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17 - Bearing Capacity

*01:
*02:
*03:
*04:
*05:
*06:
*07:
*08:
*09:
*10:
*11:
*12:

The Terzaghi method.


The Meyerhof method.
The Hansen method.
Conversion from metric units.
Terzaghi used for general versus local shear failure.
A footing width must increase with rising WT.
Comparing the Hanson and the Meyerhof methods.
The effect of the WT upon the bearing capacity.
The concept of gross bearing capacity.
The effect of an eccentric load upon bearing capacity.
Effect of inclined loading upon the bearing capacity.
Interpretation of borings to estimate bearing.

430

Bearing Capacity Factors for General Shear


Angle
(Degrees)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

Angle
(Radians)
0.0000
0.0175
0.0349
0.0524
0.0698
0.0873
0.1047
0.1222
0.1396
0.1571
0.1745
0.1920
0.2094
0.2269
0.2443
0.2618
0.2793
0.2967
0.3142
0.3316
0.3491
0.3665
0.3840
0.4014
0.4189
0.4363
0.4538
0.4712
0.4887
0.5061
0.5236
0.5411
0.5585
0.5760
0.5934
0.6109
0.6283
0.6458
0.6632
0.6807
0.6981
0.7156
0.7330
0.7505
0.7679
0.7854
0.8029
0.8203
0.8378
0.8552
0.8727

Kp
10.18
10.61
11.07
11.56
12.07
12.61
13.19
13.80
14.44
15.13
15.87
16.65
17.49
18.38
19.33
20.36
21.46
22.65
23.92
25.30
26.80
28.42
30.18
32.10
34.19
36.49
39.01
41.78
44.85
48.26
52.05
56.29
61.04
66.40
72.48
79.40
87.33
96.49
107.13
119.59
134.31
151.89
173.09
198.99
231.10
271.57
323.57
391.94
484.34
613.53
801.95

Terzaghi
Nc
Nq
5.70
1.00
6.00
1.10
6.30
1.22
6.62
1.35
6.97
1.49
7.34
1.64
7.73
1.81
8.15
2.00
8.60
2.21
9.09
2.44
9.60
2.69
10.16
2.98
10.76
3.29
11.41
3.63
12.11
4.02
12.86
4.45
13.68
4.92
14.56
5.45
15.52
6.04
16.56
6.70
17.69
7.44
18.92
8.26
20.27
9.19
21.75
10.23
23.36
11.40
25.13
12.72
27.09
14.21
29.24
15.90
31.61
17.81
34.24
19.98
37.16
22.46
40.41
25.28
44.04
28.52
48.09
32.23
52.64
36.50
57.75
41.44
63.53
47.16
70.07
53.80
77.50
61.55
85.97
70.61
95.66
81.27
106.81 93.85
119.67 108.75
134.58 126.50
151.95 147.74
172.29 173.29
196.22 204.19
224.55 241.80
258.29 287.85
298.72 344.64
347.51 415.15

N
0.00
0.08
0.18
0.28
0.39
0.51
0.65
0.80
0.96
1.15
1.35
1.58
1.84
2.12
2.44
2.79
3.19
3.63
4.13
4.70
5.34
6.07
6.89
7.83
8.90
10.12
11.53
13.15
15.03
17.21
19.75
22.71
26.20
30.33
35.23
41.08
48.11
56.62
67.00
79.77
95.61
115.47
140.65
173.00
215.16
271.07
346.66
451.28
600.15
819.31
1155.97

Nc
5.10
5.38
5.63
5.90
6.19
6.49
6.81
7.16
7.53
7.92
8.34
8.80
9.28
9.81
10.37
10.98
11.63
12.34
13.10
13.93
14.83
15.81
16.88
18.05
19.32
20.72
22.25
23.94
25.80
27.86
30.14
32.67
35.49
38.64
42.16
46.12
50.59
55.63
61.35
67.87
75.31
83.86
93.71
105.11
118.37
133.87
152.10
173.64
199.26
229.92
266.88

Meyerhof
Nq
1.00
1.09
1.20
1.31
1.43
1.57
1.72
1.88
2.06
2.25
2.47
2.71
2.97
3.26
3.59
3.94
4.34
4.77
5.26
5.80
6.40
7.07
7.82
8.66
9.60
10.66
11.85
13.20
14.72
16.44
18.40
20.63
23.18
26.09
29.44
33.30
37.75
42.92
48.93
55.96
64.20
73.90
85.37
99.01
115.31
134.87
158.50
187.21
222.30
265.50
319.06

N
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.04
0.07
0.11
0.15
0.21
0.28
0.37
0.47
0.60
0.74
0.92
1.13
1.37
1.66
2.00
2.40
2.87
3.42
4.07
4.82
5.72
6.77
8.00
9.46
11.19
13.24
15.67
18.56
22.02
26.17
31.15
37.15
44.43
53.27
64.07
77.33
93.69
113.99
139.32
171.14
211.41
262.74
328.73
414.33
526.45
674.92
873.86

Nc
5.10
5.38
5.63
5.90
6.19
6.49
6.81
7.16
7.53
7.92
8.34
8.80
9.28
9.81
10.37
10.98
11.63
12.34
13.10
13.93
14.83
15.81
16.88
18.05
19.32
20.72
22.25
23.94
25.80
27.86
30.14
32.67
35.49
38.64
42.16
46.12
50.59
55.63
61.35
67.87
75.31
83.86
93.71
105.11
118.37
133.87
152.10
173.64
199.26
229.92
266.88

Hansen
Nq
1.00
1.09
1.20
1.31
1.43
1.57
1.72
1.88
2.06
2.25
2.47
2.71
2.97
3.26
3.59
3.94
4.34
4.77
5.26
5.80
6.40
7.07
7.82
8.66
9.60
10.66
11.85
13.20
14.72
16.44
18.40
20.63
23.18
26.09
29.44
33.30
37.75
42.92
48.93
55.96
64.20
73.90
85.37
99.01
115.31
134.87
158.50
187.21
222.30
265.50
319.06

431

N
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.05
0.07
0.11
0.16
0.22
0.30
0.39
0.50
0.63
0.78
0.97
1.18
1.43
1.73
2.08
2.48
2.95
3.50
4.13
4.88
5.75
6.76
7.94
9.32
10.94
12.84
15.07
17.69
20.79
24.44
28.77
33.92
40.05
47.38
56.17
66.76
79.54
95.05
113.96
137.10
165.58
200.81
244.65
299.52
368.67
456.40
568.57

The bearing capacity of a soil is its ability to carry loads without failing in shear. There
are four major methods to predict failure. The fist method was developed by Karl
Terzaghi in 1943. Field tests in Canada by Meyerhof (1963) lead to modification factors.
Finally, Brinch Hansen in Denmark (1970) and Vesic in the USA modified these factor to
a greater refinement.
These bearing capacity factors are based on these three authors:
Terzaghi (1943):
For square footings,

qult = 1.3c ' N c + qN q + 0.4 BN

For continuous or wall footings

qult = c ' N c + qN q + 0.5 BN

where, q = D f
Nq =

and the factors are,

a2
a cos 2 ( 45 / 2 )

where a = e( 0.75 / 2) tan

N c = ( N q 1) cot
N =

tan K p
1

2
2 cos

Meyerhof (1963):

For vertical loads,

qult = cN c Fsc Fdc + qN q Fsq Fdq + 0.4 BN Fs Fd

and for inclined loads, qult = cN c Fic Fdc + qN q Fiq Fdq + 0.4 BN Fi Fd
and the factors are,
N q = e tan tan 2 ( 45 / 2 )
N c = ( N q 1) cot
N = ( N q 1) tan (1.4 )
Brinch Hansen (1970):

The general equation,

qult = cN c Fsc Fdc Fic + qN q Fsq Fdq Fiq + 0.4 BN Fs Fd Fi

and the factors are,


N q = e tan tan 2 ( 45 / 2 )
N c = ( N q 1) cot
N = 1.5 ( N q 1) tan

432

*Bearing01: Terzaghis bearing capacity formula for a square footing.


(Revision: Sept-08)

The square footing shown below must be designed to carry a 294 kN load. Use Terzaghis
bearing capacity formula to determine B of the square footing with a factor of safety =3.

Df = 1 m

W = 294 kN
= 18.15 kN/m3
= 35
c =0

B
Solution:

Terzaghi's formula for the ultimate bearing capacity qult of a square footing is,
qult = 1.3c ' N c + qN q + 0.4 BN

where q = D f

The allowable bearing capacity qall with the factor of safety of 3 is,

qult 1
and
= 1.3c ' N c + qN q + 0.4 BN
3
3
294 1
or
= 1.3c ' N c + qN q + 0.4 BN
2
B
3
For =35, N c =57.8, N q =41.4, and N =41.1.
qall =

qall =

W 294 kN
=
B2
B2

Substituting these values into Terzaghi's equation, we get


294 1
= ( 0 ) + (18.15)(1) (41.4) + (0.4) (18.15) B(41.1)
B2 3
294
= 250.5 + 99.5 B
B2
B 3 + 2.52 B 2 2.96 = 0
B = 0.90 m

433

*Bearing02: Meyerhofs bearing capacity formula for a square footing.


(Revision: Sept-08)

The square footing shown below must be designed to carry a 294 kN load. Use
Meyerhofs bearing capacity formula to determine B with a factor of safety =3.

W = 294 kN
= 18.15 kN/m3
= 35
c =0

Df = 1 m

B
Solution:

Meyerhof's formula for the ultimate bearing capacity qult of a square footing is,
qult = c ' N c Fsc Fdc Fic + qN q Fsq Fdq Fiq + 0.4 BN Fs Fd Fi

where q = D f

Since the load is vertical, all three inclination factors Fic =Fiq =Fi =1.
B
1
B
Fsq = 1 + tan = 1 + tan 35 = 1.70 and Fs = 1 0.4 = 1 0.4(1) = 0.6
L
1
L
2 Df
2 1
Fdq = 1 + 2 tan (1 sin )
= 1 + 2 ( tan 35 ) (1 sin 35) 1.25 and Fd = 1
B
B
The allowable bearing capacity qall with the factor of safety of 3 is,

qult 1 '
= c N c Fsc Fdc + qN q Fsq Fdq + 0.4 BN Fs Fd
3
3
294 1 '
= c N c Fsc Fdc + qN q Fsq Fdq + 0.4 BN Fs Fd
or
B2 3
For = 35, N c = 46.12, N q = 33.30, and N = 37.15.
qall =

and

qall =

W 294 kN
=
B2
B2

Substituting these values into Meyerhof''s equation, we get


294 1
= ( 0 ) + (18.15)(1) (33.3) (1.7 )(1.25 ) + (0.4) (18.15) B (37.15 )( 0.6 )(1)
B2 3
294
= 428.1 + 53.94 B or B 3 + 7.94 B 5.45 = 0 B = 0.65 m
2
B

434

*Bearing03: Hansens bearing capacity formula for a square footing.


(Revision: Sept-08)

The square footing shown below must be designed to carry a 294 kN load. Use Brinch
Hansens bearing capacity formula to determine B with a factor of safety =3.

W = 294 kN
= 18.15 kN/m3
= 35
c =0

Df = 1 m

B
Solution:

Hansen's formula for the ultimate bearing capacity qult of a square footing is,
qult = c ' N c Fsc Fdc Fic + qN q Fsq Fdq Fiq + 0.4 BN Fs Fd Fi

where q = D f

Since the load is vertical, all three inclination factors Fic =Fiq =Fi =1.
B
1
B
Fsq = 1 + tan = 1 + tan 35 = 1.7 and Fs = 1 0.4 = 1 0.4(1) = 0.6
L
1
L
2 Df
2 1
Fdq = 1 + 2 tan (1 sin )
= 1 + 2 ( tan 35 ) (1 sin 35) 1.255 and Fd = 1
B
B
The allowable bearing capacity qall with the factor of safety of 3 is,

qult 1 '
= c N c Fsc Fdc + qN q Fsq Fdq + 0.4 BN Fs Fd
3
3
294 1 '
= c N c Fsc Fdc + qN q Fsq Fdq + 0.4 BN Fs Fd
or
B2 3
For = 35, N c = 46.12, N q = 33.30, and N = 33.92.
qall =

and

qall =

W 294 kN
=
B2
B2

Substituting these values into Hansen's equation, we get


294 1
= ( 0 ) + (18.15)(1) (33.3) (1.7 )(1.255 ) + (0.4) (18.15) B (33.92 )( 0.6 )(1)
B2 3
294
= 429.8 + 49.25 B or B 3 + 8.73B 5.97 = 0 B = 0.70 m
2
B

435

*Bearing04: Same as #01 but requiring conversion from metric units.


(Revision: Sept-08)

The square footing shown below must be designed to a load of 30,000 kgm. Using a factor
of safety of 3 and using Terzaghis method, determine the size B of the square footing.

Df = 1 m

m = 30,000 kgm
= 1,850 kg/m3
= 35
c =0

B
Solution:

The soil density = 1,850 kgm / m3 converts to a unit weight via = g ( like F = ma ) ,
kg m
m

1,850 m3 9.81 s 2
= 18.15 kN / m3 and the load to be supported by the footing is,

= g =
(1, 000 N / kN )
W = ma =

( 30, 000 kg m ) 9.81

(1, 000 N / kN )

s2

= 294 kN

Terzaghi's ultimate bearing capacity of a square footing is given by,


qult = 1.3c ' N c + qN q + 0.4 BN

qult 1
P 294
and qall = 2 = 2
= 1.3c ' N c + qN q + 0.4 BN
B
B
3
3
294 1
or
= 1.3c ' N c + qN q + 0.4 BN
2
B
3
For = 35, N c = 57.8, N q = 41.4, and N = 41.1,

qall =

294 1
= ( 0 ) + (18.15)(1) (41.4) + (0.4) (18.15) B (41.1) B 3 + 2.52 B 2 2.96 = 0
2
B
3
B = 0.90 m

436

*Bearing05: General versus local bearing capacity failures.


(Revision: Sept-08)

Using Terzaghis method, distinguish between the value of the local shear failure versus
the general shear failure.

Solution:

Terzahi's general bearing capacity failure of a square footing is,


qult = 1.3c ' N C + qN q + 0.4 BN
For = 28 N c = 31.6, N q = 17.8, N = 15.0 and q = D f = (0.115)(2) = 0.23 ksf
Therefore,
qult = 1.3(0.30)(31.6) + (0.23)(17.8) + 0.4(0.115)(2.5)(15.0) = 18.1 ksf
To find the value of the bearing capacity of a local shear failure, the cohesion and angle
of internal friction are reduced by two-thirds,
'
'
'
'
qult
local = 1.3c ' N c + qN q + 0.4 BN

where c ' =

2
2
c = (0.30) = 0.2 ksf
3
3

2
2
and ' = ( ) = (28) = 18.7 which give N c' = 16.2, N q' = 6.5 and N' = 4.52
3
3
'
qult local = (1.3) (0.2)(16.2) + (0.23)(6.5) + (0.4)(0.115)(2.5)(4.52) = 6.2 ksf
qult general failure = 18.1 ksf

versus qult local failure = 6.2 ksf

( Almost a three to one)

437

*Bearing06: Comparing the Hansen and Meyerhof bearing capacities.


(Revision: Sept-08)

Compare the results of the Hansen and the Meyerhof bearing capacity formulas to the results
of a field test that took a rectangular footing to failure when the load reached 1,863 kN. Given
B = 0.5 m, L = 2.0 m, c = 0, triaxial = 42 and = 9.31 kN/m3 (the WT is at the surface).
Pult = 1,863 kN
WT
Df = 0.5 m
B = 0.5 m
Solution:
P
1,863 kN
= 1,863 kPa
qult = ult =
BL ( 0.5 m )( 2.0 m )

was the field measured failure load.

(1) The Hansen formula predicts an ultimate bearing capacity of,


qult = 0 + qN q Fqs Fqd + 0.5 BN F s F d
Lee ' s adjustment formula is ps = 1.5triaxial 17 = 1.5 ( 42 ) 17 = 46

For = 46 , N q = 158.5 and N = 244.65


B
0.5
Fqs = 1 + tan = 1 +
tan 46 = 1.26
L
2
B
0.5
F s = 1 0.4 = 1 0.4
= 0.9
L
2
D
0.5
Fqd = 1 + 2 tan (1 sin ) 2 f = 1 + 2 tan 46 (1 sin 46) 2
= 1.16
0.5
B
F d = 1.0
qult = 0 + (9.31)(0.5)(159)(1.27)(1.16) + (0.5)(9.31)(0.5)(245)(0.9)(1.0)
qult = 1, 485 kPa versus 1, 863 kPa measured ( Hansen underestimates by 20%)
(2) The Meyerhof formula with = 46, N q = 158.5 and N = 328.7 3,

qult = 0 + qN q Fqs Fqd + 0.5 BN F s F d


qult = 0 + (9.31) ( 0.5 )(158.5 ) (1.27) (1.16 ) + (0.5)(9.31)(0.5)(328.73)(0.9)(1.0)
qult = 1, 782 kPa versus 1, 863 kPa ( Meyerhof underestimates by 4 % ) .

438

*Bearing07: Increase a footings width if the WT is expected to rise.


(Revision: Sept-08)

Use Meyerhofs bearing capacity formula (with a factor of safety = 3) to select a footings width
B if, (a) the water table is as shown below, and (b) if the water table rises to the ground surface?
The soil has a unit weight of 112 pcf, a moisture of 10%, = 25, a cohesion cu = 240 psf and a
specific gravity of solids of Gs = 2.68.

Q = 200 kips

Df = 4 ft
3 ft

B
(square)

WT
Solution:

(a) Find SAT to determine ',

dry =

1 + wN

dry
Ws
112
= 101.8 pcf and V s =
=
G s w G s w
1.10

set V = 1 ft 3 V s =

101.8
= 0.61 ft 3 V v = V V s = 1 0.61 = 0.39 ft 3
2.68 ( 62.4 )

V
but sat = dry + n w = dry + v w sat = 101.8 + (0.39) ( 62.4 ) = 126.2 pcf
V
and ' = sat w = 126.2 62.4 = 63.8 pcf
T ry B = 5.7 feet with M eyerhof's equation,
q ult = c ' N c ( Fcs Fcd Fci ) + qN q ( Fqs Fqd Fqi ) + 0.5 BN ( F s F d F i )
w here the load inclination factors Fci , Fqi and F i = 1

25

K p = tan 2 45 + = tan 2 45 +
= 2.46, therefore
2
2

B
5.7
Fcs = 1 + (0.2) K p = 1 + (0.2)
(2.46) = 1.49
L
5.7
Df
4
Fcd = 1 + (0.2)
K p = 1 + (0.2)
2.46 = 1.22
5.7
B
Df
4
Fqd = F d = 1 + (0.1)
K p = 1 + (0.1)
2.46 = 1.11
5.7
B
For 10

5.7
B
Fqs = F s = 1 + (0 .1) K p = 1 + (0.1)(
)(2.46) = 1.25
5.7
L

439

The Meyerhof bearing capacity factors for = 25 are


N c = 20.7, N q = 10.7, and N = 6.77
qult = c ' N c ( Fcs Fcd Fci ) + qN q ( Fqs Fqd Fqi ) + 0.5 BN ( F s F d F i )
qult = (0.24)(20.7)(1.49)(1.22)(1) + (0.112)(4)(10.7)(1.25)(1.11)(1) + (0.5)(0.112)(5.7)(6.67)(1.25)(1.11)(1)
qult = 18.6 ksf
qall =

qult 18.6
Q
200
=
= 6.2 ksf therefore B 2 =
=
= 32.25 ft 2 B = 5.7 ft
FS
qall 6.2
3

Therefore the choice of B = 5.7 ft was a good choice.


(b) When the water table rises to the ground surface, need a larger footing; try B = 7.0 feet.
B
7
Fcd = 1 + 0.2 K p = 1 + 0.2 (2.46) = 1.49
L
7
Fcs = 1.49 same as above
D
4
Fqd = F d = 1 + 0.1 K p = 1 + 0.1 2.46 = 1.09
B
7
Fqs = F s = 1.25 same as above
qult = (0.24)(20.7) (1.49 )(1.18 ) + (0.062) ( 4 )(10.7 )(1.25 )(1.09 ) + (0.5)(0.062)(7) ( 6.67 )(1.09 )(1.25 )
qult = 16.62 ksf
qall =

qult 16.62
200
Q
=
= 5.54 ksf and B 2 =
=
= 36.1 ft 2 B = 6.01 ft
3
FS
qall 5.54

Iterate once more, and find B = 7.5 feet.

440

**Bearing08: The effect of the WT upon the bearing capacity.


(Revision: Sept-08)

Using the Hansen method, what are the ultimate and allowable bearing capacities for the
footing shown below if you require a factor of safety of at least 2?
P
c=0

t = 35
kN
m3
wN = 10 %, and Gs = 2.68

= 1 8 .1 0

Df = 1.0 m

Footing (2.5 x 2.5) m


0.85 m

WT

Solution:
Always use the effective unit weight of water in the bearing capacity formulas. The average
effective weight e of the soil can also be given by the formula:

dw
'
2

+
H dw )
wet
2
2 (
H
H

35

where H = (0.5) B tan 45 + = (0.5)(2.5) tan 45 +


= 2.40 m
2
2

and d w = depth to the WT below the footing invert = 0.85 m

e = (2H dw )

Set the total volume V = 1 m 3

wet

dry
16.5
=
= 0.63 m 3
G s wet (2.68) ( 9.8 )

kN
18.10
= 16.5 3
m
1 + 0.10

and

Vs =

Vv = 1.0 V s = 1 0.63 = 0.37 m 3

and

sat = dry + n wet = 16.5 + (0.37) ( 9.8 ) = 20.1

dry =

1+ w

0.85 (18.10 ) 20.1 9.8


kN
2
e = ( (2)(2.40 0.85) )
+
( 2.40 0.85 ) = 12.6 3
2
2
m
( 2.4 )
( 2.4 )
Using Hansens method with = 35, the bearing capacity factors are Nq = 33.3 and N = 33.92.

359

kN
m3


tan 3 5 = 1 .7 0

2 D f
o
o 2 1
= 1 + 2 tan (1 sin )
= 1 + 2 tan 3 5 (1 sin 3 5 )
= 1 .1 0
B
2
.5

B
2 .5
) = 0 .6
= 1 0 .4
= 1 0 .4 (
L
2 .5
= 1 .0

Fq s = 1 +
Fq d
F s
F d

B
2 .5
tan = 1 +
L
2 .5

T h erefo re, th e u ltim ate an d allo w ab le b earin g cap acities are,


q u lt = 0 + q N q ( F q s F q d ) + 0 .5 e B N ( F s F d )

q u lt = (1 8 .1) (1 .0 )( 3 3 )(1 .7 0 )(1 .1 0 ) + (0 .5) (1 2 .6 )( 2 .5 )( 3 4 )( 0 .6 )(1 )


q u lt = 1, 4 9 7 kP a
q a ll =

1, 4 9 7
= 7 4 9 kP a
2

360

*Bearing09: Finding the gross load capacity.


(Revision: Sept-08)

Use the Hansen formula to determine the gross normal load N on the column shown
below using a factor of safety of 3.

N
=18.1 kN/m3
=32

0.61 m

c=0

0.61 m

sat = 21.07 kN/m3


1.22 m

Solution:

The Hansen formula for a footing is,


qult = cN c Fcs Fcd + qN q Fqs Fqd + 0.5 BN y Fys Fyd
The inclination factors Fci , Fqi , and F i are all equal to 1 because the load is vertical.
For = 32 , N c = 35.49, N q = 23.18 and N = 20.79 and B / L = 1
Nq
Fcs = 1 +
= 1 + ( 23.20 / 35.50 ) = 1.65
Nc
Fqs = 1 + tan = 1 + 0.62 = 1.62
B
Fys = 1 0.4 = 1 0.4 = 0.60
L
2 D
Fqd = 1 + 2 tan (1 sin ) f = 1 + (2)(0.62)(0.22)(1) = 1.273 for D f / B 1
B
Fyd = 1
(1 Fqd )
1 1.273
Fcd = Fqd
= 1.273
= 1.292
N q tan
23.20 0.62

361

The WT is located above the footing, therefore,


q = ( 0.61m ) (18.1 kN / m3 ) + ( 0.61m )( 21.07 9.81) = 17.9 kN / m 2
qult = (17.9)(1.62)(1.273)(23.20) + ( 0.5 )( 0.6 )( 21.07 9.81)(1.22 )( 20.8 )(1) = 981 kN / m 2
Therefore,
2
q 981kN / m
2
qall = ult =
= 327 kN / m
3
3

Hence, the total gross load N is,

N = qall B 2 = (327 kN / m 2 )(1.22m) 2 = 487 kN

362

**Bearing10: The effect of an eccentric load upon bearing capacity.


(Revision: Sept-08)

A rectangular footing measures 5 feet by 2.5 feet. Determine the gross ultimate load Qult
applied eccentrically upon the footing, and the ultimate bearing capacity of the soil qult,
given that = 115 pcf, c = 0 and = 30.

Solution:

The effective footing width B ' = B - 2 e x = ( 2.5 ) - 2 ( 0.2 ) = 2.1 ft


and the effective length L ' = L - 2 e y = ( 5 ) - 2(0.4) = 4.2 ft.
M eyerhof's ultimate bearing capacity formula with c = 0 is,
q ult = 0 + qN q Fqs Fqd + 0.5 B N F ys F d
For = 30 o , N q = 18.4 and N = 15.67
B'
2.1
Fqs = 1 + ' tan = 1 +
( 0.58 ) = 1.29
4.2
L
2 2
Fqd = 1 + 2 ( tan 30 )(1 sin 30 )
= 1.275
2.1
B
2.1
F ys = 1 0.4 = 1 0.4
= 0.8
L
4.2
F yd = 1
q ult = ( 2)(0.115 ) (18.4) (1.29 )(1.275 ) + (0.5)(0.115)(2.1)(15.67) ( 0.8 )(1 ) = 8.47 ksf
Hence ,

Qult = q ult ( B L ) = ( 8.47 )( 2.1) (4 .2 ) = 74. 73 kips

363

**Bearing11: The effect of an inclined load upon the bearing capacity.


(Revision: Sept-08)

A square 8 x 8 footing is loaded with an axial load of 400 kips and Mx = 200 ft-kips, My =
120 ft-kips. Un-drained triaxial tests (the soil is not saturated) gave = 33 and c = 200 psf.
The footing depth Df = 6.0 feet, the soil unit weight is 115 pcf, and the WT was not found.
Use the Hansen equation with the Meyerhof reduction factors and a FS = 3 to find the
allowable bearing capacity qall.

Vertical axial load = 400 kips


Mx = 200 ft-kips
My = 120 ft-kips

Solution:
Eccentricities

ex =

My
Q

120 ft k
= 0.3 feet
400

Br = B 2e y = 8' 1' = 7 feet

and

and

ey =

M x 200 ft k
=
= 0.5 feet
Q
400

Lr = L 2ex = 8' 0.6 ' = 7.4 feet

(ie. Lr > Br)

Adjusting the from triaxial (tr ) to a plane-strain value ( ps ) via Lees formulation,

ps 1.1tr = 1.1( 32.7 ) = 36


36

N q = e tan 36 tan 2 45 +
= 37.8
2

N c = ( N q 1) cot = ( 36.8) cot 36 = 50.6

N = ( N q 1) tan (1.4 ) = ( 36.8 ) tan 50.4 = 44.4


N = 1.5 ( N q 1) tan = 1.5 ( 36.8 ) tan 36 = 40.1

B
7
= 1.73
Sc = 1 + 0.2 K p r = 1 + 0.2 ( 3.85 )
7.4
Lr
D
6
and d c = 1 + 0.2 K p = 1 + 0.2 3.85 = 1.34
7
Br

Since > 10 , S q = S 1.0

and

d q = d = 1.0 .

365

Hansens

qult = 0.5 BN S d i g b + cN c S c d c ic g c bc + qq N q S q d q iq g q bq

Also i = g = b = 1.0 for this problem, since = 0 = i (inclination factor f / load Q with t
vertical) = 4
g (ground factor with t inclined ground on side of footing)
b (base factor with t inclined ground under the footing)
qult = 0.5 ( 0.115 )( 7 )( 40.1)(1) + ( 0.200 )( 50.6 )(1.73 )(1.34 ) + ( 0.115 )( 6 )( 37.8 )(1) =
qult = 16.1 + 23.5 + 26.1 = 65.7 ksf

qall =

R ex

qult 65.7
=
= 21.9 ksf
FS
3
1

e 2
0.3 2
= 1 x = 1
= 0.8 1
8
B

e 2
0.5 2
Rey = 1 y = 1
= 0.7 5
8
B

2
Qall = qall ( B ) ( R e x ) ( R e y ) = 21.9 ( 8 x8 )( 0.81)( 0.75 ) = 851 kips
qall =

Qall 851
=
= 13.3 ksf
B 2 64

400
(The contact load qo = 13
= 6.1 ksf )
851

366

**Bearing-12: Interpretation of borings to estimate a bearing capacity.


(Revision: Sept-08)

Use the boring logs show below to recommend an allowable soil pressure qall for the
footings located in the vicinity of elevation 284, boring No. 2?
The building is a four-story (five on the low side) office building with column loads
around 160 kips. State your reasons.

Topsoil

Fine brown silty sand - small gravel

Brown silty clay

Fine brown silty sand - trace of coarse sand

Fine to medium brown silty


sand -some small to medium
gravel

Boring No.5
Boring No.2

Boring No.3

Elevation
295.0

295
Elevation
290.6
290

Elevation
292.8

Elevation
288.0

Sandy

6 Got
10 Firmer

285
Got
Firmer

Got Firmer
25
Got Firmer
22

280

Cohesive
275

Got
firmer

36 6 in.
boulder
38
34

5
4

14

Dark
7 brown

71

Got
Firmer
Got
Firmer

7
13

25
29
Hard

16

46
71
51

47 Hard
69
38
34

62
67

39
32

Hard
270

Got
27 Firmer

Elevation
296.6

Boring No.4

69
74

Notes:

1. All elevations are in accordance with plot furnished by architect.


2. Borings were made using standard procedures with 2-in. -OD split spoon.
3. Figures to the right of each boring log indicate the numbeer of blows required
to drive the 2-in.-OD split spoon 12 in. using a 140 lb weight falling 30 in.
4.No water encountered in any of the borings.

Solution:
It is presumed that all the buildings footings will be placed at roughly elevation 284 or
thereabouts. This is fine for the building area covered by borings # 3, 4 and 5 because they
have good SPT values.
Meyerhof has proposed formulas for the allowable bearing capacity adjusted so that the
settlement is limited to 1-inch. These formulas are:
N
qall = ( K D ) for B 4 ft
4

367

N B +1

( K D ) for B> 4ft


6 B
Df
where K D = 1 + 0.33
1.33
B

47 + 51 + 71
= 56.33 56 (#3, 4, and 5)
For the silty sand use N=
3
Lets assume B=4.5 ft and Df =0
2

qall =

56
qall =
6
q0

Q
B2

4.5 + 1

(1) = 13.9 ksf


45
2

This suggests that a B = 4.5 feet is excessive since

160kips
= 7.9 qall = 13.9 ksf
20.25sf

Assume B < 4 ft, say B~ 3.5 ft , and use formula


qall=

N
( KD )
4

qo

kd =1+ 0.33Df /B

56 0.33Df
1 +
and Df = 0 qall = 14 ksf
B
4

Q
160 kips
=
= 13.06 13 ksf 14 ksf OK
2
(3.5) 2
B

For footings in area of borings # 1 and #2, they will be deeper by 1-story (ie. for 5-story
building). That places the shallow foundation at elevation 274 ft. This area will have bearing
in the same strata. N= 32 and using B= 3.50 and Df = 4.5
N
32 0.33x 4.5
kd
kd =1+0.33Df /B 1.33 Kd =
qall=
1 +
= 1.33
3.50
4
4
qall =10.64ksf < 13 ksf NOT GOOD

Lets use B= 3.90 feet

Q
qall = 10.64 ksf q0 = 2 = 10.51 ksf 10.64 ksf
B

Use B = 3.90 feet.

368