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RECAPITULARE

1. Propozitiile interogative introduse prin pronumele interogativ "who" au intotdeauna structura


unei propozitii afirmative, iar verbul este la persoana a III-a singular.

Who saw you? - Cine te-a vazut?

Who wants the book? - Cine vrea cartea?

2. Numeralele ordinale:

the first - primul, prima, intaiul, intaia

the second - al doilea, a doua

the third - al treilea, a treia

the fourth - al patrulea, a patra


LECTIA
, 19 - PARTEA INTAI

In aceasta parte a lectiei yom invata cuvinte legate de starea vremii.


Cititi-le cu voce tare ~i tlti atenti la intelesul lor in limba romana:

gale > [geil] vant putemic, vijelie

hail > [heil] grindina

shower > haua '] aversa, ploaie torenti-


ala

ice > rais] gheata

shade > heid] umbra, nuanta

dew > [diu:] roua


r
thunderstorm > [T'anda sto: '111 J - fmtuna cu traznete,
vijelie

umbrella > [ambrela] umbrela

road > [roud] drum, ~osea

hurricane > [harikan] uragan

thaw > [T'o: ] dezghet, topire

sunny spells > [sani spelz] vreme insorita

Cititi din nou cuvintele, dar in alta ordine:

thaw > [TSo:] dezghet, topire

umbrella > [ambrela] umbrela

shade > [~eid] umbra, nuanta

hail > [heil] grindina

sunny spells > [sani spelz] - vreme insorita

road > [roud] drum, ~osea

thunderstorm > [T'andarsto:rm] furtuna cu traznete

ice > [ais] gheata

gale > [gcil ] vant putemic, vijelie

hurricane > [harikanl - uragan

dew > [diu:] roua

shower > I~auar] aversa, ploaie torenti-


ala

-2-
lata cuvintele noi In propozitii:

There were a lot of gales > l D"ea' "a :' a lot ov geilz - Au fost multe vijelii
in January. in djEniLlari] In ianuarie.

There was some hail > [ Dlea' "az sam heil - Azi dimineata a fost
this morning. DZis mo:'nin lgl ] grindina.

There is ice on the water. > [Dlea' iz ais on Dla "o:ta'] - Este gheata pe apa.

Can you see the dew > l kEn iu: si: DLa diu: - Poti sa vezi roua
on the grass? on DZa gra:s] pe iarba?

There are no thunderstorms > [Dlea' a:' nau Pand~l'sto:'mz - In aceste locuri nu sunt
in these surroundings. in D'i:z saraundin(g)z] furtuni cu traznete.

Don't forget your umbrella! > l daunt forget io:' ambrela] - Nu-ti uita umbrela!

This road is too narrow > [Dlis raud iz tLl: nErau - Acest drum este prea Ingust
for a van. fo:' a YEn] pentru 0 furgoneta.

Hurricanes bring a lot of > [harikanz brin(g) a lot av - Uraganele aduc multa
ram. rein] ploaie.

The thaw will start >[DZa Po: "il sta:'t - Dezghetul va Incepe
next month. nekst man T'] luna viitoare.

The shade is long > [D1a ~cid iz !on(g) - E multa umbra


in the afternoon. in D"i a: fta'nu:n] dupa amiaza.

There will be a shower > [D"e[l' "il bi: a ~aua' - Dimineata va fi aversa.
in the morning. in D"a mo:'nin lg )]

Sunny spells don't often > [sani spclz daunt oti1 - Toamna nu este des
happen in autumn. hEpn in o:t~lm] vreme Insorita.

Completati urmatoarele propozitii In limba engleza cu cuvintele corespunzatoare. Folositi filtrul ro~u:

Nu-mi place dezghetul. - I don't like >the thaw.

Ti-ai cumparat deja 0 umbrela noua? - Have you already bought a new >umbrella?

A fost 0 nuanta de zambet pe fata lui. - There was a >Shade of smile on his face.

In aceasta primavara nu va fi grindina. - There won't be any >hail this spring.

Ultima zi Insorita a fast in urma cu 0 luna. - The last >sunny spell was a month ago.

Trebuie s-o luam pe acest drum. - We must take this >road.

Vara imi plac furtunile cu trasnete. - 1 love >thunderstorms in summer.

Este multa gheata pe rau. - There is a lot of >ice on the river.

Chiar vrei sa ie~i pe acest vant puternic? - Do you really want to go out in this >gale?

Uraganul este In apropierea Americii. - The >hurricane is near America.

Dimineata este Intotdeauna roua pe iarba. - There is always >dcw on the grass
in the morning.

Cred ca maine vor fi averse. - I think there will be >Showers tomorrow.

3
Traduceti propozqllle urmiHoare in Innba engleza.

lIm plac toate nuantele de verde. > I like all shades of green.

Acest drum este cel mal bun. > ThIs road IS the best.

Luna aceasta au fost multe vlJelIi. > ThIs month there have been
many thundel storms.

Nu-ml plac aversele. > I don't like showers.

Pune-tl pantofil! Este roua pe iarba. > Put on your shoes! There IS dew on the grass.

Cand este dezghet, strazile sunt ude. > When there IS thaw, the streets are wet.

Pot sa Iau umbreJa ta? > Can I take your umbrella?

NO! am pierdut totul in tlmpul uraganului. > \Ve lost everythmg m the hurncane.

Intr-adevar itl place cealUl rece cu gheata? > 00 you Ieally like Ice-tea?

Sper ca aZI va fi vreme insonta. > I hope there wIll be sunny spells today.

leri a fost ploale ~I gnndma. > Yestelday we had ram and haIl.

lama sunt des vantun putemlce. > [here are often gales In WInter.

Primavara va SOSI dupa ultImul dezghet. > SPI mg \\ III come after the last thaw.

In aceasta Jeetle ne vom ocupa de 0 problema nnportanta a gramatIcn engleze, modul conditional.
Propozltla condltlOnala este de trel tipun. lata primul tip.

Tipul intii (1. Conditional) ~e refera la vuto/: indepl//urea cond/tiei, respect/v realtzarea activitiiru
\'l/toare, este poslhila.

lata cateva exemple.

If you return thIS book > [IfILl IIta.'n O/IS buk - Oaca inapoiezI aceasta carte,
you will get another III till gct ana0 7 a'] vel prum alta.

If she leaves too late, > [If ~l iI. vz tu lclt - Oaca ea pJeaca prea tarziu,
she will be late for her bus. r
Sl ull bl. IClt fo. r ha· bas] va plerde autobuzul.

The weather will be nice If > LOla L1 e D l a' L111 bl n,IlS If - Vremea va fi placuta, daca
the temperatlll e Isn't lower. D/a tcmp[Jt~ar iznt loua'] temperatura nu va fi mai scazutii.

Deslgllr arl oh.\ervat cum se utllt:.ea:.a if [If] (inseal11na' daca, presllpunimd ca) in propozitil.

Rerl/lerl ca in propo:.ltia condltlOllala (care este Illtrodll~a pnn if) se foloseste tl/npul prezent
simplu (SImple Present), far ill propo:'lrfa prinClpala ~e IItlltzeaza vlitorul Sllllplu (Sllnple Future).

4
Completati propozitiile unnatoare cu cuvintele corespunzatoare:

Daca ploua nu vom merge 1a plimbare. - If it > ramswe won't go for a walk.

Nu vei fi un medic bun, daca - You won't be a good doctor if


nu inveti. you> don't learn.

Oaca maine e gel', vom ramane - If there > IS frost tomorrow, we will stay
acasa. at home.

Daca nll-~i ia umbrela, ea se va intoarce - If she> doesn't take her umbrella


acasa uda. she will return home wet.

lar acum sa invatam cateva adjective noi. Cititi cllvintele cu voce tare ~i retineti corespondentullor
in limba romana:

slippery > [slipall] - alunecos

severe > [sl\ia'] - sever, aspru, cumplit

changeable > [t~cindjabl] - schimbator

dense > [dens] - dens, compact

oppressIve > [opresiv] - apasator, inabu~itor

dangerous > [dcmdjaras] -periculos

Sa exersam acelea~i cuvinte, dar intr-o alta ordine:

changeable > [t;;emdlabl] - schimbator

oppressive > [OpICSIV] - apasator, inabu~itor

slippery > [slipan] - alunecos

severe > [slviarJ - sever, aspru, cumplit

dense > [dens] - dens, compact

dangerous > [dcmdjaras] -periculos

Cititi cu voce tare unnatorlll dialog scurt in care apar ~i cuvintele noi:

A: Do you like the weather today?


B: No, it's awful. In the morning the fog was so dense that I didn't see my car.
A: Yes, and the streets were slippery. It was dangerous. I think this winter will be severe.
B: I am not sure. The weather is always changeable in November. And it's better than the
oppressive heat in summer.

lata propozitiile din text ~i traducerea lor in limba romana:

Do you like the weather > [dll iu. lalk [Ya lIefYa' - iti place azi vremea?
today? ladc!]

No, it's awfuL. > [lldll lis II IlJ - Nu, este groaznica.

5
In the morning the fog was > [111 D\l mo:'nin(g) D/a Dimineata ceata a fost atat
so dense that I didn't see my l'og U oz sou d ens DIE~t al. de deasa, incat nu mi-am
car. didnt si: mai ka: ]
r vazut ma~ina.

Yes, and the streets were > [/\:s End D/a stri:ts ua:r Da, ~i strazile au fost
slippery. sliparil alunecoase.

It was dangerous. > !it uoz deindjaras] A fost periculos.


I think this winter will be > [ai r'in(g)k D/IS uintar IIi] Cred ca aceasta iarna va fi
severe. bi: sidi/] aspra.

I am not sure. > [ai Em not ;;ua'] Nu sunt sigur.


The weather is always > [D/a ueD/al IZ o:luelz In noiembrie vremea este
changeable in November. t;;eindjabl In nouvemb[\I] intotdeauna schimbatoare.
r
And it's better than the > [End its beta D/En D/a Si este mai bine decat
oppressive heat in summer. opresiv 11I.t in sal1la') caldura inabu~itoare vara.

Desigur ati memorat deja cuvintele noi. Completati unnatoarele propozitii cu cuvintele cores-
punzatoare:

S-a depus un ger cumplit. > Sevel e frost has set in.
In Romania avem 0 vreme schimbatoare. We have> changeable weather in
Romania.
Este un trafic intens pe strazi. There is > dense traffic in the streets.
Drumul a fost alunecos a~a ca noi am mers The road was> "lIppery so we went on
pe jos. foot.
Aceste animaIe pot fi periculoase. These animals can be > dangerous.
Vara aceasta a fost 0 caldura inabu~itoare. This summer there has been> oppressIve
heat.

"Severe frost has set in."

-6-
Traducetl in hmba engleza urmatoarele cuvinte. Folosltl filtrul ro~u:

schimbator > Lhangeable

dens > dense

alunecos > slippery

sever > scvere

inabu~itor > oppressive

periculos > dangcrous

Numeralele ordinale invatate pana acum sunt:

the first - primul, prima, intaiul, intaia

the second - al doilea, a doua

the third - al trellea, a treia

the fourth - al patrulea, a patra

Celelalte numerale ord/llale se formeazii prin adiiugarea ternlll1a!iel -th la l1umeralele cardinale:

SlX sixth > [siksT']

seven seventh > [sevnT S ]

Ortografia IIIlOra dintre numerale ordinale se schil11bii prin adiiugarea terl11ina!iei -th:

five fifth > [fifP]

twelve twelfth > [tUclfP]

in ca::ul ill care Ilumeralele se terl11inii in -y, acesta se preschimbii in -ie, la adiiugarea terl11ina!iei -th:

twenty twentieth > [t"entlaT']

in cazul numeralelor urdlllale compuse - ca de exemplu "al douii::eci ,~i unulea, al dOllea, al
trezlea ", in englezii folosim cuvintele first, second, third, etc.:

al douazeci ~I unulea - the twenty- first > [t"entl fa:rst]

al trelzeci ~i doilea - the thirty-second > [T'a:rti sekand]

~aizeci ~i treilea - the sixty-third > [sikstl T'a 'd]

Traduceti unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

A fost a zecea noastra zi de lucru. > It was our tenth day of work.

Aceasta carte este pe al douazeci ~i ~aselea > ThiS book IS on the twenty-sixth
raft la dreapta. shelf on the nght.

Al patruzeci ~I ~aptelea profesor tocmai > The 1"01 ty-se\ enth tcacher has Just
a solicitat sluJba. dppllcd for the lob.

7
Daca numeralele sunt sCl'ise cu cifi-e, atunci c!frelor Ii se adauga ultimele doua litere ale for-
mei serise eu litere:

first 1st
second 2nd
third 3rd
twenty-fifth 25th

Acum sa Invatam ~ase verbe noi:

to need > [tll nl:dl a avea nevoie de, a trebui

to freeze > [tll fri:z] a Ingheta, a degera

to melt > [tll melt] a topi, a se topi

to drizzle > [tLl dtizl] a bumita


to drop > [tu drop] a picura, a ciidea, a scapa

to set in > [tLl set in] a Incepe, a se instala

Sa exersam acela~i verbe Intr-o alta ordine:

to drop > [tLl drop] a picura, a cadea, a scapa

to melt > [tLl melt I a topi, a se topi

to set in > [tLl set in] a Incepe, a se instala


to need > [lLl nut] a avea nevoie de, a trebui

to drizzle > ItLl drizl] a bumita

to freeze > [tLl fri:z] a Ingheta, a degera

Dintre verbele de mai sus, doua sunt neregulate. lata formele lor:

forma a I-a forma a II-a forma a III-a


freeze > I !tTZ] froze > [fIOUZ] frozen > [frollll1]
set in > [set mJ set in > [set Ill] set in > [set 111]

Sa folosim aceste verbe In propozitii. Cititi-le cu voce tare ~i urmariti traducerea In limba
romana:

He has always needed our > [hi' hEz o:llle/z l1i:did El a avut Intotdeauna
help. aua help]
l nevoie de ajutorul nostru.

The water has frozen. Apa a Inghetat.

The thaw will set in next > [O/a T'o: lid set 111 nekst - Dezghetul va Incepe luna
month. manT'] viitoare.

The ice has already melted. > [D/i alS hEz o'lredi - Gheata s-a topit deja.
meltid]

-8-
We won't go to town if it > l"i: "ount gau tu taun if it - Nu vom merge in ora~ daca
drizzles tomorrow. drizlz tamorau] va burnita maine.

Don't drop this magazine > [daunt drop D/is mEgazi:n - Nu scapa pe podea
on the floor. on DZ~\ flo:'] aceasta revista.

In exercitiul urmator completati urmatoarele propozitii cu forma corespunzatoare a verbelor:

A cazut ceva de pe masa. - Something has >dropped from the table.

Gheata se va topi primavara. - Ice will >melt in spring.

Trebuie sa congelam ni~te mancare. - We must >freeze some food.

Ai nevoie azi de )na~ina? - Do you >need the car today?

Daca incepe un inghet aspru, vom parasi - If severe frost >sets in we will leave
acest ora~. this town.

A bumitat ieri toata ziua. - It >drizzled all day yesterday.

Desigur v-ati insu~it deja verbele noi. Traduceti in limba romana:

a ingheta > to freeze

a avea nevoie de > to need

a se topi > to melt

a se instala, a incepe > to set in

a burnita > to drizzle

a scapa > to drop

Cititi cu atentie propozitiile:

They make cars in this factory. - Ei fac ma~ini in aceasta fabrica.

Cars are made in this factory. - In aceasta fabrica se fac ma~ini.

Ati sesizat deosebirea?

Propozi{ia a doua este la diateza pasiva (Passive Voice [pa: siv vois)), care se folose,~te atunci ciind
subiectul este obiectul care suferd ac{iunea iar autorul ac{iunii este exprimat printr-ul1 complement.
Diateza pasiva se compune din forma corespunzatoare a verbului to be ~i forma a III-a a verbului
principal.

9
lata dHeva exemple:

The hammer was found in > [Dza hEmal' lI oz faund in - Ciocanul a fast gasit in
the shed. DZa ~edj ~ura.

The floor in the kitchen will > lD\\ flo:1' in D/a kil~an Podeua din bucatarie va fi
be mopped tomorrow. lIj] bi: mopt tamorouj spalata maine.

Unneaza un exercitiu u~or. Transfonnati propozitiile din diateza activa in diateza pasiva. Com-
pletati propozitiile:

She emptied the basket. The basket> was emptied.

She has ironed her son's shirts. Her son's shirts> have been ironed.

We will negotiate a raise tomorrow. A raise> will be negotiated tomorrow.

They deliver newspapers every day. Newspapers> are delivered every day.

!/~~~~ser~~t,~~~;:~~~~;~~~I~~entuI~~:~~~;~pozitieila di~teza I
I activa devine subiectul propozitiei la diateza pasiva. I
l -._-_._- ._ ... _._- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ . - .. _---_ .._-_. __. _ - - - - - - - - - - . - /.

Sa recapitulam materialul acestei parti a lectiei. Traduceti unnatoarele propozitii in limba


engleza:

Am uitat sa iau umbrela. > I have forgotten to take the umbrella.

Am avut doar cil.teva furtuni cu trasnete > We have had only a few thunderstonTIs
vara aceasta. this summer.

Acest drum a fost construit in urma cu doi > This road was buill two y ~ars ago.
am.

Al doisprezecelea politist a sosit prea tarziu. > The twelfth policeman caine too late.

Daca nu lucrezi nu vei avea bani. > If you don't work you will not have
money.

Toate scrisorile au fost trimise deja. > All letters have already b,:en sent.

Iivom vizita pe John ~i pe Mary dad nu > We ""ill visit John and Mary if it doesn't
ploua marunt. drizzle.

Puloverul meu a fost cro~etat. > My sweater has been knitted.

Daca ceata este deasa, nu vom vedea nimic. > If the fog is dense, we witl see nothing.

Drumurile alunecoase sunt foarte pericu- > Slippery roads are very ch,ngerous.
loase.

Am nevoie de 0 multime de haine noi. > I need a 101 of new clothes.

Acesta este al cincizecilea angajat al nostru. > This is our fiftielh employee.

- 10-
LECTIA
, 19 - PARTEA A DaDA

Furtunile ;;i ploile din prima parte a lectiei ne-au Iacut sa ne gfmdim la
caminul nostru confortabil. Sa intram in donnitor:
double bed > [dabl bed] - pat dublu
sheet > [~i:t] - cear;;af
blanket > [hIEn{g)kit] - piltura
pillow > [pilou] - perna
bedspread > [bedspredj - cuvertura de pat
alarm clock > [ala:1m klok I - ceas de;;teptiitor
sheets > [~i:tsl - cear;;afuri, foi de har-
tie
wardrobe > C'o:'droub] - garderoba, ;;ifonier,
dulap de haine
rug > [rag] - covora;;, carpeta
dressing-gown > [dresin(g) gaun] - halat, capot
single bed > [sing I bed] - pat de 0 persoana
dream > [dri:lll] - vis
nightmare > [naitmefl'] - co;;mar

Repetati cuvintele ;;i in aWi ordine. Exersati pronuntia ;;i retineti sensul
lor in limba romfma:
rug > [rag] - covora;;, carpeta
dream > [dri:m] - vis
bedspread > [bedspredl - cuvertura de pat
double bed > [dabl bed] - pat dublu
pillow > [pilau] - perna
nightmare > [naitmcf{] - co;;mar
blanket > [bIEnlg)kitj - patura
wardrobe > [uo:rdroub] - garderoba, ;;ifonier,
dulap de haine
alarm clock > [ala:rm klakj - ceas de;;teptator
sheet > r~i:t] - cear;;af
dressing-gown > ldresin(g) gaun] - halat
single bed > [singl bed] - pat de 0 persoana
sheets > [;;i:tsJ - cear;;afuri, foi de har-
tie

- 11 -
Sa citim cu voce tare dialogul, in care am folosit ~i cuvintele noi:

A: What do you want to have in our bedroom?


B: We must have one double bed or two single beds.
A: I think we can have a wardrobe in the corner of the room.
B: Yes, and two small rugs near the bed. I want to buy many new
things. I am thinking about new dressing-gowns, new pillows
and blankets.
A: ... new sheets and a large bedspread. Can we afford it?
B: I hope we can. We can also buy a new electric alarm clock.
They are very good.
A: Will we buy new, nice dreams too?
B: I think that after we buy all the new things we can afford only
nightmares. They are cheaper.

Sa analizam acum separat fiecare propozitie. Cititi propozitiile ~i fiti atenti la pronuntie:

What do you want to have in> [u ot du iu: uont tu hEv in - Ce vrei sa avem in noul
our new bedroom? aLla' nlU: bedrumJ nostru donnitor?

We must have one double > lUi: mast hEv lI an dabl Trebuie sa avem un pat
bed or two single beds. bed 0:
1
tu: sing] bedz] dublu sau doua paturi
simple.
I think we can have a big > [al T\n(1!)k ui: kEn hEv a Cred ca putem avea un
wardrobe in the comer of the · 1I o. I'd rou b'111 D Z a-
b Ig ~ifonier mare in coltul
room. ko:1n[\1 ov DZa ru:m] camerei.

Yes, and two small rugs near> I ics End tLl smo.l ragz Da, ~i doua covora~e mici
the bed. nia' D\\ hed] langa pat.

I want to buy many new > [ai uont tLl bai me111 nlU: Vreau sa cumpar multe
things. T'intg)z] 1ucruri noi.

I am thinking about new > [ai Em T'in l 1!)kin(g) abaut Ma gandesc la ha1ate noi,
dressing-gowns, pillows and nlLl: dresin(g) gaunz peme ~i paturi.
blankets. piloLlz End blEn(g)kits]

... new sheets and a large > [n/Ll. :;;i:t<: End a la:l'dj ... cear~afuri noi ~i 0
bedspread. bedspred] cuvertura de pat mare.

Can we afford it? > [kFn ul. fIfo t d it] Ne putem pennite asta?

I hope we can. > [<Ii hOLlp u1: kEnJ Sper ci'i putem.

We can also buy a new > [ul: kEn olsou bal a niu: Putem deasemenea
electric alann clock. ilektnk rda:1m klok] cumpara ~i un ceas
de~teptator electric nou.

They are very good. Sunt foarte bune.

Will we buy new, nIce > [till ul. bal niLl. l1alS Vom cumpara ~i vise noi,
dreams too? dl! mz tu'] placute?

- 12-
l
I think that after we buy all > [ai T'm()2Jk D/Et a:fta Cred ca dupa ee
the new things we can afford lIj: hal 0:1 D/fl nllJ: cumparam toate luerurile
only nightmares. T'in()2)z IIi. k1:11 Mold noi, ne yom putea permite
doar co~maruri.
ounli na/tml.:fllzj
1
They are cheaper. > !D\:i a: t"i.pfl'l - Sunt mai ieftine.

Acum folositi noile cuvinte. Introduceti-Ie in unnatoarele propozitii:

Ei au aiei eamere eu paturi duble. - They have rooms with> double bed"
here.

Trebuie sa-i cumpar nevestei mele un halat I must buy my wife a new> dressIng

Putem sa-ti dam doar paturi ~i peme. We can only give you> blankets and
> pillows.

Cit costa acest ceas de~teptator. How much is this> alarm clock?

Ai vazut cear~afurile verzi in magazin? Did you see the green> sheets in the
shop?

Vom lua un pat simplu pentru fiica noastra. We'll take one> single bed for our
daughter.

Ce culoare au covora~ele tale? What colour are your > r~lgs?

Cuvertura de pat trebuie sa fie alba. The> bedspread must be white.

Vom face un ~ifonier ~i-I yom a~eza in colt. We'll make a > \\ardrobc and put it in
the corner.

Visezi des noaptea? Do you often have> dreams at night?

Ultimele zile au fost un co~mar pentm mine. The last days were a > nightmare for me.

L ~ P'.. ~~ ~ . _
"I must buy my wife a new dressing-gown".

- 13 -
Traduceti In limba engleza urmatoarele cuvinte: J

vis > dream

patura > blanket

halat, capot > dress109-gown

perna > pillow

ceas dqteptator > alarm clock

covora~ > lUg

cear~af > sheet

cear~afuri, foi de hartie > sheets

cuvertura de pat > bedspread

co~mar > nIghtmare

garderoba > \\ ardrobe

pat dublu > double bed

pat de 0 persoana > smgle bed

Datele se scnu ill fe/ul urmiitor:

on the 21 st of October - pe 21 octombrie

The bed will be delivered on > [LYa bed l'll bl. dlliva'd on - Patul va fi livrat la
the 15th of November. [)fa ld'ti.nPav nou\cmb,I'] 15 noiembrie.

This letter was written > [[YIS leta' "az I iln on - Aceasta scrisoare a fost scrisa
on 31 st July. DZa Pa"11 fa ' s t ,1\ dlul:lI] pe 31 iulie.

Sa Inva!am cateva verbe noi:

to kill > [tll kll] - a omori, a ucide

to drown > [tll thalln] - a Ineca, a se Ineca

to wreck > [Iulck] - a sfarama, a distruge, a avaria

to bum > [Iu barn] - a arde, a prajI, a fi aprins

Unul dmtre verbe este neregulat:

forma I forma a II-a fonna a lll-a

burn > [bel 'n] burnt burnt > [ba 'nl]

14
lata cum se folosesc verbele in Propoziiii:

He killed seven people. > [hi: kild SC\ n pi:pl] EI a ucis ~apte oameni.

That man has drowned his > rOZEt mEn h Lz draund Omul acela ~i-a inecat
dog. hi? dog] diinele.
r
Don't wreck my car! > [dount rek mai ka: J Nu-mi distruge ma~ina!

Wood bums easily. > [li u d b": . T1J


a: nz 1:71 Lemnul arde bine.

La diateza pasiva aceste verbe noi au alta semnificatie:

to be killed > [tu bl. kild] - a-;;i pierde viata, (a fi


ucis), a ciidea (de ex. in
razboi)
to be drowned > [tu bi: draundJ a se ineca

to be wrecked > [tu bi: rektJ a se distruge, a suferi un


naufragiu, a se avaria
r
to be burnt down > [tu bi: ba: nt daun] a arde pana in temelii

to be blown down > [t u bi. bloun daunj a dobor!, a rastuma

to be blown out > [tu bi: bioun aut [ a sufla, a stinge prin
suflare

Urmeaza cateva exemple:

- In acest accident ~i-au


1
Fifty-two people were killed > [fifJi tu: pi:pl l'U: kild in
in this accident. DZis Eksldant! pierdut viata cincizeci~idoi
de oameni.
You will be drowned if they > [iu. llJ! bi: draund if [)zci Te vei ineca daca ei nu te
don't teach you to swim. dount t1·t~ Ill: tu sllim] invata sa inoti.

The plane was wrecked in a > [Dza plein lI O ? rekt in a Avionul a fost avariat in
hurricane. harikanJ timpul unui uragan.

The fire will be blown out in> IOza faii/ lIil bi: bloun Focul va fi stins intr-un
a minute. aut in a minit] minut.

Many trees were blown > [meni tri:z lI a:r bloun leri au fost doborati multi
down yesterday. daun ieslardei] copaci.

The car was burnt down. > loza ka: 1 u o ? baJnt daun I Ma~ina a ars de tot.

In exercitiul urmator, completati propozitiile cu forma corespunzatoare a verbului:

Furtuna a avariat hotelul in data de 23 maio The hurricane> \\ reck.:d the hotel on
rd
23 May.
Poti sa te ineci daca inoti maine. You can> dro\\ n if you swim tomorrow.
Un copil ~i-a pierdut viata in accident. A child> \\ as kIlled in the accident.
Casa noastra a ars pana in temelii saptamana Our house> \\ as burnt do\\ n last week.
trecuta.

- 15 -
Copacii s-au rasturnat de viintul puternic. - The trees >wcre blown down in the gale.

Mal mult de 0 suta de oameni s-au Inecat - More than a hundred people >were drowned
ciind vaporul a naufragiat. when the ship >was wrecked.

Oamenll ucid alti oameni In fIe care Zl. - People >kI11 other people every day.

Incalze~ti cu lemne lama? - Do you >burn wood in the winter?

Focul a fost stins. - The fire >has been blown out.

Acum iata un grup de adjective noi. Exersati pronuntia ~i retineti Intelesul lor In limba romiina:

sleepy > [sli:pl] - somnoros, adonnit

quiet > [kUalat] - lini~tit, calm, potolit

unpleasant > [anpleznt] - neplacut

nOIsy > [nolZl ] - zgomotos, galagios

dirty > l d·'.'tl] - murdar

modem > [l11oda'n] - modern, nou, contemporan

Cihtl cu atentie unnatoarele propozitii In care apar adjectivele noi:

1 feel sleepy this > l alII I sll.pl LYI~ - Sunt somnoros In


mommg. ICI
1110 'nIl1 ] dimineata aceasta.

Our street is very quiet. > [aua' stll t IZ \ ell kUaiat] - Strada noastra este fomie lini~tita.

Nightmares are unpleasant. > [naltl11c,j'Z a" anpleznt] - Co~marurile sunt neplacute.

These children were > l O/I'Z t)ilth an Ua ' - Ace~ti copii au fost
very nOIsy. yen nOIZlJ foarte galagio~i.

We must clean the car > lUI: l11a~t kll.n lYa ka: 1 - TrebLlle sa curatam ma~ina
because it is dirty. hlkoz It IZ da.'lI] deoarece este murdara.

This is a modern factory. > lO/ls IZ a l11oda'n j}~ktan] - Aceasta este 0 fabrica modema.

In exercqlUl unnator completati urmatoarele propozitil In limba engleza cu noile cuvinte:

COPIll no~tn sunt foarte somnoro~i. - Our children are very >sleepy.

Am avut vecml galagio~i. - We had >nol~y neighbours.

Uita-te la miiinile tale murdare! - Look at your >dlrty hands!

Vreau sa traiesc Intr-un ora~ lini~tlt. - I want to live in a >qulct town.

Ma~inile modeme sunt scumpe. - > 1\1 odcrn cars are expensive.

Niciodata nu am fost Intr-o situatle - 1 have never been in a more


mai neplacuta! >unpkasant situation!

16
Traduce\i unnatoarele cuvinte in limba engleza:

I ini~tit > quiet

murdar > dirty

zgomotos > nOIsy

modem > modem

somnoros > sleepy

neplacut > unpleasant

in exerci{iul urmator vom inva/a substantive care apar intotdeauna la plural:


r
trousers > [trauza z] - pantaloni
spectacles > [spekHiklz] ochelari
scissors > [sizarz] foarfeca
r
binoculars > [binokiula z] binoclu
glasses > [gla :siz] ochelari

Pentru a defini cantitorea exacta a acestor obieete, sefolose$te expresia a pair of [5 pear ov]
o pereche.

Cititi cu voce tare exemplele:

[ want to buy a pair of > [ai uont tu bai a pear av Vreau sa cumpar 0
trousers. trauzarz] pereche de pantaloni.
I'
Where are my binoculars? > [uear a: mai binokiu1i:/z Unde este binoclul meu?
1 don't see them. ai daunt si: DIem] Nu-l viid.

We have sold ten pairs of > . I: I1 E


[L1' ~ V sou Id ten pea
_I' z
Azi noi am vandut zece
spectacles today. ov spektaklz tadei) perechi de ochelari.

She cannot find her glasses. > [~i: kEnot faind ha:1' - Ea nu-~i gase~te ochelarii.
gla:siz]

1 must buy three pairs of > [ai mast bai T\i: pei'/ Z Trcbuic sa cumpar trei
r
scissors. ov siza z] foarfece.

lata cateva verbe noi:

to get > [tu get] - a obtine, a ajunge, a


deveni
LI
to wake up > [tu eik ap] a se trezi
to snore > [tu sno:l'] a sforai
to dream > [tu dri:m] a visa, a-~i inchipui
to shave > Itu ~eiv ] a barbieri, a se barbieri
to undress > [tu andres] a (se) dezbraca

- 17-
Dintre aceste verbe, trei sunt neregulate. Formele lor sunt:

forma I forma a II-a forma a III-a


get > [get] got > [goll got > [got]
wake > [ueik] woke > IUouk] woken > Illoukn]
dream > [dri.mj dreamt > [dremt j dreamt > [dremt]

Sa exersam utilizarea verbelor noi in propozitii. Fiti atenti la pronuntie:

I always get sleepy late at > [al 0 jlleiz get SJi:Pl leit Totdeuna devin somnoros
night. Et na/t] noaptea tarziu.

Undress and go to bed. > [andres End gou tu bed] Dezbraca-te ~i du-te la
culcare!

We woke up at seven. 1I
> [1: 1I ouk ap J:l sevn I Ne-am trezit la ~apte.

Have you ever dreamt about> [hEv iu: e\i:\1 dreml abaut Ai visat vreodata la 0 casa
a big house? a big haus] mare?

Do you always snore when > [du IU: o:lueiz sno: 1 uen Sforai intotdeuna cand
you sleep? IU slI:pJ dormi?

Have you shaved yet? > [hEv IU: ~elvd let] - Te-ai biirbierit deja?

Completati propozitiile cu forma corespunzatoare a verbului:

Vremea va deveni cetoasa. It is > geltll1g foggy.

Copiii s-au dezbracat deja. The children have already> undressed.

Am visat la 0 ma~ina noua. I have > dreamt about a new car.

Maine trebuie sa te barbiere~ti mai You must> "have earlier tomorrow.


devreme.

Sforai de obicei? Do you usually> snore?

S-au trezit inainte de ~ase. They> V\ oke up before six.

In umlatorul exercitiu traduceti cuvintele in limba engleza:

a sforai > to snor~

a se dezbraca > to und! e"s

a obtine > to get

a se barbieri > to shave

a visa > to dre3111

a se trezi > 10 \\ ake up

- 18 -
Acest ultim exercitiu este de verificare. Traduceti propozltiile in limba engleza ~i exersati pronuntia:

Pe data de 25 mai a fast un vant putemic. > There was a strong gale on 25th May.

Furtunile cu traznete sunt i'ntotdeauna perieuloase. > Thunderstorms are always dangerous.

~ase oameni ~i-au pierdut viata in acest uragan. > SIX people were killed III this hurricane.

Daca se intuncea nu vom gasi aeeasta easa. > If it gets dal k we won't find thIS house.

Acest ceas de~teptator a fast cumparat din > This alarm clock \Vas bought in
acest magazin. thiS shop.

iti place vremea schimbatoare? > Do you like changeable weather?

Pantalonii tai sunt in dulap. > Your trousers are In the wardrobe.

Vaporul a naufragiat pe a ceata deasa. > The ship was wrecked III a dense fog.

Fiiea lor s-a inecat anul trecut. > Their daughter dlOwned last year.

Saptamana aceasta au fast multe averse. > There have been many showers this week.

Nu vei cumpara aceasta carte daca cheltui > You won't buy thIS book If you spend
toti banii pe haine. all the lTIon\lY on clothes.

Este pe al douazecilea raft. > It is on the twentIeth shel f.

Mancarea e congelata. > The food IS frozen.

Copiii nu s-au trezit inca. > The chIldren have not woken up yet.

La sfar~itulleetiei unneaza un exercitiu de pronuntie. Cuvintele de pe aceea~i coloana cantin sunete


identlce:

[au] [a:rJ [c] [ail

shower burn wreck fire

drown dirty get Ice

brown -third dense lllce

down bird set find

19
RECAPITULARE 19
19.1. Propozitia conditionala tipul intiii. (1. Conditional)

Acest timp se refera la vii tor. Indeplinirea conditiei, respectiv realizarea activitatii
viitoare este probabila.

Semnificatia conjunctiei "if'[if] : "daca".

Propozitia conditionala (care sta dupa if) este la timpul prezent simplu (Simple Pre-
sent), iar propozitia principala este la timpul viitor simplu (Simple Future).
If you buy the paper we will read Daca cumperi ziarul yom citi despre acel
about that accident. accident.

19.2. Numeralele ordinale:

Numeralele ordinale se formeaza prin adaugazea terminatia -th la numeralul


cardinal:
SIX sixth
seven seventh

Ortografia unor ciitorva numerale se schimba prin adaugarea terminatiei - th:


fi~ fi~
twelve twelfth

In cazul in care numeralele se termina in -y, acesta se preschimba in -ie, dupa


adaugarea terminatiei -th:
twenty -- twentieth

Daca numeralul se termina in ,,-intai, -doilea, -treilea" atunci in engleza se folosesc


cuvintele "first, second, third":
douazeci~iunu - twenty-first

Daca numeralele ordinale sunt scrise cu cifre, atunci cifrelor Ii se adauga ultimele
doua litere ale formei scrise eu litere:
first 1st
twenty-fifth 25th

19.3. Diateza pasiva - the Passive Voice

Diateza pasiva se foIose~te atunci ciind subiectul este obiectul care sufera aqiunea
iar autorul actiunii este exprimat printr-un complement. Propozitia cu structura pa-
siva se formeaza din: forma corespunzatoare a verbului "to be" ~i fonna a II1.-a a
verbului principal.
The hammer was found in the shed. - Ciocanul a fost gasit in ~ura.

19.4. Scrierea ~i citirea datelor


5t
on 21 October - Pe data de 21 octombrie
[on DZa tllentl fa.'st ov oktoubal ]

In pronuntia datelor apar cuvinte aditionale - care nu se scriu. Acestea sunt "the"
inaintea datei ~i "of' inaintea denumirii lunii.

- 20-
TEMA. PENTRU ACASA. 19
A. Traduceti in limba romana urmatoarele propozitii:

I. A lot of people were killed when the house was burnt down.

2. These glasses were broken yesterday.

3. When the sunny spells set in, the ice melted in a short time.

4. Will three pairs of shoes be enough?

5. Today is the thirtieth day of the month.

6. If you don't mop the floor you won't go to the cinema today.

B. Traduceti in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii:

1. Ma trezesc des, cand afara este galagie.

2. Ochelarii tai sunt mai modemi decat ai mei?

3. Ace~ti copaci au fast doborati de uragan. (diateza pasiva)

4. In acest co~mar am cazut de pe 0 cHidire inalta.

5. In aceasta iama vremea a fost schimbatoare.

6. Daca negociem yom primi marire de salariu.

c. Gasiti gre~elile din unnatoarele propozitii:

I. I will buy this car if it will be cheap.

2. It will be on 23 January.

3. This house wasn't build last year.

4. Last winter was sevire.

5. If she is late for work tomorrow, they fire her.

6. Has that dog been bought last year?

- 21 -
-
--
--
--
LECTIA
, 20 PARTEA INTAI

-
...... sa incepem lectia cu un grup de cuvinte legate de circulatie. Studiati-le
cu atentie:

zebra-crossing > [zebra krosin(!l'1 zebra, trecere de pie-


toni

traffic lights > [trEfik lails] - stop, semafor

pedestrian > [pidestrianl pieton

right of way > l rait ov 1I cij prioritate de trecere

time-table

cab

destination

underground
> Itaim leibl]

> [kEb]

> [destinei~n ]

> [andargraund]
- orar, program

- taxi

destinatie

metrou
..
li
witness > [ itnes] martor

ambulance > [Embiulans] ambulanta

onlookers > [onlul<fl'z] - privitori, spectatori

Exersati cuvintele ~i intr-o alta ordine. Fiti atenti la pronuntie:

destination > [destinei~n] destinatie

pedestrian > [pidestrian 1 - pieton


li
witness > [ itnes] - martor

zebra-crossing

underground
> [zebra krosin(gl]

> landa'graund]
zebra, trecere de pie-
toni

- metrou

time-table > Itaim lcibl] - orar, program

traffic lights > [tr Efi k I aits ] - stop, semafor

onlookers > [onlukarz] - privitori, spectatori

ambulance > [Embiulans] - ambulanta

cab > [kEb] - taxi

right of way > [rail ov lI e i 1 prioritate de trecere

- 22-
In urmatorul exercitiu veti revedea cuvintele noi in propozitii. Cititi-Ie cu voce tare:
1
There were many witnesses > i0 Cal uaJ meni Uitnislz Au fost multi martori Ie
of that accident. 0\ Diet Eksid:intj acel accident.

One boy was taken to > IUan boi uo ! tClkn lu Un baiat a fost transportat
hospital in an ambulance. hospitl in an Embiulansj la spital cu ambulanta.

The onlookers wanted to see> lD/1 onlukal'z uontid tu Privitorii au vrut sa vada
everything. si: evriTSin(g)] totul.

Even a ze bra-crossmg t · I,rOSin


. can be> [.1:\'11 a. ze)ra . (l') c Pana ~i trecerea de pietoni
dangerous. !den bI: deindjilras] poate fi periculoasa.
1
Are there any traffic lights in >[a: 0\:-5r eni trEfik laits Sunt semafoare in aceasta
this street? in D/js stri:t] strada?

Where are these pedestrians >rUeal' a: 1 D/i:z pidestrianz Unde merg ace~ti pietoni?
going? goinlg)1
1 1
The car on the right has the >fn/a ka: on D {[ rait 11[7 Ma~ina din dreapta are
right of way, O/a rait ov ueij prioritate.

Where can I find the > IUea l kEn al famd ])/ il Unde pot gasi orarul?
time-table? lallll telblj

I took a cab to get to the > [al tuk il kEb tu get tll Am luat un taxi ca sa
office. [/1 ofis1 merg la birou.

> r0 ii destinei~an
7
The destination of this ship 0\' O/is Destinatia acestui vapor
is New York. ~[P IZ niu: io:1k] este New York.

If we go by underground we > I I, f' [I,1: gOll b al. Daca mergem cu metroul,


_ I' U U
will get there faster. anda graund I: i J get yom ajunge mai repede
0
1
Cal fa:sti/] acolo,

"Even a zebra-crossing can be dangerous".

- 23 -
Completati propozitiile cu cuvintele corespunzatoare! Exerati ~i pronuntia:

Acest orar este vechi. This> time-table is old.

Azi sunt multi pietoni pe strazi. There are many> pedestrians in the
streets today.

Au fost prea multi privitori. There were too many> onlookers.

Cite taxiuri sunt in acest ora~? How many> cabs are there in this town?

Trebuie sa facem mai l1111lte treceri de pie- We must make more> zebra-crossings.
toni.

Semafoarele nu funetioneaza de doua zile. The> traffic lights have been out of or-
der for two days.

Daca nu vine ambulanta, te yom lua cu If the> ambulance doesn't come we will
ma~ina. take you by car.

Merg des Cll metroul. I often go by > underground.

Toti martorii au inteles intrebarile? All > witnesses understood the ques-
tions?

Care este destinatia ta? What is your> destination?

Avem prioritate? Do we have the> right of way?

Cu urmatorul exercitiu yom controla in ce masura v-ati insu~it cuvintele noi. Traduceti in limba
engleza:

taxi > cab

privitori > onlookers

program > time-table

metrou > underground

prioritate de trecere > fight of way

destinatie > destinatIon

zebra > zebra-crossl11g

ambulanta > ambulance

pieton > pedestrian

martor > witness

semafor > traffic-lights

Sa ne intoarcem acum la diateza pasiva.

Forma continua la prezent ,~i trecut (Present Continuous, Past Continuous) a verbelor la di-
ateza pasiva se alcatuie$te cu forma continua a verhului to be, ca verb auxiliar, $i forma
being [bi:in lg1 ] aflata inaintea formei a III-a verbului principal.

- 24-
lata cateva exemple:

She is readll1g - A book lS bell1g > [a buk IZ bi:lI1(g) - 0 carte este


a book. read. red] citita.

They were cleaning the - The house was being > [Q/ a haus "az bi: in lg ) - leri la zece se lacea
house at ten yesterday. cleaned at ten yesterday. kli:nd Et ten iesta'dei] curatenie in casa.

In urmatorul exercitiu transformati propozitiile cu verbulla diateza activa in propozitii cu verbulla


diateza pasiva:

She is cleaning her room now. > I lel room IS bcing cleaned now.

They were changing the management > The management was being changed
yesterday at two. ~ e,telday at two.

They are negotiating raises at the moment. > Raises are bcing negotiated at the moment.

Sa mai Invatam cateva cuvinte noi. Cititi-Ie cu voce tare ~i retineti sensullor In limba romana:

injured >[indja'd] - ranit, lovit, avariat

unconscious > [ankol1~as] - incon~tient, involuntar

mainly > [I1lClI1lI] - mai ales, mai cu seama

III yam >[in\clI1] - zadarnic, inutil, In zadar

senous > l si:nas] - serios, important

necessary > [nc,IS;l1 i] - necesar. inevitabil

lata cuvintele noi in propozqii:

They were injured in > [IYel ",1.' indp'd 111 - Ei au fost raniti In
the accident. [)Ii Eksldalltj accident.

Your brother is still > [10" braD/ar iz std - Fratele tau este Inca
unconscious. ankol1:;;asj incon~tient.

It was a very serious book. > [It "af. a \ ert si nas prublam] - Era 0 carte foarte serioasa.

We tried to help but it was > ["1 1Ia[(! tu help bat It "al' - Am Incercat sa ajutam dar a fost
111 Yam. Ill\ClI1j in zadar.

John's sister works mainly > [d\Ol1l ,isla' "a 'b memli - Sora lui John lucreaza mai ales
at night. Lt Il.lIl J noaptea.

I think this information > [al') '1l1 1'!k I)'", Il1f~I'l11el,;;l1] - Cred ca aceasta informatie
is necessary. 11 I1l'Si ,;111 ] este necesara.

25
Unneaza un exercitiu nou. Completati propozitiile folosind cuvintele corespunzatoare:

EI a incercat sa inteleaga asta, dar in zadar. He tried to understand it but> In \ ain.


Ei vand mai ales legume. They sell> mainly vegetables.
Aici este necesara 0 trecere de pietoni. A zebra-crossing is > necessary here.
El a fost incon~tient mai mult de 0 He was> unconS":IOW, for longer than a
saptamana. week.
Tatal meu a pus 0 intrebare serioasa. My father asked a > seriolls question.
Au fost raniti ~apte pietoni. Seven pedestrians were> injured.

Desigur ati memorat deja cuvintele noi. Traduceti in limba engleza:

serios, important > sertous


mai ales > mamly
ranit > injured
zadamic > 111 vam
necesar > necessary
incon~tient > unconscIous
inutil > 111 \ a 111
necesar, inevitabil > Ilcccs~ary

Dintre toate numeralele engleze~ti nu v-am prezentat inca zeroul. in limba engleza zeroul are
mai multe echivalente:

1. 0 - pronuntat ca ~i [OLl] se utilizeaza atunci cand in!jiram mai multe c~fre:


r r
Her telephone number> [ha: telifaun namba IZ Numarul ei de telefon este
is nine, two, four, 0, nain tu: fa:' ou se\nj noua, doi, patru, zero,
seven. ~apte.

2. Nil [niIJ, se folose~te la prezentarea rezultatelor sportive:


The result of the > [D"i1 rizalt ov D/a mEt$ Rezultatul meciului este
match is four nil. iz ro J 1111J patru-zero.

3. Zero l zirouj, se jolose$te la descrierea unitali/or de masura:


It is six degrees below> [it IZ siks dlgri:z bJlou - Sunt ~ase grade sub zero.
zero. ziroLl]

4. Nought (sau naught) [no·t], se folose~te de obicei in matematica ~i literatura:


Two minus two is > [tu: mainas t\l: iz na:t I - Doi minus doi fac zero.
nought.
All her work was for > [0.1 hft:' lI a:'k lI a? 1'0:' Toata munca ei nu a
nought. no:t] valarat nimic.

- 26-
In exercitiul anterior ati invatat mai multe cuvinte noi:
l
number > [nambfl ] numar
result > Irizalt] rezultat
minus > [mainas] mmus
below > rbilou] dedesubt, jos, mai jos, sub
degree > [digri: I grad, masura, treapta

Ati vazut deja cuvintele noi in exemple. In exercitiul urmator completati propozitiile cu
aceste cuvinte:
Ei locuiesc sub noi. They live> below us.
Este acolo, jos. It's there, > below.
EI are doctoratul. He has a doctor's> degree.
Imi place asta doar intr-o oarecare masura. I like it only to some> degree.
Care a fost rezultatul negocierilor? What was the> result of the negotia-
tions?
Care este numarul apartamentului tau? What is the> number of your apartment?
Azi temperatura este de minus cinci grade. The temperature is > minus five today.

L_~ _
"He has a doctor's degree".

Acum iara~i yom invata verbe noi:


to prevent > [t u pri vent J a preintampina, a preveni
r
to run over > [IU ran OU\ aJ a calca, a lovi cu ma~ina

to hit > [tll hit] a lovi, a nimeri


to direct > [tu d'lIrl'k t] a dirij a, a conduce
to cause > [t 1I kIn] a cauza, a provoca
to travel > I t 1I trE\ II, a calatori

-27-
Doua dintre aceste verbe sunt neregulate. lata formele lor:

formal forma a II-a fonna a III-a

run > (I an] ran > [lEn] run > (ran]

hit > [hit] hit > [h It] hit > (hIt]

Verbele noi apar in urmatorul dialog. Cititi textul cu atentie:

A: When we were travelling to Madrid we saw a terrible accident.

s: Was anybody killed?

A: Yes, but wait a moment. A big car hit a building.

S: Were there any pedestrians in the street?

A: Yes, the car ran over three people. Two of them were killed and one woman was injured.

S: Were there any policemen there?

A: There was one policeman. He directed the traffic but could not prevent the accident.

S: Do you know what caused the accident?

A: I think the car was out of order.

in dialogul nostril apare clI\'iintlll could [kud]. Acesta este forma de trecut a verbllilli modal can.

Sa analtzam separat fiecare propozitle. Cltiti cu voce tare:

When we were travellmg > ["en "I "a' trEv]m(gl - Cand calatoream spre Madrid
to Madrid we saw a terrible tu madI id til so a tCrIb! am vazut un accident
accident. I-"ksldant] groaznic.

Was anybody killed? > [tl az ctllboUI kJld] - ~i-a pierdut cineva viata?

Yes, but wait a moment. - Da, dar a~teapta 0 clipa.

A big car hit a building. - 0 ma~ina mare a lovit 0 cladire.

Were there any pedestrians > [tl a ' [Yea' cnl pldcstJlanZ - Au fost pietoni
in the street? m IYa SI111] pe strada?

Yes, the car ran over > [ICS IYa Ll ' rEn OU\ a' - Da, ma~ina a caleat
three people. 1"11 pi pI] trei oameni.

Two of them were killed > [tu ,1\ lYem ",I ' klld - Doi dmtre ei ~i-au pierdut
and one woman was Fnd ",In 'um,ln "dZ vJata ~i 0 femeie a fost
seriously injured. si 11,IS11 indJd.'d] gray ran ita.

Were there any policemen > [tid' lYe,l' cnl p:lli sman - A fost acolo vreun
there? IYCd'J politist?

There was one policeman. - A fost un politist.

28
He directed the traffic but > [h1: dairektid O/a trEfik EI a dirijat circula!ia, dar
could not prevent the bat kuJ not privent O/j nu a putut preintampina
accident. accidentul.
Eksidant 1

Do you know what caused > [du IU: nOll liot ku:zd D/i - Stii ce a cauzat
the accident? Eksidant] accidentul?

I think the car was out of > [ai TSin(g)k D/a ka: r uoz Cred ca ma~ina a fast
order. aut ov o.IUr1t I defecHi.

Raspundeti in limba engleza la unnatoarele intrebari:

When did you see that terrible accident? > \Ve saw that terrible d..::cident when we
\\ere travelling to \1adnd

What did the big car hit? > The bIg ear hit a bui lding..

How many people did the car run over? > The car ran over three people.

Who was killed? > Two of the three people were killed.

What happened to the woman? > T he woman \Vas II1Jured.

Were there any policemen there? > Yes, there was one policeman.

What did he do? > He directed the traffic.

What caused the accident? > The car was out of order.

Acum ne vom ocupa de pronumele interogativ who ~i urilizarea lui:

Acesr pronume are mai mulre intelesuri: cine, pe cine, cui, cine, care, pe care. Daca intelesul
lui who este cine, inrrebarea se refera doar la persoana ~i who poare jifolosit ca subsrantiv. in
acest caz ordinea propozi(iei este directa, strucrura sa este ajirmariva, iar verbul este la perso-
ana a III-a singular.

Who likes you? Cine te iube~te?

Who went home? Cine s-a dus acasa?

in eazul in care pronumele interogativ who anare cu celalalte in(elesuri, interogativul se for-
meaza cu ajulorul verbelor auxiliare, forma corespunzatoare a verbului to be sau a verbelor
modale:

Who were these people? Cine au fost ace~ti oameni?


Who did you meet? Cu cine te-ai intalnit?

Traduce!i urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

Cine ~i-a pierdut via!a in acest accident? > Who \\:lS kJikd ill lhi~ accident')
Pe cine vezi pe strada in fiecare zi? > Who do you Sc:C III the stleet every day'?
Cine este acest barbat in haina maro? > \V ho is thIS man i'l a hnm 11 coat'?
Cine scrie aceste scrisori minunate? > Who \', nte~ th~'~c hcal,tiful letters'?
Pe cine cau!i acum? > \Vhl) ,Ire you look 1I1g for <10\\ 0

- 29-
Ne vom intoarce acum fa diate~a pasiwI Pentru a indica persoana care executa activitatea in
propozitia fa diateza pasiva, se .rofose,~te prepozitia by.

De exemplu:

Peter made this chair, This chair was > [D/is t~ear 1I 0z Acest scaun a fost
made by Peter. meid bai pi:ti/] !acut de Peter.

The trade-union is Raises are being > [reiziz a: 1 bi:in lg ) Maririle de salarii
negotiating raises, negotiated by the nigou~le/tid bal sunt negociate de
trade-union. D/[I treld 1U:Jl1an] catre sindicat.

In exercitiul urmator, traduceti propozitiile in limba engleza:

Radioul tocmai a fost pomit de catre John. > The radio has been turned on by John.

Aceste ma~ini sunt !acute de 0 fabrica din > These cars are made by a factory m
Chicago. Chicago.

El a fost ucis de doi oameni. > Hc \\as kIlled by two men.

Am fost trezit de copii galagio~i. > f was woken up by nOIsy children

(;i~ uitati-~a, da~-~erb~-~~~~~~~~~~i~~oua~ar~,~e e~-~~;lu ~a~


for, look for, prepozitia trebuie sa apara ~i in diateza pasiva: :
I

! I looked for it yesterday. - It was looked for yesterday. I

~--- - - - - - - ---- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -_/

Si iata ultimul exercitiu al acestei parti, in care 'lorn recapitula materialul invatat pana acum.
Traduce!i propozitiile in limba engleza:

Ace;;ti martori au vazut cel mai bine acci- > These witnesses saw the accident best.
dentul.
Au fost cinci grade sub zero. > It \'. as five degrces below zero.
Cine a fost calcat de un taxi? > Who was run ovcr by a cab?

Numarul meu de telefon este unu, noua, > My number is one, nme. 0, five, two, 0.
zero, cinci, doi, zero.
Ei au avut prioritate de trecere? > Old they hay e the right of way'?

Ace~tioameni au incercat sa ajute dar > These people tried to help but in \ am.
zadamic.

El calatore~te mai ales cu metroul. > He travels main Iy by underground.

Cine a scris acest orar? > Who wrote this time-table?

El s-a ranit grav? > Is he seriously mjured'!

Patruzeci minus patruzeci fac zero. > Forty Jl1l11US furty IS uro/nought.

Circulatia este dirijata acum de un politist. > The traffic is bell1g directed by a police-
man no\'..

Pe cine iube~ti? > Who do you lIke?

- 30-
LECTIA
, 20 - PARTEA A DOVA

Cititi cu atentie unnatorul dialog! Repetati exercitiul pana cand va convingeti de faptul ca v-ati
Insu~it pe deplin pronuntia ~i intonatia.

Cuvintele ~i silabele accentuate sunt tiparite jngro~at.

Mary: Peter, have you ever been in an accident?


Peter: No, I haven't, but my brother was yesterday afternoon.
Mary: How did it happen?
Peter: My brother was on a zebra-crossing at the traffic-lights and a cab was
coming from the right.
Mary: And ... what happened?
Peter: The cab didn't stop in time and my brother was hit by it.
Mary: Was your brother injured?
Peter: Yes, he was, but fortunately not seriously.
Mary: I am glad he wasn't seriously injured. Were there any witnesses who saw
the accident?
Peter: There were many onlookers, and the witnesses say my brother did not
cause the accident.

Barbara: Have you heard the news that yesterday a pedestrian was hit by a car at the
traffic-lights?
John: No, I haven't, but some pedestrians think they always have the right of
way.
Barbara: But everybody knows that it is not true.
John: Yes, everybody knows it only the pedestrians don't. We must all try to
prevent accidents.
Barbara: You are right. Policemen cannot do everything.
John: I think it is better when there are also traffic-lights.

Mary: Peter. do you travel mainly by underground to your office?


Peter: Yes, J do. You travel by underground fast and easily.
Mary: Yes, but it has become very expensive. Do you have a time-table?
Peter: There are so many underground trains that you don't need a time-table.
And a modem underground is not noisy or dirty.

Barbara: I feel so tired after a hard day of work.


John: People are tired when they get home from factories and offices.
Barbara: And they do nothing only go to bed early because they are sleepy.
John: When it is too noisy outside they wake up.
Barbara: I usually wake up even when it's only a little noisy.
John: But when you have a nightmare you are glad when you hear the alarm
clock.

- 31 -
In ultimul exercitiu al leetiei, traduceti propozitiile in limba engleza:

Aceasta este deja a patra furtuna in un- > This IS already the fourth gale in eleven
sprezece zile. days

Cinci oameni ~i-au pierdut viata in acel > Fl\ e people were kIlkd in that disaster.
dezastru.

Multe vapoare au suferit naufragiu. > Many ships vvere wrecked.

Focul a fost stins de un vant putemic. > The fire was blovv n out by a strong wind.

El are nevoie de 0 pereche noua de oche- > 1Ie needs a new paIr of glasses.
lari.

Aceste foarfece sunt periculoase pentru > These sci:-.sors arc dangerous for children.
copii.

In aceasta vreme schimbatoare nu-mi uit > In this changeable \\ e;11her ] don't forget
umbrela. my umbrella.

Casa noastra a ars pana in teme!ii > Our housc burnt dO\\ n last v\ eek.
saptamana trecuta.

Aceste averse sunt de ploaie bune pentru > These sho\Vers arc good for au' garden.
gradina noastra.

Au cumparat ~ase perechi de pantaloni. > They bought "'X pairS or trousers.
In acea iama aspra a fost de multe ori ceata > In that sc\ele \\ II1kr there \Vas a lot or
deasa. cknse fog.

Gheata s-a topit deja. > The Ice has alnC:,lLty melted.

Acest binoclu este vechi, am nevoie de unul > 1 hese bll10culars an:: oid; I n..:ed a new
nou. pair.

Noi am vandut zece perechi de pantofi. > We sold ten pairs of shoes.

Aceasta este 0 cuvertura pentru un pat de 0 > This is a bedspread 1'01' a sll1g1e bed.
singura persoana.

Ace! dulap este facut din lemn? > Is that wardrobe made of Vvood?

Ochelarii tai sunt pe perna tao > Your spectacles are on your pilloVv.

El a sforait zgomotos. > He was snoring nOIsily

Cat costa aceste ceasuri de~teptatoare? > How much are these alarm eloch)

Dupa vremea insorita a fost 0 furtuna cu > Aftcr thc sunny spells there was a
trasnete. thunderstorm.

Mi-am ars mana. > I hm e burnt my ham!.

Multi oameni i~i pierd viata pe acest drum > \1dWy pedplc .1IT killed on thb narnm
ingust. n)ad

Ea era incon~tienta dnd a fost dusa la > She \\ ,J>, lIih:OJbCIl'Us \\hen she \\ as

spital. t"ken to !lo"PI tal.

- 32-
Asta s-a 'intamplat 'in a noua zi. > This happened on the ninth day,

Temperatura va cobori sub zero grade. > The temperature wIll drop below zero.

Nimanui nu-i place aceasta caldura > Nobody lIkes this opplessive heat.
inabu~itoare.

Acest drum este alunecos in mod periculos. > This road is dangerously slippery.

Daca ai nevoie de ace~ti bani, ii vei gasi pe > If you need this money you \\ ill fInd it
raft. on the shelf.

Acest accident s-a intamplat in data de 27 > This accident happened 011 27th .Junc.
iunie.

Cumparatorul tocmai este servit de un > The cLlstomer is just being served by a
vanzator. shop-assistant.

Cine a solicitat aceasta slujba? > Who applied for this Job?

De cine ai nevoie? > Who do you need')

Ei au prevenit accidentul? > Have they prevented the accident?

Iar acum iata exercitiul de pronuntie. Repetati cuvintele ~i fiti atenti la pronuntia corecta a
sunetelor engleze~ti. Literele aflate in aceea~i coloana, scrise ingr~at desemneaza sunete iden-
tice:

rei J [0: J [i' ] l iJ


vain cause degree serious
train nought least spring
mainly brought leave build
rain thought deep

- 33-
RECAPITULARE 20
20.1. Dad verbul la diateza pasiva este la un timp continuu (Present Continuous, Past
Continuous) atunci stmctura predicatului este forma continua a verbului "to be", ca
verb auxiliar ~i forma a III-a a verbului principal, iar cuvantul "being" l bi: 111 J trece
inaintea fonnei a III-a a verbului.
She is reading A book is being > [a buk iz bi:in(g) Se cite~te 0 carte
a book. read. red] tocmai acum.

(Traducerea cuvant cu cuvant: ,,0 carte este citita tocmai acum".)


20.1.2. Dad vrem sa indicam persoana care executa activitatea in propozitia la diateza
pasiva, folosim prepozitia "by":
The traffic was directed by a - Circulatia a fost dirijata de un politist.
policeman.

Dad un verb este compus din doua parti, de exemplu: "wait for, look for", atunci
prepozitia trebuie sa apara ~i la diateza pasiva:
We waited for the bus. - The bus was waited for.

20.2. Pronumele interogativ "who"


20.2.1. In cazul in care semnificatia pronumelui interogativ este "cine" ordinea pro-
pozitiei interogative este directa, stmctura sa este afirmativa iar verbul este la
persoana a III-a singular:
Who likes you? - Cine te iube~te?

20.2.2. In cazul in care pronumele interogativ "who" are oricare din re~,tul semnificatii-
lor, formam interogativul cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar, a verbului "to be", sau a
verbului modal:
Who did you see? - Pe cine ai vazut?

- 34-
TEMA PENTRU ACASA 20
A. Traduceti unnatoarele propozitii in limba romana:

1. Can these pedestrians be witnesses?

2. Who told you about the negotiations?

3. Who have you seen on TV?

4. If you don't iron this shirt I will not put it on.

5. The beds are being delivered at the moment.

6. The underground will take you to your destination.

B. Traduceti unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

I. Am calatorit repede cu avionul.

2. Circulatia a fost dirijata de politist?

3. Casa noastra se construie~te la un colt periculos. (diateza pasiva)

4. Cu cine ai vorbit?

5. Vecinii taie aCUl11 copacii.

6. Dacii l11ananci cina, vei pril11i inghetata.

C. Corectati gre~elile din unnatoarele propozitii:

1. She bought only necesary things.

2. Who did hit him?

3. Work has been done through Peter.

4. How much is this scissors?

5. This job was applied.

- 35-
Lista verbelor neregulate din lectiile 19 ~i 20
forma I forma a II-a forma a III-a

bum > [ba:1n] burnt > [ba:1nt] burnt > [ba:1nt I

can > [kEn I could > [klld1 could > [kud]

dream > [dri:m] dreamt > l dremt] dreamt > Idremtl

freeze > [fri:z] froze > [frouz] frozen > [1l-llLlzn]

get > Iget] got > rgot] got > rgot]

hit > [hit] hit > [hit] hit > [hit]

run > [ran] ran > [rEn] run > [ran]

set > [set] set > [sel] set > [set]

wake > [velk] woke > [vouk] woken > [voukn]

I
:;:::;:;:;:;:;:;:::::::;:;:;:

I
- 36-
I
VOCABULARVL LECTIILOR 19 ~i 20
alarm clock r ceas de~teptator
> [ala: m klok]

ambulance > [Embiulans] ambulanta

bedspread > [bedspred] - cuvertura de pat

below >[bilou] dedesubt, jos, mai jos, sub

binoculars > [binokiularz] binoclu

blanket > [bIEn(g)kit] cuvertura, patura

to blow > [tu blou] a sufla, a se arde

to be blown down > [tu bi: blolln daun] a dobor!, a rastuma

to be blown out > [tll bi: bloun aut] a stinge, a sufla

tu burn > [tu ba:rn] a arde, a praj i, a fi 'aprins

tu be burnt down r a arde pana in temelii, a


>[tu bi: ba: nt dalln]
arde de tot
cab > [kEb] taxi

to cause > [Ill ko:z] - a cauza

changeable > [t~eindjabl] schimbator

dangerous > [deindjaras] periculos

degree > [digri:] grad, masura, treapta

dense > [dens] - dens, compact

destination > [destinei~n] destinatie

dew > [diu:] roua

to direct > [tu dairekt] - a dirij a, a conduce

dirty > [da:rti] murdar

double >[dabl] dublu

double bed > [dabl bed] pat dublu

dream > [dri:m] VIS

to dream > [tu dri:m] a visa, a inchipui

dressing-gown > [dresin(g) gaun] halat, capot

to drizzle > [tu drizl] a bumita, a ploua marunt

to drop > [tu drop] a picura, a cadea, a scapa

to drown > [tu draun] a ineca, a se ineca, a


scufunda
to be drowned > [tu bi: drallnd] a fi inecat

- 37-
to freeze > l tu fri:z] a ingheta, a degera

gale > [geil] vant puternie, furtuna

to get > [tu get] a obpne, a ajunge, a


deveni

glasses > [gla:siz] oehelari

hail > [heil ] grindma

to hit > [tu hit] a lovi, a nimeri

hurricane > [hallkan] uragan, furtuna

Ice > [als] gheata

if > [I f] daea, presupunand ea

injured > [indjard] lovit, ranit, avariat

m vam > [in vein] zadamie, inutil, in zadar

to kill > [tu kill a omori, a ueide

to be killed > [tu bi: kild] a-;;i pierde viata, a eadea


(in razboi)
mainly > [mclI1lt] mai ales

to melt > [tu melt] a tOpl, a se topi

mmus > [mainas] minus

modem > [moda1n] modem, nou, contemporan

naught, (nought) > [no:t] zero, nul, nimie

necessary > [ncsisari] necesar, inevitabil

to need > [tu ni:d] a avea nevoie de, a trebui


1
nightmare > [naltmea ] co;;mar

nil > [nil] zero, nimie

noisy > [noIZl ] zgomotos, galagios

nought, (naught) > [no.t I nimic, zero, nula


l
number > [namba ] numar, numeral

oh, 0 > [au] zero

onlookers > [onluka'z] privitori, speetatori

oppressive > [opresiv] apasator, inabu;;itor

pair > [pea' ] pereche

pedestrian > [pidestrian] pieton

pillow > [pilau] perna

- 38-
to prevent > [tu priventJ a preintampina, a preveni

quiet > [kualiH! lini~tit, calm, potolit

result > [nzalt] rezultat, consecinta


u
right of way > [rait ov ei] prioritate (de trecere)

road > [roud I drum, ~osea

rug > [rag] covora~, carpeta


l'
to run over > [tu ran oliva] a calca (de 0 ma~ina)

scissors > [sizal'z] foarfeca

serious > [si:rias] serios, important

to set in > [tu set in] a incepe, a veni (un


anotimp)
severe > [sivial'] sever, aspru

shade > [~eid] umbra, nuanta

to shave > [tu ~el\] a barbieri, a se barbieri

sheet > [~i:tJ cear~af, foaie (de hirtie)

sheets > ["i:ls] cear~afuri, foi (de hirtie)

shower > [:;>aua'] aversa, ploaie torentiaHi

single > [singl] singur, unic, necasatorit

single bed > [singl bed] pat de 0 singura persoana

sleepy > [sli:pi] somnoros, adormit

slippery > [slipariJ alunecos


l'
to snore > [tu 5no: ] a sforai

spectacles > IspekUiklz] ochelari

sunny spells > [sani spelz] vreme insorita

thaw > [Tso:] dezghet, topire

thunderstorm > [T' anda \"SlO: I'm] furtuna cu traznete

time-table > [laim teibl] orar, program


,
traffic-lights > [trEfik laits] stop, semafor

to travel > [tu trEvl] a diHitori

trousers > [trauza' zl pantalon

umbrella > [ambrela] umbrela

unconsciOUS > [ankon~as] - incon~tient, involuntar


l'
underground > [anda graundJ metrou

- 39-
to undress > [tu andres] a se dezbraca

unpleasant > [anpleznt] nepIacut

to wake up > [tLl ueik ap] a se trezi

wardrobe > [lI o 'droub] garderobii, dulap de haine

witness > [li.\tnes ] martor, martor ocular

to wreck > [tu rekJ a srariima, a sparge, a


distruge
to be wrecked > [tLl bi: rekt] - a suferi un naufragiu, a se
deteriaza
zebra-crossing

zero
> [zebra krosin(gi]

> [zirou]
zebra trecere de pietoni

zero, nul
.. .
~

- 40-

Interese conexe