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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie , Nr.

4/2012

CALCULUL FORTELOR DE CALCULATION OF THE


TRACTIUNE DIN BANDA TRACTION FORCES IN THE
TRANSPORTOARE A UNUI BELT OF A CONVEYOR BELT
TRANSPORTOR CU BANDA

Ctlina Iani, Universitatea Ctlina Iani, Constantin


Constantin Brncui, Tg-Jiu Brncui University of Tg-Jiu
210135, Romania 210135, Romania

REZUMAT: Nevoia crescanda de a se


ABSTRACT: Increasing need to obtain
obtine benzi de transport care sa satisfaca
lungimi si debite tot mai ridicate, in acelasi conveyor belts that meet lengths and rising
timp cu o durata si fiabilitate cat mai mare debts, while a larger duration and
in exploatare, a condus la efectuarea unor reliability in operation, led to conducting
ample cercetari in domeniu, ceea ce a extensive research in the field, which
determinat aparitia unor familii intregi de resulted in the emergence of whole family
benzi cu structuri constructive, dimensiuni si strip with constructive structure, size and
clase de rezistenta din cele mai diverse.
strength class of the most diverse.
CUVINTE CHEIE: banda transportoare,
rezistenta specifica, forta de tractiune KEY WORDS: conveyor belt, specific
resistance, traction force.
1. INTRODUCERE
1. INTRODUCTION
Calculele de dimensionare a benzii
transportoare precum si a altor elemente Dimensioning calculations conveyor belt
ale transportorului impun cunoasterea and other conveyor components require
modului in care fortele de tractiune din knowledge of how belt traction forces
banda (tensiunile din aceasta) variaza pe (tensions thereof) varies along the length of
lungimea transportorului. In toate situatiile
the conveyor. In all cases the operation of
de functionare a transportorului trebuie
asigurata antrenarea benzii fara aparitia the conveyor belt must be provided without
fenomenului de patinare a acesteia precum engaging the slip phenomenon and limiting
si limitarea sagetii benzii (dintre seturile its displacement belt (between sets of
de role) [1,3,4]. Tensiunile din banda rollers) [1,3,4]. The tensions from the
transportoare se vor studia pentru conveyor belt will be study for the climb
tronsonul care urca (plin) si pentru cel care (full) section and for the descends (empty)
coboara (gol). Se mentioneaza ca
section. It mentions that w specific
rezistenta specifica la miscare w a benzii,
pe ramura plina, se compune din resistance to motion of the belt on full
rezistentele care apar datorate: deformarii branch, consisting of resistances due:
curentului de material, datorita rotirii current material deformation, rotation
rolelor in lagare, datorita presarii stratului rollers camps because pressing rubber layer

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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie , Nr. 4/2012

de cauciuc al benzii de catre rola si and roll belt and belt bending. Since
datorita incovoierilor benzilor. Intrucat current material strength due to
rezistentele datorate deformarii curentului deformation and bending belt represents a
de material si al incovoierilor benzii
large percentage of total specific resistance
reprezinta un procent mare din rezistenta
specifica totala la miscare w, rezulta ca to motion w, it follows that it decreases
aceasta scade o data cu micsorarea sagetii with decreasing displacement belt between
benzii intre role, respectiv cu cresterea rollers and increase with the effort in belt,
efortului din banda. Aceasta explica faptul respectively. This explains that w decreases
ca w scade o data cu cresterea lungimii with increasing length of conveyor
transportorului (mai ales cand si (especially when its initial stretch is great),
intinderea initiala a acestuia este mare),
and with increasing conveyor tilt too. For
precum si cu cresterea inclinarii
transportorului. Pentru acest motiv, in this reason, the stationary conveyors with
cazul transportoarelor stationare cu great length, especially when working at
lungime mare, mai ales cand lucreaza si pe inclination, it is recommended to adopt
inclinare, se recomanda a se adopta valori trace values for w (the higher slopes can
minine pentru w (la inclinari mari poate have a value of 0.02 to 0.025), and if it is a
avea valoarea 0,02 - 0,025), iar in cazul small length conveyors working
transportoarelor cu lungime mica ce
horizontally, maximum values [4].
lucreaza pe orizontala, valori maxime [4].

2. CALCULUL FORTELOR 2. CALCULATION OF THE


MINIME DE TRACTIUNE DIN MINIMUM TRACTION FORCE
BANDA TRANSPORTOARE FROM THE CONVEYOR BELT

Aceste forte sunt variabile pe traseele de These forces are variables of the tape
transport ale benzii, valoarea lor locala transport routes, its local value is based on:
fiind in functie de: configuratia traseului configuration of the tape transport path,
de transport al benzii, amplasarea si
location and number of drums drive, drive
numarul tamburelor de actionare,
caracteristicile sistemelor de actionare si and braking systems characteristics,
franare, amplasarea si tipul dispozitivelor location and type of conveyor belt
de intindere a benzii transportoare, stretching devices, operating conditions of
regimul de functionare al transportorului the transporter (stationary power or brake
(stationar, de pornire sau franare, blocat), lock), charging mode (fully loaded, fully
modul de incarcare (complet incarcat, unloaded, loaded only on some sections)
complet neincarcat, incarcat doar pe unele
tronsoane) [1]. [1].
Avand in vedere tensiunile din banda Given belt tensions and efforts of other
precum si eforturile din alte elemente ale elements and organs of the conveyor belt
transportorului fortele de tractiune din traction forces must be very small, but

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banda trebuie sa fie deosebit de reduse, dar large enough so as to ensure the
suficient de mari, astfel incat sa asigure transmission of the drum peripheral force
transmiterea fortei periferice de la driving the conveyor belt without evidence
tamburul de antrenare la banda
dangerous phenomenon of slip and
transportoare fara aparitia fenomenului
periculos de patinare si limitarea la minim minimum displacement limiting made by
a sagetii facute de banda intre doua seturi the belt between two consecutive sets of
consecutive de role [3]. rolls [3].

2.1 Transmiterea fortei periferice de la 2.1 Sending the peripheral force from
tamburul de antrenare la banda the drum driving to the belt

Asa cum se vede si in figura 1 de mai jos, As we see in figure 1 below, the peripheral
forta periferica simbolizata cu F se
force symbolized by F is transmitted from
transmite de la tamburul de antrenare la
banda, daca tensiunile din ramurile benzii the drive drum to the belt if tensions from
care trec peste tambur satisfac urmatoarele belt branches crossing the drum satisfy the
conditii [1] : following conditions [1]:

Fig 1. Tamburul de antrenare a benzii [5]


Fig 1. Drum drive belt [5]
T a - T d = F u [N] (1)

T a T d e [N] (2)

de unde rezulta relatiile: hence the relations:


T d = C d F u [N] (3)
T a = (1+C d ) F u [N] (4)
in care: where:

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T d [N] - tensiunea din ramura benzii care T d [N] - tension from belt branch that
se desfasoara de pe tambur; runs from the drum;
T a [N] - tensiunea din ramura benzii care T a [N] - tension from belt branch that
se infasoara pe tambur; wraps on the drum;
F u [N] - forta periferica de antrenare la F u [N] - peripheral force driving the
tambur; drum;
e - baza logaritmilor naturali; e - base of natural logarithms;
- coeficientul de frecare dintre banda si
- coefficient of friction between the tape
tambur, = 0,3.
- unghiul de infasurare a benzii pe and drum, = 0,3.
tambur, - angle band winding drum;
C d - factorul de infasurare ce se determina C d - winding factor which is determined
cu relatia: by the relationship:

1
Cd =
(5)
e 1

Deci, C d = 0,497. So, C d = 0,497.

Forta F = a(qb + qGj + CRjqRj)lj = 2,566x The force F = a(qb + qGj + CRjqRj)lj =
x(14,7+251,424+20,81) 6 = 4115,955 [N] 2,566x x(14,7+251,424+20,81) 6 =
4115,955 [N]
Efectuand calculele se obtin urmatoarele
valori pentru forte: Performing calculations we obtain the
following values for the forces:
T d = 2045,629 [N],
T a = 6162,675 [N]

Se observa ca se respecta conditia (2) impusa Note that is respected the condition (2)
mai sus si anume: imposed above, namely:
T a T d e [N]

Din calcule, se observa ca valoarea maxima From calculations, it is observed that the
a fortei periferice la tamburul de antrenare maximum peripheral force driving drum
are loc la pornirea sau franarea benzii occurs when turning or braking fully
transportoare complet incarcate. loaded belt.
2.2 Limitarea sagetii relative h rel facute 2.2 The h rel displacement limitation
de banda transportoare made by the belt
Tensiunea minima din banda notata cu The minimum tension from the belt
T h ,min , necesara pentru limitarea sagetii

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benzii intre doua seturi consecutive de role, denoted T h ,min , necessary to limit
se determina pentru fiecare ramura a benzii
deflection strip between two consecutive
in modul urmator:
- tensiunea minima pentru ramura purtatoare sets of rolls, is determined for each branch
a benzii se determina cu relatia [1,4]: of the band in the following way:
- minimum tension for the carrying branch
is determined by the relation: [1,4]:
l pP (q B qG ) g
ThP,min [N] (6)
8hrel
ThP,min 29370,109 [N]

- tensiunea minima pentru ramura de - minimum tension for the turning branch
intoarcere se determina cu relatia : is determined by the relation:
l pI q B g
ThI ,min [N] (7)
8hrel
ThI ,min 4326,210 [N]
in care: where:
ThP [N] - tensiunea din ramura purtatoare a ThP [N] - tension from carrying branch;
benzii; ThI [N] - tension from turning branch;
ThI [N] - tensiunea din ramura de l pP [m] - step roller bearing supporting the
intoarcere a benzii; branch;
l pP [m] - pasul rolelor de sustinere de pe
l pI [m] - step roll up from the branch back
ramura purtatoare;
support;
l pI [m] - pasul rolelor de sustinere de pe
qB [kg/m] - belt mass per meter;
ramura de intoarcere; qG [kg/m] - mass of material transported
qB [kg/m] - masa benzii pe metru liniar;
qG [kg/m] - masa materialului transportat per meter;
pe metru liniar; g [m/s2] - gravitational acceleration..
g [m/s2] - acceleratia gravitationala. Displacement limitation made of belt
Limitarea sagetii facuta de banda symbolized by h rel is determined by the
simbolizata cu h rel se determina cu relatia: relationship:
h
hrel [m] (8)
lP
0,025
hrel = 0,027 [m]
0,9
in care: where:
h [m] - sageata maxima admisa intre doua h [m] - maximum permissible
seturi consecutive de role, displacement between two consecutive sets
lp [m] - pasul rolelor de sustinere. of rolls,
lp [m] - roll up support step.

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3. CONCLUZII 3. CONCLUSIONS
Din cele aratate mai sus se observa ca From the foregoing it is seen that sizing
dimensionarea benzii transportoare precum conveyor belt and other conveyor
si a altor elemente ale transportorului impun components require knowledge of how
cunoasterea modului in care fortele de belt traction forces (tensions thereof)
tractiune din banda (tensiunile din aceasta) varies along the length of the conveyor.
variaza pe lungimea transportorului. De Also, you can see, from the values of
asemenea, se poate vedea, din valorile forces calculated in section 2 and 3, the
fortelor calculate la punctul 2 si 3, ca resistance to rotation of the roller bearings
rezistenta la rotire a rolelor in lagare scade o decreases with increasing load on the roll,
data cu cresterea sarcinii pe rola, de unde
hence the values adopted for specific
rezulta ca valorile adoptate pentru rezistenta
specifica la miscare w pot fi ceva mai mari resistance to movement w can be more
pe ramura goala decat pe cea plina. larger on the empty branch than on the
Cunoscand cum se calculeaza rezistentele la full. Knowing how to calculate resistances
miscare a benzii, se pot stabili eforturile ce to motion of the belt, you can fix that
apar in banda prin metoda pe puncte luate pe occur belt efforts through the points
contur, incepand cu punctul de desfasurare made on the contour method, starting
de pe tamburul motor si terminand cu point of the drum motor development
punctul de infasurare pe acesta. Aceste and ending point of winding it. These
rezistente de miscare calculate pentru movement resistances calculated for
ramura plina si pentru ramura goala sunt empty and full branches are needed to
necesare a se determina tocmai pentru precisely determine the installed power of
calculul puterii instalate a transportorului cu the conveyor belt, meaning the energetic
banda adica, pentru dimensionarea
dimensioning of it.
energetica a acestuia.

BIBLIOGRAFIE REFERENCES

[1]Armaselu V. (1984). Imbinarea, [1]Armaselu V. (1984). Bonding,


vulcanizarea si repararea benzilor de vulcanizing and repair conveyor belts.
transport. Editura Tehnica, Bucuresti. Technical Publishing House, Bucarest.
[2]Buzdugan Gh. (1986). Rezistenta [2]Buzdugan Gh. (1986) Strength of
materialelor. Editura Academiei, Materials. Academy Publishing House,
Bucureti. Bucharest
[3]Fodor D. (1995). Exploatarea [3]Fodor D. (1995). Exploiting of minerals
zacamintelor de minerale si roci utile and rocks through the work day. Technical
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Publishing House, Bucarest.
Bucuresti.
[4]Marian I. (1984). Utilaje de incarcare si [4]Marian I. (1984). Mining loading and
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[5]www.scritube.com/tehnica- [5]www.scritube.com/tehnica-
mecanica/transportor-cu-banda. mecanica/transportor-cu-banda. Accesed in
Accesat in 10.10.2012. 10.10.2012..

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