Sunteți pe pagina 1din 4

La ce foloseste intercoolerul ? Ce este intercoolerul ? De ce este ulei in intercooler ?

Intercooler-ul preia aerul cald care vine de la turbina...acesta este racit in radiatorul special, dupa care
intra in motor..Aerul cand se raceste devine mai dens,mai bogat in oxigen...dand prin urmare consum
de carburant mai mic si mai multa putere. Intercoolerul (radiatorul de racire a aerului) ajuta la
performante mai bune,la mentinerea unei temperaturi constante in timpul accelerarilor puternice, la
reducerea consumului de combustibil.

Cu cat creste presiunea , cu atat este mai mare temperatura rezultand o densitate mai
mica. In urma racirii, aerul devine mult mai dens astfel incat este posibila o umplere mai
mare generand cuplu si putere mai mare.

Intercooler-ul este montat (si necesar) doar pe masinile cu admisie fortata de aer.
Deoarece aerul este comprimat de turbina (sau compresor) si deoarece turbina (compresorul mai putin)
este incinsa aerul comprimat se incalzeste puternic (peste 100 de grade celsius) si are tendinta de a se
decomprima micsorand sau chiar anuland aproape efectul. Pentru a preveni acest lucru se monteaza un
radiator aer-aer numit si intercooler, charge-air-cooler sau in Germana Ladeluft-kuhler.
Cu cat aerul admis este mai rece, randamentul motorului termic va creste, si in plus cu cat aerul este
mai rece cu atat temperatura postcombustie este mai mica si stresul intern al pieselor interne ale
motorului este mai mic ducand la o fiabilitate mai buna.
Din pacate un intercooler este o piesa scumpa si de aceea o vreme nu s-au montat pe turbo-diesel-uri
sau s-au montat intercooler-e mici si montate lateral.
Ideal este ca un intercooler sa aiba suprafatele scaldate de gaze (cea interioara si cea exterioara) cat
mai mari dar si volum cat mai mic si cadere de presiune cat mai mica. Aceste tendinte sunt antagoniste
si de aceea trebuie gasit cu grija compromisul ideal.
Suprafetele mari permit schimbul cat mai eficient de caldura, volumul cat mai mic micsoreaza turbo-
lag-ul dar duc inerent la o cadere de presiune mai mare micsorand randamentul de supra-alimentare.
Prezenta intercooler-ului sau chiar a unui intercooler mai mare decat cel din fabrica mai poate avea si o
utilitate de salvare a motorului de la un dezastru hidraulic. Mai exact situatii in care turbina "se face
praf" si se pierde o cantitate mare de ulei in admisia de aer (cantitate mare = 1,5L - 2L de ulei) ar
insemna moarte sigura a motorului fara intercooler pentru ca ar ajunge direct in motor gripandu-l si
indoindu-se biele etc. etc. S-au intamplat cazuri cand intercooler-ul a retinut (impreuna cu tubulatura
aferenta) acest ulei.

http://ziarulauto.blogspot.ro/2012/09/la-ce-foloseste-intercoolerul-ce-este.html

Beneficiile unui intercooler

Putere mrit pe toat plaja de viteze, consum


sczut de combustibil, eficien a motorului
mbuntit, reducerea emisiilor poluante,
mai puin presiune termic asupra motorului -
acestea sunt numeroasele motive pentru a rci
aerul rezultat din combustie ale motoarelor turbo
cu ajutorul unui intercooler.

Trebuie fcut diferena clar ntre dou tipuri de


rcire. Rcirea direct, atunci cnd un intercooler
este amplasat n partea din fa a mainii i este
rcit de aerul de afar sau, rcire indirect, cnd
un refrigerant circul prin intercooler iar cldura
este eliminat n atmosfer.

Numrul de vehicule echipate cu turbosuflante


crete n fi ecare zi. Aproape toate vehiculele turbo
sunt echipate i cu intercooler, iar acest fapt are
rezonane i pe piaa pieselor de schimb.
Rcirea indirect are un impact direct asupra economiei
de combustibil i reduce emisiile de CO2.
Experii n management termic ai Behr Hella au
lrgit gama pentru a include radiatoare cu ncrcare
indirect pentru prima dat. Acestea ajut
att la reducerea consumului de combustibil, ct
i la reducerea emisiilor poluante. Astfel, acestea
joac un rol major n respectarea att a normelor Euro 5 pentru autoturisme i vehicule comerciale, ct
i Euro 6 pentru vehicule comerciale. Un radiator cu ncrcare indirect intermediar este, n general,
necesar n vehiculele comerciale moderne cu ncrcare de presiune n dou etape.

Rcirea aerului cald crete densitatea acestuia n cilindru i scade temperatura combustiei. Un astfel de
cooler folosete un refrigerant la rcire, nu aer. Cldura este transferat, nti ctre refrigerant, iar apoi
este canalizat printr-un radiator i eliberat n atmosfer. Performana de rcire este mbuntit
considerabil, fapt care scade emisiile de oxid de nitrogen eliberate n timpul combustiei. Cel mai
important este c temperatura aerului n timpul admisiei poate fi adaptat n funcie de situaie i,
astfel se produce temperatura optim pentru funcionarea motorului. Cu ct crete presiunea aerului,
densitatea mrit a
aerului i temperatura mai mic la admisie cresc performanele motorului. Toate acestea permit
micorarea motoarelor i reducerea consumului de combustibil i, astfel, a emisiilor.

http://www.la-service.ro/bucuresti/noutati/read/articol-intercooler

Intake Air Temperatures

How much hotter the air gets as it is being compressed depends on the pressure ratio (how much it is
being compressed) and the efficiency of the compressor. This means that the theoretical outlet
temperature can be calculated if three factors are known: the inlet air temperature, the compressor
efficiency, and the pressure ratio.

Before this can be done, the temperatures and pressures need to be expressed in the right units. Firstly,
temperatures need to be converted to Kelvin (K), a measurement of absolute temperature.

K =C + 273.15

A temperature of 35C is therefore the same as 308.15K (or 308K for our purposes).

Boost pressures also need to be converted to pressure ratios. Note that 1 Bar = 14.5 psi.

Boost Pressure in Bar + 1

Pressure ratio = -------------------------------------

A boost of 1.5 Bar therefore becomes a pressure ratio of 2.5.

Let's have a look at an example.

If the inlet air temperature to a turbo is 20 C (293K) and the boost pressure is 1.1 Bar (pressure ratio =
2.1) the theoretical outlet temperature will be:

Theoretical outlet temp = 293 x (2.1)0.286

= 293 x 1.236

= 362K (89 C)

This means that there is a temperature rise of 69 C (89 - 20 = 69 ).

However, this doesn't take into account that the compressor efficiency will be less than 100 per cent. If
we assume a compressor efficiency of 70 per cent (typical for a good turbo):

69

Actual temp increase = ------

0.7

= 98.6 C

This is a temperature increase of 98.6 which when added to the ambient temp of 20 means that the
actual outlet temp will be:

20 + 98.6 = 118.6 (119 C when rounded)

Air Density Changes


In the example above there was a temperature increase from 20 to 119. But how does this
temperature change affect the all-important density of the air? The density of air depends on two
factors - its temperature and pressure. The drop in density due to increased temperature is directly
proportional to the ratio of the temperatures, when they are expressed in Kelvin. So the drop in density
of the air at 119 C (392K) versus 20 C (293K) is found by:

293

Density difference = -----

392

= 0.75

In other words, the temperature increase would have caused a drop in density by 25 per cent, had the
air still been at the same pressure. But of course its pressure is now higher because the turbo or
supercharger has compressed it!

If the air pressure is doubled without a change in temperature, the density is doubled. To work out the
effect of both the loss of density because of the temp rise and the increase in density because of boost
pressure, the two factors are multiplied.

Inlet Air Temp (K)

Increase in Air density = -------------------------- x pressure ratio

Outlet Air Temp (K)

293

= ------ x 2 = 1.49

392

In other words, the increase in density has been 49 per cent at 1 Bar boost with a compressor outlet air
temperature of 119 C. This means that, all things being equal, the engine can develop 49 per cent
more power.

Intercooler Efficiency

An intercooler will do two things - it will lower the temperature of the intake air and at the same time
cause a slight drop in boost pressure. The latter comes from the restriction to flow caused by the
intercooler. Some restriction is unavoidable because the flow through an efficient intercooler core needs
to be turbulent if a lot of the air is to come in contact with the heat exchanger surfaces. However, if the
pressure drop is too high, power will suffer. A pressure drop of 1-2 psi can be considered acceptable if it
is accompanied by good intercooler efficiency.

Intercooler efficiency is a measurement of how effective the intercooler is at reducing the inlet air
temperature. If the intercooler reduces the temperature of the air exiting the compressor to ambient,
the intercooler will be 100 per cent efficient. It will also be a bloody marvel, because no conventional
intercooler can actually achieve this!

Intercooler efficiency is given by:

Actual Temperature Drop

Intercooler Efficiency = ---------------------------------------------------

Maximum Possible Temperature Drop

For example, if on a 20 C day the outlet air temp of the turbo is 110 C and the temperature of the air
after it has passed through the intercooler is 45 C then:

110 - 45

Intercooler Efficiency = ---------------

110 - 20
65

= -----

90

= 0.72 (or 72 per cent)

Final Calculations

Let's take an example that puts together all of the figures. You fit an intercooler that is 72 per cent
efficient and has a pressure drop of 0.14 Bar (2 psi) to an engine running 1.5 Bar (22 psi) boost
developed by a turbo compressor that is 70 per cent efficient. It's a 25 Celsius day.

Firstly, the theoretical compressor outlet air temp:

298K x (2.5 pressure ratio)0.286= 387K = 114 C

114 C - 25 aC = a temperature increase of 89 C

89 C

------------------------------- = 128C temperature increase

compressor efficiency

128 C temp increase + 25 C ambient = 153 C air temperature coming out of the turbo!

The maximum possible temperature decrease through an intercooler: 153 C - 25 C = 128 C

An intercooler that is 72 per cent efficient will give an actual temperature drop of:

128 C x 0.72 = 92 C

A turbo outlet temp of 153 C - 92 C intercooler drop = actual engine inlet air temp of 61 C.

Boost pressure was 1.5 Bar but with the pressure drop through the intercooler it becomes:

- 0.14 = 1.36 Bar.

1.36 + 1

----------- = a pressure ratio of 2.36

So with an intercooler we have a temp of 61 C at a boost pressure ratio of 2.36, compared with a non-
intercooled 153 C at a pressure ratio of 2.5.

298K

Intercooled: ------- x 2.36 pressure ratio = 2.1 times non-turbo air density

334K

298K

Non-Intercooled: -------- x 2.5 pressure ratio = 1.75 times non-turbo air density

426K

If the engine developed 100kW (134hp) in naturally aspirated form, with 1.5 Bar (22 psi) boost it could
develop a theoretical 175kW (235hp) without an intercooler and 210kW (281hp) with an intercooler

http://www.autospeed.com/cms/article.html?&title=Intercooler-Maths&A=109789