the type of goods you are
enquiring about.
II.1. OPENING.
Tell your supplier what sort of firm you are. How did you hear about the firm you
are writing to.

II.2. ASKING
Asking for catalogues, price-lists and prospectuses. It is not necessary to give a lot
of information about yourself, the enquiry can be done by postcard.
Asking for details. You must be specific and state exactly what you want.
Asking for samples, patterns, demonstrations. Most suppliers are willing to
provide samples or patterns so that you can make a selection.

II.3. SUGGESTING
Suggesting terms, methods of payment, discounts. Although it is true that once a
supplier has quoted a price and stated terms, he may be unwilling to change them,
by suggesting your terms you would be indicating that certain conditions may
persuade you to place an order.

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Asking for goods on approval or on sale or return. In either case the supplier
would have to know the customer well, or would want trade references. He would
also place a time limit on when the goods must be returned or paid for.
II.4. CLOSING
Usually a simple thank you is sufficient to close an enquiry. You may also
mention that a prompt reply would be appreciated. You can also indicate further
business or other lines you would be interested in if you think they could be
supplied.

Example of a short enquiry:
Dear Sir,
Please would you send me your Spring catalogue and price-list quoting c.i.f. prices,
Bombay? Thank you.
Yours faithfully,

III.5. TEMA DE CONTROL A UNITII NR.3

1. Write a short enquiry requesting for a catalogue and pice list.

2. What kind of request is this letter?


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Dear Sir,
Could you please send me details of your tubeless tyres which are being advertised in
garages around the country? I would appreciate a prompt reply quoting trade price.


III.10. BIBLIOGRAFIA SPECIFIC UNITII NR. 3

1. Aspinall, Tricia and Bethell, George, Test Your Business Vocabulary in Use,
Intermediate Level, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007, first published
2003.

2. Godwin, Joy and Strutt, Lyn, Test Your business Vocabulary in use,
AdvancedLevel, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005.
























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Unitatea de studiu nr. 4:REPLIES AND QUOTATIONS

Timpul de studiu individual estimat: 2 h

Competenele specifice unitii de nvare:
Dupstudiul acestei uniti de nvare cursanii vor putea:

s s poat redacta scrisori de confirmare pentru diferite subiecte.

s poat sugera n scris diferite alternative pentru diferite tipuri de cereri

s stabileasc n scris termeni i metode de plat.

s stabileasc n scris termeni fici i termeni negociabili.

s poat exprima n scris diferite moduri de estimare.




Cuprinsul unitii de nvare:
IV.1. Replies to letters of enquiry (pag. 22)
IV.2. Quotations (pag. 24)
IV.3. Tema de control a unitii nr.4 (pag. 25)
IV.4. Bibliografia specific unitii nr. 4 (pag. 26)





IV.1. REPLIES TO LETTERS OF ENQUIRY
a. Opening.
Mention your prospective customers name. Thank the writer for his enquiry,
mention the date of his letter and quote any other references that appear.

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b. Confirming that you can help.
Let the writer know as soon as possible if you have the product or can provide
the service he is enquiring about.
c. Selling your product.
A simple answer that you have the goods in stock is not enough. Mention one
or two selling pointsof your product, including any guarantees you offer.
d. Suggesting the alternatives.
If you do not have what the enquirer has asked for, but have an alternative,
offer it to him.
e. Referring the customer elsewhere.
Your correspondent may be asking about a product you do not make or a
service you do not give. If this is so, tell him and if possible refer him
elsewhere.
f. Catalogues, price-lists, prospectuses, samples.
Make sure that you enclose current catalogues and price-lists if you are sending
them.
g. Closing.
Always thank the customer for writing to you. You should also encourage
further enquiries.

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IV.2. QUOTATIONS
a. Prices.
When a manufacturer, wholesaler or retailer quotes a price, he may or may not
include other costs and charges such as transport, insurance, taxes. Prices
which include these extra costs are known as gross prices, those which include
them are known as net prices.
b. Transport and insurance costs.
The following list includes the abreviations that explain which price is being
quoted to the customer.
Ex-works. The buyer will have to pay all the costs once the goods
have left the factory, mill or warehouse.
F.o.r. (free on rail). The price quoted covers the costto the nearest
railway station.
F.a.s (free alongside ship). There are no extra charges up to taking the
goods to the side of the ship.
F.o.b. (free on board). Loading on to the ship is included in the price
quoted.

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C&f. (cost and freight). The price includes cost and shipping to the
destination mentioned.
C.i.f. (cost, insurance and freight). The price includes all the costs up
to the named destination.
Ex-ship. The price includes delivery to the port named.
Franco quay. The price incldes all the costs up to the importers
deockside.
Carriage paid. Charges will be paid by the sender.
Carriage forward. The transport charges are paid by the receiver.
c. Methods of payment.
These methods may be letter of credit, bill of exchange, etc.
d. Fixed terms and negotiable terms.
The terms are quoted in two ways: by stating your price and discounts without
leaving room for negotiation, or by implying that the customer could write
again and discuss them.


IV.3. TEMA DE CONTROL A UNITII NR. 4

1. Mention the extra costs that are to be carried by the buyer.


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2. Write a letter of reply to the buying agent who wrote on behalf of the principals in
Canada. The agent made no reference to any particular line of chinaware she was
interested in, nor mentioned terms. The letter is in the nature of a sales trade.


IV.4. BIBLIOGRAFIA SPECIFIC UNITII NR. 4
Chiriacescu, Adriana; Murean, Laura; Barghiel, Virginia; Hollinger, Alexander,
Coresponden de afaceri n limbile romn i englez, Editura Teora, Bucureti,
1996, prima ediie 1994.
















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Unitatea de studiu nr. 5:ORDERS


Timpul de studiu individual estimat: 2 h

Competenele specifice unitii de nvare:
Dupstudiul acestei uniti de nvare cursanii vor putea:

s s poat redacta o comand n scris.

s poat cere n scris informaii despre modalitile de plat.

s solicite informaii despre metodele mpachetare i transport.

s poat refuza n scris o comand.


Cuprinsul unitii de nvare:
V.1. Placing an order (pag. 27)
V.2. Advice on despatch (pag. 28)
V.3. Tema de control a unitii nr. 5 (pag. 28)
V.4. Bibliografia specific unitii nr. 5 (pag. 28)



V.1. PLACING AN ORDER
Orders are usually written on a companys official order form which has a date
and a reference number that should be quoted in any correspondence which refers to the
order.

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a. Opening. Explain there is an order accompanying the letter.
b. Payment. Confirm the terms of payment
c. Delivery. Confirm the delivery dates.
d. Methods of delivery. Many firms use forwarding agents.
e. Closing. Encourage further orders.


V.2. ADVICE OF DESPATCH

When the supplier has made up the order and arranged shipment, the customer is
informed of this in an advice.



V.3. TEMA DE CONTROL A UNITII NR. 5


1. Identify the following order:
Thank you for your order (No.DR4317) which we are now making up. We have all
the items in stock and will be advising you in the near future.

2. Is only the bad reputation the reason why a company could refuse an order?

V.4. BIBLIOGRAFIA SPECIFIC UNITII NR. 5
Aspinall,Tricia and Bethell, George, Test Your Business Vocabulary in Use,
Intermediate Level, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007, first published 2003.

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Unitatea de studiu nr. 6: PAYMENT

Timpul de studiu individual estimat: 3 h


Competenele specifice unitii de nvare:
Dupstudiul acestei uniti de nvare cursanii vor putea:

s s completeze facturi i tate de plat.

s poat redacta scrisori cu privire la metodele de plat pentru comerul intern i

pentru comerul extern.

s poat redacta scrisori de ntiinare.

s poat rspunde n scris la cererile de amnare a plii.



Cuprinsul unitii de nvare:
VI.1.Invoices(pag. 30)

VI.2.Statements of account(pag. 30)

VI.3. Settlements of accounts methods of payment: home trade (pag. 30)

VI.4. Settlements of accounts methods of payment: foreign trade (pag. 32)

VI.3. Tema de control a unitii nr. 6(pag. 33)

VI.4. Bibliografia specific unitii nr. 6 (pag. 34)







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VI.1. INVOICES
Invoices are requests for payment and also records of transactions which give
both the buyer and the seller information about what has been bought or sold, the
terms of the sale and details of the transaction.

VI.2. STATEMENTS OF ACCOUNT
A supplier may grant his customer credit in the form of the open account
facilities for an agreed period of time. The statement includes the balance on the
account, which is brought forward from the previous period and listed as Account
Rendered. Invoices and debit notes are added while payments and credit notes are
deducted.
VI.3. SETTLEMENTS OF ACCOUNTS - METHODS
OFPAYMENT: HOME TRADE
a. Postal order.
It is used for small amounts and sent to the supplier direct.
b. Stamps.
It is unusual in business.


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c. Giro.
It allows customers to send payments to anyone whether they have a Giro
account or not.
d. C.O.D (cash on delivery).
The goods are delivered and the payment is accepted in behalf of the supplier.
e. Cheque.
You must have a current account or certain types of saving accounts to pay by
cheque.
f. Bank transfer.
Banks tranfer money by order from one account to another.
g. Credit transfer.
The payer fills out a Bank Giro slip and hands it to a bank with a cheque, the bank
transfers then the money to the payee.
h. Bank draft.
The payer buys a cheque from the bank for the amount he wants to pay and sends
it to the payee.
i. Bill of exchange.
The seller draws a bill on the buyer. The bill states that the buyer will pay the
seller an amount within a stated time.

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j. Letter of credit.
This mothod of payment can be used internally, but it is more common in
overseas transactions.

VI.4. SETTLEMENT OF ACCOUNTS METHODS OF PAYMENT:
FOREIGN TRADE
a. Cheque.
It is possible to pay an overseas supplier by cheque, but it takes a long time before
the supplier gets the money.
b. International Giro.
It replaces Money Orders. Giros are charged at a flat rate.
c. International Money Orders.
They can be cashed or credited to the recipients account.
d. Bank transfer.
Payment can be made by ordering a home bank to transfer money to an averseas
account.
e. International bankers draft.

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This is a bankers cheque which the bank draws on itself and sells to the
customer, who then sends it to his supplier as he would an ordinary inland cheque.
f. Promissory notes.
It is a method of payment but simply a written promise from a debtor to a credit
that the former will pay the stipulated amount either on demand or after a certain
date.
g. Bill of exchange.
The procedure is the same as for the home trade, but shipping documents usually
accompany bills when the bank acts as an intermediary in overseas transactions.
h. Documentary credit.
The term is used to distinguish the normal letter of credit, used in businessm from
the circular letter of credit, formerly used by foreign travellers and now largely
replaced by Eurocheques, travellers cheques and cash cheque credits.


VI.5. TEMA DE CONTROL A UNITII NR. 6

1. Mention which are the methods of payment for foreign trade.

2. Is the following letter the first, the second or the final request?

Dear Mr. Hughes,

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I am writing to ask why you have not settled our invoice No. H143 for 519.63
dollars, a copy of which is enclosed.
I know that since we began trading you have cleared your accounts regularly on the
due dates. That is why I wondered if any problems have risen which I might be able
to help you with. Please let me know if I can be of assistance.
Yours sincerely.



VI.6. BIBLIOGRAFIA SPECIFIC UNITII NR. 6

1. Ashley, A. Commercial Correspondence, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1991,
first published 1984.
2. Mascull, Bill, BusinessVocabulary in Use, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, 2002.
























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Unitatea de studiu nr. 7:COMPLAINTS AND
ADJUSTEMENTS

Timpul de studiu individual estimat: 2 h

Competenele specifice unitii de nvare:
Dupstudiul acestei uniti de nvare cursanii vor putea:

s elaboreze n scris diferite tipuri de plngeri.

s se familiarizeze i s-i nsueasc un limbaj adecvat acestui tip de scrisori.

s rspund n scris diferitelor tipuri de plngere.

s poat explica n scris motivul anumitor greeli fcute la firma la care lucreaz.

s poat respinge n scris o plngere nefondat.



Cuprinsul unitii de nvare:
VII.1. Writing general complaints(pag. 35)
VII.2. Replying to letters of complaint(pag. 36)
VII.3. Tema de control a unitii nr. 7 (pag. 37)
VII.4. Bibliografia specific unitii nr. 7 (pag. 37)


VII.1. WRITING GENERAL COMPLAINTS

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a. Opening. Complaints should be done as soon as you realize a mistake has been
done.
b. Explaining the problem. If you know how the mistake was made, you may
politely point it out to your supplier.
c. Suggesting a solution. If you think you know the mistake can be corrected, let the
supplier know.

VII.2. REPLYING TO LETTERS OF COMPLAINT
a. Opening. Acknowledge that you have received the complaint and thank your
customer for informing you.
b. Getting time to investigate the complaint. Do not leave your customer waiting, but
tell him what you are doing.
c. Explaining the mistake. If the complaint is justified, explain how the mistake
occurred, but do not blame your staff.
d. Solving the problem. Having acknowledged your responsibility and explained
what went wrong, you must put matters right.
e. Rejecting a complaint. If you think the complaint is unjustified, you can be firm
but polite in your answer. You should always try o give an explanation of the
problem.

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f. Closing. It is useful to mention that this mistake, error or fault is an exception, and
you should apologize for the inconvenience your customer experienced.



VII.3. TEMA DE CONTROL A UNITII NR. 7

1. Give few examples of accounting mistakes.
2. Explain why the following text is an unjustified complaint:
Dear Sir,
I strongly object to the extra charge of 9.00 dollars which you have added to my
statement. When I sent my cheque for 56.00 dollars last week, I thought it cleared this
balance. Now I find out that........


VII.4. BIBLIOGRAFIA SPECIFIC UNITII NR. 7

1. Aspinall,Tricia and Bethell, George, Test Your Business Vocabulary in
Use,Intermediate Level, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007, first
published 2003.
2. Brookes, Michael and Horner, David, Business English, Engleza pentru afaceri,
Editura Teora, Bucureti, 1999.




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Unitatea de studiu nr. 8:CREDIT

Timpul de studiu individual estimat: 3 h

Competenele specifice unitii de nvare:
Dupstudiul acestei uniti de nvare cursanii vor putea:

s recunoasc diferite tipuri de credite.

s redacteze o cerere de creditare.

s rspund unei cereri de creditare.

s rspund unei cereri de creditare n rate.

s cear n scris referinele necesare n vederea acordrii unui credit.



Cuprinsul unitii de studiu:
VIII.1. Forms of credit (pag. 38)
VIII.2. Requirements for granting a credit (pag. 39)
VIII.3. Asking for credit(pag. 39)
VIII.4. Replying to requests for credit(pag. 40)
VIII.5. Asking about credit rating(pag. 41)
VIII.6. Tema de control nr. 8(pag. 42)
VIII.7. Bibliografia specific unitii nr. 8(pag. 42)



VIII.1. FORMS OF CREDIT
Credit arrangements between trading firms take two forms:

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BILL OF EXCHANGE, or DRAFTS = the seller gives credit to the buyer for the period
specified on the bill.
OPEN ACCOUNT FACILITIES = the buyer is allowed to pay for his goods against
monthly or quarterly statements.

VIII.2.REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTING CREDIT
Credit facilities will be granted by a supplier, only if the customer can satisfy one of the
certain requirements:
a. Reputation
b. Long-term trading association
c. References

VIII.3. ASKING FOR CREDIT
1. Opening.
In the opening paragraph f a letter asking for credit facilities it is best to go to the
point and specify what form of credit you are looking for.
2. Convincing your supplier.

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Your supplier will only grant credit if he is convinced that you will not default. So
mention your previous dealings with the supplier. Mention your reputatuion and
other references.
3. Closing.
We hope you will consider our request favourably and look forward to your
reply.

VIII.4. REPLYING TO REQUESTS FOR CREDIT
1. Agreeing to credit.
A. If the supplier does not think it necessary to take up references, he may grant
credit immediately: As we have been trading for over a year, references will
not be necessary and you may clear your accounts by 30-day bill of exchange
which will be sent to Burnleys Bank with shipping documents for your
acceptance.
B. If references are considered necessary, the supplier will acknowledge the
request and then reply in full when references have been received: We have
now received the necessary references and are pleased to say that from your
next order payment can be mede on a quarter basis against statements.
2. Refusing credit.

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In this case, the writer must explain why he is turning the request down. Whatever
the reason, the reply must worded carefully so as not to offens the customer: We
regret that we are unable to offer open account terms to customers as our
products are competitively priced and with small profit margins it is
uneconomical to allow credit facilities.
3. Negotiating.
Sometimes a supplier will not offer as musch credit as the customer wants but will
negotiate a compromise: Though we do not usually offer credit facilities, we
would be prepared to consider partial credit. In this case you would pay half your
invoices on a cash basis, and the rest by 30-day bill of exchange.

VIII.5. ASKING ABOUT CREDIT RATING
1. Opening.
Say who you are and why you want the information.
2. Details.
Say exactly what you want to know. If the amount of credit is known, it is usually
mentioned.
3. Closing.

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Thank the firm in advance for giving you the information and tell them you will
reciprocate if the opportunity arises. Also let them know that whatever they say in
their letter will be treated in the stricted confidence.

VIII.8. TEMA DE CONTROL A UNITII NR. 8

Write a letter agreeing to a credit.


VIII.9. BIBLIOGRAFIA SPECIFIC UNITII NR. 8
1. Godwin, Joy and Strutt, Lyn, Test Your business Vocabulary in use, Advanced
Level, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005.
2. Mascull, Bill, Business Vocabulary in Use, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, 2002.


















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Unitatea de studiu nr. 9: BANKING

Timpul de studiu individual estimat: 4 h

Competenele specifice unitii de nvare:
Dupstudiul acestei uniti de nvare cursanii vor putea:

s s completeze diferite documente bancare.

s recunoasc i s completeze diferite documente bancare internaionale.




Cuprinsul unitii de nvare:

IX.1. Types of banks(pag. 43)
IX.1.1. Merchant banks (pag. 44)
IX.1.2. Commercial banks (pag. 44)
IX.2. International banking (pag. 44)
IX.2.1. Bills of exchange (pag. 44)
IX.2.2. Documentary credits (pag. 45)
IX.3. Tema de control a unitii nr. 9 (pag. 46)
IX.4. Bibliografia specific unitii nr. 9 (pag. 46)


IX.1. TYPES OF BANKS

BANKS IN UK
These can be divided into two groups:


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IX.1.1. MERCHANT BANKS
Tens to encourage larger organizations to use their services, and while the
facilities they offer are similar to those of the commercial benks, the former
specialize in ares of international trade and finance, discounting bills, confirming
credit status of overseas customers through confirming houses, acting in the issue
market, and in the bullion and Eurobond market.

IX.1.2. COMMERCIAL BANKS
Offer similar services but are particularly interested in private customers
accounts, encouraging them to use their current account, deposit accounts, savings
account and credit facilities. They will lend money, against securities, in the
forms of overdrafts and loans, pay accounts regularly by standing orders, and
transfer credits through the bank Giro system.

IX.2. INTERNATIONAL BANKING

IX.2.1. BILLS OF EXCHANGE
It is an order sent by the drawer (the person asking for the money) to the drawee
(the person paying) stating that the drawee will pay on demand or at a specific

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time the amount shown on the bill. Such bills are said to be domiciled with the
bank holding them.

IX.2.2. DOCUMENTARY CREDITS
It is a more binding method of payment. There are two types of
documentary credit: revocable (those that can be canceled) and irrevocable (those
that can not be cancelled).
The stages in an irrevocable documentary credit transactions are as
follows:
a.The impoter agreed to pay by documentary credit, and tells his bank that he will
do so by completing an application form.

b.The importers bank will then select a bank in the expoerters country to act as
its agent, and will notify them that the credit has been opened.

c. The agent bank will notify the exporter that a credit has been opened and they
may add their own confirmation.
d.The exporter ships the goods before the credit expires and sends the shipping
documents to the agent bank who check the documents against the conditions and
pay him.

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e.The agent bank will then send the documents and debit the importers bank with
the costs and charges.
f.The importers bank then checks the documents, pays the agent bank and sends
the documents to the importer so that he can claim the goods.

IX.3.TEMA DE CONTROL A UNITII NR. 9

1. Which are the commercial banks facilities?

2. The following text is an administrative letter. Which is it about?

Dear Mr. Collins
Please would you transfer 2.500.000 dollars from my current account to my deposit
account? The account numbers and details are on the enclosed transfer slip, and I
would be grateful if you could stamp the counterfoil and return it to me.
Yours sincerely.




IX.4. BIBLIOGRAFIA SPECIFIC UNITII NR. 9

1. Ashley, A.,Commercial Correspondence, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1991,
first published 1984.


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2. Chiriacescu, Adriana; Murean, Laura; Barghiel, Virginia; Hollinger, Alexander,
Coresponden de afaceri n limbile romn i englez, Editura Teora, Bucureti,
1996, prima ediie 1994.










































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Unitatea de studiu nr.101TRANSPORTATION AND

SHIPPING

Timpul de studiu individual estimat: 3 h

Competenele specifice unitii de nvare:
Dup studiul acestei uniti de nvare cursanii vor putea:
s s completeze actele necesare transportului rutier.
s completeze actele necesare trasportului aerian.
s completeze actele necesare transportului feroviar.
s completeze actele necesare transportului fluvial.

Cuprinsul unitii de nvare:
X.1. Road transportation (pag. 49)
X.2. Rail transportation (pag. 49)
X.3. Rail transportation (pag. 49)
X.4. Shipping (pag. 49)
X.5.Documentation (pag. 50)
X.6. Tema de control a unitii nr. 10(pag. 50)
X.7. Bibliografia specific unitii nr. 10 (pag. 50)

.



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X.1. ROAD TRANSPORT
It tens to be comparatively cheaper and more direct than rail.

X.2. RAIL TRANSPORT
It is faster than road. There is a link between road and rail through companies such as
Freightliners.

X.3. AIR TRANSPORT
It has the advantage of saving time.

X.4. DOCUMENTATION
Road and rail use consignment notes and air transport waybills. These documents are
receipts and not documents of title as a bill of lading might be (the ownership of the
consignment note/waybill does not give ownership to the goods). They are obtained by
the consignor filling out an instructions for despatch form and paying the freight charges.



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X.5. SHIPPING
Shipping documentation.
a. A freight account = is an invoice sent by the shipping company to the exporter
stating their charges.
b. A bill of lading = it is a document of title, it gives ownership of the goods to the
person named on it.
c. A shipped bill of lading = it means that the goods have been loaded on to the ship.
This statement protects the shipping company from claims that they were
responsible for the damage or bad condition of the consignment.


X.6. TEMA DE CONTROL A UNITII NR. 1O

1. Write a letter of complaint. The complaintment should be of the damage of the
goods in delivery by rail.

2. Which are the shipping documentation?

X.7. BIBLIOGRAFIA SPECIFIC A UNITII NR. 10
1. Brookes, Michael and Horner, David, Business English, Engleza pentru afaceri,
Editura Teora, Bucureti, 1999.

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2. Mascull, Bill, Business Vocabulary in Use, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, 2002.























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Unitatea de studiu nr. 11:INSURANCE

Timp de studiu individual estimat: 2 h

Competenele specifice unitii de nvare:
Dup studiul acestei uniti de nvare cursanii vor putea:
s poat stabili n scris termenii unui contract de asigurare.
s completeze cereri de asigurare.
s completeze formulare de asigurare.

Cuprinsul unitii de studiu:
XI.1. Insurance procedures (pag. 52)
XI.2. Fireand accidentsinsurance (pag. 53)
XI.2.1. Fire insurance(pag. 53)
XI.2.2.Accident insurance(pag. 54)
XI.2.3. Claims (pag. 54)
XI.3. Tema de control a unitii nr. 11(pag. 55)
XI.4. Bibliografia specific unitii nr. 11(pag. 55)

XI.1. INSURANCE PROCEDURES
Companies and individuals protect themselves against loss, damage or injury by
taking out insurance policies. The usual process of insuring a business or oneself
is as follows:

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a. A proposal form is completed by the firm or person who wants insurance
cover. Underwriters, who will pay compensation in the case of claim, will
work out the premium (the price of insurance).
b. Once the policy is sent it will tell the client that he is indemnified against loss,
damage or injury under the conditions of policy. Indemnification means that
the insurance company will compensate the client to restore him to his
original position before the loss or damage. The insurance company will also
have the right of subrogation, which means they can now claim the wrecked
vehicle and sell it for any price they can get.
XI.2. FIRE AND ACCIDENTS INSURANCE
XI.2.1. FIRE INSURANCE
There are three main types of insurance policy:
Insurance of home and business premises and their contents.
special perils policies, which protect the insured person against loss
or damage due to special factors (flooding or earthquakes).
Consequential loss insurance, which insures against loss of profit in
the period after a fire (while a factory is being rebuilt).



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XI.2.2. ACCIDENT INSURANCE
It covers four areas:
Insurance of liability = it covers employers liabilities for industrial
accidents, accidents to people attending functions on company
business, and motor insurance.
Property insurance = it is part of the service fire offices provide, but
also includes a wide range of protection against riots, terrorism, gas
explosions.
Personal accident insurance = it offers compensation in the form of
benefit payments to people injured or killed in outings, playing games
(ice hockey, aircraft)
Insurance of interest = it protects firms against making costly
mistakes.
XI.2.3. CLAIMS
Companies and individuals make claims for loss, damage or accident, by
filling in a claims form, which tells the insurance company what has
happpened. If the insurers accept the claim, often after an investigation, they
will pay compensation as it was required.


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XI.3. TEMA DE CONTROL A UNITII NR. 11

1. Which are the marine insurance policies?

2. What kind of request is the following text?

Dear Mr. Adair,
We have been insuring individual shipments of our chinaware with you for some time
now, and as you have noticed we have established a number of customers in North and
South America.
As we will be making regular shipments, we wondered if you could arrange open cover
for 60,000.00 pounds against all riks to insure consignments to North and South
American Eastern seaboard ports.



XI.4. BIBLIOGRAFIASPECIFIC UNITII NR. 11


1. Chiriacescu, Adriana; Murean, Laura; Barghiel, Virginia; Hollinger, Alexander,
Coresponden de afaceri n limbile romn i englez, Editura Teora, Bucureti,
1996, prima ediie 1994.
2. Godwin, Joy and Strutt, Lyn, Test Your business Vocabulary in use,
AdvancedLevel, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005.






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XII. TESTUL DE AUTOEVALUARE

Answer the following questions:

1. Where exactly is the date written in a commercial letter?
2. How many kinds of enquiries are?
3. Which could be the reasons why a company or firm should refuse an order?
4. What is a pro-forma invoice?
5. In a letter asking for credit facilities, is it recommended to go straight to the point
and specify what form of credit you are looking for?
6. Which are the documents needed for the internaional banking?
7. Which is the difference between the waybills and the consignment notes?
8. Give the definition of the shipped bill of lading.
9. Among the insurance procedures are many principle. When comes into operation
the principle of benefit payment?















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XIII. BIBLIOGRAFIA SPECIFIC NTREGULUI
SUPORT DE CURS

4. Ashley, A.,Commercial Correspondence, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1991,
first published 1984.
5. Aspinall,Tricia and Bethell, George, Test Your Business Vocabulary in Use,
Intermediate Level, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007, first published
2003.
6. Brookes, Michael and Horner, David, Business English, Engleza pentru afaceri,
Editura Teora, Bucureti, 1999.
7. Chiriacescu, Adriana; Murean, Laura; Barghiel, Virginia; Hollinger, Alexander,
Coresponden de afaceri n limbile romn i englez, Editura Teora, Bucureti,
1996, prima ediie 1994.
8. Godwin, Joy and Strutt, Lyn, Test Your business Vocabulary in use,
AdvancedLevel, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005.
9. Mascull, Bill, Business Vocabulary in Use, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, 2002.










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XIV.NOTIELE CURSANTULUI
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