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1 Expresionismul n artele plastice

1.1 Tablouri reprezentative

2 Expresionismul n literatur 3 Bibliografie

[modificare]Expresionismul

n artele plastice

Expresionismul i are originea n Germania (vezi: Expresionismul german), fiind reprezentat de ctre Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Erich Heckel, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Max Pechstein - grupul Die Brcke ("Puntea") din Dresda - i Franz Marc, August Macke - din jurul Almanahului Der Blaue Reiter ("Clreul albastru") din Mnchen - acoperind perioada 1905 - 1918. Vor adera mai trziu Emil Nolde,Paul Klee i Wassily Kandinsky.

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner -Dou femei pe strad, 1914 - Kunstsammlung Dsseldorf

Expresionismul este reacia fireasc a unui grup de pictori germani la academism i convenii estetice rigide, dar i la autoritarismul celui de-al doilea Reich. Revolta artitilor a proclamat libertatea creatoare absolut i primatul expresiei asupra formei. Rezultatul este o art spectaculoas din punct de vedere cromatic i o estetic revoluionar. n pofida programelor i periodicilor sale, expresionismul nu a fost niciodat o coal n adevratul sens al cuvntului. Reprezentat de artiti foarte diferii, expresionismul se impune mai mult ca un stil, dect ca o micare artistic. Acest stil va depi de altfel repede graniele picturii: va cuprinde n sfera sa i sculptura, poezia i muzica, cu compozitori ca Arnold Schnberg i Alban Berg. Revolta expresionist propune o formul nou, dar pstreaz temele tradiionale, rareori abordnd revendicri politice sau sociale. Este o revoluie pur estetic, caracterizat de culori iptoare, contrastante, de linii frnte i curbe, de un ritm discontinuu.

Expresionismul devine, ncepnd din 1933, inta atacurilor naziste. n anul 1937 se organizeaz expoziia "Arta degenerat": expresionitii sunt prezentai aici ca dumani ai regimului i rasei germane. Operele lor sunt confiscate i excluse din muzee. Din fericire, n ciuda distrugerilor i a rzboiului, s-a reuit recuperarea multor tablouri, chiar dac unele au fost deteriorate. Ele au fost redate patrimoniului universal i iubitorilor de art, ca o dovad c violena nu poate nvinge niciodat frumosul. n afara Germaniei, cei mai cunoscui pictori expresioniti sunt norvegianul Edvard Munch, cu celebrul su tablou iptul, elveianulCuno Amiet, olandezii Lambertus Zijl i Kees van Dongen, finlandezul Akseli Gallen-Kallela precum i cehul Bohumil Kubista. [modificare]Tablouri

reprezentative

"Femei pe strad", Kirchner (1914) "Rstignirea", Nolde (1912) "Peisaj din Dresda", Heckel (1910) "Caii galbeni", Marc (1912) "Reflexia n vitrin", Macke (1913). "Pakistani Hunger Strike", Saleh Chaudhry (1987).

[modificare]Expresionismul

n literatur

Emil Nolde - Rstignirea, 1912 Fundaia Seebll, Neukirchen

n literatur, expresionismul este adesea considerat o revolt mpotriva realismului sau naturalismului, o cutare a unei realiti psihologice sau spirituale, iar nu o nregistrare a unor evenimente exterioare surprinse n secvena lor logic. n roman, termenul este leagat de operele lui Franz Kafka sau James Joyce (vezi: tehnica fluxului contiinei, stream of consciousness). n teatru, August Strindberg este considerat un precursor al micrii expresioniste, dei termenul poate fi aplicat unui grup de dramaturgi germani din primele decenii ale secolului al XX-lea, incluznd pe Georg Kaiser, Ernst Toller i Frank Wedekind. Opera lor este caracterizat de o bizar distorsionare a realului. Ali dramaturgi, dei nu erau afiliai curentului, au scris opere cu tent expresionist, de exemplu Karel apek n R.U.R. (1921) iEugene O'Neill n mpratul Jones (1921). Micarea, dei a durat puin timp, a dat un avnt substanial modernizrii teatrului european. Numeroase opere literare romneti au intrat n atingere cu expresionismul. Astfel, majoritatea poeziilor sau pieselor de teatru ale lui Lucian Blaga pot fi afiliate acestui curent. Un alt exemplu ar putea fi piesa luiMihai Sulescu, Sptmna luminat. Opera Sptmna luminat de Nicolae Brnzeu pe un libret deConstantin Pavel dup piesa lui Mihai Sulescu; cu premiera n 1943 la Opera Romn din Bucureti.

Aceasta din urm poate fi considerat prima oper romneasc de orientare expresionist; ea reliefeaz un tragism rscolitor, realizat cu o miestrie uimitoare. Din nefericire, dup 1990, nicio Oper din ar nu a nscris-o n repertoriul ei. [modificare]Bibliografie Edith Hoffmann Expressionismus, 1963 George Waldemar La peinture expressionniste, 1960 Amelia Pavel Expresionismul i premisele sale, 1978 Wolf-Dieter Dube Der Expressionismus in Wort und Bild, 1983 Ovid S. Crohmlniceanu Literatura romn i expresionismul, 2002

Dietmar Elger Expressionism - A Revolution in German Art, Editura Taschen, 2008, ISBN 978-38365-0712-7 rut ca reactie impotriva realismului si a extensiei acestuia, naturalismul, expresionismul a pornit initial de la ideologiile unui grup de pictori germani impotriva academismului si conventiilor estetice rigide. Acest curent literar ia nastere in Germania, intr-un moment de extrema tensiune sociala a anilor 1911-1925, inainte si in timpul primului razboi mondial. Denumirea miscarii artistice studiate porneste de la caracterizarea unor tablouri ca fiind "expresionisme" de un pictorul francez Julien Auguste Herve. Termenul i-a mai fost atribuit lui Louis Vauxelles, cronicarul de arta plastica de la celebrul ziar Le Figaro, care a definit picturile lui Matisse drept "expresioniste". Arta plastica expresionista pastreaza temele traditionale pe care le expune intr-o formula noua, prin excesul de culoare, cromatica stridenta, contrastanta, linii frante si curbe. Aceasta estetica se rasfrange si asupra literaturii, care cultiva cu precadere trairii corvarsitoare, deci stridente, aspiratia eului spre absolut. Eul liric se reintoarce la origini, spre paradigma mitica, spre timpurile primordiale, cand fiinta se contopea cu cosmicului, formand un intreg. Astfel, apare negarea orasului, poetul cautand refugii in mituri, credinte, ritualuri stravechi. Crezul artistic reprezinta o intoarcere in timp, in zonele arhetipale ale culturii si ale omenirii, in general. Trairile sufletesti, sentimentul inutilitatii, subiectivitatea apar constant in poezia expresionista. Salvarea vine prin reintoarcerea eului la originar, la timpurile mitice, primordiale. Filosofia lui Nietzsche influenteaza tehnica expresionista prin frenezia dionisiaca a sentimentelor, potentarea ideii de destin implacabil, de dezlantuire, de eliberare a eului. Lucian Blaga, poate cel mai valoros expresionist roman, surprinde esenta acestui curent literar: "De cate ori un lucru e astfel redat incat puterea, tensiunea sa interioara, il intrece, il transcendeaza, tradand relatiuni cu cosmicul, cu absolutul, cu ilimitatul, avem de-a face cu un produs artistic expresionist." (L. Blaga, Filosofia stilului).

Elemente definitorii ale expresionismului:


permanenta nevoie de absolut, aspiratia spre ideal

anularea vechilor dogme ale realismului care nu fac nimic altceva decat sa surprinda realitatile

factice, logice ale vietii, in favoarea cautarii unei realitati spirituale

cautarea originalului, a increatului, a ineditului

reintoarcerea la primordial, la origini, la universul mitic

tragismul existential surprins si depasit odata ce fiinta reuseste sa atinga absolutul, prin spiritualizarea trairilor, acestea devenind cosmice, metafizice

teme si motive predilecte: tristetea si nelinistea metafizica, disperarea, absenta, neantul, moartea, dezagregarea eului, natura halucinanta

categorii estetice cultivate: fantasticul, macabrul, grotescul, miticul, magicul

imagini poetice sunt vii, stranii, contrastante asemenea picturilor expresioniste

limbajul este uneori violent, socant

In literatura universala, reprezentantii expresionismului sunt: Gottfried Bienn, Georg Heym, Georg Kaiser (Germania), Georg Trakl, Franz Werfel, Franz Kafka, Theodor Daubler (Austria), August Strindberg (Suedia).

Literatura romana: Expresionismul blagian


Cum era de asteptat, influentele scriitorilor germani expresionisti au fost adaptate realitatilor autohtone, in special in Transilvania, unde vechea apartenenta la imperiul austro-ungar a facilitat infiltrarea acestui curent literar. In literatura romana, pot fi remarcate semne expresioniste in operele semnate de Lucian Blaga, Al. Philippide, T. Arghezi, Adrian Maniu, Vasile Voiculescu. In manifestatiile artistice ale acestor scriitori sunt cultivate elemente specifice expresionismului precum grotescul, miticul, cosmicul, originarul. Totodata, are loc o hipertrofiere a eului, recrearea lumii prin cuvant, aspiratia spre absolut, spre ideal, angoasa existentiala. Lucian Blaga nu este un sclav al expresionismului, in operele sale literare si filosofice facandu-se simtite influente ale mai multor curente literare. Totusi, primele doua volume de poezii, "Poemele luminii" si "Pasii profetului", stau clar sub semnul expresionismului. Incepand insa cu volumul "La cumpana apelor", influenta expresionista incepe sa paleasca pe masura

ce

se

dezvolta

sentimentul

echilibrului,

al

impacarii

eului

poetic

cu

lumea.

Revenind la crezurile expresioniste, in poezia lui Blaga asistam la o contopire cu universul, la o transcendenta metafizica a eului liric catre cosmic. Lucian Blaga anuleaza realitatile imediate ale realismului si naturalismului, mutand lirica intr-o alta realitate, cea a misterului cosmic, care trebuie ocrotit. In arta poetica "Eu nu strivesc corola de minuni a lumii", care deschide volumul "Poemele luminii", se remarca inca din titlul prezenta subliniata a poetului. Tot din titlul uriasa corola alcatuita din mistere (taine) anunta realitatea misterului cosmic, care trebuie protejata, dupa cum mentionam mai sus. Eul si universul plin de taine este legat de verbul "nu strivesc", care subliniaza atitudinea meditativa si protectoare a poetului. Metafora corolei de floare releva perfectiunea universului. Asadar, titlul este incarcat de accente expresioniste. Lumina "altora" este un simbol al cunoasterii rationale, superficiale, ce cauta explicatii logice, in timp ce propria lumina "sporeste a lumii taina" prin imaginatie, existand astfel un raport de opozitie: "(...) Lumina altora sugruma vraja nepatrunsului ascuns in adancimi de intuneric, dar eu, eu cu lumina mea sporesc a lumii taina si-ntocmai cum cu razele ei albe luna nu micsoreaza, ci tremuratoare mareste si mai tare taina noptii, asa inbogatesc si eu intunecata zare cu largi fiori de sfant mister si tot ce-i neinteles se schimba-n neintelesuri si mai mari sub ochii mei- (...)" Asadar, expresioniste sunt, in creatia lui L. Blaga, sentimentul metafizic, imaginea contemplativa a lumii si a cosmosului, caracterul vizionar, cultivarea mitului primitivitatii, al arhaicului si originalului.

In literatura, expresionismul este identificat ca o revolta impotriva realismului sau naturalismului. Se prezinta ca o cautare a unei realitati psihologice sau spirituale. Curentul trece dincolo de inregistrarea unor evenimente exterioare surprinse in secventa lor logica. Franz Kafka sau James Joyce au apelat la tehnica specifica expresionismului, fluxul constiintei, in conceperea romanelor. In teatru, August Strindberg este considerat initiatorul miscarii expresioniste. Termenul a fost folosit pentru prima data in literatura in primele decenii ale secolului XX de catre grup de dramaturgi germani: Kaiser, Toller si Wedekind. Trasatura definitorie a operei lor era distorsionarea realului. In urmatorii ani, in domeniul literaturii s-au inregistrat doar influente expresioniste printre care se pot mentiona operele lui Karel Capek in "R.U.R." (1921) si Eugene O'Neill in "Imparatul Jones" (1921).

SURSA

02

EXPRESIONISM. Curentul ce apare in Germania, intre anii 1911-1925; denumirea lui provine din francezul expressionisme si germanul Expressionismus. Se deosebeste in mod fundamental de naturalism si impresionism. Spiritul creator nu mai ramane pasiv, nu mai este supus obiectului, ci se reflecta in exterior, Venind sa dea expresie
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intregului. Expresionismul se manifesta cu intregul sau cortegiu de fenomene, prin trairile halucinatorii, reprezentarile fantaste, deformate ale lumii, constiinta finala, apocaliptica, generate de priza societatii timpului. Lumea, considera ei, a ajuns la un capat, e perioada declinului civilizatiei industriale, incapabila de a mai produce ceva nou, de a renaste, precum pasarea Phoenix, din propria-i cenusa. in consecinta, cum nimic nu se schimba, se pune punctul final, se apropie sfarsitul, dupa cum sugereaza titlul lunui volum de poezii a lui Kurt Pinthus, "Menschheitsdammerung". Expresionismul exprima strigatul fiintei, der Schrei, infiorata de iminenta catastrofei universale, de impasul constiintei metafizice. Worringer propune pentru prima data termenul de expresionism in revista "Der Sturm" ("Furtuna"), prin articolul sau, "Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der modernen Malerei", fiind legat de ceea ce descopera Munch si Van Gogh in tablourile lor, de unde se inspira si ideile grupului Der blaue Reiter. Pictorii expresionisti expun tablouri in care tonul predominant este negrul, cu personaje slabe, deformate, grotesti, fiinte ale sfarsitului de lume. Poetii germani Gottfried Benn, Georg Trakl, Georg Heym, Theodor Daubler, Paul Zech sunt nume sonore ale poeziei expresioniste, iar drama se remarca prin Reinhard Sorge, Ernest Barlach, Georg Kaiser, jBertold Brecht, avand drept precursori pe Strindberg si Wedekind. Blaga este expresionist in "Poemele luminii" (1919), "in marea trecere" (1923), in piesele de teatru "Zamolxe" (1921), "Tulburarea apelor" (1923), cu ecouri in mai toate creatiile de mai tarziu. De (multe ori, el evoca imaginea unei lumi aflate in pragul dezastrului, generat de lipsa de putere a noilor demoni ai civilizatiei, simple artefacte ce nu schimba in bine esenta conditiei umane: "Umbla masini subpamantesti. in nevazut peste turnuri/ intercontinentale zvonuri electrice./ De pe case antenele pipaie spatii/ cu alte graiuri si alte vesti." ("Veac"). Semnele sfarsitului sunt prevestite de cocosi apocaliptici ce "tot striga/ tot striga din sate romanesti./ Fantanile noptii/ deschid ochii siasculta/ intunecatele vesti." ("Peisaj transcendent"), in "Ioan se sfasie in pustie", este prezenta tema cunoasterii luciferice, Elohim, exilantul ingerilor pe pamant, fiind strigat cu disperare. in "Mesterul Manole" (1927), din seria acelor Verwandlungsdrama, tema mortii sacrificiale, datatoare de durabilitate, se conjuga cu cea a conceptiei bogomilice, dupa care Dumnezeu si Diavolul si-au dat mana pe ascuns, au facut un pact de a guverna lumea, ca doua parti ale unui intreg mai vast, multipolar. "Mesterul" lui Adrian Maniu contine conflictul dintre Manole si fortele naturii, maniate ca trebuie sa-1 slujeasca, luand o forma, iar in "Lupii de arama" domnita, regina Daciei, indeamna femeile sa se refugieze in munte, sa se uneasca cu piatra pentru a zdrobi legiunile romane, propulsate doar de oarba forta mecanica. Aron Cotrus este coplesit de spiritul mesianic, care il indeamna sa se refugieze in natura, in mijlocul codrului, iar in "Ion" poporul constituie un rezervor de energie vie, la fel ca la Heynicke: "Das Volk stirbt nie!/ Aus ihm allein gebiert es neue MenSchheit, / Nicht aus den blassen Literarenfratzen dieser Tage,/ Die schon veraltet, wider uns, die Jugend stehn". c4k1910cx76fmq Expresionismul e un glas de disperare al omului impotriva unei civilizatii acaparatoare, demonice, sufocanta prin mecanicitatea ei, prin lipsa de adaptare la coordonatele fiintei umane, ramasa la un nivel inferior de evolutie. Apropiat de expresionism este si constructivismul, legat de pictura dinamica, promotor fiind Vladimir Tatline si avand ca exponenti pe Malevitch in Est si, in Occident, gruparea De Stijl (cea mai reprezentativa
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opera arhitectonica este casa doamnei Schroeder-Schraeder, a gruparii De Stijl). Alte curente, in arhitectura si pictura, sunt internationalismul, promovat de Le Corbusier (pictor, teoretician, urbanist francez de origine elvetiana, cunoscut pentru "Orasul radios", "Le Modulor" si opiniile sale din "L Esprit nouveau", autor al vilei Savoye la Poissy), Gropius, Mies van der Rohe. Internationalismul este legat de cubism, reprezentat de Picasso ("Domnisoarele din Avignon", "Guernica") si Salvador Dali ("Persistenta memoriei"). Un alt curent, cel organic, in arhitectura este legat de numele lui Lloyd Wright, faimos proiectant american, autorul renumitelor "Prairie Houses", "Casa de pe Cascada" (Falling Water), "Guggenheim Museum".

SURSA 03 Expresionismul n artele plastice Expresionismul i are originea n Germania, fiind reprezentat de ctre Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Erich Heckel, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Max Pechstein - grupul Die Brcke ("Puntea") din Dresda - i Franz Marc, August Macke - din jurul Almanahului Der Blaue Reiter ("Clreul albastru") din Mnchen - acoperind perioada 1905 - 1918. Vor adera mai trziu Emil Nolde, Paul Klee i Wassily Kandinsky. Expresionismul este reacia fireasc a unui grup de pictori germani la academism i convenii estetice rigide, dar i la autoritarismul celui de-al doilea Reich. Revolta artitilor a proclamat libertatea creatoare absolut i primatul expresiei asupra formei. Rezultatul este o art spectaculoas din punct de vedere cromatic i o estetic revoluionar. n pofida programelor i periodicilor sale, expresionismul nu a fost niciodat o coal n adevratul sens al cuvntului. Reprezentat de artiti foarte diferii, expresionismul se impune mai mult ca un stil, dect ca o micare artistic. Acest stil va depi de altfel repede graniele picturii: va cuprinde n sfera sa i sculptura, poezia i muzica, cu compozitori ca Arnold Schnberg i Alban Berg. Revolta expresionist propune o formul nou, dar pstreaz temele tradiionale, rareori abordnd revendicri politice sau sociale. Este o revoluie pur estetic, caracterizat de culori iptoare, contrastante, de linii frnte i curbe, de un ritm discontinuu. Expresionismul devine, ncepnd din 1933, inta atacurilor naziste. n anul 1937 se organizeaz expoziia "Arta degenerat": expresionitii sunt prezentai aici ca dumani ai regimului i rasei germane. Operele lor sunt confiscate i excluse din muzee. Din fericire, n ciuda distrugerilor i a rzboiului, s-a reuit recuperarea multor tablouri, chiar dac unele au fost deteriorate. Ele au fost redate patrimoniului universal i iubitorilor de art, ca o dovad c violena nu poate nvinge niciodat frumosul. n afara Germaniei, cei mai cunoscui pictori expresioniti sunt norvegianul Edvard Munch, cu celebrul su tablou iptul, elveianul Cuno Amiet, olandezii Lambertus Zijl i Kees van Dongen, finlandezul Akseli Gallen-Kallela precum i cehul Bohumil Kubista.
7

Expresionismul n literatur n literatur, expresionismul este adesea considerat o revolt mpotriva realismului sau naturalismului, o cutare a unei realiti psihologice sau spirituale, iar nu o nregistrare a unor evenimente exterioare surprinse n secvena lor logic. n roman, termenul este leagat de operele lui Franz Kafka sau James Joyce (vezi: tehnica fluxului contiinei, stream of consciousness). n teatru, August Strindberg este considerat un precursor al micrii expresioniste, dei termenul poate fi aplicat unui grup de dramaturgi germani din primele decenii ale secolului al XX-lea, incluznd pe Georg Kaiser, Ernst Toller i Frank Wedekind. Opera lor este caracterizat de o bizar distorsionare a realului. Ali dramaturgi, dei nu erau afiliai curentului, au scris opere cu tent expresionist, de exemplu Karel apek n R.U.R. (1921) i Eugene O'Neill n mpratul Jones (1921). Micarea, dei a durat puin timp, a dat un avnt substanial modernizrii teatrului european. Numeroase opere literare romneti au intrat n atingere cu expresionismul. Astfel, majoritatea poeziilor sau pieselor de teatru ale lui Lucian Blaga pot fi afiliate acestui curent. Un alt exemplu ar putea fi piesa lui Mihai Sulescu, Sptmna luminat. Opera Sptmna luminat de Nicolae Brnzeu pe un libret de Constantin Pavel dup piesa lui Mihai Sulescu; cu premiera n 1943 la Opera Romn din Bucureti. Aceasta din urm poate fi considerat prima oper romneasc de orientare expresionist; ea reliefeaz un tragism rscolitor, realizat cu o miestrie uimitoare. Din nefericire, dup 1990, nicio Oper din ar nu a nscris-o n repertoriul ei.
sursa:ipedia.ro
EXPRESIONSM s. n. Curent artistic i literar aprut n Germania la nceputul sec. XX, care pune accent pe intensitatea expresiei. [Pr.: -si-o-] Din fr. expressionnisme.
Sursa: DEX '98 (1998) | Adugat de ana_zecheru | Semnaleaz o greeal | Permalink

EXPRESIONSM n. Curent n literatura i arta modern care proclam o tendin exagerat de a exprima viaa interioar mai mult dect impresiile lumii din afar. /<fr. expressionnisme
Sursa: NODEX (2002) | Adugat de siveco | Semnaleaz o greeal | Permalink

EXPRESIONSM s.n. Micare literar i artistic modern aprut la nceputul sec. XX caracterizat prin tendina exagerat de a pune n lumin viaa interioar (stri de spaim, de durere, de uimire, de exacerbare a sentimentelor) n dauna lumii din afar i a impresiilor lsate de aceasta. [Pron. -si-o-. / < fr. expressionnisme].
Sursa: DN (1986) | Adugat de LauraGellner | Semnaleaz o greeal | Permalink

EXPRESIONSM s.n. 1. Curent artistic i literar modern, aprut n Germania la nceputul sec. XX, caracterizat printr-o puternic tendin de exprimare spontan a tririlor interioare (stri de spaim, durere, uimire, exacerbare a sentimentelor), prin tensiune extatic, punnd accent pe subiectivitate, pe iraional. 2. Orice form de art care vizeaz intensitatea expresiei. Stil de arhitectur care acord prioritate expresiei prin stilizri (exagerate). (din fr. expressionnisme)

Definiii din dicionare specializate


Aceste definiii pot explica numai anumite nelesuri ale cuvintelor.

EXPRESIONSM ( fr., germ.) s. n. Curent artistic de larg rspndire aprut n Germania la nceputul sec. 20. E. n artele plastice s-a afirmat prin gruprile Die Brcke i Der Blaue Reiter, ptrunznd apoi n toat Europa i n America. Iniial a reprezentat o reacie mpotriva

impresionismului, definindu-se ulterior att sub aspect tematic (sublinierea conflictului dintre individ i societate, a tririlor luntrice frmntate, surprinderea unor aspecte de critic a societii), ct i plastic (accentuarea grafic a traseelor, violen cromatic, monumentalitate, exagerarea jocului de volume), prin elemente care creeaz o atmosfer de puternic tensiune dramatic. Printre reprezentani: E. Nolde, E.L. Kirchner, Ed. Munch, O. Kokoschka, G. Rouault, C. Soutine, G. Grosz, K. Kollwitz, E. Barlach, O. Zadkine, J.C. Orozco, D.A. Siqueiros. E. n literatur tinde spre deformarea realitii, punnd un puternic accent pe subiectivitate, iraional, esenializare, grotesc i caricatur. Opoziia fat de civilizaia industrial dezumanizant, viziunile apocaliptice ntlnesc patosul vital, spiritul antirzboinic i antiburghez, cutarea unei noi umaniti. n poezie, e. favorizeaz combinaiile ritmice, ndrzneala i acumularea imaginilor (G. Trakl, Fr. Werfel, G. Benn, G. Heym), n teatru aduce personaje simbolice, dezbatere de idei (G. Kaiser, B. Brecht), n proz abstracia, burlescul, grotescul (H. Mann, F. Kafka, A. Dblin). n muzic,dei nu a existat efectiv un program expresionist, n anii 1910-1920 are loc o exacerbare maladiv a parametrilor limbajului muzical, care va genera spargerea cadrului cunoscut al operei muzicale. Melodica fragmentat, cromatismul intens, disonana duc la atonalism (A. Schnberg i A. von Webern). Principalii exponeni ai e. muzical sunt considerai reprezentanii Noii coli Vieneze (Schnberg, Webern, A. Berg). E. se manifest i n cinema (R. Wienne, F. Lang, F.W. Murnau). Interesante elemente expresioniste se gsesc att n opera unor scriitori romni (L. Blaga, A. Maniu, V. Voiculescu, T. Arghezi, A. Cotru), ct i n cea a unor importani artiti plastici: L. Vorel, A. Pop, N. Eder, Grete Csaky-Copony, F. Kimm, I. Nagy, N. MattisTeutsch (e. abstract) i I. uculescu (e.simbolic).

Expresionismul german
De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liber

Expresionismul german este un termen general utilizat pentru a acoperi o serie de micri artistice care au aprut n Germania n preajma primului rzboi mondial, care au atins apogeul n Berlinul anilor 1920. Expresionismul german este o micare artistic i cultural aprut n cadrul mai larg al expresionismului european din arta i cultura Europei a anilor 1920 i 1930.

Cuprins
[ascunde]

1 Expresionismul german n diferite arte 2 Anii 1920 i 1930 3 Filme recente influenate de expresionismul german 4 Alte exemple 5 Cinema i arhitectur 6 Vezi i 7 Referine 8 Legturi externe

[modificare]Expresionismul

german n diferite arte


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Expresionismul, ca unul din cele mai influente micri ale secolului XX, s-a rspndit n toate mediile: arhitectur, muzic, pictur i sculptur. Arhitectura, deoarece aduce tririle interioare ale individului ctre mulime, a fost mult timp legat de ideile de baz ale expresionismului german. Micarea n pictur a nceput din 1905 cu grupul Die Brcke (Podul) din Dresden, rspndindu-se mai trziu i n Berlin, i Der Blaue Reiter (Clreul albastru) n Mnchen din 1911. Teatrul de asemenea a fcut parte din micare expresionist , datorit dramaturgilor precum Georg Kaiser i Ernst Toller influenai deFrank Wedekind n legtur cu ce putea fi artat pe scen. Cinmaul expresionist german e cea mai cunoscut parte a micrii. n timpul recldirii de dup Primul Rzboi Mondial, industria german de filme era foarte productiv, dar din cauza dificultilor finaciare ale vremii, productorii nu puteau s fac filme care s rivalizeze cu cele de la Hollywood, luxoase i extravagante. Aa c productorii studioului UFA i-au dezvoltat propriul stil, folosindsimbolism i mise en scne pentru a da adncime i emoie subiectului.

[modificare]Anii

1920 i 1930

Posterul filmului Cabinetul doctorului Caligari (1920), producie reprezentativ a acestui curent artistic. [1]

Primele filme expresioniste, Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari (1920), Der Golem, wie er in die Welt kam(1920), Der mde Tod (1921), Nosferatu (1922), Phantom (1922), Schatten - Eine nchtliche Halluzination (1923), i Der letzte Mann (1924), au fost versiuni filmate, elaborate i exagerate ale unor poveti simple.

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Actorul expresionist Fritz Kortner a jucat n filme vieneze i filme din Berlin. Micarea Dada era n vog prin elita artistic a anilor 20, i toate culturile europene ale vremii au adoptat o etic a schimbrii, i o dorina de a ncerca noi i diverse stiluri artistice. Primele filme expresioniste au compensat lipsa unui buget mare folosind decoruri nerealistice, absurde geometric,i designuri extcentrice. Subiectele acestor filme se roteau n jurul motivului agoniei, nebuniei, trdrii, i alte teme "intelectuale" (spre deosebire de filmele clasice de aventur sau romantice); denumirea german a acestei forme de film esteKammerspielfilm ("film de camer"). Printre filmele trzii care nc fac parte din scurta istorie a expresionismului german se numr Metropolis (1927) i M (1931), ambele regizate de Fritz Lang. ns non-realismul dus la extreme al expresionismului a durat puin i foarte curnd curentul a murit (mpreun cu dadaismul). Dar temele expresionismului aveau s fie incluse n filmele anilor 20 i 30, rezultnd ntr-un control artistic asupra scenografiei pentru a simula starea emoional transmis. Aceast coal ntunecat a filmului a fost adus n America cnd nazitii au preluat puterea i mai muli productori au fost forai s se mute la Hollywood. Acolo au gsit mai multe studiouri pregtite s le adopte stilul. Dou genuri influenate puternic de expresionism au fost filmele horror i film noir. Carl Laemmle iUniversal Studios i-au ctigat o reputaie fcnd clasicele filme horror ale vremii precum Lon Chaney's The Phantom of the Opera. Emigrani germani, precum Karl Freund (care a lucrat la Dracula , versiunea din 1931), au pus bazele stilului filmelor studioului Universal ce vor urma. Regizori, ca Fritz Lang, Billy Wilder, Otto Preminger, Alfred Hitchcock, i Michael Curtiz au introdus stilul expresionist n dramele anilor 40, continund tradiia.

[modificare]Filme

recente influenate de expresionismul german

Filmul din 1979 al lui Werner Herzog, Nosferatu-eine Phantom der Nacht, este un tribut adus lui F.W.Murnau i capodoperei sale,Nosferatu Simfonia groazei . Filmul se folosete de tehnici tipici expresioniste i de ntmplri simbolice pentru a transmite mesajul.[2] Blade Runner, n regia lui Ridley Scott se folosete din plin de elemente expresioniste, i e unul din numeroasele exemple cnd micarea influeneaz un film SF. n filmografia regizorului Tim Burton se afl o varietate de adaptri fidele i ambiioase a stilului expresionist german. Filmul su din 1992, Batman Returns e deseori numit ca cea mai modern ncercare de a captura esena stiului. Designul coluros i sever al cldirilor din Gotham City evoc sentimentul de ameninare prezent n filmul Metropolis al lui Lang. Alte legturi sunt, de exemplu, asemnarea dintre numele rufctorului Max Shreck interpretat de Christopher Walken i vedeta din Nosferatu, Max Schreck. De asemenea, figura sinistrului Pinguin amintete de misteriosul Caligari din Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari Influenele lui Burton sunt evidente i n Edward Mini-de-foarfec. Imaginea personajului Edward Mini-defoarfec se aseamn, nu coincidental, de somnambulistul Cesare din Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari. Burton

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elibereaz o nelinite n suburbie sa colorat, unde tensiunea este n sfrit demascat de apariia lui Edward i de casa sa, castelul gotic. Burton tranform povestea din Caligari dup modelul su, punnd somnambulistul macabru n locul eroului, i stenii ca personaje negative. "Look"-ul deja familiar al personajului lui Caligari se reflect i n filmul The Crow, n personajul lui Brandon Lee: Costum negru, strns, machiajul palid i cearcnele groase, ntunecate.

[modificare]Alte

exemple

F. W. Murnau 1927 Sunrise: A Song of Two Humans (Film produs la Hollywood) Filmul lui Woody Allen din 1992, Shadows and Fog este un tribut adus expresionismului; subiectul fiind luat din M iar vizualul dinNosferatu Simfonia groazei

Versiunea din 1967 a filmului cu James Bond, Casino Royale are o secven filmat n manier expresionist. Filmul, fiind o parodie, arat dificultatea de a urca scrile "expresioniste" n timp ce eti nebun.

Sin City (2005) este de asemenea numit ca o ncercare de revenire la acel stil.[2] Red Hot Chili Peppers au folosit elemente expresioniste n videoclipul piesei Otherside (2000). Acelai lucru au fcut i Good Charlotte pentru melodia Predictable i Rob Zombie n videoclipul pentru Living Dead Girl.

Videoclipul rock din filmul Queen of the damned al trupei fictive "The Vampire Lestat" mparte acelai peisaj expresionist cu Das Cabinet des Dr Caligari

Filmul Dr. Caligari (1989) de Stephen Sayadian. Neo-expresionism german amestecat cu suprearealism.

[modificare]Cinema

i arhitectur

Muli critici vd o legtur direct dintre cinema i arhitectur: scenografia i arta din filmele expresioniste dezvluie cldiri cu unghiuri ascuite, nlimi mari, i medii aglomerate, de exemplu, Turnul Babel din filmul Metropolis.[necesit citare]

[modificare]Vezi

Anii 1920 Expresionism Republica de la Weimar German Expressionism in painting Tim Burton

[modificare]Referine

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1. ^ cinemagia.ro Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari. (1920) Cabinetul doctorului Caligari. Accesat pe 27 iulie 2010 2. ^ See Rotten Tomatoes article[1]

3. Sinopsis Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari.


4. 5. 6. "Expresionismul n film cunoate mai multe etape pn la expresionismul total n care fizionomia i mimica obiectelor este tot att de vie i demonic asemeni omului din film." - Bela Balazs - 1947 (Arta filmului) Capodopera a expresionismului german, e un film considerat de criticii de arta cu totul singular in istoria cinematografului la aceea vreme. Este povestea unui somnambul ce se lasa condus, fara voia sa, ca un automat, de o vointa straina care, in final il conduce la crima. Stilizarea tipic curentului expresionist, in care apar permanent deformari de perspectiva, efecte de lumina originale, de cele mai multe ori pictate direct pe decor, un machiaj excesiv al interpretilor pentru a induce spaima, oroare si frica constituie un inceput intr-o unitate omogena din punct de vedere artistic a filmelor hororr de astazi. Eroul principal, interpretat de Werner Kraus constituie "primul tip tragic" ,in intregime ,constituit si creat de cinematograf si este un amestec de spirit, cruzime, neliniste, teama, oroare... Vazut in perspectiva sec.XXI cand filmele de acest gen invadeaza salile de cinematograf , poate fi considerat naiv, copilaresc si simplu dar constituie un inceput, un prim pas spre ce avea sa urmeze.

7. 8.

Nosferatu Simfonia groazei


De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liber

Nosferatum Simfonia groazei


* Titlu original - Nosferatu Eine Symphonie des Grauens

Film produs n Premier - 1922

Germania

Regia - Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau Scenariul - Henrik Galeen Muzica - Hans Erdmann Operatori - Fritz Arno Wagner, Gnther Krampf

Distribuie

Max Schreck: Graf Orlok/Nosferatu Alexander Granach: Makler Knock Gustav von Wangenheim: Thomas Hutter Greta Schrder: Ellen Hutter, soia lui Max Nemetz: Cpitan de vapor John Gottowt: Professor Bulwer Wolfgang Heinz: Maat Georg Heinrich Schnell: Armator Ruth Landshoff: Annie, soia lui

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Gustav Botz: Dr. Sievers Albert Venohr: Matroz Hardy von Francois: Doctor Guido Herzfeld: Crciumar Karl Etlinger: Student la Bulwer Heinrich Witte: Paznic n ospiciu Fanny Schreck: Sor medical

vdm

Nosferatum Simfonia groazei (titlu original: n german Nosferatu Eine Symphonie des Grauens) este un film mut german n cinci acte, produs n anul 1922 sub regia lui Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau. Filmul este o adaptare neautorizat a romanului Dracula scris de irlandezul Bram Stoker (1847-1912). De asemenea, este unul dintre cele mai cunoscute filme expresioniste germane.

[modificare]Aciune
Povestea este una n ram, filmul ncepnd cu un cronicar care povestete declanarea ciumei n oraul Wisborg din anul 1838: vnztorul de case Knock primete o scrisoare misterioas de la contele Orlok prin care acesta ar dori s cumpere o cas n Wisborg. Knock, entuziasmat de scrisoare, l trimite pe angajatul su, tnrul Hutter, n Transilvania pentru a ncheia afacerea direct cu contele. Soia lui Hutter, Ellen, este ngrijorat, dar acesta nu i face griji. O las pe Ellen n grija prietenului su, Harding i pornete la drum. Ajungnd n Transilvania, Hutter se oprete pentru o noapte la un han, unde, la menionarea numelui Orlok, stenii reacioneaz ngrozii. Ca avertizare, tnrul primete o carte despre "Vampiri", pe care o ia n batjocur. A doua zi, o cru l duce prin pdurea nfricotoare, dar cruaului i e fric s-i continue drumul. Hutter va fi luat dup aceea de o trsur a contelui i dus direct la castel. Contele Orlok l primete rece pe vizitator. n timpul cinei, tnrul se taie din greeal la deget. La vederea sngelui, Orlok nu se poate abine i ncearc s-i sug sngele. Dar vampirul se stpnete i l poftete pe Hutter la culcare. Dimineaa, acesta se trezete cu urme ciudate la gt i i scrie o scrisore soiei sale. Seara, contele vede imaginea lui Ellen n medalion i se hotrte s cumpere conacul din Wisborg, care se afl vis-a-vis de casa lui Hutter. A doua noapte, Vampirul se apropie de Hutter, pentru a-i suge sngele, dar printr-un act straniu de telepatie, strigtele n somn ale lui Ellen l fac pe Orlok s se retrag. Dup aceasta, Ellen va suferi de somnambulism n fiecare noapte. ntr-o sear, Hutter l vede pe conte cum ncarc sicrie cu pmnt ntr-o cru i pornete cu aceasta spre port. ncrctura macabr e pus ntr-un vas cu destinaia Wisborg. ntre timp, Hutter evadeaz

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din castel i se grbete spre cas. Pe vapor, contele omoar tot echipajul, aa c vasul ajunge gol n Wisborg. Knock a fost ntre timp internat n azilul de nebuni, unde acuma se bucur de sosirea "stpnului". Hutter a reuit s revin la Ellen, dar e prea trziu: vampirul a ajuns naintea sa i a rspndit ciuma n ora mulumit obolanilor din sicrie. n Wisborg se instaleaz panica, iar Knock este luat drept vinovat, odat cu evadarea sa din azil. n "Cartea Vampyrilor", Ellen afl cum poate s l omoare pe Orlok. l tenteaz pe vampir n camera ei dup ce l trimite pe Hutter dup un doctor i urmeaz instruciunile din carte: se sacrific, fcndu-l pe vampir s piard toat noaptea sugndu-i sngele, uitnd de rsrit. Cnd se face lumin ns, razele soarelui l transform pe conte n cenu i epidemia nceteaz.

[modificare]Conflictul

asupra drepturilor de autor

Scenaristul Henrik Galeen a schimbat, pentru film, multe nume din romanul "Dracula": Jonathan Harker a devenit Hutter, Dracula e Orlok, Mina-Ellen, Renfield-Knock, iar locul aciunii este Wisborg, nu Londra. De asemenea, Galeen a adugat elementul epidemei de cium transmis de vampir. n ciuda tuturor schimbrilor, vduva lui Bram Stoker, Florence, a dat n judecat compania de filme Prana pentru nerespectarea drepturilor de autor. Stoker cerea 5000 de lire despgubire, dar compania nu a putut s plteasc deorece filmul s-a dovedit a fi un eec financiar. Prin urmare, n 1925, s-a decis ca toate copiile filmului s fie distruse. Unele ns au rmas.

[modificare]Legturi

externe

ica prin anii 20 nemtzii s-au apucat de facut filme horror. Si pentru ca tocmai o incasasera dupa marele razboi si nu prea aveau ei bani de bagat in filme, ca laHollywood, care era in plin proces de inflorire, au inventat expresionismul. Filmele expresioniste au fost la originea lor un sindrom al bugetului redus in cinematografia germana si au coincis cu aparitzia filmului horror in general.Conventzional, primul film de groaza din istorie e considerat The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari. Desi mie mi s-a parut destul de terifiant si Le Voyage Dans La Lune, a lui Melies, cand astronomii is fugaritzi pe luna de extraterestrii care fac tumbe si explodeaza cand le dai cu umbrela peste cap. The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920) inglobeaza cam tot ce inseamna expresionism: simbol, alegorie, decoruri suprarealiste si atmosfera claustranta, sub aspect formal, si teme precum nebunia si decadentza ca si contzinut. E in acelasi timp o expresie a principiului ca daca tot trebuie s-o faci, fa-o sa para intentzionat, apropo de bugetul redus al filmului. Astfel ca decorurile de carton, filmarea integrala in studio, umbrele pictate pe peretzi si alte consecintze ale banilor putini au fost ulterior considerate simboluri expresioniste. Adevarul e ca si mie mi s-a parut ca da bine la atmosfera. Apropo, filmul e despre un doctor insane in the brain care tine un somnambul pictat pe fatza intr-o lada si din cand in cand ii mai da drumul sa omoare oameni. Fiind probabil primul lung-metraj cu sfarsit neasteptat din istorie, la sfarsit aflam ca in film nu era vorba deloc despre evenimentele din fraza anterioara. Despre Murnau ca om nu am detalii picante in program. A facut filme mishto in Germania, apoi s-a dus in America si a facut alte filme (dintre care multe au fost pierdute) dupa care a intrat unu in el cu masina si n-a mai facut filme ca a murit.

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Ca regizor e, alaturi de Fritz Lang, cel mai important expresionist. A avut 5 filme esentziale pe care cine nu le-a vazut well, ar face bine sa puna mana pe ele. Cele 5 sunt, in ordinea numerelor de pe tricou: Nosferatu (1922) adaptare fara drept dupa Dracula. Murnau a schimbat totusi locatiile si numele personajelor si s-a gandit ca scapa cu asta. Insa n-a scapat, ca nevasta lui Bram Stoker l-a dat in judecata si a castigat, asa ca teoretic filmul n-ar trebui sa mai existe in ziua de azi. Noroc ca producatorii aveau cateva copii la ciorap, care au supravietzuit. Filmul are ca avantaje faptul ca e tras in mare parte in aer liber si ca il are pe Max Shreck in rol principal. Cica Murnau l-a ales pentru ca era urat ca dracu si n-a fost nevoie de prea mult machiaj sa-l faca sa arate ca un sobolan pe doua picioare. Mai e de mentzionat aici excelentul film din 2000, Shadow of the Vampire, povestea fictzionala a realizarii lui Nosferatu, cu John Malkovich in rolul

lui Murnau si Wilhelm Defoe in rolul bampirului, alt actor urat ca dracu, de fapt. Der Letze Mann (1924) asta e filmul care mi-a amintit ca talking is overrated. E un film atat de mut ca nici inserturi de text nu are, dar nici nu li se simte lipsa. Excelent! E vorba despre un batran care e portar la hotel, meserie care, din motive ce imi scapa, s-ar parea ca era la mare pretz in vremurile alea. Asa ca atunci cand e retrogradat la ingrijit toalete, se confrunta cu o mare drama, vecinii rad de el, familia nu-l mai respecta si in final moare. Atata doar ca de fapt nu moare, ca producatorii s-au gandit ca ar fi prea trist, asa ca l-au tras pe Murnau de maneca sa ajusteze oleaca finalul. Deci pana la urma e cu happy end, dar nu inainte ca regizorul sa introduca un text genial de sarcastic, la momentul in care ar fi trebuit sa moara personajul, in care zicea ca eu pana aici am scris si gandit filmul, de acu incolo am lucrat la comanda, take it or leave it. Faust (1926) favoritul meu personal, cam asa ar trebui sa arate un film expresionist. Scene una si una, cu Diavolul care acopera orasul, calaretzi pe scheletzi de cai prin nori si alte efecte speciale inovatoare. Banuiesc ca nu tre sa povestesc despre ce-i vorba. Sunrise A Song of Two Humans (1927) - primul film american al lui Murnau, si cel mai apreciat de critica. Vesnica pomenire celui care il are si mi-l da si mie ca nu l-am gasit nicaieri. Tabu (1931) asta e stramosul lui Apocalypto si probabil primul film mainstream cu gagici dezbracate. La fel, e mut, fara inserturi de text si fara sa iti dea impresia ca ar trebui sa fie. E filmat integral in arhipeleagul Bora-Bora, cu indigeni in toate rolurile. Avem un cuplu de aborigeni fericitzi nevoie mare, pana intr-o zi cand apare batranul tribului si o declara tabu pe fata, deci nu mai are voie sa se ocupe cu treburi lumesti, cum ar fi barbatzii. Asa ca cei doi fug pe alta insula si sunt haituitzi si pana la urma se termina tragic dar nu zic cum, ca daca povestesc ca tipa e rapita si dusa inapoi in sanul tribului in timp ce el moare inotand dupa ea, o sa ziceti ca iar arunc cu spoilere. Deci filmul asta evoca asa o frumusetze, simplitate, seninatate si inocentza ca te face sa vorbesti despre el ca in comentariile literare de la orele de romana din scoala. Pacat ca Murnau a murit inainte de lansare

German Expressionism refers to a number of design and performance cultures in 1920's Germany, such as art, architecture and dance. German Expressionist Cinema was part of this movement in the 1920's in Germany through to the 1930's, although only a short period of cinematic history, it has left its mark on history and inspired many filmmakers that followed. Key Characteristics of German Expressionist Cinema German Expressionist movies were created during the silent movie period, meaning the movies feature music and sound effect instead of dialogue; traditionally films were played alongside live music, such as piano. German Expressionist cinema created a theatrical look to its films. Using dramatic, painted scenery and exaggerated make-up, as used in theatre, this was an inexpensive way of making films, but created very iconic results. Examples of this can be seen in
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many of the German Expressionist movies, most famously The Cabinet of Dr.Caligari (1920)and Nosferatu (1922). The design of German Expressionist sets, or the mise en scene, mirrored the changes in German art of the time, therefore created using geometric shapes, painted on objects and high contrast between black and white, creating the effect of exaggerated shadow and light. The movement used symbolism and icons to create meaning, often focusing on gothic themes such as the supernatural, insanity and betrayal. This was a refreshing change to the usual linear story telling of action movies and romance movies. Although early German Expressionist films were working on a very low budget due to the economic climate of the time, some of the movies later in the period worked on a higher budget, although still fitting in with the look of German Expressionism. Fritz Lang's Metropolis is a key example of a German Expressionist movie on a high budget, and is one of the most iconic films of the decade, as well as one of the first ever science fiction movies. It was the most expensive silent movie ever made! Key Movies of German Expressionism Here are some of the key titles of the German Expressionist Cinema movement: The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920) Robert Weine The Golem (1920) Carl Boese Nosferatu (1922) FW Murnau Metropolis (1927) Fritz Lang Movies and Movements Inspired by German Expressionism Although the German Expressionist movement was short lived, it had a massive impact on film makers and movements that followed. The film noir movement took inspiration from the German Expressionist films, using real lighting to create contrast between shadow and light, as opposed to the expressionist's use of lighting through painted sets. Inspiration from German Expressionism can be seen in the work of modern day film maker Tim Burton , in many of his films. Most recognisably, Edward Scissorhands is inspired by the character of Cesare in The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, his make-up and characteristics are taken directly from the German Expressionist movement. The German Expressionist movement also influenced the whole development of the horror genre and iconic film makers such as Alfred Hitchcock, Orson Welles and Billy Wilder.

Read more at Suite101: What is German Expressionism Cinema of the 1920s? | Suite101 http://suite101.com/article/what-is-german-expressionism-cinema-of-the1920s-a262920#ixzz2Imr4LHM9 Follow us: @suite101 on Twitter | Suite101 on Facebook

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Metropolis (film)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Metropolis (disambiguation).

Metropolis

Original 1927 theatrical release poster

Directed by

Fritz Lang

Produced by

Erich Pommer

Written by

Thea von Harbou Fritz Lang

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(uncredited)

Starring

Alfred Abel Brigitte Helm Gustav Frhlich Rudolf Klein-Rogge

Music by

Gottfried Huppertz(original version)

Cinematography

Karl Freund Gnther Rittau Walter Ruttmann

Distributed by

UFA

Release date(s)

10 January 1927
[1]

Running time

148 min (2010 restored version) 153 min (1927 original cut, lost)

Country

Germany (Weimar Republic)

Language

Silent film German intertitles

Budget

5,100,000 Reichsmark(est.)

Box office

75,000 Reichsmark (est.)

Metropolis is a 1927 German expressionist science-fiction film directed by Fritz Lang. The film was written by Lang and his wife Thea Von Harbou, and starred Brigitte Helm,Gustav Frhlich, Alfred Abel and Rudolf KleinRogge. A silent film, it was produced in theBabelsberg Studios by UFA. Made in Germany during the Weimar Period, Metropolis is set in a futuristic urbandystopia, and follows the attempts of Freder, the wealthy son of the city's ruler, and Maria, whose background is not fully explained in the

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film, to overcome the vast gulf separating the classist nature of their city. Metropolis was filmed in 1925, at a cost of approximately five million Reichsmarks.[2] The film was met with a mixed response upon its initial release, with many critics praising its technical achievements while deriding its simplistic and nave storyline. Due both to its long running-time and footage censors found questionable, Metropolis was cut substantially after its German premiere; large portions of the film were lost over the subsequent decades. Numerous attempts have been made to restore the film since the 1970s-80s. Giorgio Moroder, a music producer, released a version with a soundtrack by rock artists such asFreddie Mercury and Adam Ant in 1984. A new reconstruction of Metropolis was shown at the Berlin Film Festival in 2001, and the film was inscribed on UNESCO's Memory of the World Register in the same year, the first film thus distinguished.[3] In 2008, a print of Langs original cut of the film was found in a museum in Argentina. After a long restoration process, the restored film was shown on large screens in Berlin and Frankfurtsimultaneously on 12 February 2010.
Contents
[hide]

1 Plot 2 Cast 3 Influences 4 Production

o o o

4.1 Pre-production 4.2 Filming 4.3 Special effects

5 Release

o o o o

5.1 Early release history 5.2 Reception 5.3 Restorations 5.4 Copyright issues

6 Music

o o

6.1 Original score 6.2 Other soundtracks

7 Adaptations 8 Awards and honors 9 See also 10 References

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11 External links

[edit]Plot
In late 2026, in a utopian society called Metropolis, wealthy industrialists rule from vast tower complexes, oppressing the workers who live in the depths in the underground worker's city complex beneath them. The film follows Freder (Gustav Frhlich), the son of the ruthless master of the city, Joh Fredersen (Alfred Abel). While idling away his leisure time in a pleasure garden, Freder encounters a young woman named Maria (Brigitte Helm) who has brought a group of workers children to see the privileged lifestyle led by the rich. Maria and the children are quickly ushered away, but Freder is fascinated by Maria and descends to the underground workers city in an attempt to find her. Freder finds the workers city and watches in horror as a huge machine explodes, after its operator collapses from exhaustion, injuring many. Appalled by what he has witnessed, Freder runs to tell his father. Joh is angered that he learned of the explosion from Freder rather than his assistant Josaphat (Theodor Loos), and fires Josaphat as a result. When Freder berates his father for this, Joh is unsympathetic to Josaphat or the Workers, being shallow and obsessed with money and power. Josaphat, sad about the loss of his job, attempts to commit suicide over his dismissal, but is stopped by Freder. Freder tells Josaphat to return to his apartment and wait for him there, leaving to return to the workers' city. Concerned by his sons unusual behaviour, Joh sends The Thin Man (Fritz Rasp) to keep track of his movements. In the workers city, Freder sees a worker named Georgy (Erwin Biswanger) close to collapsing at his post. Freder relieves him, swapping clothes with Georgy and telling him to go to Josaphats apartment and wait for him there. Georgy is driven away by Freders chauffeur, but on his way to Josaphats apartment he is distracted by the bright lights of the licentious nightclub Yoshiwara. Back in the workers city, Freder finds a plan folded tightly in his pocket and is told of an approaching meeting by a passerby. Meanwhile, Joh has learned of mysterious plans being shared amongst the workers. He takes the plans to Rotwang (Rudolf Klein-Rogge), a scientist and old collaborator who informs him the plans show the underground tunnels that lie beneath the workers city. Rotwang was in love with Johs deceased wife Hel, and to Johs horror reveals that he has been building a robot in order to resurrect her. Rotwang discovers the plans are a map of the ancient catacombs beneath the city, and he and Joh leave to investigate. Freder, after suffering hallucinations brought on by exhaustion, follows the workers down into the catacombs, where Maria is waiting to speak to them. In the catacombs, Maria prophesies the arrival of a mediator between the workers and the rulers. Freder watches her transfixed, and once she has finished speaking approaches her and declares his love. They arrange to meet later in a cathedral, and part. Joh and Rotwang watch the entire scene unfold, and plot to kidnap Maria, give the robot her appearance and use it to discredit her. Joh is pleased with the plan, unaware

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that Rotwang intends to use the false Maria to destroy his son. Rotwang follows Maria through the catacombs, and kidnaps her. After leaving Yoshiwara the next morning, Georgy finds The Thin Man waiting for him in his car. The Thin Man orders Georgy to return to his post and forget everything that occurred, taking Josaphats address from him. Meanwhile Freder goes to Josaphats apartment, and asks for Georgy. Josaphat tells Freder that Georgy has not arrived. Freder tells Josaphat of his experiences in the workers city, before departing to meet Maria. The Thin Man arrives at Josaphats apartment just after Freders departure, and attempts to intimidate him into leaving Metropolis. The two fight, and Josaphat manages to escape and hide in the workers city. When Maria does not arrive at the cathedral, Freder goes in search of her. He hears her cries as he approaches Rotwangs house, and makes futile attempts to reach her. In his laboratory Rotwang successfully transforms the robot into Marias double, and sends it to greet Joh. Freder returns to his father, and sees him and the false Maria embracing. He faints, and experiences a series of nightmarish visions. The false Maria begins to unleash chaos throughout Metropolis, driving men to murder out of lust for her in Yoshiwara and stirring dissent amongst the workers. Meanwhile, the real Maria manages to flee from Rotwangs house as Rotwang and Fredersen duel after Fredersen becomes aware of Rotwang's treachery, who is really after the Joh's position. When Freder recovers ten days later, he finds out from Josaphat that the Robot, whom they believe is Maria, is raising havoc. The pair venture down to Maria's altar, where the robot is urging the workers to rise up and revolt. Freder calls the robot out, knowing that Maria would never preach war, but is recognized as Joh Frederson's son and is attacked by the mob. In the chaos, Georgy is stabbed trying to protect Freder. Joh has ordered that the workers are allowed to rampage, in order to justify the use of heavy force against them at a later stage. The robot leads the workers from the city, who unknowingly leave their children behind, and they surge into the machine halls, abandoning their posts and destroying the Heart Machine, the central power station of the city, which causes all the city's systems to fail. With no power for the pumps, the subterranean workers' city begins to flood. Maria finds the children trying to escape the flood and attempts to save as many as she can from the water, sounding the city's alarm to gather them in one spot. She is soon joined by Freder and Josaphat, who help her rescue the children and escape to the upper levels of the city via an escape ladder. They manage to evacuate the children just as the workers' city begins to collapse. As the workers revel in the Machine Halls, Grot, foreman of the Heart Machine, manages to suppress the outof-control crowd, and berates them for their behavior and actions. Realizing their children have been left behind in the flooded workers' city, the workers are driven mad by grief. Considering Maria the cause of their misery, they launch a witch hunt, capture the false Maria, who had been reveling with the city's rich, and tie her to a stake. Having been separated from the real Maria, Freder watches as the false Maria is set afire and gradually transforms back into her robot form.

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A delusional Rotwang finds the real Maria hiding from the mob in the cathedral, and, mistaking her for Hel, gives chase. Rotwang and Maria end up on the roof of the cathedral, and are seen by Freder from the ground. Freder climbs up to the roof of the cathedral and confronts Rotwang; the two fight, and Rotwang eventually loses his balance and falls to his death. The film ends with Freder declaring a truce between the workers and the thinkers, and linking the hands of his father and Grot (Heinrich George), becoming the Mediator between head and hands.

[edit]Cast

Gustav Frhlich as Freder, the hero of the film. Brigitte Helm as both the virginal Maria and her robot double. Alfred Abel as Joh Fredersen, the master of Metropolis. Rudolf Klein-Rogge as Rotwang, a mad scientist. Heinrich George as Grot, the Foreman of the Heart Machine. Fritz Rasp as The Thin Man, Joh's spy. Theodor Loos as Josaphat, Joh's assistant. Erwin Biswanger as Georgy (or 11811), a downtrodden worker.

[edit]Influences

Above, the Tower of Babel, modelled afterBrueghel's 1563 painting,[4] below.

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Metropolis features a range of elaborate special effects and set designs, ranging from a huge gothic cathedral to a futuristic cityscape. In an interview, Fritz Lang reported that "the film was born from my first sight of the skyscrapers in New York in October 1924". Describing his first impressions of the city, Lang said that "the buildings seemed to be a vertical sail, scintillating and very light, a luxurious backdrop, suspended in the dark sky to dazzle, distract and hypnotize".[5] The appearance of the city in Metropolis is strongly informed by the Art Deco movement; however it also incorporates elements from other traditions. Ingeborg Hoesterey described the architecture featured in Metropolis as eclectic, writing how its locales represent both functionalist modernism [and] art deco whilst also featuring the scientists archaic little house with its high-powered laboratory, the catacombs [and] the Gothic cathedral.[6] The films use of art deco architecture was highly influential, and has been reported to have contributed to the styles subsequent popularity in Europe and America.[7] The film drew heavily on Biblical sources for several of its key set-pieces. During her first talk to the workers, Maria uses the story of the Tower of Babel to highlight the discord between the intellectuals and the workers. Additionally, a delusional Freder imagines the false-Maria as the Whore of Babylon, riding on the back of a many-headed dragon.

[edit]Production [edit]Pre-production
The screenplay of Metropolis was written by Fritz Lang and his wife, Thea Von Harbou, a popular writer in Weimar Germany. The film's plot originated from a novel written by Harbou for the sole purpose of being made into a film. The novel featured strongly in the film's marketing campaign, and was serialized in the journal Illustriertes Blatt in the run-up to its release. Harbou and Lang collaborated on the screenplay derived from the novel, and several plot points and thematic elements including most of the references to magic and occultism present in the novel were dropped. The screenplay itself went through many re-writes, and at one point featured an ending where Freder would have flown to the stars; this plot element later became the basis for Lang's Woman in the Moon.[8]

[edit]Filming
Metropolis began filming on 22 May 1925. The cast of the film was mostly composed of unknowns; this was particularly true of nineteen-year-old Brigitte Helm who had no previous film experience.[8] Shooting of the film was a draining experience for the actors involved, due to the demands made of them by director Fritz Lang. For the scene where the worker's city was flooded, Helm and five hundred children from the poorest districts of Berlin had to work for fourteen days in a pool of water that Lang intentionally kept at a low

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temperature.[8] Lang would frequently demand numerous re-takes, and took three days to shoot a simple scene where Freder collapses at Maria's feet; by the time Lang was satisfied with the footage he had shot, actor Gustav Frhlich found he could barely stand. Other anecdotes involve Lang's insistence on using real fire for the climatic scene where the false Maria is burnt at the stake (which resulted in Helm's dress catching fire), and his ordering extras to throw themselves towards powerful jets of water when filming the flooding of the worker's city.[9] Helm recalled her experiences of shooting the film in a contemporary interview, saying that "the night shots lasted three weeks, and even if they did lead to the greatest dramatic moments even if we did follow Fritz Langs directions as though in a trance, enthusiastic and enraptured at the same time I cant forget the incredible strain that they put us under. The work wasnt easy, and the authenticity in the portrayal ended up testing our nerves now and then. For instance, it wasnt fun at all when Grot drags me by the hair, to have me burned at the stake. Once I even fainted: during the transformation scene, Maria, as the android, is clamped in a kind of wooden armament, and because the shot took so long, I didnt get enough air."[10] Shooting on Metropolis lasted over a year, and was finally completed on 30 October 1926.[9]

[edit]Special

effects

The effects expert, Eugen Schfftan, created pioneering visual effects for Metropolis. Among the effects used are miniatures of the city, a camera on a swing, and most notably, the Schfftan process,[11] in which mirrors are used to create the illusion that actors are occupying miniature sets. This new technique was seen again just two years later in Alfred Hitchcock's film Blackmail (1929).[12] The Maschinenmensch the robot built by Rotwang to resurrect his lost love Hel was created by sculptor Walter Schulze-Mittendorff. A whole-body plaster cast was taken of actress Brigitte Helm, and the costume was then constructed around it. A chance discovery of a sample of "plastic wood" (a pliable substance designed as wood-filler) allowed Schulze-Mittendorff to build a costume that would both appear metallic and allow a small amount of free movement.[13] Helm sustained cuts and bruises while in character as the robot, as the costume was rigid and uncomfortable.[14]

[edit]Release [edit]Early

release history

Metropolis had its premiere at the Ufa-Palast am Zoo movie theater in Berlin on 10 January 1927, where the audience reacted to several of the film's most spectacular scenes with "spontaneous applause". At the time of its German premiere, Metropolis had a length of 4,189 metres (approximately 153 mins at 24 fps).[9][15][16] Metropolis had been funded in part by Paramount Pictures and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, and UFA had formed a distribution deal with the two companies whereby they were "entitled to make any change [to films produced by UFA] they found appropriate to ensure profitability". The distribution of Metropolis was

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handled by Parufamet, a multinational company that incorporated all three film studios. Considering Metropolis too long and unwieldy, Parufamet commissioned American playwright Channing Pollock to write a simpler version of the film that could be assembled using the existing material. Pollock shortened the film dramatically, altered its inter-titles and removed all references to the character of Hel (as the name sounded too similar to the English word Hell), thereby removing Rotwang's original motivation for creating his robot. In Pollock's cut, the film ran for 3170 meters, or approximately 115 minutes. This version of Metropolis premiered in the U.S in March 1927, and was released in the U.K around the same time with different title cards.[15] Alfred Hugenberg, a nationalist businessman, cancelled UFA's debt to Paramount and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer after taking charge of the company in April 1927, and chose to halt distribution in German cinemas of Metropolis in its original form. Hugenberg had the film cut down to a length of 3241 meters, removing the film's perceived "inappropriate" communist subtext and religious imagery. Hugenberg's cut of the film was released in German cinemas in August 1927. UFA distributed a still shorter version of the film (2530 meters, 91 minutes) in 1936, and an English version of this cut was archived in the MOMA film library. [15]

[edit]Reception
Despite the film's later reputation, some contemporary critics panned it. The New York Times critic Mordaunt Hall called it a "technical marvel with feet of clay". The Times went on the next month to publish a lengthy review by H. G. Wells who accused it of "foolishness, clich, platitude, and muddlement about mechanical progress and progress in general." He faulted Metropolis for its premise that automation created drudgery rather than relieving it, wondered who was buying the machines' output if not the workers, and found parts of the story derivative of Shelley's Frankenstein, Karel apek's robot stories, and his own The Sleeper Awakes.[17] Wells called "Metropolis" "quite the silliest film." Nazi propagandist Joseph Goebbels was impressed, however, and took the film's message to heart. In a 1928 speech he declared that "the political bourgeoisie is about to leave the stage of history. In its place advance the oppressed producers of the head and hand, the forces of Labor, to begin their historical mission". [18] Fritz Lang later expressed dissatisfaction with the film. In an interview with Peter Bogdanovich (in Who The Devil Made It: Conversations with Legendary Film Directors, published in 1998), he expressed his reservations: The main thesis was Mrs. Von Harbou's, but I am at least 50 percent responsible because I did it. I was not so politically minded in those days as I am now. You cannot make a social-conscious picture in which you say that the intermediary between the hand and the brain is the heart. I mean, that's a fairy tale definitely. But I was very interested in machines. Anyway, I didn't like the picture thought it was silly and stupid then, when I saw the astronauts: what else are they but part of a machine? It's very hard to talk about picturesshould I say now that I like Metropolis because something I have seen in my imagination comes true, when I detested it after it was finished?

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In his profile for Lang featured in the same book, which prefaces the interview, Bogdanovich suggested that Lang's distaste for his own film also stemmed from the Nazi Party's fascination with the film. Von Harbou became a passionate member of the Nazi Party in 1933. They divorced the following year. Roger Ebert noted that "Metropolis is one of the great achievements of the silent era, a work so audacious in its vision and so angry in its message that it is, if anything, more powerful today than when it was made." [19] The film also has a 99% rating at Rotten Tomatoes, based on 104 reviews.[20]

[edit]Restorations

Poster for the 2002 restored version, featuring theMaschinenmensch

The original premiere cut eventually disappeared, and a quarter of the original film was long believed to be lost forever.[21] In 1984, a new restoration and edit of the film was made by Giorgio Moroder. Moroder's version of the film was tinted throughout, featured additional special effects, subtitles instead of intertitles and a pop soundtrack instead of a traditional score. It was the first serious attempt made at restoring Metropolisto Lang's original vision, and until Kino's restoration in 2002 and 2010, it was the most complete version of the film in existence. In August 2011, after years of being unavailable on video in any format due to music licensing issues, it was announced that Kino International had managed to resolve the issues, and not only would the film be released on both Blu-Ray and DVD in November of that year, but it would also have a limited theatrical re-release.[22] The moderate commercial success of the Moroder version of the film inspired Enno Patalas to make an exhaustive attempt to restore the movie in 1986. This version was the most accurate reconstruction until that time, being based on the films script and musical score. The basis of Patalas' work was a copy in the Museum of Modern Art's collection.[citation needed]

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In conjunction with Kino International, Metropoliss current copyright holder, the F.W. Murnau Foundation released a digitally restored version of the film in 2002. This edition included the films original music score and title cards that described the events featured in missing sequences. Previously unknown sections of the film were discovered in film museums and archives around the world, and the footage was digitally cleaned and repaired to remove defects. In 2005, Wollongong-based historian and politician Michael Organ had examined a print of the film in the National Film Archive of New Zealand. Organ discovered that the print contained scenes missing from other copies of the film. After hearing of the discovery of the Argentine print of the film and the restoration project currently under way, Organ contacted the German restorers about his find. The New Zealand print contained eleven missing scenes and featured some brief pieces of footage that were used to restore damaged sections of the Argentine print. It is believed that the Australian, New Zealand and Argentine prints were all scored from the same master. The newly discovered footage was used in the restoration project.[23] On 1 July 2008, film experts in Berlin announced that a 16 mm reduction negative of the original cut of the film had been discovered in the archives of the Museo del Cine[24] in Buenos Aires, Argentina.[25][26] The print had been in circulation since 1928, starting off with a film distributor and subsequently being passed to a private collector, an art foundation and finally the Museo del Cine. The print was investigated by the museums curator after he heard an anecdote from a cinema club manager expressing surprise at the length of a print of Metropolis he had viewed.[27] The print was in poor condition and required considerable restoration before it was re-premiered in February 2010. Two short sequences from the film, depicting a monk preaching in the cathedral and a fight between Rotwang and Fredersen, were in extremely poor condition and could not be salvaged.[citation needed]

[edit]Copyright

issues

The American copyright had lapsed in 1953, which eventually led to a proliferation of versions being released on video. Along with other foreign-made works, the film's U.S. copyright was restored in 1998,[28] but the constitutionality of this copyright extension was challenged in Golan v. Gonzales and as Golan v. Holder it was ruled that "In the United States, that body of law includes the bedrock principle that works in the public domain remain in the public domain. Removing works from the public domain violated Plaintiffs' vested First Amendment interests."[29] This only applied to the rights of so-called reliance parties, i.e. parties who had previously relied on the public domain status of restored works. The case was overturned on appeal to the Tenth Circuit[30] and that decision was upheld by the US Supreme Court on January 18, 2012. This had the effect of restoring the copyright in the work as of January 1, 1996. Under current US copyright law, it remains copyrighted until January 1, 2023.

[edit]Music

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[edit]Original

score

The film score of the original release of Metropolis was composed by Gottfried Huppertz and it was meant to be performed by large orchestras to accompany the film during production. Huppertz took inspiration from Richard Wagner and Richard Strauss, plus some mild modernism for the city of the workers and the use of the popular Dies Irae for some apocalyptic imagery. Huppertz borrowed and altered the "Dies Irae" theme from Berlioz's Symphony Fantastique as well as the French National Anthem. His music played a prominent role during the shooting of the film, since during principal photography many scenes were accompanied by him playing the piano to get a certain effect from the actors. The score was rerecorded for the 2001 DVD release of the film with Berndt Heller conducting the Rundfunksinfonieorchester Saarbrcken. It was the first release of the reasonably reconstructed movie accompanied by the music that was originally intended for it. In 2007, the original film score was also played live by the VCS Radio Symphony which accompanied the restored version of the film at Brenden Theatres in Vacaville, California on 1 and 2 August.[31] The score was also produced in a salon orchestration which was performed for the first time in the United States in August 2007 by The Bijou Orchestra under the direction of Leo Najar as part of a German Expressionist film festival in Bay City, Michigan. [32] The same forces also performed the work at the Traverse City Film Festivalin Traverse City, Michigan in August 2009.[33] For the 2010 almost complete reconstruction, the score was performed and recorded for the DVD release by the Berlin Radio Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Frank Strobel,[34] who also conducted the premiere of the reconstructed version at BerlinFriedrichstadtpalast.

Confirmarea libertii absolute a spiritului; Lumea existenei e o lume a culorilor; Arta - expresie profund a sufletului uman, i nu o reproducere a naturii; Explozia sentimentului, starea dionysiac; Nzuina spre absolut, ideea escaladrii cerului; Revolta mpotriva condiiei umane; Strigtul fr ecou n totul cosmic; Afirmarea ideii de supraom care s stpneasc lumea; Imagini puternice, violente, prin care se exprim nelinitea existenial; Personajele sunt figuri generice, simboluri (n teatru); Orientarea spre parabol.

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