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Biserici

M~n~stiri [i biserici din Romnia


Moldova [i Bucovina

onaster

Monasteries and Churches of Romania


Moldavia and Bukowina

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Na]ionale a Romniei Gheorghiu, Mihai M~n~stiri din Romnia: Moldova [i Bucovina / text [i legend~: Mihai Gheorghiu, Valeriu Cimpoeru; foto.: Dan Ioan Dinescu, Mircea Savu, tefan Petrescu; grafic~: Ovidiu Morar, Mihaela Dulea; trad.: Alina Crc.-Bucure[ti: NOI Media Print, 2005 ISBN: 973-7959-20-5 I. Cimpoeru, Valeriu II. Dinescu, Dan Ioan (foto.) III. Savu, Mircea (foto.) IV. Petrescu, tefan (foto.) V. Morar, Ovidiu (graf.) VI. Dulea, Mihaela (graf.) VII. Crc, Alina (trad.) 726.7(498)

Cuprins

Contents
M~n~stirea Putna M~n~stirea Neam] M~n~stirea Sfntul Ioan cel Nou M~n~stirea Vorone] Biserica Arbore M~n~stirea Dobrov~] M~n~stirea Moldovi]a M~n~stirea Humor M~n~stirea Sucevi]a 50 M~n~stirea Bistri]a 58 M~n~stirea Slatina 60 M~n~stirea Galata 62 M~n~stirea Dragomirna 64 M~n~stirea Barnova 68 M~n~stirea Sfin]ii Trei Ierarhi 70 M~n~stirea Cet~]uia 76 M~n~stirea Agapia 80 M~n~stirea V~ratec 82 M~n~stirea Secu 86 Broderii Moldovene[ti 90 Moldavian Embroideries The Secu Monastery The Varatec Monastery The Agapia Monastery The Cetatuia Monastery The Holy Three Hierarchs Monastery The Barnova Monastery The Dragomirna Monastery The Galata Monastery The Slatina Monastery The Bistrita Monastery 10 14 20 22 28 30 34 42 The Putna Monastery The Neamt Monastery The Saint John the New Monastery The Voronet Monastery The Arbore Church The Dobrovat Monastery The Moldovita Monastery The Humor Monastery The Sucevita Monastery

M~n~stiri [i biserici din Romnia

Monasteries and Churches of Romania


Moldova [i Bucovina

Moldavia and Bukowina

Ethosul medieval romnesc

The Romanian Medieval Ethos

rhitectura religioas~ moldoveneasc~ este crea]ia remarcabil~ a unei civiliza]ii care [i atinge maturitatea, echilibrul interior [i o anumit~ autonomie, avnd totodat~ con[tiin]a unei certe filia]ii spirituale. Tragedia c~derii Constantinopolului g~se[te ~rile Romne ntr-un moment fast, de avnt [i consolidare. Transla]ia tradi]iei bizantine [i g~se[te astfel un f~ga[ a[a-zicnd natural la cur]ile domne[ti ale celor dou~ ]~ri. Modelul impus de tradi]ia bizantin~ domin~ spa]iul valah, dar prime[te nencetat pecetea unui

oldavian religious architecture is the outstanding creation of a civilization about to reach maturity, interior poise, and a certain autonomy, while preserving its definite spiritual heritage. The tragic collapse of Constantinople found the Romanian Lands in a favorable moment of consolidation and progress. Thus, the Byzantine tradition got most naturally grafted on the local spirit of the Wallachian and Moldavian courts, constantly enhanced by the Romanian genius loci. From Stephen the Great, Petru Rares and Vasile Lupu to the Cantacuzinos and the Brancovans, the Romanian Byzantium experienced its own harmonious rhythm dictated by a distinct autochthonous cast of mind. The Moldavian style of religious architecture (bearing the obvious influence of military and civilian architecture) and of mural painting is the well-auguring creation of a civilization at an acme of creativeness. The second half of the 15th century and the entire 16th century represent the golden age of Romanian medievalism at the height of its military, diplomatic, cultural, and artistic development. From 1400 to 1600 the Romanian creation matured, finding a distinct personality, yet constantly anchored in the matrix of imperial theological and aesthetic tradition. Churches, monasteries, citadels, illuminations, embroideries, sculptures and many others compose the image of a civilization that went in the footsteps of the Byzantine tradition, constantly assuming this spiritual mould. All these artifacts evince also the desire of the ruling princes to fulfill their duty as protectors and servants of the faith. The mural paintings in the Moldavian monasteries and churches from the time of Stephen the Great and Petru Rares now belong to the world heritage, standing proof of the genius and creativity of the local art schools. The churches of the Moldavian monasteries are a historic, artistic and theological expression of the

genius loci romnesc. De la tefan cel Mare, Petru Rare[ [i Vasile Lupu la Cantacuzini [i Brncoveni, Bizan]ul romnesc [i tr~ie[te propriul ritm armonic dictat de o forma mentis autohton~. Stilul moldovenesc al arhitecturii religioase (influen]ate n mod cert de arhitectura militar~ [i civil~) [i al picturii murale este opera de bun augur a unei
civiliza]ii aflate la apogeul creativit~]ii sale. A doua jum~tate a secolului al XV-lea [i ntregul secol al XVI-lea alc~tuiesc vrsta de aur a medievalit~]ii romne[ti, aflate n dezvoltare militar~, diplomatic~, cultural~ [i artistic~. Din 1400 pn~ n 1600 trec dou~ secole de acumul~ri n crea]ia romneasc~, ce ncepe s~-[i dezvolte personalitatea proprie, distinct~, dar permanent ancorat~ n matricea tradi]iei teologice [i estetice imperiale. Biserici, m~n~stiri, cet~]i, miniaturi, broderii, sculpturi [i attea altele recompun imaginea unei civiliza]ii constituite ca un continuum al tradi]iei bizantine [i asumndu-[i permanent aceast~ matrice spiritual~. n toate aceste ctitorii se vede gestul voievodului care [i mpline[te datoria de protector [i slujitor al credin]ei. Pictura mural~ a bisericilor m~n~stirilor moldovene[ti din epoca lui tefan cel Mare [i cea a lui Petru Rare[ reprezint~ un patrimoniu universal, o dovad~ a autenticit~]ii [i creativit~]ii [colilor artistice

moldovene[ti. Bisericile m~n~stirilor moldovene[ti sunt expresia istoric~, artistic~ [i teologic~ a spiritului medieval romnesc. Estetica acestei picturi este n ntregime de extrac]ie plastic~, icoana acestei picturi este fundamental frumuse]e teologic~, transmitere a mesajului liturgic. Umanitatea picturii murale este una trasfigurat~, lipsit~ de spa]ialitate, de perspectiv~, pentru c~ zugravul nu construie[te iluzia unei realit~]i cotidiene, ci aduce doar vedenia unei lumi v~zute sau ntrev~zute de profe]i, sfin]i sau binecredincio[i. Reprezentarea trupului uman este aici canonic~, deci o func]ie a semnifica]iei teologice [i nu realist~, ncercnd s~ refac~ un concret vizibil natural. Imaginea este permanent~ trimitere la Evanghelie, la istoria sacr~

Romanian medieval spirit. The aesthetics of this painting is entirely plastic, its icon expressing theological beauty, and conveying a liturgical message. The humanity of the murals is transfixed, lacking in spatiality and perspective since the artists did not depict the illusion of daily reality but the image of a world seen or glimpsed only by prophets, saints, and the faithful. The representation of the human body is therefore canonical, a function of the theological meaning, not realistic or attempting to present a concrete natural and visible world. Images are permanently suggesting the Gospels, the sacred history ante legem and post legem. Pictorial beauty springs from the freshness of the approach, the harmonious colors, the ingenious chromatic solutions, and the masterful correspondence between painting and architecture, the assuredness of the drawing that interprets the Bible. From their very foundation down to the last painted image, churches are an offering and a pledge of faith. Nothing is redundant, nothing is gratuitous, and everything creates a harmonious whole. The frescoes on the Moldavian churches ensconce and turn stone or brick into liturgy and perception of the truth. The icon transforms the building stone, matter dissolves into image and color as a token of the unseen. Churches express medieval men from the Romanian space, their spirit guided by the Gospels, and constantly open to the final judgement. The founders of religious abodes offer an advance down here for the paradisiacal treasure up there and for Gods judgement, while a church represents the ark of a mighty covenant, of consummate humility before the heavenly father. The founders give and also give themselves, combining meekness and pride in a single gesture. Frescoes dematerialize the walls, they pierce their opaqueness and gravitational force. Gothic churches send to the sky ever-sharper shapes in a final ascensional

ante legem [i post legem. Ea aduce la prezen]~ sensul predat. Frumuse]ea pictural~ rezid~ n prospe]imea tipului de abordare, n armonia coloristicii, n ingeniozitatea solu]iilor cromatice, n m~iestria g~sirii coresponden]ei dintre pictur~ [i arhitectur~, n
siguran]a desenului care cite[te Biblia. De la gestul ctitoririi pn~ la ultima imagine pictat~, biserica este un act de ofrand~ [i un leg~mnt de credin]~. Nimic nu este gratuit, nimic nu este n plus, totul este un ntreg armonic. Frescele bisericilor moldovene[ti ascund [i transform~ piatra sau c~r~mida n liturghie [i vedere a adev~rului. Piatra zidirii este transfigurat~ de icoan~, materia este dizolvat~ n imagine [i culoare, n semn al nev~zutului. Biserica exprim~ omul medieval din spa]iul romnesc, spiritul s~u c~l~uzit de istoria evanghelic~, ntotdeauna deschis~ pentru sensul judec~]ii finale. Ctitorul este cel care arvune[te de aici comoara paradisului [i a judec~]ii lui Dumnezeu, iar biserica este chivotul unui stra[nic leg~mnt, a unei umilin]e des~vr[ite numai n fa]a p~rintelui ceresc. El d~ruie[te [i se d~ruie[te, reunind smerenia [i mndria ntr-un singur gest.

B u Moldova
Fresca dematerializeaz~ zidul, i disloc~ opacitatea [i for]a gravita]ional~. Dac~ biserica gotic~ se nal]~ la cer n forme din ce n ce mai ascu]ite, ntr-o ultim~ ncercare ascensional~, n schimb biserica pictat~ n exterior se dezvolt~ pe orizontal~, a[ezat~ molcom pe p~mnt [i perfect armonizat~ cu peisajul, dar g~se[te alt mod de a nvinge gravita]ia [i materialitatea acoperindu-se cu icoane ale transparen]ei teologice [i p~strnd astfel numai materialitatea strict necesar~ a mesajului purtat de dincolo c~tre aici [i de aici c~tre dincolo. Este de datoria pictorilor s~ execute ceea ce P~rin]ii comand~ [i prescriu dicteaz~ Conciliul de la Niceea (cf. Charles Diehl, Bizantine Art, Baynes & Moss, Byzantinum, 1948, p.179). Zugravul ortodox este un emerit care trebuie s~ picteze sub har [i n ascez~ o umanitate a p~catului [i a mntuirii. Marile fresce exterioare ale bisericilor m~n~stirilor bucovinene sunt teologie desf~[urat~ ca o mantie pe zidurile bisericilor, iar portretele votive ale domnitorilor, care nchin~ chivotele bisericilor nsu[i Mntuitorului, demonstreaz~ la rndul lor semnifica]ia major teologic~ a ctitoririi. Desigur, o dat~ cu nceputul secolului al XVII-lea att stilul arhitectural ct [i cel pictural se modific~, hieratismul picturii murale se atenueaz~ n bun~ m~sur~, iar arhitectura religioas~ se diversific~, dobndind influen]e renascentiste [i baroce care conduc la pierderea unit~]ii stilistice n favoarea ajungerii la formule unicat. Vasile Lupu, cu impresionanta sa apeten]~ pentru fast, tradi]ie imperial~ [i mprumuturi str~lucitoare, este reprezentativ prin ctitoriile sale n aceast~ epoc~ asupra c~reia [i pune amprenta. Arta Moldovei intr~ acum ntr-o alt~ epoc~ [i ntr-un alt ritm al istoriei. Vrsta premodern~ [i cea modern~ [i anun]~ venirea, influen]ele occidentale sunt din ce n ce mai puternice, iar stilul artei cre[tine din ce n ce mai elastic. attempt. In exchange, churches painted on the outside grow on the horizontal, blandly stuck to the ground, in perfect harmony with the scenery. Nonetheless, they discover another method of defeating gravity and materialness: getting covered all over with icons of theological transparency, and thus preserving only as much materialness as necessary to convey the message from beyond over here and from down here to beyond. It is the duty of painters to carry out what the Fathers order and prescribe, stipulates the Council of Niceea (cf. Charles Diehl, Byzantine Art, Baynes & Moss, Byzantium, 1948, p. 179). The Orthodox painter is an artist who must paint with afflatus and in austerity a humanity of sin and redemption. The great outer frescoes of the churches of the Bukovina monasteries are theology unfolding on walls like a mantle; the votive portraits of the princes dedicate the church arches to the Savior Himself, in order to prove one more time the major theological significance of the respective abodes. With the turn of the 17th century architectural and pictorial styles changed. The hieratic nature of the murals considerably diminished, religious architecture diversified, acquiring Renaissance and baroque touches that shattered the stylistic unity in favor of unique formulas. By his foundations, Vasile Lupu, with his impressive penchant for pomp, imperial tradition and brilliant loans is representative for that epoch on which he left his indelible mark. Moldavian art entered then a new stage, a different historical rhythm. Pre-modern and modern times were already dawning, western influences became more and more powerful, and the style of Christian art showed tremendous elasticity. Byzantine tradition started to fade away, although mural painting continued to obey the Byzantine painting canons. The monuments and the painting of the 18th century attest to all these changes as well as to the more and more diverse trends emerging.

ucovina
Tradi]ia bizantin~ devine un ecou din ce n ce mai palid, de[i pictura mural~ va respecta n continuare erminia picturii bizantine. Monumentele [i pictura secolului al XVIII-lea atest~ toate aceste schimb~ri, precum [i influen]ele din ce n ce mai diverse, care [i fac sim]it~ prezen]a. ncepnd cu 1711, o dat~ cu prima domnie fanariot~, Moldova, [i cu ea ntreaga civiliza]ie romneasc~, intr~ ntr-o epoc~ nou~, dominat~ de instabilitate, de control excesiv al Por]ii, dar [i de o deschidere pronun]at~ spre influen]ele occidentale vehiculate tocmai prin intermediul fanario]ilor. Aceste influen]e vor decide n final drumul spre modernitate al culturii romne [i integrarea sa n concertul european al secolului al XIX-lea. Dar chipul culturii romne va r~mne totu[i dominat n permanen]~ de o tensiune dubl~ guvernat~ de o origine dubl~ a stilului na]ional. Orient bizantin [i occident european au fost [i r~mn dimensiuni ale sintezei culturii romne[ti. Starting with 1711 and the first ruler from the Phanar appointed to the Moldavian throne, the Romanian land and its entire civilization embarked upon a new epoch marred by instability and the Portes excessive control, yet also benefiting from western touches brought about by the very Phanar rulers. All this minglement would finally pave the way for the modern times of the Romanian lands, which became integrated into the European concert in the 19th century. Still, the Romanian culture remained prone to a two-fold tension governed by the dual origin of the national style. The Byzantine Orient and the European Occident will stay for ever blended in the Romanian spirit and culture.

Mihai Gheorghiu

M~n~stirea Putna

The Putna Monastery


Biserica M~n~stirii Putna, v~zut~ dinspre sud-vest The church of the Putna Monastery, seen from the southwest

Ctitorie [i necropol~ a voievodului tefan cel Mare, centru artistic [i c~rtur~resc. Construit~ \n 1466-1469, ca m~n~stire fortificat~, a fost ref~cut~ \n 1472, \n urma unui incendiu. Pustiit~ de mai multe ori [i reconstruit~ \n 1966-1988, ea nu mai p~streaz~ din epoca lui tefan cel Mare dect Turnul Tezaurului (1481). Muzeul m~n~stirii posed~ o bogat~ colec]ie de broderii religioase vechi, manuscrise miniate [i obiecte de cult. De dimensiuni impun~toare, biserica m~n~stirii, cu hramul Adormirea Maicii Domnului, a fost ridicat~ \ntre 1654 [i 1662 de domnitorii Vasile Lupu [i Gheorghe tefan. Edificiul reia planul bisericii ini]iale: plan treflat, cu propor]ii alungite, avnd 37 m lungime, 15 m l~]ime \n dreptul absidelor laterale [i 33 m \n~l]ime. Interiorul este \mp~r]it \ntre tinda dreptunghiular~, pronaosul p~trat, camera mormintelor, dreptunghiular~, desp~r]it~ de naos prin dou~ coloane, naosul p~trat, prelungit lateral de absida secundar~, [i altarul din absida principal~. Biserica ad~poste[te mormntul lui tefan cel Mare [i pe cele ale urma[ilor s~i, pn~ la Petru Rare[.

Foundation and necropolis of Ruler Stephen the Great, a center of arts and letters, Putna was erected between 1466 and 1469 as a fortified monastery, and then retouched in 1472, following a fire. Laid waste several times, it was rebuilt between 1966 and 1988, the only element preserved from the time of Stephen the Great being the Treasury Tower (1481). The monasterys museum boasts a rich collection of old religious embroideries, illuminated manuscripts, and objects of cult. Between 1654 and 1662, Rulers Vasile Lupu and Gheorghe Stefan erected the Dormition of the Virgin Church, so impressive in size, on a design similar to an older one. The church of the Putna Monastery is built on a trefoiled design of prolonged sizes, 37 m long and 15 m wide at the lateral apses, and 33 m high. The interior features the rectangular porch, the square pronaos, the rectangular mortuary separated from the naos by two columns, the square naos that goes laterally to the secondary apse, and the altar in the main apse. The abode shelters the tombs of Stephen the Great and his descendants, down to Petru Rares.

M~n~stirea Putna Litografie color de Knapp Franz Xavier,1859-1860. The Putna Monastery Coloured litography Knapp Franz Xavier, 1859-1860.

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Vedere panoramic~ dinspre nord-est Turnul Tezaurului, a[ezat pe latura de vest a zidului incintei, este singurul element arhitectonic p~strat din ansamblul original. Panoramic view from the northeast On the western side of the precincts wall, the Treasury Tower is the only architectural element still standing from the old ensemble.

Camera mormintelor din biserica M~n~stirii Putna Mormntul ctitorului tefan cel Mare (decedat \n 2 iulie 1504). Mortuary room in the church of the Putna Monastery Tomb of founder Stephen the Great (died on July 2, 1504).

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tefan Vod~ cel Bun, cnd s-au apucat s~ fac~ M~n~stirea Putna, au tras cu arcul tefan Vod~ dintr-un vrvu de munte, ce este lng~ mn~stire, [i unde au agiuns s~geata au f~cut prestolul \n oltariu. i este mult loc de unde au tras pn~ la mn~stire... (cronicar Ion Neculce, 1672-1745)

Ruler Stephen the Kind, when he made up his mind to build the Monastery of Putna, he stretched his bow and shot an arrow that flew right from the top of the mount close to the monastery, and where the arrow struck there the table in the altar was laid. And, I vouch, the distance between the monastery and the place from where he shot the arrow is quite remarkable... (chronicler Ion Neculce, 1672-1745)

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M~n~stirea Neam]

The Neamt Monastery


M~n~stirea Neam], vedere aerian~ Prim-plan cu aghiazmatarul. The Neamt Monastery, birds eye view Close-up of the holy waterfont.

A fost ctitorit~ \n secolul al XIV-lea, mai \nti de Petru Mu[at, apoi de Alexandru cel Bun. n incinta m~n~stirii sunt dou~ biserici [i dou~ paraclise: Biserica mare n~l]area Domnului (secolul al XV-lea) [i Biserica Sfntul Gheorghe (secolul al XIX-lea), paraclisele Buna Vestire (secolul al XVI-lea) [i Adormirea Maicii Domnului (secolul al XVIII-lea). Biserica mare \ncununeaz~ prin arhitectura sa stilul moldovenesc ini]iat \n epoca lui tefan cel Mare. Este un monument arhitectonic impresionant, sintez~ a tuturor elementelor arhitecturii moldovene[ti, apogeu al arhitecturii religioase a epocii. Pictura original~ s-a mai p~strat \n altar, naos [i camera mormintelor; \n pridvor [i pronaos, pictura dateaz~ din timpul lui Petru Rare[. Ultima restaurare, realizat~ \ntre anii 1954 [i 1961, a readus la forma ini]ial~ biserica lui tefan [i cetatea. Biserica este caracterizat~ de elegan]~, armonie a propor]iilor, ingeniozitate a solu]iilor arhitectonice, armonia combina]iilor cu elemente arhitecturale gotice. A[ez~mntul posed~ cea mai mare bibliotec~ m~n~stireasc~ (18 000 volume, incluznd manuscrise de mare valoare) [i un muzeu cu o valoroas~ colec]ie de art~ bisericeasc~.

This abode was founded in the 14th century first under the care of Petru Musat and then of Alexander the Kind. Within the monastery complex there are two churches and two chapels: the big Ascension Church (the 15th century), the St. George Church (the 19th century), the chapels The Annunciation (the 16th century) and The Dormition (the 18th century). The architecture of the big church is in Moldavian style dating from the time of Stephen the Great. An impressive monument of architecture, the church achieves a synthesis of all the elements of Moldavian architecture, being an acme of the religious art at that time. Original paintings have been preserved in the altar, naos and mortuary, while the paintings of the porch and the pronaos go back to the time of Petru Rares. The latest restoration works, carried out between 1954 and 1961, returned Stephens church and the fortress to their former looks. Elegant, of harmonious proportions, the church also evinces harmonious Gothic borrowings. The abode boasts the biggest monastery library (18.000 volumes, including highly valuable manuscripts) and a museum with a priceless collection of religious art.

O parte din incint a m~n~stirii, cu bisericile n~l]area Domnului (secolul al XV-lea) [i Sfntul Gheorghe (secolul al XIX-lea) Vedere dinspre sud-vest. Parts of the monastery precincts with the Ascension Church (15th century) and Saint George Church (19th century) View from the south-west.

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S~rb~toarea hramului M~n~stirii Neam] Fotografie de epoc~. Celebration of the Neamt Monastery dedication day Period photograph.

Tetraevanghelul lui Gavriil Uric, 1429 Miniatur~: Sfntul Apostol Luca. The Four Gospels of Gavriil Uric, 1429 Miniature: Saint Apostle Luke.

Tetraevanghelul lui Gavriil Uric, 1429 nceputul evangheliei dup~ Marcu. The Four Gospels of Gavriil Uric, 1429 Beginning of the Gospel according to Saint Mark.

Tetraevanghelul lui Gavriil Uric, 1429 Miniatur~: Sfntul Apostol Marcu. The Four Gospels of Gavriil Uric, 1429 Illumination: Holy Apostle Mark.

Trapeza M~n~stirii Neam] Imagine din perioada interbelic~. Refectory of the Neamt Monastery Picture from the interbellum period. Biserica mare, In~l]area Domnului. Exonartex Ni[a ferestrei [i fresce restaurate stngaci \n 1850. The big Ascension Church. Exonarthex Window niche and awkwardly restored frescoes from 1850.

Fa]ada vestic~ [i aghiazmatarul M~n~stirii Neam] Cl~direa are un acoper~mnt bulbat [i a fost construit~ \n 18361847 [i pictat~ \n 1974-1977 de Teodor Varahil-Moraru. i aceast~ cl~dire, dar mai ales turnulclopotni]~ cu patru etaje sub care se arcuie[te intrarea \n incint~, creeaz~ o puternic~ impresie de monumentalitate. Fotografie interbelic~. The westerf faade and the holy waterfont of the Neamt Monastery The building with a bulbous roof was built between 1836 and 1847 and painted between 1974 and 1977 by Teodor VarahilMoraru. This construction and particularly the four-storied belfry under which stands the entry give a powerful sense of monumentality. Interbellum photo.

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M~n~stirea Sfntul Ioan cel Nou

The Saint John the New Monastery


It is the foundation of Bogdan III, son of Stephen the Great (1514), and it was finished by Ruler Stefanita, nephew of the great prince. Then it was painted from the windows upwards upon the orders of Ruler Petru Rares (1532-1534), while the porch was added under Peter the Lame, in 1579. The church, dedicated to Saint George, in the shape of a nave, has a porch with a lateral entrance. It has remained unchanged over the centuries. Only the roof, initially made of lead, was replaced in the 19th century with multicolored tiles. The painting dates from the reign of Ruler Stefanita, and the southern faade still features the original frescoes. The name of Saint John the New comes from the relics of this saint, housed by the religious abode. In 1402, Alexander the Kind brought them to Suceava from Cetatea Alba where John of Trebizond was martyred in 1303. The monastery was set up after 1783 when the relics of Saint John the New were brought over after having been taken by metropolitan bishop Dosoftei, exiled to Poland. The abode is organized in conformity with the rules for metropolitan cathedrals, being the seat of the Suceava and Radauti Archbishopric and the second residence of the metropolitan bishop of Moldavia.

M~n~stirea Sfntul Ioan cel Nou Vedere aerian~ dinspre sud. The Saint John the New Monastery Birds eye view from the south.

Este ctitoria lui Bogdan al III-lea, fiul lui tefan cel Mare (1514), fiind terminat~ de tef~ni]~ Vod~, nepotul marelui voievod, urmnd apoi, de sub ferestre \n sus, a fi zugr~vit~ la comanda lui Petru Rare[ (1532-1534), pridvorul fiind ad~ugat de Petru chiopul, la 1579. Biserica, cu hramul Sfntului Gheorghe, \n form~ de nav~ [i cu pridvor cu intrare lateral~, nu [i-a schimbat prea mult \nf~]i[area de-a lungul timpului; doar acoperi[ul, ini]ial din plumb, a fost \nlocuit la sfr[itul secolului al XIX-lea, cu unul de ]igl~ multicolor~. Pictura dateaz~ din timpul lui tef~ni]~-Vod~, iar pe fa]ada sudic~ se p~streaz~ [i pictura exterioar~. Numele de Sfntul Ioan cel Nou vine de la moa[tele acestui sfnt ad~postite aici; ele au fost aduse de la Cetatea Alb~ la Suceava \n 1402 de Alexandru cel Bun, unde Ioan din Trapezunt a fost martirizat \n 1303. M~n~stirea a fost \nfiin]at~ dup~ 1783, cnd au fost readuse aici moa[tele Sfntului Ioan cel Nou, duse de mitropolitul Dosoftei \n pribegia sa din Polonia. A[ez~mntul are o organizare adecvat~ catedralelor mitropolitane, fiind re[edin]a Arhiescopiei Sucevei [i a R~d~u]ilor [i a doua re[edin]~ a mitroplitului Moldovei.

Biserica Sfntul Gheorghe dup~ restaurare Acoperi[ul din plumb a fost \nlocuit cu ]igle multicolore. Fotografie interbelic~. The Saint George Church after restoration Multicolored tiles replaced the lead roof. Interbellum photo.

M~n~stirea Vorone]

The Vorone] Monastery


Biserica M~n~stirii Vorone]

Judecata de Apoi, fresc~ de pe fa]ada


de vest. The church of the Voronet Monastery

The Last Judgement, frescoe on the


western faade.

A fost ctitorit~ de voievodul tefan cel Mare \n anul 1488, fiind construit~ \n trei luni [i 21 de zile. Biserica, cu hramul Sfntului Gheorghe, este celebr~ prin pictura exterioar~ [i interioar~, executat~ \n 1534-1535, \n timpul lui Petru Rare[. Picturile, realizate pe un fond albastru deschis (vestitul albastru de Vorone]), se caracterizeaz~ prin monumentalitate, claritate [i rigoare compozi]ional~. n 1547, mitropolitul Grigorie Ro[ca a ad~ugat bisericii un pridvor \nchis, care a fost pictat la exterior de me[terul Marcu; pronaosul a fost pictat \n 1550. Desfiin]at~ \n anul 1986, m~n~stirea a fost re\nfiin]at~ dup~ 1989, fiind \n prezent un monument UNESCO.

The abode was built under Ruler Stephen the Great, in 1488, more exactly in three months and 21 days. Being dedicated to Saint George, the church is famous for its outer and inner frescoes created between 1534 and 1535, during the reign of Petru Rares. The paintings, on a light blue background (the celebrated Voronet blue) are monumental, clear and rigorously composed. In 1547, metropolitan Grigorie Rosca added a closed porch, painted by master Marcu. The pronaos was painted in 1550. Disbanded in 1986, the monastery was reestablished after 1989 and now is a UNESCO world heritage monument.

Biserica m~n~stirii v~zut~ dinspre sud-est The church of the monastery seen from southeast

23

Judecata de Apoi, fresc~ de pe fa]ada de vest a bisericii (1534-1535)


Compozi]ie impresionant~, acoperind tot peretele de vest al pridvorului. Tema este prezent~ \n toate picturile murale ale bisericilor bucovinene, avnd o semnifica]ie teologic~ major~. n imagine sunt reprezentate por]ile Raiului cu Cel Vechi de Zile, \ncadrat de semnele zodiacului (centru, sus). n planul inferior un registru \l nf~]i[eaz~ pe Iisus ca judec~tor suprem (centru), ncadrat de Fecioara Maria [i Ioan Botez~torul ca intercesori. De o parte [i de alta, pe b~nci, se afl~ apostolii, veghea]i de cete de \ngeri. n registrul urm~tor, elementul central este tronul Hetimasiei, la picioarele c~ruia au \ngenuncheat Adam [i Eva. n stnga tronului se afl~ cetele drep]ilor, \n dreapta cetele nelegiui]ilor, formate din necredincio[i evrei, turci, t~tari [i armeni, (ceea ce este o inova]ie a epocii lui Petru Rare[, care aduce pentru prima dat~ \n figura]ie elementul etnic pentru caracterizarea cetei p~c~to[ilor). n registrul urm~tor sunt reprezentate c~ile pe care merg cele dou~ cete: calea Raiului (pentru drep]i) [i calea Iadului (pentru necredincio[i).

The Last Judgement, frescoe on the western faade of the church (1534-1535)
An impressive composition that covers the whole western wall of the porch. The theme is present in all the murals of Bukovina churches, having a major theological significance. The picture presents the gates of Heaven with the Ancient of days surrounded by the signs of the zodiac (center up), followed, in a lower register, by Jesus as the supreme judge (center), with the Virgin and John the Baptist as intercessors, on the right and on the left. On both sides, on benches, there are the apostles guarded by groups of angels. The next register presents the Hetoimasia throne in the middle, with Adam and Eve kneeling. On the left of the throne there stand the righteous, and on the left the sinners, including the heathen, the Jews, the Turks, the Tartars and the Armenians (the ethnic element used to describe the sinners is an innovation dating from the time of Petru Rares). The next register presents the two paths followed by the two groups: the path to Heaven (for the righteous), and that of Hell (for the evil).

Fresce de pe fa]ada de nord a bisericii M~n~stirii Vorone]


n registrul superior:

Facerea
n registrul mediu:

Scene din Evanghelie

Frescoes on the northern faade of the Voronet Monastery church


In the higher register:

Genesis
In the the medium register:

Scenes from the Gospels

n registrul inferior:

Sfin]i [i scene de martiriu


In the lower register:

Saints and martyrdom scenes

Fa]ada de est, absida principal~ a bisericii Fresca \nf~]i[eaz~ Cinul, registrul superior cuprinznd ngerii, Serafimii [i Profe]ii; \n axa absidei: Hristos Pantocrator, Fecioara \n Glorie. The estern faade, the main apse of the church The superior part of the Chosen Hosts, comprising the Angels, the Seraphims and the Prophets. On the axis of the apse, from top to bottom: Christ Pantocrator, the Holy Virgin in Glory.

Iar~ tefan-Vod~, mergnd de la cetatea Neam]ului \n sus pre Moldova, au m~rsu pe la Vorone], unde tr~ie un p~rinte sihastru, pre nume Daniil. i b~tnd tefan-Vod~ \n u[a sihastrului s~-i descuie, au r~spunsu sihastrul s~ a[tepte tefan-Vod~ afar~ pn~ ce [iau istovit ruga. i dup~ ce [-au istovit sihastrul ruga, l-au chemat \n chilie pre tefan-Vod~. i s-au ispovedit tefanVod~ la dnsul. i au \ntrebat tefanVod~ pe sihastru ce va mai face, c~ nu poate s~ mai bat~ cu turcii: \nchina-va ]ara la turci, au ba? Iar sihastrul au dzis s~ nu o \nchine, c~ r~zboiul este al lui, numai, dup~ ce va izbndi, s~ fac~ o mn~stire acolo \n numle Sfntului Gheorghe, s~ fie hramul bisericii. (cronicar Ion Neculce, 1672-1745)

And Ruler Stephen, rode up from the Citadel of Neamt along the Moldavia, to Voronet, where a hermit called Daniil lived. And when he knocked on the door, the hermit replied that the Ruler should wait until he was done with his praying. And when the recluse finished his devotions, he asked Stephen in and the Ruler made his confession. And then the Ruler asked the hermit what he could do for he was no onger capable of facing the Turks. So, should he surrender the country or not? And the hermit said that he should not surrender for the victory would be his and when he had vanquished the enemy he should erect a monastery on the spot, dedicated to Saint George. (chronicler Ion Neculce, 1672-1745 )
27

Biserica Arbore

The Arbore Church


Fa]ada sudic~ a bisericii, cu intrarea The southern faade of the church, with the entrance

Biserica m~n~stirii a fost construit~ la 1503 de Luca Arbore, portarul Sucevei, ca paraclis al cur]ilor sale [i ca loc de \nmormntare pentru neamul s~u. Pictura bisericii a fost executat~ de Drago[ Coman \n 1541, un zugrav remarcabil, fiul unui preot din Ia[i. Pictura este monumental~, cu un colorit dominat de o nuan]~ de verde alb~strui ceruleum.

Luca Arbore, gatekeeper of Suceava erected the church of the monastery in 1503 as a chapel for his court, and repository for his family. Dragos Coman, a remarkable artist, the son of a priest from Iasi, painted the church, in 1541. It is a monumental composition where bluegreen (cerulean) prevails.

Fa]ada de vest Forma de ni[~ apare ca un element inedit, avnd rolul de a crea un spa]iu cultic exterior. Western faade The niche form is an original element, creating an exterior cult space.

29

M~n~stirea Dobrov~]

The Dobrovat Monastery


Biserica v~zut~ dinspre sud-vest The church seen from the southwest

Este o ctitorie a voievodului tefan cel Mare (1503-1504), pictura fiind executat~ mai trziu (1527-1531), \n timpul lui Petru Rare[. Programul iconografic cuprinde aici \ntr-o form~ embrionar~ programul picturii exterioare al bisericilor ce vor fi \n~l]ate mai trziu. Biserica cu hramul Pogorrea Sfntului Duh, construc]ie de o maiestuoas~ monumentalitate, a fost restaurat~ [i adus~ la forma ini]ial~ \n 1975. Este realizat~ \n stil moldovenesc, dup~ un plan dreptunghiular. Turlele au fost \nl~turate cu prilejul restaur~rii, biserica fiind acoperit~ cu \nvelitoare de tabl~ de cupru. Pere]ii laterali au ca \nt~rituri trei contrafor]i pe fiecare latur~.

Ruler Stephen the Great (15031504) built it, while the painting was executed later, (1527-1531), during the reign of Petru Rares. The iconography contains in the bud the whole program of outer church painting to be carried out later. The church dedicated to the Annunciation is majestically monumental, and it was restored to its initial form in 1975. This is a construction in Moldavian style with a rectangular design. The turrets were removed during the restoration process, when the church was covered in copper sheet. The lateral walls have three buttresses on each side.

Turnul por]ii, cu decora]ii barocmoldovene[ti (secolul al XVIII-lea) Gate tower, with decorations in the Moldavian-Baroque style (18th century)

32

Tablou votiv Voievozii tefan cel Mare, Bogdan al III-lea [i Petru Rare[. Votive painting The rulers Stephen the Great, Bogdan III and Petru Rares.

Fragment din portalul [i luneta bisericii Fragment of the church portal and lunette

Pictur~ mural~ \n naos Sfin]ii Imp~ra]i Constantin [i Elena. Mural painting in the nave Sts. Emperors Constantine and Helena.

33

M~n~stirea Moldovi]a

The Moldovita Monastery


Fragment din fa]ada sudic~ a bisericii cu pridvorul deschis Fragment of the southern faade of the church with the open porch

Col] din incinta m~n~stirii A corner of monastery inner court

A fost ctitorit~ de Petru Rare[ \n 1532 (lng~ ruinele m~n~stirii fondate \n 1402-1410 de Alexandru cel Bun), \n forma \n care se p~streaz~ ast~zi: Biserica Buna Vestire, chiliile [i casa domneasc~, \nconjurat~ de ziduri puternice cu turnuri de ap~rare. n 1612, mitropolitul Efrem a ref~cut incinta fortificat~, \n~l]nd, \n col]ul de nord-vest o clisiarni]~, care ad~poste[te ast~zi muzeul m~n~stirii. Biserica, avnd toate caracterele arhitecturale statornicite \n Moldova pe vremea lui tefan cel Mare, plus un pridvor deschis, este pictat~ \n interior [i la exterior (1537). Pridvorul se deschide cu trei arcade mari \n arc frnt pe peretele vestic, cte o arcad~ pe cel de sud [i cel de nord. n imagine este vizibil [i pronaosul dreptunghiular, cu cte dou~ ferestre mari, \n arc frnt, pe pere]ii de sud [i de nord. Turla se \nal]~ pe o baz~ dublu stelat~, element specific stilului moldovenesc. Plastica ornamental~ combin~ elemente de gotic trziu [i renascentiste. Este monument UNESCO.

Built by Petru Rares, in 1532 (close to the ruins of the monastery founded between 1402 and 1410 by Alexander the Kind), the complex as it is today features the Annunciation Church, the cells and the princely residence surrounded by powerful defense towers. In 1612, metropolitan bishop Efrem rebuilt the fortified precincts and erected a treasury in the northwestern corner, which today houses the museum of the monastery. The church, with all its architectural characteristics established during the time of Stephen the Great, also includes an open porch, and is painted on the inside and the outside (1537). The church porch opens into three big pointed arcades on the western wall, and an arcade on each of the southern and the northern walls. Also visible are the rectangular pronaos with two big windows on the southern and northern wall. The turret of the church raises from a doubly starred foundation, a specific element of the Moldavian style. The ornaments combine late Gothic and Renaissance elements. The abode is a UNESCO world heritage site.

35

M~n~stirea Moldovi]a Vedere aerian~. The Moldovita Monastery Birds eye view.

36

Biserica m~n~stirii, v~zut~ dinspre sud-est The monastery church, seen from southeast

M~n~stirea Moldovi]a Litografie color din secolul al XIX-lea de Knapp Franz Xavier. The Moldovita Monastery Colour litography from 19th century by Knapp Franz Xavier.

37

Pronaosul bisericii, ni[ele ferestrelor: scene din Menologiu The narthex of the church, window niches: scenes from The Menologion

Iisus Pantocrator
Detaliu de pe bolta naosului bisericii.

Jesus Pantocrator
Detail from the vault of the church naos.

R~stignirea
Pictur~ mural~ \n absida de nord a naosului.

The Crucifixion
Mural on the northern apse of the naos.

38

39

40

Fragment din fa]ada sudic~ a bisericii Fragment from the southern faade of the church

Sinod ecumenic, fragment de fresc~ Ecumenical synod, fragment of a fresco

Asediul Constantinopolului
Detaliu de fresc~ pe peretele sudic al bisericii.

The Siege of Constantinople


Frescoe detail on the southern wall of the church.

41

M~n~stirea Humor

The Humor Monastery


Pridvorul bisericii, v~zut dinspre sud The church porch, seen from the south

A fost \ntemeiat~ la \nceputul secolului al XV-lea de vornicul Oan~ [i rectitorit~ \n 1530 de logof~tul Teodor Bubuiog. Biserica actual~, cu hramul Sfntului Gheorghe, f~r~ turle [i cu pridvor deschis, a fost pictat~ \n \ntregime, att \n interior ct [i la exterior, \n 1535 de zugravul Toma din Suceava. Turnul clopotni]ei a fost construit \n 1641. Din punct de vedere arhitectural, biserica este format~ din: pridvor deschis, pronaos, naos [i altar. ntre pronaos [i naos este situat~ camera mormintelor. Pentru prima dat~ \n arhitectura religioas~ moldoveneasc~ apare pridvorul deschis. De asemenea, tot pentru prima oar~ apare diaconiconul (camera odoarelor), \n partea de nord-vest. Eleva]ia bisericii surprinde prin eliminarea turlei de pe naos; \n locul ei, boltirea se face printro calot~ sprijinit~ pe arce suprapuse, ca \n mai vechile biserici, ctitorite de tefan cel Mare, de la Borze[ti [i R~zboieni. M~n~stirea figureaz~ pe lista monumentelor UNESCO.

It was founded in the early 15th century by High Steward Oana and retouched in 1530 by Chancellor Teodor Bubuiog. The present church, dedicated to Saint George, without turrets and with an open porch, was painted both on the outside and the inside in 1535 by artist Toma of Suceava. The belfry tower was erected in 1641. Architecturally, the church is made up of an open porch, pronaos, naos, and altar. Between the pronaos and the naos, there is the mortuary. It is for the first time in Moldavian religious architecture that we see an open porch. Likewise, it is also for the first time that we have a diaconicon (treasure room), on the northwestern side of the church. The elevation of the church is surprising as it has eliminated the turret on the naos; instead the vaulting is achieved by a dome supported on superposed arches like in the older churches erected by Stephen the Great at Borzesti and Razboieni. The monastery is featured on the UNESCO world heritage list of monuments.

Vedere aerian~ a bisericii, dinspre est Birds eye view of the church seen from the est

Procesiune la hramul m~n~stirii, fotografie de epoc~ Procession on the monasterys dedication day, period photograph

Tetraevangheliarul de la Humor Ferec~tur~ \n argint. The Humor Gospels Bound in silver.

Tetraevangheliarul anonim A fost realizat n perioada lui tefan cel Mare [i a lui Bogdan al III-lea. Anonymous Gospels Dating from the time of Stephen the Great and Bogdan III.

Sfntul Nicolae taie copacul cu demonul


Detaliu de pictur~ exterioar~ pe fa]ada sudic~ a bisericii.

Saint Nicholas cutting the tree with the devil


Detail from the outer painting on the southern faade of the church.

46

Biserica M~n~stirii Humor, fa]ada sudic ~ Pictur~ mural~, reprezentnd Glorificarea Mariei. The church of the Humor Monastery, southern faade The mural painting features the Glorification of the Virgin.

47

Arhanghel [i heruvimi Detaliu de pe bolta pridvorului. Archangel and cherubs Detail of the porch vault.

Judecata de Apoi, detaliu


Fresc~ de pe peretele estic al pridvorului.

The Last Judgement Day, detail


Frescoe on the eastern wall of the porch.

Biserica M~n~stirii Humor Bolta pridvorului, arcul central: Sfin]ii Ilarion [i Hariton, \ncadra]i de heruvimi [i arhangheli. Church of the Humor Monastery The vault of the porch, the central arch: Saints Ilarion and Hariton, between cherubims and archangels.

Judecata de Apoi, fragment


Fresc~ de pe peretele estic al pridvorului.

The Last Judgement, fragment


Frescoe from the eastern wall of the porch.

M~n~stirea Sucevi]a

The Sucevita Monastery


Biserica M~n~stirii Sucevi]a Pictur~ mural~ pe absida de nord. Church of the Sucevita Monastery Mural painting on the northern apse.

Vedere panoramic ~ a m ~n~stirii Panoramic view of the monastery

Este o ctitorie din anii 1581-1601 a fra]ilor Movil~: vornicul Ieremia [i paharnicul Simion, viitori domni, [i Gheorghe, mitropolit al Sucevei. M~n~stirea este alc~tuit~ dintr-o spa]ioas~ incint~ \n form~ de patrulater, \nconjurat~ de ziduri \nalte, \nt~rite cu masive turnuri de col] [i cu turnul por]ii, \n care se afl~ paraclisul din cl~dirile monastice [i din biseric~. Cu un plan alungit, compartimentat \n naos triconc, gropni]~, pronaos [i pridvor \nchis (cu alte dou~ pridvoare deschise ad~ugate la intr~rile de nord [i sud), biserica se remarc~ prin elegan]a formelor arhitectonice [i bog~]ia picturilor care \mpodobesc att interiorul ct [i exteriorul s~u; ele au fost realizate de zugravul Ion [i fratele s~u Sofronie, \nainte de 1596. M~n~stirea Sucevi]a este inclus~ de UNESCO \n lista patrimoniului cultural mondial.

This above was erected between 1581 and 1601 by the Movila brothers: Minister of Justice Ieremia and Simion, future princes, and Gheorghe, metropolitan bishop of Suceava. The monastery has spacious quadrilateral precincts surrounded by high walls, strengthened by massive corner towers and a gate tower housing the chapel, then the monastic buildings, and the church. Built on a long design, consisting of a trefoiled naos, vault, pronaos and closed porch (with two open porches added to the north and south entrances), the church stands out by its elegant architecture and the richness of the paintings decorating it on the inside and on the outside. These are the creation of artist Ion and his brother Sofronie, before 1596. Sucevita Monastery is included on the UNESCO world heritage list.

51

Pridvor deschis pe fa]ada de sud Open veranda on southern faade

Pictur~ mural~: C~rturarii, detaliu Mural painting: The Scholars, detail

Pictur~ pe fa]ada de nord Scara Virtu]ilor (Scara Sfntului Ioan Climax), iar \n registrul superior scene din Genez~.

Picture on the northern faade The Ladder of Virtues (Ladder of St. John

Climax) and in the upper register scenes


from Genesis.

52

Fragment din fa]ada de sud-est, cu cinci registre din Cin Fragment of the southeastern faade with five registers of the Order

Fragment din fa]ada de nord a altarului [i a absidei naosului

Cinul cu cele [apte trepte (de jos \n sus): Martirii, Ierarhii, Arhanghelii [i
Apostolii, Profe]ii, ngerii, Serafimii. Fragment of the northern faade of the altar and of the naos apse

The Order with the seven levels (from bottom up): the Martyrs, the
Hierarchs, the Archangels and the Apostles, the Prophets, the Angels, the Seraphims. Fa]ada absidei principal e Trei registre din Cin: Ierarhii, Arhanghelii [i Apostolii, Profe]ii. Main apse of the church faade Three registers of the Order: Hierarchs, Archangels and Apostles, Prophets.

54

Turla bisericii The turret of the church

56

Iisus Hristos cel Vechi de Zile


Bolta stng~ a pronaosului.

Jesus Christ the Ancient of Days


Left vault of the pronaos.

Ospitalitatea lui Avraam (Sfnta Treime)


Bolta dreapt~ a pronaosului.

Abrahams hospitality (The Holy Trinity)


Right vault of the pronaos.

57

Am fugit [i am ajuns la Mn~stirea Bistri]a [i intrnd am c~zut la p~mnt \naintea sfintelor icoane [i mult am plns, a[i[dere [i egumenul [i tot soborul plngea \mpreun~ cu mine, cu fierbin]i lacrimi... (Document de danie a lui
Petru Rare[,1538).

I ran away and I got to Bistrita Monastery, and upon entering I fell to the floor before the holy icons and I cried, and the Father Superior was also crying and with him the entire group of priests were crying bitter tears... (Donation
parchment of Petru Rares, 1538).

M~n~stirea Bistri]a

The Bistrita Monastery


Biserica M~n~stirii Bistri]a Vedere dinspre sud. The Church of the Bistrita Monastery View from the south.

M~n~stirea Bistri]a v~zut~ dinspre sud-vest Fotografie din perioada interbelic~. The Bistrita Monastery seen from southwest Interbellum photo.

M~n~stirea are patru ctitori voievozi mu[atini: Alexandru cel Bun, tefan cel Mare, Petru Rare[ [i Alexandru L~pu[neanu. A fost \ntemeiat~ \nainte de 1407, iar \ntre 1541 [i 1546 Petru Rare[ a consolidat biserica lui Alexandru cel Bun. Aceasta a fost reconstruit~ integral \n 1554. Pictura \n ulei dateaz~ din 1814. M~n~stirea a fost restaurat~ \ntre anii 1969 [i 1983, aducndu-i-se multe [i importante \mbun~t~]iri; numai pridvorul p~streaz~ fragmente din pictura original~. Incinta are form~ p~trat~, fiind protejat~ de ziduri puternice de piatr~ [i o \n~l]ime ini]ial~ de aproximativ 4m, prev~zute cu metereze [i drum de straj~. Intrarea principal~ este situat~ pe latura sudic~. La nord se afl~ turnul clopotni]ei zidit de tefan cel Mare \n 1498, dup~ victoria din Codrii Cosminului.

The monastery was founded by four princes of the Musat dynasty: Alexander the Kind, Stephen the Great, Petru Rares and Alexandru Lapusneanu. Founded before 1407, between 1541 and 1546 Petru Rares consolidated the work of Alexander the Kind. In 1554, the whole abode was built anew. The oil painting dates to 1814. The monastery was restored between 1969 and 1983, when several important improvements were made. Only the porch preserves some original paintings. Rectangular in shape, the monastery precincts are protected by strong stone walls, initially four meters high, provided with battlements and a sentry path. The main entrance is situated on the southern side. The belfry tower stands on the northern side, and it was erected by Stephen the Great in 1498, after the victory at Codrii Cosminului.

M~n~stirea Slatina

The Slatina Monastery


Biserica v~zut~ dinspre sud-vest The church seen from the southwest

Vedere general~ a m~n~stirii dinspre sud General view of the monastery seen from south

Este ctitoria [i necropola voievodului Alexandru L~pu[neanu, care este reprezentat, \mpreun~ cu \ntreaga familie, \n tabloul votiv din pronaosul bisericii. M~n~stirea a fost construit~ de me[teri locali [i din Transilvania, fiind sfiin]it~, conform cronicarului Grigore Ureche, la 14 octombrie 1558, dar lucr~rile au continuat [i dup~ acesast~ dat~, cnd s-au zidit casa domneasc~, chiliile, zidurile [i turnurile de ap~rare. Pictura, opera unor zugravi moldoveni din secolul al XVI-lea, a fost complet ref~cut~ \n secolul al XIX-lea. n biseric~ [i al~turi de ea se afl~ mormintele familiei domnitorului precum [i mormntul mitropolitului c~rturar Veniamin Costache. Dup~ cum se poate citi pe piatra de mormnt a domnitorului Alexandru L~pu[neanu acesta s-a c~lug~rit \n ultimul an al vie]ii sale (1568) sub numele de Pahomie. M~n~stirea a avut un important rol cultural, ctitorul \nfiin]nd aici o [coal~ de muzic~ [i o bibliotec~ cu c~r]i [i manuscrise. Asemeni altor a[ez~minte biserice[ti din Moldova, M~n~stirea Slatina a fost jefuit~ \n mai multe rnduri.

Ruler Alexandru Lapusneanu, represented with his entire family in the votive painting on the church narthex, founded it, and was also buried here. Erected by local Transylvanian craftsmen, the monastery was hallowed, according to chronicler Grigore Ureche, on October 14, 1558. After that date, works continued on the princely house, the cells, the defense walls, and towers. Painted by Moldavian artists in the 16th century, the decoration was completely remade in the 19th century. In the church and close to it stand the tombs of the princely family and of scholar and metropolitan Veniamin Costache. As indicated on the tombstone of Ruler, Alexandru Lapusneanu, the sovereign became a monk in the last year of his life (1568), taking the name of Pahomie. The monastery played a remarkable cultural role, as the founder also set up here a music school and a library featuring various books and manuscripts. The Slatina Monastery, just like other religious abodes in Moldavia, suffered frequent and severe despoliation.

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M~n~stirea Galata

The Galata Monastery


Biserica m~n~stirii Vedere dinspre est. The monastery church View from east.

Vedere aerian~ dinspre sud-est Birds eye view from southeast

M~n~stirea Galata a fost ctitorit~ de domnitorul Petru chiopul [i are hramul \n~l]~rii Domnului, fiind sfin]it~ \n 1584. Biserica m~n~stirii este o remarcabil~ realizare arhitectonic~, cu multe elemente de noutate [i totodat~ o sintez~ a influen]elor bizantinomuntene [i a elementelor tradi]iei moldovene[ti. Caracteristice pentru Galata sunt: \nlocuirea peretelui dintre gropni]~ [i naos cu trei arcade sus]inute de coloane, apari]ia turlei secundare peste pronaos, brul median care \mparte fa]ada \n dou~, iluminarea absidelor cu trei ferestre. Pictura original~ a bisericii, inclusiv frescele interioare, nu s-a p~strat, fiind distrus~ laolalt~ cu catapeteasma \n incediul din 1762. S-a p~strat totu[i tabloul votiv care \l \nf~]i[eaz~ pe Petru chiopul. Casa domneasc~ a fost zidit~, de asemenea, de domnitorul Petru chiopul (\n secolul al XVIII-lea i s-a ad~ugat etajul). Ast~zi cl~direa este restaurat~ [i ad~poste[te muzeul m~n~stirii.

Galata Monastery was founded by Ruler Peter the Lame, was dedicated to the Ascension of the Lord, and was hallowed in 1584. The monastery church is an outstanding architectural feat, with many novel elements, and at the same time a synthesis of Byzantine, Wallachian influences, and Moldavian traditional elements. Characteristic for Galata is the replacement of the wall between the mortuary and the naos with three arcades supported by columns, the secondary turret over the pronaos, the middle girdle that separates the faade into two, and the illumination of the apses by three windows. The original paintings of the church, the interior frescoes included, have not been preserved, being destroyed alongside the altar screen in the 1762 fire. A votive portrait has come down to us featuring Peter the Lame. Ruler Peter the Lame also erectedt the princely house (another floor was added in the 18th century). Today the building has been restored and it houses the museum of the monastery.

M~n~stirea Dragomirna

The Dragomirna Monastery


Turla bisericii, supl~, \mpodobit~ cu sculpturi \n piatr~ The slender turret with sculpted stone

M~n~stirea Dragomirna la 1857 Gua[~ de Knapp Franz Xavier. The Dragomirna Monastery at 1857 Gouache by Knapp Franz Xavier.

Este o ctitorie din 1606-1609 a mitropolitului Anastasie Crimca. Biserica Mare (datnd din 1609), \n form~ de nav~, uime[te prin bog~]ia decora]iei sculptate. Puternica incint~ fortificat~, cu ziduri \nalte [i turnuri masive, a fost construit~ de domnitorul Miron Barnovschi \n 1627. Silueta bisericii demonstreaz~ o cu totul alt~ vrst~ a arhitecturii religioase \n Moldova. Caracteristicile stilului moldovenesc sunt p~strate, dar apar diferen]e notabile fa]~ de bisericile de secol XVI; planul nu mai este triconc, dreptunghiul naosului este prelung [i se continu~ cu absida principal~ la est. Biserica prezint~ cteva elemente specifice, care nu se mai reg~sesc la nici un alt monument: brul a[ezat la jum~tatea \n~l]imii bisericii, care subliniaz~ zvelte]ea construc]iei, folosirea pietrei brute, a pietrei netede [i a celei sculptate \n zone diferen]iate ale paramentului.

It was built between 1606 and 1609 by metropolitan bishop Anastasie Crimca. The big nave-shaped church (dating from 1609), has an amazing sculptural decoration. Ruler Miron Barnovschi built these powerful fortified precincts, with tall walls and massive towers, in 1627. The silhouette of the church points to an entirely different age of religious architecture in Moldavia. The characteristics of the Moldavian style are still visible, but with notable differences as to the 16th century monasteries. The church design is no longer trefoiled, the naos rectangle is long and continued by the main apse to the east. The church features several specific elements not to be found in any other monument: the girdle at mid height, which further accentuates the tallness of the construction, the use of raw stone, of smooth and sculpted stone in different areas of the wall facing.

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Biserica m~n~stirii, v~zut~ dinspre est The monastery church, seen from east

Vedere aerian~ a m~n~stirii dinspre nord-vest Birds eye view of the monastery seen from the northwest

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M~n~stirea Brnova

The Barnova Monastery


Biserica m~n~stirii Vedere general~ dinspre nord-vest. Se remarc~ masivul turn de ap~rare deasupra pridvorului bisericii. The monastery church General view from the northwest. The massive defense tower above the porch of the church should be noticed.

A fost ctitorit~ de domnitorul Miron Barnovschi, \n 1626-1629, fiind finalizat~ de Eustratie Dabija Voievod (\nainte de 1665), \nmormntat aici. Biserica m~n~stirii, construit~ \n \ntregime din piatr~ f~]uit~, este o replic~ mai sever~ a celei de la Dragomirna. Incinta fortificat~ [i casele domne[ti, ruinate, acum sunt \n restaurare. La ridicarea bisericii s-a folosit piatr~, \n~l]ndu-se ziduri groase de peste 1 m, ornamentate cu lespezi de piatr~ cioplit~. Planul bisericii este treflat, construc]ia este masiv~, dominnd peisajul aproape cu for]a unei cet~]i.

Founded by Ruler Miron Barnovschi, between 1626 and 1629, it was terminated by Ruler Eustratie Dabija (before 1665), who is also buried here. The monastery church, a more severe replica of the Dragomirna Monastery, is constructed only in polished stone. The ruined fortified precincts and the princely house are being restored. Stone was used for the thick walls of the church (more than one meter), decorated with slabs of carved stone. The design of the church is trefoiled, the construction is massive, towering over the neighborhood like a mighty citadel.

Fragment din fa]ada nordic~ a bisericii Fragment of the northern faade of the church

M~n~stirea Sfin]ii Trei Ierarhi

The Holy Three Hierarchs Monastery


The Holy Three Hierarchs is a gem of the Moldavian 17th century art. This is a foundation of Ruler Vasile Lupu, built between 1635 and 1639. Between 1641 and 1642, Russian painters Lidor Popeev, Iakov Gavrilov, Deiko Iakovlev, and Pronka Nikitin, as well as Romanian artists finished the decoration of the Holy Three Hierarchs. In 1646, the monastery was dedicated to the Greek monks on Mount Athos. The church, a unique monument of Romanian medieval art, is a masterpiece of architecture. Built entirely in stone, its faades are covered with a majestic embroidery in stone, initially gilded. The interior is also impressive by its rich decoration and the architectural design. Damaged over the centuries by earthquakes and fires, the monument was restored between 1882 and 1890 by architect Lecomte de Nouy, who made several modifications to the construction. The church shelters the relics of the Holy Paraschiva (brought here for the first time on June 13, 1641). In the sepulchral niches, there rest Ruler Dimitrie Cantemir, a great scholar Ruler who ruled Moldavia between 1710 and 1711, and of Alexandru Ioan Cuza, the first ruler of the United Romanian Principalities (1859-1866).

Biserica m~n~stirii O broderie de piatr~ sculptat~ acoper~ \n \ntregime cl~direa. The church of the Monastery An embroidery of sculpted stone covers the building entirely.

Este o bijuterie a secolului al XVIIlea moldovenesc, fiind ctitorit~ de domnitorul Vasile Lupu [i construit~ \ntre 1635 [i 1639. n 1641-1642 pictorii ru[i Lidor Popeev, Iakov Gavrilov, Deiko Iakovlev, Pronka Nikitin, precum [i zugravi romni decoreaz~ Sfin]ii Trei Ierarhi. n 1646, m~n~stirea este \nchinat~ c~lug~rilor greci de la Muntele Athos. Biserica, monument unic \n arta medieval~ romneasc~, este o capodoper~ arhitectural~: construit~ \n \ntregime din piatr~, are fa]adele acoperite de o fastuoas~ decora]ie sculptat~ ca o minu]ioas~ dantel~, ini]ial aurit~. Interiorul impresioneaz~ [i el prin bog~]ia decora]iei [i a concep]iei arhitecturale. Avariat~ de-a lungul secolelor de incendii [i cutremure, biserica a fost restaurat~ \n 1882-1890 de arhitectul Lecomte de Nouy, care a adus l~ca[ului o serie de modific~ri. Biserica ad~poste[te moa[tele Cuvioasei Paraschiva (aduse pentru prima dat~ la 13 iunie 1641) iar \n ni[ele sepulcrale se afl~ osemintele lui Dimitrie Cantemir, mare c~rturar [i domnitor al Moldovei (1710-1711) [i ale lui Alexandru Ioan Cuza, primul domnitor al Principatelor Romne Unite (1859-1866).

Biserica m~n~stirii Vedere dinspre nord. The monastery church View from the north.

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Aceast~ m~n~stire este unic~ [i preafrumoas~; seam~n~ cu o cetate [i este \nconjurat~ cu ziduri de piatr~... Sfnta biseric~ se afl~ \n mijlocul mn~stirii; ea este cl~dit~ \n \ntregime din piatr~ f~]uit~, iar pe dinafar~ este toat~ sculptat~ cu o m~iestrie artistic~ ce uime[te mintea privitorului. Nu este nici ct un deget care s~ nu fie acoperit cu sculpturi; [i sub strea[in~ corni[ele de piatr~ neagr~ sunt de asemenea sculptate... Toat~ lumea spune \ntr-un glas c~ nici \n Moldova, nici \n ]ara Romneasc~ [i nici la cazaci nu este vreo biseric~ comparabil~ cu aceasta, nici prin podoabe, nici prin frumuse]e, c~ci ea minuneaz~ mintea celor ce o viziteaz~... Paul din Alep

This monastery is unique and extremely beautiful. It resembles a citadel and is surrounded by stone walls. The holy church sits in the middle of the monastery, is made of fully-fashioned stone, and on the outside is sculpted with extreme craftsmanship that spellbinds the eye. There is not a single inch left unadorned, and the black cornices under the eaves are also carved. Everybody says in one voice that not in Moldavia, not in Wallachia, nor in the land of the Cossacks can you find a church comparable by its beauty or ornaments that fascinate the mind of visitors Paul of Aleppo

Vedere aerian~ dinspre sud-vest Birds eye view from southwest

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Ancadrament de fereastr~ bogat \mpodobit Richly adorned window frame

Detaliu de motive florale [i geometrice sculptate \n piatr~ Floral and geometric motifs, sculpted in stone, detail

Portretul doamnei Tudosca, so]ia voievodului Vasile Lupu Broderie specific~ secolului al XVII-lea, realizat~ pe catifea ro[ie. Portretul este pe deplin laic, realizat cu elegan]~ [i deosebit rafinament. Costumul oglinde[te fastul Cur]ii lui Vasile Lupu. Portrait of Princess Tudosca, wife of Ruler Vasile Lupu Embroidery specific for the 17th century, on red velvet. The portrait is fully lay, achieved with extreme elegance and refinement. The ladys costume evinces the splendor at Vasile Lupus Court.

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M~n~stirea Sfin]ii Trei Ierarhi Cromolitografie de Carol Popp de Szathmari, secolul al XIX-lea. The Three Ierarchs Monastery Chromolitography by Carol Popp de Szathmari, 19th century.

Portretul pictat al doamnei Tudosca Fragment de fresc~ prelevat M~n~stirea Sfin]ii Trei Ierarhi Vedere general~ dinspre sud-est (imagine de la sfar[itul secolului al XIX-lea). The Three Ierarchs Monastery General view from south-est (photo from the end of 19th century). de la Sfin]ii Trei Ierarhi. The painted portrait of Princess Tudosca Fragment of a frescoe taken out of the Holy Three Hierarchs Church.

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M~n~stirea Cet~]uia

The Cetatuia Monastery


M~n~stirea Cet~]uia Vedere dinspre sud-est. The Cetatuia Monastery View from southeast.

M~n~stirea Cet~]uia Vedere aerian~ dinspre sud-est. The Cetatuia Monastery Birds eye view from the southeast.

A fost construit~ \n 1668-1672 din initia]iva domnitorului Gheorghe Duca. Biserica, de plan trilobat, cu turle pe naos [i pronaos, reia pe fa]ade, \n forme simplificate, unele motive decorative ale bisericii Sfin]ii Trei Ierarhi. Deasupra pronaosului [i naosului se ridic~ dou~ turle cu baz~ \n form~ de stea, specific~ stilului moldovenesc. Sub raport arhitectural, Cet~]uia este o copie sobr~ a M~n~stirii Sfin]ii Trei Ierarhi, ctitoria domnului Vasile Lupu de la 1639. Pictura de la Cet~]uia este o crea]ie artistic~ deosebit~, avndu-i ca autori pe Mihai, Gheorghe [i Dima din Ianina, al~turi de pictori autohtoni care lucraser~ [i la Sfin]ii Trei Ierarhi. Acesta este ultimul mare ansamblu de pictur~ mural~ din Moldova \n linia tradi]iilor postbizantine. Pictura mural~ interioar~ a suferit interven]ii \n secolele al XVIII-lea [i al XIX-lea. Protejat de o puternic~ centur~ de ziduri \nalte, cu turn de piatr~, complexul monastic mai cuprinde: casa domneasc~, cu dou~ niveluri, casa ecumeneasc~, dotat~ cu o sal~ gotic~, corpul de chilii [i baia turceasc~.

It was built between 1668-1672 at Ruler Gheorghe Ducas initiative. The trilobate church, with turrets on the naos and the pronaos, features on the faades simplified decorative elements inspired from the Holy Three Hierarchs Church of Iasi. Two turrets on a star foundation, specific for the Moldavian style, rise above the pronaos and the naos. In point of architecture, the Cetatuia is a sober copy of the Holy Three Hierarchs, founded by Ruler Vasile Lupu in 1639. The painting of Cetatuia is special, its authors being Mihai, Gheorghe and Dima of Janina, together with local artists who had also worked on the Holy Three Hierarchs. It is the last impressive complex of Moldavian murals of the post-Byzantine tradition. The interior wall painting was altered in the 18th and 19th centuries. Protected by a strong girdle of tall walls, with a stone tower, the religious compound also features a two-level princely house, an ecumenical house with a Gothic hall, a row of cells, and a Turkish bath.

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Biserica m~n~stirii v~zut~ dinspre sud-vest


Dreapta:

Imagine de la \nceputul secolului al XX-lea.


Stnga:

Imagine actual~.

The Monastery Church seen from southwest


Right:

Photograph from the beginning of 20th century.


Left:

Nowdays photograph.

Incinta m~n~stirii, col]ul de nord-est The northeastern corner of the monastery

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M~n~stirea Agapia

The Agapia Monastery


Incinta M~n~stirii Agapia v~zut~ dinspre sud-est The precincts of the Agapia Monastery seen from the southeast

Latura de vest a incintei: st ~re]ia [i chiliile The western side of the precincts: the abbey and the cells

A fost ctitorit~ de hatmanul Gavriil, fratele lui Vasile Lupu, \n 16421644, [i \[i trage numele de la schitul construit de sihastrul Agapie, \n secolul al XIV-lea. Construc]ia Bisericii Mari de la Agapia a \nceput la 16 octombrie 1642 [i s-a \ncheiat la 3 septembrie 1644. Hatmanul Gavriil a apelat la arhitectul Enache Ctisi, n~scut [i crescut la Constantinopol. Biserica este construit~ \n plan triconc, pe temelie de piatr~ brut~. Absidele au form~ semicircular~, cele centrale fiind \mbr~cate la exterior \n rezalite dreptunghiulare. n 18591862 s-au ad~ugat proscomidiarul, diaconiconul [i un nou pridvor, cel vechi fiind integrat pronaosului. F~r~ a avea o arhitectur~ cu un stil specific, biserica este valoroas~ prin pictura ei, executat~ de Nicolae Grigorescu \n 1858-1861. A[ez~mntul a fost restaurat de mai multe ori: \ntre 1848 [i 1858, cnd biserica a suferit mai multe transform~ri, \n 1882 [i \n 1903, cnd s-a re\nnoit toat~ incinta [i s-au f~cut cl~diri pentru ateliere. M~n~stirea are o colec]ie de art~ [i obiecte biserice[ti.

Erected by War Minister Gavriil, brother of Ruler Vasile Lupu, between 1642 and 1644, it gets its name from the skete constructed by recluse Agapie, in the 14th century. The construction of the big church of Agapia started on October 16, 1642 and ended on September 3, 1644. For the purpose Minister Gavriil hired architect Enache Citisi, born and raised in Constantinople. The church has a trefoil structure, on a raw stone foundation. The apses are semicircular, the central one being adorned by rectangular projections. A prothesis, and a diaconicon were later added, as well as a new porch, the old one being integrated into the pronaos. While not in a specific style, the church is valuable by its painting, the work of Nicolae Grigorescu between 1858 and 1861. The abode was restored several times between 1848 and 1858, when the church underwent various transformations, in 1882, and in 1903, when the entire precincts were renewed, and workshops were set up. The church boasts a collection of art and religious items.

Bolta naosului: Iisus Hristos Pantocrator Pictur~ mural~ de Nicolae Grigorescu. The vault of the nave: Jesus Christ Pantocrator Mural painting by Nicolae Grigorescu.

Naosul bisericii: Sfnta Ecaterina Pictur~ mural~ de Nicolae Grigorescu. The nave: St. Ecaterina Mural painting by Nicolae Grigorescu.

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M~n~stirea V~ratec

The Varatec Monastery


Biserica m~n~stirii, v~zut~ dinspre est The monastery church, seen from east

M~n~stirea V~ratec la \nceputul secolului al XX-lea The Varatec Monastery at the beginning of 20th century

M~n~stirea a fost ctitorit~ \n 1785 de fiica unui preot din Ia[i, c~lug~rit~ sub numele Olimpiada, sub \ndrumarea faimosului c~lug~r-c~rturar Paisie Velicicovski, stare] al M~n~stirii Neam]. Biserica actual~ a fost construit~ \n 1808-1812 pe locul celei vechi [i a fost pictat~ \n 1841. Biserica Adormirea Maicii Domnului din mijlocul incintei, \n fa]a c~reia se afl~ statuia \n bronz a Saftei Brncoveanu, realizat~ \n 1935 de Ion Jalea, \mbin~ formule tradi]ionale moldovene[ti cu elemente neoclasice. Biserica este construit~ din piatr~ [i c~r~mid~, avnd dou~ turle rotunde [i zvelte. Intr~rile, situate pe laturile de sud [i de nord sunt str~juite de dou~ pridvoare mici cu acoperi[ bulbat [i profile greoaie, ce contrasteaz~ cu linia elansat~ a edificiului. M~n~stirea are o bogat~ colec]ie muzeal~.

The daughter of a priest from Iasi, a nun called Olimpiada, founded it in 1785 under the supervision of the famous scholar monk Paisie Velicicovski, abbot of Neamt Monastery. The present church was built between 1808 and 1812 on the spot of an older one, and it was painted in 1841. The Dormition of the Virgin Church sits in the middle of the precincts, facing the statue of Safta Brancoveanu, sculpted in 1935 by Ion Jalea. The church, built in stone and brick, with two round, svelte turrets blends traditional Moldavian and neo-classic elements. The entries on the southern and northern sides are guarded by two small porches with bulbous roof and heavy profile, contrasting to the slender line of the edifice. The monastery has a rich museum collection.

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Maica Domnului cu Pruncul


Icoan~ pe lemn, Moldova, prima jum~tate a secolul al XVI-lea (Muzeul M~n~stirii V~ratec).

The Madonna with the Child


Icon on wood, Moldavia, the first half of the 16th century (Museum of Varatec Monastery).

M~n~stirea V~ratec Vedere aerian~. The Varatec Monastery Birds eye view.

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Statuia de bronz a Saftei Brncoveanu, realizat~ de Ion Jalea Bronze statue of Safta Brancoveanu by Ion Jalea

Cas~ monahal~ din incinta m~n~stirii Monk house within the monastery precincts

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M~n~stirea Secu

The Secu Monastery


Biserica v~zut~ dinspre nord-vest n luneta de deasupra intr~rii, Sfntul

Ioan Botezatorul, patronul m~n~stirii. The church seen from the northwest
Above the entrance, St. John the

Baptist, the patron of the monastery.

Col]ul de nord-est a incintei, cu chiliile [i paraclisul Sfntul Nicolae (1824)

A fost ctitorit~ \n anul 1602 de c~tre marele vornic Nestor Ureche (tat~l cronicarului Grigore Ureche), pe locul unui schit datnd din secolul al XVI-lea. Biserica m~n~stirii marcheaz~ o dat~ important~ \n istoria arhitecturii din Moldova prin influen]a munteneasc~ profund~ \n construc]ia edificiului. Ea reflect~ o puternic~ influen]~ arhitectural~ munteneasc~, iar \n timp ea a fost augmentat~ cu un pridvor (secolul al XVIII-lea) [i un diaconicon (secolul al XIX-lea). n 1850 a fost pictat~ \n \ntregime. Frumoasa incint~ fortificat~ este \nt~rit~ cu turnuri, corpuri de cl~dire pe patru laturi [i dou~ paraclise. Ansamblul a fost restaurat \ntre 1966 [i 1976.

Justice Chief Nestor Ureche (father of chronicler Grigore Ureche) erected it in 1602 in the place of a skete dating to the 16th century. The monastery church marks an important date in the history of Moldavian architecture owing to the categorical Wallachian influence manifest in the entire construction. The church evinces a strong Wallachian influence. In time, a porch was added (the 18th century) as well as a diaconicon (the 19th century). In 1850, it was entirely painted. Towers, four-side square buildings, and two chapels enhance the beautiful fortified precincts. The ensemble was restored between 1966 and 1976.

The northeastern side of the precincts, with the cells and the Saint Nicholas Chapel (1824)

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Incinta m~n~stirii, cu biserica [i aghiazmatarul Vedere dinspre sud-vest. The courtyard of the monastery, with the church and the holy waterfont View from southwest.

Incinta m~n~stirii, cu biserica, turnul por]ii, aghiazmatarul [i o parte din chilii Vedere dinspre sud-est. Inner court of the monastery, with the church, the baptistery and a number of cells View from southeast. General view from southeast of the fortified monastery Vedere general~ dinspre sud-est a incintei fortificate

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Broderii moldovene[ti

Moldavian embroideries
Broderia epocii lui tefan cel Mare este la nivelul realiz~rilor picturii murale [i al manuscriselor miniate, stnd m~rturie pentru existen]a unei [coli de pictur~ cu tradi]ie \n Moldova. Printre epitafele, dverele, epitrahilele moldovene[ti se g~sesc adev~rate capodopere, unele dintre acestea demonstrnd o des~vr[it~ m~iestrie a compozi]iei [i a coloristicii. The embroideries dating to the reign of Stephen the Great stand proudly next to the illuminated manuscripts of the time, attesting to a school of painting of long tradition in Moldavia. There are genuine masterpieces among the Moldavian liturgical veils, the altar curtains, and the stoles all of which evince a perfect mastery of the composition and of the colors.

Epitaful lui Silvan (1437) Realizat la M~n~stirea Neam], compozi]ie perfect echilibrat~, dominat~ de monumentalitate [i de o armonie extraordinar~ a culorilor, figurilor, gesturilor [i propor]iilor. Epitaful lui Silvan inaugureaz~ seria broderiilor monumentale, devenind un model clasic al epitafelor moldovene[ti. Silvans liturgical veil (1437) Achieved at Neamt Monastery, the composition is perfectly balanced, with an air of monumentality and a fantastic harmony of the colors, figures, gestures and proportions. Silvans liturgical veil inaugurated the series of monumental embroideries, remaining a classic of Moldavian liturgical cloths.

Dvera Adormirii Maicii Domnului (10 august 1510) Aceea[i monumentalitate a epitafului moldovenesc, cu o extraordinar~ [tiin]~ a compozi]iei, a echilibrului interior al scenei, cu figuri monumentale [i gesturi rituale perfect echilibrate. Altar curtain featuring the Dormition of the Virgin (10 August 1510) The same monumentality as in all Moldavian liturgical veil blends here with an extraordinary science of the composition, of poised scenes, gorgeous figures, and perfectly balanced ritual gestures.

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Acoper~mntul de mormnt al Mariei de Mangop Broderie cu fir de aur, argint [i m~tase colorat~ pe un fond de atlaz ro[u dublat cu pnz~ de in \n culoare natural~. n chenar, o inscrip]ie comemorativ~ \n limba slavon~, brodat~ cu fir de aur [i argint aurit: Acesta este acoper~mntul roabei lui Dumnezeu, binecredincioasa [i de Hristos iubitoarea doamn~ a lui Io tefan Voievod, domnul ]~rii Moldovei, Maria, care a trecut la ve[nicul l~ca[ \n anul 6985 (1477), luna decembrie 19, \n ceasul al cincilea din zi. Portretul funerar al Mariei de Mangop este o capodoper~ a artei moldovene[ti a secolului al XIV-lea, o compozi]ie de un rafinament des~vr[it, totodat~ monumental [i plin de fragilitatea omenescului pieritor, impresionnd privirea prin puritate [i str~lucire princiar~. G. Oprescu numea broderia o capodoper~ ce poate sta al~turi de opera lui Drer sau Holbein.

Tomb cloth of Maria of Mangop Embroidery in gold, silver, and colored silk thread on a background of red Indian satin doubled by linen. All around, the border carries a commemorative inscription in Old Church Slavonic, in gold and silver thread: This is the tomb cloth of Maria, Gods servant, the true believer and God-loving spouse of His Royal Highness Ruler Stephen, who went to glory in the year 6985 (1477), December 19, at the fifth hour of the day. The funerary portrait of Maria of Mangop is a masterpiece of 14th century Moldavian art. It is a highly refined composition, monumental and yet fragile like everything that is mortal, and it catches the eye by its princely purity and resplendence. G. Oprescu said that the embroidery was a masterpiece that could vie with works by Durer or Holbein.

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R~stignirea, broderie (1500)


Detaliu reprezentnd portretul lui tefan cel Mare.

R~stignirea, broderie (1500)


Detaliu reprezentnd portretul Doamnei Maria Voichi]a. Crucifixion, embroiderie (1500) Detail representing the portrait of Princess Maria Voichita.

Crucifixion, embroiderie (1500)


Detail representing the portrait of Stephen the Great.

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Caracteristic~ pentru broderia de secol XVII este folosirea catifelei ro[ii ca fundal pentru imaginile figurative [i pentru motivele ornamentale cusute cu fir de aur. Seventeenth-century embroideries characteristically used red velvet as background for figurative images and for the ornamental motifs sewn with golden thread.

Acoper~mntul de mormnt al lui Simion Movil~ Compozi]ia p~streaz~ canonul pozei funerare [i sobrietatea necesar~ unui astfel de portret. Tomb cloth of Simeon Movila The composition obeys the rigors of funerary poses and the sobriety appropriate to such portraits.

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Acoper~mntul de mormnt al lui Ieremia Movil~ Spre deosebire de portretul funerar al fratelui s~u, aici compozi]ia nu p~streaz~ canonul, Ieremia Movil~ ap~rnd \ntr-o poz~ autoritar~, plin~ de emfaz~, o imagine de portret lumesc, f~r~ emo]ia v~milor viitoare. Tomb cloth of Ieremia Movila Unlike the funerary portrait of his brother, this composition does not obey the traditional rigors, Ieremia Movila being presented in an authoritative, emphatic pose, in a lay kind of portrait, far from the demanding future judgement.

Dvera de la Slatina (1561) A fost d~ruit~ de Alexandru L~pu[neanu ctitoriei sale. Voievodul apare \n postura de donator \mpreun~ cu so]ia sa, Doamna Ruxandra. n centrul imaginii, Sfin]ii Petru [i Pavel sus]innd un templu cu cupol~ [i coloane. Doi \ngeri sunt a[eza]i \n spatele donatorilor [i doi serafimi stau deasupra lor.

The Slatina altar curtain (1561) Presented by Ruler Alexandru Lapusneanu presented to his famous foundation. He is presented as the donor accompanied by his wife, Princess Ruxandra. In the center, Saint Peter and Paul support a temple with a dome and pillars. Behind the donors there stand two angles and two seraphims.

95

Text / Text Mihai Gheorghiu Legende / Captions Mihai Gheorghiu Valeriu Cimpoeru Versiune englez~ / English version Alina Crc Imagini / Photograph Credits Dan Ioan Dinescu tefan Petrescu Mircea Savu Imagini de arhiv~ / Archive images Funda]ia ARTEXPO NOI Media Print Colec]ii private Biblioteca Academiei Romne Concep]ie grafic~ / Graphic Design TANIT DESIGN srl. Mihaela Dulea MECENA Consult srl. Ovidiu Morar DTP Gabriel Nicula Coordonator proiect / Project co-ordinator Arpad Harangozo

NOI MEDIA PRINT B-dul. Nicolae B~lcescu nr. 18 Bloc Dalles, Bucure[ti Tel.: 021 222 79 72 Fax: 021 202 91 82 e-mail: nmp@nmp.ro

Manastiri din Moldova

*Moldovita*

*Putna*

*Sucevita*

*Voronet*

Biserici

onasteries

M~n~stiri [i biserici din Romnia

Monasteries and Churches of Romania


Muntenia [i Oltenia

Walachia and Oltenia

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Na]ionale a Romniei Gheorghiu, Mihai M~n~stiri din Romnia. Oltenia [i Muntenia / foto.: Dan Ioan Dinescu, Mircea Savu, tefan Petrescu; text: Iustin Marchi[; trad.: Alina Crc-Bucure[ti: NOI Media Print, 2005. ISBN: 973-7959-23-X I. Dinescu, Dan Ioan (foto.) II. Savu, Mircea (foto.) III. Petrescu, tefan (foto.) IV. Marchi[, Iustin (text) V. Crc, Alina (trad.)

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Cuprins

Contents
M~n~stirea Antim M~n~stirea Arnota M~n~stirea Bistri]a M~n~stirea Brncoveni M~n~stirea C~ld~ru[ani M~n~stirea Cernica M~n~stirea Ciolanu M~n~stirea Corbii de Piatr~ M~n~stirea Cozia M~n~stirea Curtea de Arge[ M~n~stirea Dealu M~n~stirea Dintr-un Lemn M~n~stirea Govora M~n~stirea Hurez M~n~stirea N~m~ie[ti M~n~stirea Polovragi M~n~stirea Sinaia Biserica Stavropoleos M~n~stirea Surpatele M~n~stirea Suzana M~n~stirea Tismana M~n~stirea Zamfira The Antim Monastery The Arnota Monastery The Bistrita Monastery The Brancoveni Monastery The Caldarusani Monastery The Cernica Monastery The Ciolanu Monastery The Corbii de Piatra Monastery The Cozia Monastery The Curtea de Arges Monastery The Dealu Monastery The One Wood Monastery The Govora Monastery The Hurez Monastery The Namaiesti Monastery The Polovragi Monastery The Sinaia Monastery The Stavropoleos Church The Surpatele Monastery The Suzana Monastery The Tismana Monastery The Zamfira Monastery

10 12 16 22 24 28 32 34 36 44 50 52 56 60 66 68 72 76 80 82 84 90

M~n~stiri [i biserici din Romnia

Monasteries and Churches of Romania


Muntenia [i Oltenia

Walachia and Oltenia

Cteva repere de istorie [i arhitectur~ sacr~

A Few Landmarks of History and Religious Architecture

ste binecunoscut faptul c~ att romnii ct [i str~inii care ne viziteaz~ ]ara sunt ndemna]i pe c~i oficiale, guvernamentale sau diplomatice, dar [i prin ini]iative private, s~ viziteze Bucovina cu renumitele sale m~n~stiri. Cunoscnd [i recunoscnd unicitatea [i valoarea acestora, ca transilv~nean [i monah, nu ncetez, de 30 de ani, s~ cred [i s~ afirm c~ Oltenia [i mai ales m~n~stirile vlcene merit~ o aten]ie cel pu]in egal~. De Oltenia [i mai ales de m~n~stirile Vodi]a, Tismana [i Cozia, adic~ de ctitoriile din ara Romneasc~, se leag~ nceputurile organiz~rii vie]ii monahale la romni. Dar nu trebuie s~ uit~m a-i aminti mai nti pe monahii din Dobrogea, renumi]ii Dionisie cel Mic [i Sfntul Ioan Casian, pe monahii transilv~neni, schismatici din Cenad-Morisena [i pe cei maramure[eni de la Sfntul Mihail din Peri. Cel care a organizat monahismul [i a fondat primele m~n~stiri n ara Romneasc~ este Sfntul Nicodim (1406), ctitor la Vodi]a [i Tismana. Ucenicii s~i au zidit M~n~stirea Cozia (1391) a c~rei biseric~ s-a p~strat pn~ n zilele noastre, fiind cel mai vechi a[ez~mnt monahal, cu via]~ nentrerupt~ de la noi. La Cozia a tr~it [i fostul logof~t al lui Mircea cel B~trn, Filos, devenit monahul Filotei [i socotit primul poet romn. Tot din secolul al XIV-lea dateaz~ [i m~n~stirea arge[ean~ Corbii de Piatr~, cu a sa biseric~ rupestr~ p~strat~ pn~ n zilele noastre. n zona Buz~ului, n apropierea M~n~stirii Ciolanu, se g~sesc multe pe[teri [i schituri n care s-au nevoit pustnici. O alt~ biseric~ rupestr~ p~strat~ pn~ ast~zi este cea a M~n~stirii N~m~ie[ti din Arge[. Le-am numit pe toate acestea gndindu-ne la primele bazilici [i chilii rupestre ale m~n~stirilor din Dobrogea. Ruinele acestora se mai p~streaz~ pn~ n zilele noastre, amintind de Capadocia [i de vechile a[ez~minte rupestre din

omanians and foreigners who visit Romania receive private, official, governmental or diplomatic recommendations to visit Bukowina and its renowned monasteries. Knowing and acknowledging their unique character and worth, as a Transylvanian and a monk these last thirty years I have never stopped believing and maintaining that Oltenia and the monasteries of Valcea in particular deserve at least the same attention. The swaddling days of monastic life with Romanians are related to Oltenia, to the monasteries of Vodita, Tismana and Cozia in Wallachia. We should also mention here the monks of Dobruja, the famed Dionysius Exiguus (Denis the Little) and Saint John Cassian, the Transylvanian schismatic monks of Cenad-Morisena, and the Maramures monks of Saint Michael of Peri. Saint Nicodemus (d. 1406) organized monasticism in this country and laid the foundations of the first monasteries in Wallachia: Vodita and Tismana. His followers erected the Cozia Monastery (1391) the church of which is still standing and is the oldest settlement of uninterrupted monastic life in Romania. Philos, former steward of Ruler Mircea the Old, deemed the first Romanian poet, became monk Philotei and lived at Cozia. The Arges Monastery of Stone Ravens with its rock church also dates back to the 14th century, and has been preserved to this day. In the area of Buzau, near the Ciolanu Monastery there are several caves and sketes where hermits led a reclusive life. Another rock church preserved to this day is that of the Namaiesti Monastery of Arges. I have recalled all these names having in mind the first basilicas and rock cells of the monasteries in Dobruja. Their ruins, visible even nowadays, remind one of Cappadocia and the old rock settlements in the Christian Orient that bespeak the

Orientul cre[tin, care ne trimit la nceputurile monahismului r~s~ritean ale primelor secole cre[tine, unde [i are originea [i monahismul romnesc. n istoria sa ulterioar~ el va r~mne strns legat de Muntele Athos, pn~ ast~zi centrul monahismului ortodox. n timp ce, n Moldova, tefan cel Mare este considerat ca fiind cel mai mare ctitor de m~n~stiri [i biserici, n ara Romneasc~, Matei Basarab a ctitorit cele mai multe a[ez~minte biserice[ti [i monahale, fiind cel mai mare ntemeietor de l~ca[uri sfinte din istoria romnilor. n vremea lui Matei Basarab apar [i primele manuscrise muzicale [i miniaturi, monahii caligrafiind [i nfrumuse]nd manuscrise [i c~r]i liturgice. Dac~ am pomenit de mari ctitori nu trebuie s~ l uit~m pe Radu cel Mare [i biserica M~n~stirii Dealu, dar nici pe Neagoe Basarab cu M~n~stirea Snagov [i Biserica Episcopal~ de la Curtea de Arge[, care a adunat la sfin]ire, n 1517, n ziua de Sfnta Maria Mare, al~turi de patriarhul Constantinopolului, ierarhi [i clerici din ntreaga ortodoxie. Nu-l uit~m ns~ nici pe mai pu]in cunoscutul Radu Paisie, ctitorul bolni]ei Coziei, socotit~ bijuteria arhitecturii muntene[ti a secolului al XVI-lea. Prin construirea acestui l~ca[ se adaug~ o nou~ dimensiune vie]ii monahale: ocrotirea [i t~m~duirea celor afla]i n suferin]~. Tot de numele lui Matei Basarab se leag~ [i M~n~stirea Arnota, unde este [i nmormntat, dar [i m~n~stirile C~ld~ru[ani, Brncoveni, Dintr-un Lemn. Pe lng~ domnitori, numero[i boieri, stare]i [i monahi au zidit sau au ref~cut m~n~stiri [i biserici ale unor m~n~stiri: schiturile Cornetu [i Crasna, M~n~stirea Gura Motrului n secolul al XVI-lea, schiturile Iezeru [i Ostrov [i m~n~stirile Topolni]a, Surpatele [i Turnu, n secolul urm~tor. Domnitorul martir Constantin Brncoveanu a ctitorit M~n~stirea Hurez, f~r~ putin]~ de t~gad~ complexul m~n~stiresc cel mai reprezentativ pentru ]ara noastr~, care cuprinde, pe lng~ biserica mare [i

early days of eastern monasticism in the first Christian centuries when Romanian monasticism took shape. Its subsequent history will stay closely connected to Mount Athos, the center of Christian orthodox monasticism. While in Moldavia Stephen the Great emerged as the greatest founder of monasteries and churches, in Wallachia, it was Matei Basarab who built the most numerous religious abodes, being considered the most arduous constructor of holy places in Romanias history. His epoch also saw the printing of the first musical scores and illuminations, as monks used to pen and decorate liturgical volumes. Among the conspicuous founders of religious abodes in this country mention should also be made of Radu the Great and the church of the Dealu Monastery, Neagoe Basarab and his Snagov Monastery and Episcopal Church of Curgea de Arges that was hallowed in 1517 on Virgin Marys Day, in the presence of the patriarch of Constantinople, and of clergy from the entire Christian Orthodox world. A less known name is that of Radu Paisie, founder of the Cozia hospital, seen as the jewel of 16th century Wallachian architecture. The erection of that establishment gave a fresh dimension to religious life: treatment and cure of suffering persons. The monastery of Arnota, where Matei Basarab is buried, is another foundation of this worthy Prince, alongside those of Caldarusani, Brancoveni, Dintr-un Lemn. Besides princes, there were also numerous boyars, abbots and monks who built or remade various monasteries and churches. To mention only the sketes of Cornetu and Crasna, the Gura Motrului Monastery of the 16th century, the Iezeru and Ostrov sketes, the monasteries of Topolnita, Surpatele and Turnu, the 17th century. Martyr Ruler Constantin Brancoveanu founded the Hurez Monastery, undoubtedly the most representatives

Oltenia
paraclisul din incint~, biserica [i ruinele bolni]ei, precum [i schiturile Sfntul tefan, Sfin]ii Apostoli [i Sfntul Ioan. Al~turi de alte ctitorii ale lui Constantin Brncoveanu, m~n~stirea este reprezentativ~ pentru stilul brncovenesc, sintez~ arhitectural~ original~ ntre Orient [i Occident, pe care me[terii epocii sale l-au izvodit, avndu-l ca pov~]uitor chiar pe duhovnicul domnitorului, Ioan Arhimadritul. Importante sunt [i m~n~stirile zidite n veacul al XVIII-lea, cum a fost de pild~ M~n~stirea V~c~re[ti, cea mai mare din spa]iul balcanic al epocii, d~rmat~ ns~, mpreun~ cu bisericile Cotroceni, Sfntul Pantelimon [i alte biserici din Bucure[ti n deceniul nou~ al secolului trecut. Tot din aceast~ epoc~ dateaz~ [i m~n~stirile Stavropoleos, Antim, Suzana, Polovragi, Surpatele, St~ni[oara. A[ez~mintele monahale din acel timp, ca de altfel dintotdeauna, nu sunt doar l~ca[uri de rug~ciune, ci [i centre de cultur~ n care arhitectura, pictura, icoana, tip~riturile [i muzica liturgic~ continu~ [i mbog~]esc tradi]ia. Cel mai de seam~ eveniment al acestei perioade este mi[carea paisian~, dup~ numele Sfntului Paisie Velicicovski de la Neam] (1794). Ea a nceput cu stare]ul Vasile de la Poiana M~rului (Buz~u), renviind astfel tradi]ia isihast~ proprie dintotdeauna monahismului oriental [i r~spndit~ prin stare]ul Gheorghe la Cernica [i C~ld~ru[ani [i prin Sfntul Calinic pn~ la M~n~stirea Fr~sinei din Vlcea. Trebuie s~ spunem r~spicat c~ n 1864, prin legea seculariz~rii, monahismul ca [i Biserica primesc o grea lovitur~, singura m~n~stire a c~rei avere a r~mas nesecularizat~ fiind M~n~stirea Fr~sinei, acest lucru datorndu-se sfin]eniei ctitorului ei, Sfntul Calinic, a[a cum reiese dintr-un act semnat chiar de domnitorul Alexandru Ioan Cuza. Greu ncercat~ prin legile lui Al.I.Cuza, via]a monahal~ se revigoreaz~ la nceputul secolului al XX-lea, dup~ ce n secolul al XIX-lea s-au zidit m~n~stirile

Mu

religious compound in Romania, which features a big church, the precincts chapel, the church and the ruins of the hospital, as well as the Saint Stephen, the Holy Apostles and the Saint John sketes. Next to other foundations by Constantin Brancoveanu, the monastery is characteristic of the Brancovan style, an original architectural synthesis between the West and the east created by the masters craftsmen of the epoch, having as spiritual guide John the archimandrite, the confessor of the ruler. Other important abodes are those of the 18th century, the Vacaresti Monastery, the biggest in the Balkans at the time, but pulled down together with the churches of Cotroceni, St. Pantelimon and others in Bucharest in the eighth decade of the 20th century. The monasteries of Stavropoleos, Antim, Suzana, Polovragi, Surpatele, and Stanisoara also date back to the 18th century. The monastic settlements of the time and of always are not merely places of devotion but also centers of culture where architecture, painting, icons, printings and liturgical music continue to enrich the tradition. The most important event of the time was the movement led by Paisie (Saint Paisie Velicicovski of Neamt, 1794). It began with monk Vasile of Poiana Marului (Buzau) who revived the hesychast tradition proper to Eastern monasticism and established by monk Gheorghe at Cernica and Caldarusani and by Saint Calinic at the Frasinei Monastery of Valcea. It must be clearly showed that in 1864 the law of secularization dealt a heavy blow at monasticism and the Church. Only the monastery of Frasinei preserved its wealth and that was due to the holiness of its founder, Saint Calinic, as revealed by a document signed by Ruler Alexandru Ioan Cuza. Seriously tested following the laws promoted by Al.I.Cuza, monastic life gained again impetus in the

untenia
Ghighiu, Pas~rea, Zamfira, ultima fiind zugr~vit~ de tn~rul Nicolae Grigorescu, ca s~ fie apoi [i mai greu ncercat~ n timpul regimului totalitar, printr-un decret din 1959, ce a redus drastic att num~rul schiturilor [i m~n~stirilor ct [i pe cel al monahilor [i monahiilor ce se nevoiau n ele. Dup~ 1989, monahismul, ca de altfel ntreaga via]~ bisericeasc~, cunoa[te o rena[tere f~r~ precedent. Dar nu trebuie s~ uit~m c~ n r~stimp, n jurul M~n~stirii Antim din Bucure[ti, s-au adunat monahi [i oameni de cultur~ ca niciunde n Europa acelor vremi, mai ales n spa]iul st~pnit de sovietici. Aici renvie, pilduitor, sub ndrumarea unui monah rus de la Optina, rug~ciunea inimii, a[a cum la Smb~ta F~g~ra[ului este renviat duhul filocalic prin lucrarea unui monah [i a unui teolog. Toate acestea, dup~ ce m~n~stirile parc~ disp~ruser~, fiind considerate doar monumente istorice. early 20th century. The 19th century saw the building of the monasteries of Ghighiu, Pasarea, Zamfira, the last being painted by young Nicolae Grigorescu, and then awfully oppressed by the totalitarian system under a decree of 1959 that drastically cut down the number of sketes and monasteries and of the clergy serving them. After 1989, monasticism, like the entire church life witnessed an unprecedented rebirth. Still, before this date it should be noted that around the Antim Monastery of Bucharest monks and men of culture gathered like nowhere in Europe in the area under the Soviet umbrella. Under the guidance of a Russian monk from Optina there came to life, exemplarity, the prayer of the heart, just as at Sambata Fagarasului the philokalia spirit is called to life by the works of a monk and a theologian. And all this after a time when monasteries had vanished, being deemed mere historic monuments. Ieromonah Iustin Marchi[ Hieromonk Iustin Marchis

M~n~stirea Antim

The Antim Monastery


Biserica m~n~stirii, v~zut~ dinspre vest The monastery church seen from the west

Este ctitoria mitropolitului Antim Ivireanul, din anii 1713-1715. Biserica, avnd hramul Duminica Tuturor Sfin]ilor, este construit~ n plan treflat [i apar]ine, prin concep]ie arhitectonic~ [i decora]ie, stilului brncovenesc. Iconostasul, din piatr~ sculptat~ (unic n arta romneasc~), ca [i u[a bisericii, bogat mpodobit~, sunt atribuite chiar lui Antim. n anul 1912, n incinta m~n~stirii s-a construit Palatul Sfntului Sinod al Bisericii Ortodoxe Romne, care ad~poste[te [i biblioteca. Acesta, n urma sistematiz~rii zonei pentru construc]ia Centrului Civic, n 1984 a fost mutat pe o distan]~ de 25 m, cu o rotire de 13 grade. M~n~stirea a fost restaurat~ n anul 1950. Ea de]ine un muzeu cu obiecte de cult [i o expozi]ie dedicat~ vie]ii [i activit~]ii mitropolitului Antim Ivireanul, canonizat n 1992 de Sfntul Sinod, fiind nscris n calendar n data de 27 septembrie.

It is founded by metropolitan Antim Ivireanul between 1713 and 1715. Dedicated to All Saints Sunday, it has a trefoiled design and its architecture and decoration is in the Brancovan style. The iconostasis, in sculpted stone, (unique in Romanian art) as well as the richly adorned church door, are attributed to Antim himself. In 1912, the palace of the Holy Synod of the Romanian Orthodox Church was built within the monastery precincts, also housing a library. Following the development of the area for the erection of the Civic Center it was moved on a distance of 25 meters, at a 13-degree rotation. The monastery was restored in 1950. It houses a museum of religious articles and an exhibition dedicated to the life and activity of metropolitan Antim Ivireanul, canonized in 1992 by the Holy Synod, and celebrated in the calendar on September 27.

Sfntul Ierarh Nicolae [i Sfntul Alexie Mozaicuri din pridvorul bisericii. Saint Hierarch Nicholas and Saint Alexie Mosaics on the church porch.

11

M~n~stirea Arnota

The Arnota Monastery


Biserica m~n~stirii Vedere dinspre nord-vest. The monastery church View from the northwest.

A fost ntemeiat~ n 1634 de voievodul Matei Basarab, pe locul unor biserici mai vechi [i are hramul Sfin]ii Arhangheli Mihail [i Gavriil. Arhitectura este specific~ ~rii Romne[ti: plan trilobat, cu abside [i pridvor. Acesta din urm~, mpreun~ cu turla de pe el, a fost ad~ugat n 17051706 de voievodul Constantin Brncoveanu, care a renovat pictura [i a schimbat iconostasul [i u[a. Biserica a fost renovat~ n 1852-1856 de domnitorul Barbu tirbei, care a construit [i cl~diri noi pentru chilii, iar n anii 1954-1958 ntregul a[ez~mnt a fost consolidat [i modernizat. n pronaosul bisericii se afl~ mormntul ctitorului, voievodul Matei Basarab, [i cel al tat~lui acestuia.

Founded in 1634 by Ruler Matei Basarab on the spot of older churches, it is dedicated to Saints Archangels Michael and Gabriel. The specific Wallachian architecture features a trilobate design, with apses and porch. The last mentioned, together with the turret it supports is the work of Ruler Constantin Brancoveanu, added in 1705-1706, when the painting was touched up and the iconostasis and the door were changed. Ruler Barbu Stirbey renovated the church between 1852 and 1856, making new cells, and between 1954 and 1958 the entire abode was consolidated and modernized. The tomb of the founder, Ruler Matei Basarab and of his father are laid in the church pronaos.

Vedere general~ a m~n~stirii Imagine de la sfr[itul secolului al XIX-lea. General view of the monastery Photo from the late 19th century.

13

Voievodul Matei Basarab


Naosul bisericii, tablou votiv.

Ruler Matei Basarab


Naos of the church, votive painting.

Incinta m~n~stirii [i biserica Vedere dinspre nord-vest. The precincts of the monastery and the church View from the northwest.

14

Doamna Elina
Naosul bisericii, tablou votiv.

Princess Elina
. Naos of the church, votive painting.

15

M~n~stirea Bistri]a

The Bistrita Monastery


Biserica m~n~stirii, v~zut~ dinspre sud-vest The monastery church seen from southwest

A fost ctitorit~ n anii 1492-1494 de fra]ii Craiove[ti: Barbu (devenit monahul Pahomie), Prvu, Danciu [i Radu. D~rmat~ de Mihnea cel R~u n 1509, biserica a fost recl~dit~ [i zugr~vit~ n timpul voievodului Neagoe Basarab (1515-1519) de boierii Craiove[ti. Voievodul Constantin Brncoveanu a repictat-o n 1684. Dup~ avarierea lor la cutremurul din 1838, biserica [i cl~dirile au fost rezidite ntre 1846 [i 1855, sub domnitorii Gheorghe Bibescu [i Barbu tirbei; pictura a fost executat~ de Gheorghe Tattarescu. Biserica, avnd hramul Adormirea Maicii Domnului, ad~poste[te moa[tele Sfntului Grigorie Decapolitul, aduse n 1497 de Barbu Craiovescu. Acesta a construit [i biserica-bolni]~ (1520-1521), care exist~ [i azi. n apropiere, n pe[tera Bistri]ei, se afl~ dou~ schituri: Vovidenie [i Sfin]ii Arhangheli Mihail [i Gavriil. n a[ez~mntul monahal de la Bistri]a a func]ionat prima tiparni]~ din ~rile Romne, aici fiind tip~rit Liturghierul lui Macarie, n 1508.

The abode was founded between 1492 and 1494 by the Craiovescu brothers: Barbu (who became monk Pahomie), Parvu, Danciu and Radu. Pulled down by Mihnea the Evil in 1509, the church was rebuilt and painted during the reign of Ruler Neagoe Basarab (1515-1519) by the Craiovescu boyars. Ruler Constantin Brancoveanu had it repainted in 1684. As the 1838 earthquake seriously damaged it, the church and its annexes were consolidated between 1846 and 1855 under Ruler Gheorghe Bibescu and Barbu Stirbei. The painting is the work of Gheorghe Tattarescu. Dedicated to The Dormition, the monastery houses the relics of Saint Gregory the Decapolite, brought over by Barbu Craiovescu in 1497. He also built the infirmary of the church (1520-1521), still standing. Close by, in the Bistrita cave there are two sketes: Vovidenie and Holy Archangels Michael and Gabriel. The first printing house in the Romanian Lands operated in this Bistrita monastic establishment, where Macaries Missal was printed in 1508.

Vedere panoramic~ a m~n~stirii dinspre sud Imagine de la sfr[itul secolului al XIX-lea. Southern panoramic view of the monastery Photo from the late 19th century.

17

18

Sfntul Mucenic Mina


Pictur~ mural~ n naosul bisericii, de Gh. Tattarescu (1820-1894).

Saint Martyr Mina


Mural painting in the church naos by G. Tattarescu (1820-1894).

Sfntul Mucenic Eusta]iu


Schitul Vovidenie Biserica rupestr~, pictur~ mural~ n naos. The Vovidenie Skete Rock church, mural paintings in the naos. Pictur~ mural~ n naos, de Gh. Tattarescu.

Saint Martyr Eustatiu


Mural painting in the naos by G. Tattarescu.

19

Iisus Pantocrator
Biserica bolni]ei, calota turlei, pictur~ mural~.

Christ Pantocrator
, the The church of the infirmary, vault of the turret, mural painting.

Sfntul Grigorie
Pictur~ mural~ n naos, de Gh. Tattarescu.

Sfntul Eftimie
Pictur~ mural~ n naos de Gh. Tattarescu.

Saint Gregory
Mural painting in the naos by G. Tattarescu.

Saint Eftimie
Mural painting in the naos by G. Tattarescu.

20

21

M~n~stirea Brncoveni

The Brancoveni Monastery


Incinta m~n~stirii [i biserica, v~zute dinspre sud-vest The precincts of the monastery and the church seen from the southwest

A[ez~mntul monahal existent aici din secolul al XVI-lea a fost ref~cut n 1640 de voievodul Matei Basarab. Din aceast~ epoc~ se mai p~streaz~ st~re]ia, turnul-clopotni]~ [i o parte din zidul de incint~. Voievodul Constantin Brncoveanu a construit biserica actual~, cu hramul Sfntul Nicolae (1699), n locul celei vechi, biserica bolni]ei (1670). n biserica m~n~stirii este nmormntat Papa Brncoveanu, tat~l voievodului. n timpul r~zboiului turco-austriac din 1716-1718 m~n~stirea a fost ars~ par]ial, cutremurul din 1838 a avariat-o grav, secularizarea din timpul lui A.I.Cuza a transformat-o ntr-un a[ez~mnt modest (al c~rui curator a fost vestitul Popa apc~). Ref~cut~ par]ial de episcopul Vartolomei St~nescu, a fost desfiin]at~, ca [i altele, n 1959. Abia dup~ 1980 au nceput lucr~ri ample de repara]ii, consolid~ri [i renov~ri. n beciul mare de sub st~re]ie s-a amenajat un lapidariu model, unde au fost ad~postite [i sculpturi ale unor biserici demolate din Bucure[ti.

The monastic establishment existing here since the 16th century was reconstructed in 1640 by Prince Matei Basarab. The abbey, the belfry, and part of the precincts wall have been preserved to this day. Prince Constantin Brancoveanu erected the present church dedicated to Saint Nicholas (1699) on the spot of the old one, the hospital church (1670). Papa Brancoveanu, the princes father, is buried in the monastery church. The church was partly burnt down during the Turkish-Austrian war of 17161718, then damaged by the 1838 earthquake. Prince A.I.Cuza turned it into a modest secular establishment (having the famous Priest Sapca as curator). Partly refurbished by bishop Vartolomei Stanescu, it was shut down in 1959, like many others religious abodes. Only after 1980 ample repair, consolidation, and renovation works were undertaken. A lapidarium has been set up in the extensive cellar under the abbey, which also shelters carvings and sculptures from churches that have been demolished in Bucharest.

Turnul-clopotni]~, v~zut din pridvorul biericii The belfry tower seen from the porch of the church

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M~n~stirea C~ld~ru[ani

The Caldarusani Monastery


Incinta m~n~stirii [i biserica, v~zute dinspre sud-vest The precincts of the monastery and the church seen from the southwest

A fost ctitorit~ de domnitorul Matei Basarab n anul 1638, pe locul unui vechi schit de lemn, n forma unui careu de chilii ap~rate de un zid [i un turn de straj~ (actuala clopotni]~). Biserica, avnd hramul Sfntul Dumitru, zidit~ n 100 de zile, n form~ de trefl~, este o combina]ie de stiluri arhitectonice, ca [i cea de la M~n~stirea Dealu. Pictura a fost ref~cut~ de mai multe ori, n secolele XVIII-XX. coala de pictori biserice[ti, care a existat aici din 1778, a fost frecventat~ [i de Nicolae Grigorescu n anii 1854-1856. Tot aici, n 1825 s-a nfiin]at o tipografie. M~n~stirea de]ine una din cele mai valoroase colec]ii muzeale: ve[minte, obiecte de cult, tip~rituri, icoane (cteva pictate de Nicolae Grigorescu).

Founded by Ruler Matei Basarab in 1638 on the spot of an older wooden skete, the establishment is square, with cells protected by a wall and a watch tower (the present belfry). Dedicated to Saint Dimitry, the church was erected in 100 days on a trefoiled design, and is a combination of architectural styles, just like the Dealu Monastery. The painting was remade several times in the 18th-20th centuries. Between 1854 and 1856, Nicolae Grigorescu, too, studied at the school of religious painting existing here from 1778. A printing house was also opened here in 1825. The monastery boasts one of the most valuable museum collections of religious attire, articles, printings, icons (a few painted by Nicolae Grigorescu).

Vedere panoramic~ a lacului [i a m~n~stirii dinspre sud-est Panoramic view of the lake and of the monastery from the southeast

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Iisus [i Samariteanca
Icoan~ de Nicolae Grigorescu, 1854-1855 (muzeul m~n~stirii).

Jesus and the Samaritan Woman


Icon by Nicolae Grigorescu, 18541855 (museum of the monastery).

Iisus mp~rat
Icoan~ de Nicolae Grigorescu, 1855 (muzeul m~n~stirii).

Christ Enthroned
Icon by Nicolae Grigorescu, 1855 (museum of the monastery).

Sfin]ii Gheorghe [i Dimitrie


Icoan~ de Nicolae Grigorescu (muzeul m~n~stirii). Saints George and Dimitry Icon by Nicolae Grigorescu (museum of the monastery).

Sfin]ii tefan, Stelian [i Pantelimon


Icoan~ de Nicolae Grigorescu (muzeul m~n~stirii).

Saints Stephen, Stelian and Pantelimon


Icon by Nicolae Grigorescu (museum of the monastery).

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M~n~stirea Cernica

The Cernica Monastery


Ostrovul Sfntul Gheorghe Vedere aerian~ cu biserica, corpurile de chilii [i muzeul m~n~stirii. The Saint George Isle Birds eye view with the church, cells and monastery museum.

Conform hrisovului existent n muzeul m~n~stirii, aceasta a fost ntemeiat~ n 1608 de Cernica tirbei, mare vornic al domnitorilor Mihai Viteazul [i Radu erban. A[ez~mntul e situat pe dou~ ostroave, care [i-au luat numele de la hramurile bisericilor construite pe ele: Sfntul Nicolae [i Sfntul Gheorghe. M~n~stirea a fost fondat~ pe ostrovul Sfntul Nicolae, biserica [i cteva case d~inuind pn~ la sfr[itul secolului al XVIII-lea. Biserica actual~ a fost construit~ n 1815. Sfntul Calinic, stare] al m~n~stirii n anii 1818-1850, a zidit biserica Sfntul Gheorghe pe cel~lalt ostrov (18311842), mutnd aici ntreaga ob[te a monahilor. Numai ostrovul Sfntul Gheorghe r~mnea accesibil pentru credincio[i, unde c]iva c~lug~ri ]ineau serviciile religioase. La Cernica a existat o [coal~ de pictur~ [i de copi[ti. Numeroase personalit~]i ale culturii romne (Gala Galaction, Tudor Arghezi, Ion uculescu [i al]ii) au tr~it aici, au avut leg~turi strnse cu m~n~stirea sau [i dorm somnul de veci n cimitirul acesteia. Biserica Sfntul Laz~r din cimitirul m~n~stirii dateaz~ din 1804.

According to the document existing in the monastery it was founded in 1608 by Cernica Stirbey, great justiciar of Rulers Michael the Brave and Radu Serban. The establishment is situated on two isles taking their names from the churches built on them dedicated to Saint Nicholas and Saint George. The monastery was founded on isle Saint George, its church and a few houses standing until the end of the 18th century. The present church was erected in 1815. Saint Calinic, who was abbot of the monastery between 1818 and 1850 built the Saint George Church on the other isle (1831-1842), moving there the entire community of monks. Only the isle of Saint George could be visited by the faithful and a few monks said mass there. At Cernica there was once a school of painting and copyists. Numerous personalities of the Romanian culture (writer Gala Galaction, poet Tudor Arghezi, painter Ion Tuculescu and others) lived here, had close ties with the monastery and now rest unto eternity in the cemetery of the monastery. The Saint Lazarus Church from the monastery cemetery dates back to 1804.

O parte din incint~, v~zut~ dinspre vest A part of precincts seen from the west

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Vedere general~ a m~n~stirii, latura de nord General view of the monastery, the northern wing

Casa memorial~ Sfntul Calinic The Saint Calinic memorial house

M~n~stirea Cernica Interiorul bisericii. The Cernica Monastery Inside view.

Izvorul T~m~duirii, aflat la intrarea n m~n~stire The Spring of Healing at the entrance to the monastery

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M~n~stirea Ciolanu

The Ciolanu Monastery


Vedere general~ dinspre vest, de pe Dealul M~gura General view from the west, from the Magura Hill

Numele m~n~stirii vine de la cel al dealului pe care se afl~. Biserica, avnd hramul Sfntul Gheorghe , dateaz~ din 1590 (pictura actual~ fiind realizat~ n 1860), cnd aici era un schit. Acesta ulterior s-a extins, episcopul Chesarie zidind n 1828 biserica mare, cu hramul Sfin]ii Apostoli Petru [i Pavel, pictat~ de Nicolae Teodorescu Pitaru. Ref~cut~ n 1862, dup~ incendiul din 1854, biserica a fost repictat~ n fresc~ tot de Nicolae Teodorescu. n 1934, peste aceast~ pictur~ s-a suprapus o alta n ulei, iar n 1984 s-a f~cut ultima restaurare a picturii. Dup~ 1970, pe locul fostelor chilii de pe trei laturi ale careului de incint~, sau construit case noi, cu etaj, ntr-una din ele amenajndu-se muzeul m~n~stirii. Colec]ia muzeal~ cuprinde icoane, c~r]i vechi, obiecte de cult [.a. Trei icoane pictate de Gh. Tattarescu n 1886 se afl~ n iconostasul din biserica mare. n poienile din fa]a m~n~stirii s-a organizat, ncepnd din 1970, tab~ra de sculptur~ n piatr~ de la M~gura, care s-a extins apoi, an de an.

The name of the monastery comes from the hill on which it stands. The church, formerly a skete, dedicated to Saint George, dates back to 1590 (the present painting was done in 1860). In 1828, bishop Chesarie built the big church dedicated to Apostles Peter and Paul, and painted by Nicolae Teodorescu Pitaru. Remade in 1862 after the fire of 1854, the church was decorated with frescoes by the same Nicolae Teodorescu. In 1934 an oil painting was achieved on top of the former, and then was restored in 1984. After 1970, new storied-houses were erected instead of the former cells on the three sides of the precincts square, one of them opening as the monastery museum. The collection includes icons, old books, religious items, a.s.o. The iconostasis in the big church features three icons painted by G. Tattarescu in 1886. Starting with 1970 the stone sculpture camp of Magura is organized in the meadows in front of the monastery, an event that has grown larger with every passing year.

Incinta m~n~stirii, vedere dinspre sud-vest n prim-plan, Biserica Sfin]ii Apostoli Petru [i Pavel. The monastery precincts, view from the southwest Close-up of the Saint Apostles Peter and Paul Church.

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M~n~stirea Corbii de Piatr~

The Corbii de Piatra Monastery


The first document attesting to this monastery is dated June 23, 1512 but reliable information says that the religious abode was erected earlier. The Corbi church, built in rock, is inspired from the hall churches with two altars, each differently dedicated, characteristic of the 10th century Byzantine world. In point of architecture it is related to the rock-cut churches of Cappadocia but the double altar connected to a single nave is distinctive for Romania. In 1512, the abode was reopened as a princely monastery dedicated to The Dormition of the Virgin by Prince Neagoe Basarab. In the first half of the 18th century, it became a church independent from the monastery, and in the early 19th century it acquired the present looks. In the last ten years, under the care of His Holiness Calinic Argesanul, the abode resumed its monastic life after a hiatus of more than 200 years.

Stnca [i intrarea n biserica rupestr~ The rock and the entrance to the rock church

Primul document ce atest~ existen]a acestei m~n~stiri este datat 23 iunie 1512, existnd ns~ informa]ii sigure conform c~rora l~ca[ul de cult luase fiin]~ cu mult nainte de aceast~ dat~. Tipologic, biserica rupestr~ de la Corbi deriv~ din bisericile sal~, cu dou~ altare, fiecare dedicat unui alt hram, stil tipic lumii bizantine de secol X. Ea este nrudit~ arhitectural cu bisericile rupestre capadociene, ns~ altarul dublu, racordat la o singur~ nav~ e o caracteristic~ unic~ n Romnia. n 1512, l~ca[ul a fost renfiin]at ca m~n~stire domneasc~, avnd hramul Adormirea Maicii Domnului, fiind nchinat domnitorului Neagoe Basarab. n secolul al XVIII-lea, m~n~stirea devine biseric~ de mir, iar la nceputul secolului urm~tor [i cap~t~ imaginea pe care o are ast~zi. n ultimul deceniu, prin grija Prea Sfin]iei Sale Calinic Arge[anul, l~ca[ul [i-a reluat via]a monahal~ dup~ o ntrerupere de mai bine de 200 de ani.

Biserica rupestr~ Rupestral church

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M~n~stirea Cozia

The Cozia Monastery


M~n~stirea Cozia Acuarel~ de A. Preziosi, 1869. Cozia Monastery Water color by A. Preziosi, 1869.

Numit~ asfel dup~ muntele din vecin~tate, M~n~stirea Cozia este ctitoria voievodului Mircea cel B~trn, din anii 1387-1388. Biserica mare, cu hramul Sfnta Treime, a fost construit~ n plan trilobat, cu ornamenta]ie bogat~, de me[teri din Moravia. A fost pictat~ n 1390-1391, dup~ sfin]irea ei la 18 mai 1388. A fost restaurat~ n 1517, n vremea lui Neagoe Basarab, cnd a fost construit~ [i fntna din fa]~, care i poart~ numele. n 1706-1707, paharnicul erban Cantacuzino i-a ad~ugat pridvorul [i i-a ref~cut pictura; tot el a ad~ugat cerdacuri cl~dirilor cu chilii din incint~. Pictura originar~ se p~streaz~ nc~ n naos. Catapeteasma (iconostasul sau tmpla) originar~, din lemn, a ars [i a fost ref~cut~ din stucatur~ n 1794. Cl~dirile au fost ref~cute de domnitorii Gheorghe Bibescu [i Barbu tirbei n anii 1850-1856, de cnd dateaz~ [i pavilionul de pe latura nordic~, fosta re[edin]~ domneasc~ de

Taking its name from the neighboring mount, Cozia Monastery was erected by Ruler Mircea the Old between 1387 and 1388. The big church, dedicated to The Holy Trinity has a trefoiled design and a rich ornamentation realized by masters from Moravia. It was painted between 1390 and 1391 after its hallowing on May 18, 1388. It was restored in 1517 at the time of Ruler Neagoe Basarab when a fountain was also dug in front bearing his name. In 1706-1707 cup bearer Serban Cantacuzino added the porch and had the painting remade. He also constructed the porches of the buildings with the cells within the precincts. The original painting has been preserved in the naos. The initial wooden altar screen (iconostasis) caught fire and burnt down, therefore had to be redone in stucco in 1794. Ruler George Bibescu and Barbu Stirbey rebuilt the complex between 1850 and 1856, the period from which

Vedere aerian~ dinspre sud a m~n~stirii Birds eye view of the monastery seen from the south

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Biserica bolni]ei cu hramul

Sfin]ii Apostoli
Fa]ada sudic~. The church infirmary, dedicated to the Holy Apostles The southern faade.

var~. ntregul complex a fost restaurat n ntregime n anii 1958-1962, lucr~rile continund [i dup~ 1970. M~n~stirea are dou~ paraclise Adormirea Maicii Domnului (1583) [i Duminica Tuturor Sfin]ilor (1710) [i, n apropiere, este amplasat~ biserica bolni]ei, Sfin]ii Apostoli (1543). n pronaosul bisericii se afl~ mormntul voievodului Mircea cel B~trn [i cel al monahiei Teofana, mama lui Mihai Viteazul. Muzeul m~n~stirii con]ine valoroase obiecte [i podoabe de cult, tip~rituri vechi, printre care un epitaf din 1396, Evanghelia mitropolitului Varlaam (1644) [i Psaltirea n versuri a lui Dosoftei (1673).

Vedere general~ a m~n~stirii Imagine dinspre est, de pe malul stng al Oltului. General view of the monastery Image from the east, from the left bank of the Olt river.

also dates the pavilion on the northern wing, the Rulers former summer residence. The whole compound was fully restored between 1958 and 1962, the works continuing after 1970. The monastery has two chapels The Dormition (1583) and All Saints Sunday (1710) and close by stands the church of the infirmary, The Holy Apostles (1543). The tomb of Ruler Mircea the Old and of nun Teofana, mother of Ruler Michael the Brave lies in the church pronaos. The monastery museum contains valuable religious items and decorations, old prints, among which an epitaph of 1396, The Gospel of Metropolitan Varlaam (1644) and Dosofteis Rhymed Psalter (1673).

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Judecata de Apoi
Pridvorul bisericii, pictur~ mural~ pe peretele estic. Pridvorul bisericii m~n~stirii The porch of the monastery church

Last Judgement
The porch of the church, painting on the eastern wall.

Biserica mare, v~zut~ dinspre nord-vest n dreapta, fntna lui Neagoe Basarab (1517). The big church seen from the northwest On the right, the fountain of Neagoe Basarab (1517).

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Na[terea lui Iisus [i Prezentarea la templu


Dou~ icoane praznicare pe lemn, 1668 (muzeul m~n~stirii).

The Birth of Jesus and The Presentatiounto the Temple


Two wooden icons of religious feasts, 1668 (the monastery museum).

Voievodul Mircea cel B~trn [i fiul s~u Mihai


Biserica mare, peretele vestic al naosului, tablou votiv.

Ruler Mircea the Old and his son Michael


The big church, the western naos wall, votive painting.

U[i mp~r~te[ti, secolul al XVIII-lea; Bunavestire Royal Doors, the 18th century,
The Annunciation

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Maica Domnului n slav~


Pictur~ mural~ n conca absidei de nord a naosului.

The Virgin in Glory


Mural painting on the northern apse of the naos.

Sfin]i anahore]i
Pictur~ mural~ pe peretele nordic al pronaosului.

Hermit Saints
Mural painting on the northern wall of the pronaos.

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M~n~stirea Curtea de Arge[

The Curtea de Arges Monastery


Biserica episcopal~, cu hramul Adormirea Maicii Domnului, a fost recl~dit~ de voievodul Neagoe Basarab, n anii 1512-1517, pe locul unei biserici mai vechi ctitorit~ de Vlad Dracul. Pictura a fost realizat~ de zugravul Dobromir n 1526, n timpul domniei lui Radu de la Afuma]i. Ulterior, Matei Basarab [i erban Cantacuzino au reparat biserica [i turnul por]ii. Avariat~ de cutremure n 1802 [i 1838, apoi de incendiu n 1867, biserica a fost restaurat~ n 1875-1886 de arhitectul Lecomte de Nouy (care a f~cut modific~ri, nlocuiri [i ad~ugiri) [i pictat~ de fratele acestuia (din vechea pictur~ din secolul al XVI-lea p~strndu-se cteva fragmente). n pronaosul bisericii sunt mormintele voievozilor Neagoe Basarab (cu Despina Doamna) [i Radu de la Afuma]i, ale regilor Carol I [i Ferdinand [i ale reginelor Elisabeta [i Maria. ntr-un pavilion de lng~ biseric~ au fost aduse, n anul 2002, osemintele Regelui Carol II. Cl~dirile de pe latura estic~ ad~postesc re[edin]a Episcopiei Arge[ului, paraclisul [i anexele m~n~stirii. The bishopric church dedicated to The Dormition of the Virgin was rebuilt by Ruler Neagoe Basarab between 1512 and 1517 on the spot of an older church founded by Vlad Dracul. The painting is the work of master Dobromir, achieved in 1526, during the reign of Radu of Afumati. Matei Basarab and Serban Cantacuzino subsequently repaired the abode and the gate tower. Shattered by earthquakes in 1802 and 1838, then by a fire in 1867, the church was restored in 1875-1886 by architect Lecomte de Nouy (who made some changes, replacements and additions), and painted by his brother. (Only a few fragments have been preserved of the 16th century painting). The church pronaos houses the tombs of Ruler Neagoe Basarab with Princess Despina, of Ruler Radu of Afumati, of Kings Carol I and Ferdinand and Queens Elisabeth and Maria. In 2002, the remains of King Carol II were put to rest in a neighboring pavilion. The buildings on the eastern side shelter the residence of the Arges Bishopric, the chapel, and the annexes of the monastery.

Biserica episcopal~ Acuarel~ de A. Preziosi, 1869. The bishopric church Water color by A. Preziosi, 1869.

Vedere aerian~ dinspre est irds eye view from the east Bi

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Funeraliile Reginei Maria (iulie 1938) Patriarhul Miron Cristea l ntmpin~ pe Regele Carol II n biserica m~n~stirii Curtea de Arge[. Queens Mary funerals (July 1938) The Patriarch Miron Cristea welcomes King Carol II to the church of Curtea de Arges Monastery. Biserica episcopal~ Imagine din perioada interbelic~. Mormntul Regelui Carol I [i al Reginei Elisabeta Biserica episcopal~, pronaos. The tomb of King Carol I and Queen Elisabeth The bischopric church, pronaos. The bischopric church Photo from the interwar period.

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Biserica episcopal~, turle pe pronaos The bischopric church, turrets on the pronaos

Paraclisul m~n~stirii, v~zut dinspre sud-est

Aghiazmatarul bisericii The holy waterfont of

The chapel of the monastery seen from southeast

the church

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M~n~stirea Dealu

The Dealu Monastery


Vedere panoramic~ a m~n~stirii, dinspre sud-est Birds eye view of the monastery from the southeast

Este atestat~ documentar din 1431. Biserica, avnd hramul Sfntul Nicolae, este ctitoria voievodului Radu cel Mare din anii 1499-1501 [i a fost terminat~ de Vl~du] Voievod (1510-1512). Cu pere]ii acoperi]i cu pl~ci de piatr~ [i cl~dit~ pe piloni de stejar, biserica este un model de armonie [i echilibru al volumelor. A fost pictat~ cu vopsele de aur de Dobromir din Trgovi[te, n 1514, n vremea lui Neagoe Basarab. Pictura a fost ref~cut~ n jurul anului 1713, prin grija voievodului Constantin Brncoveanu [i, dup~ 1985, de arhimandritul Sofian Boghiu. Paraclisul a fost pictat de Ion Grigore. n biseric~ sunt amplasate [ase morminte voievodale, ncepnd din 1508 (Radu cel Mare) pn~ n 1608 (Mihai Movil~); n 1603 a fost adus aici capul lui Mihai Viteazul. Sarcofagele din marmur~ ale lui Radu cel Mare [i Mihai Viteazul au fost realizate de sculptorul Frederic Storck n 1912-1913. A[ez~mntul a func]ionat ca m~n~stire de c~lug~ri pn~ n 1863, dup~ care, timp de cca. 90 de ani, a ad~postit diferite institu]ii militare. A fost restaurat~ n ntregime biserica [i chiliile d~rmate la cutremurul din 1940 n anii 1955-1958, devenind pn~ n 1988 sanatoriu pentru c~lug~ri [i preo]i b~trni. n prezent este m~n~stire de maici.

Attested by a document dating to 1431, the church, dedicated to Saint Nicholas was founded by Ruler Radu the Great between 1499 and 1501, and was finished by Ruler Vladut (1510-1512). Having its walls covered in stone plates, and built on wooden pilasters, the church is a paragon of harmonious proportions. It was painted with golden colors by Dobromir of Targoviste, in 1514, in the reign of Neagoe Basarab. By care of Ruler Constantin Brancoveanu the painting was retouched round 1713, and then again, much later, in 1985, by care of archimandrite Sofian Boghiu. Ion Grigore signs the painting of the chapel. In the church lie six voivodal tombs, from Radu the Great, 1508, to Michael Movila, 1608. The head of Ruler Michael the Brave was brought here in 1603. The marble sarcophagi of Radu the Great and Michael the Brave are the creations of sculptor Frederic Storck, 1912-1913. The establishment was a monks monastery until 1863, and then for nearly 90 years it housed various military institutions. Fully restored (the church and the cells crumbled in the 1940 earthquake) between 1955 and 1958, it became a sanatorium for old monks and priests, in 1988. At present it is a monasteries of nuns.

Biserica [i incinta m~n~stirii, v~zute dinspre nord The church and the monastery precincts seen from the north

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M~n~stirea Dintr-un Lemn

The One Wood Monastery


Bisericu]a de lemn (bolni]a) din cimitirul m~n~stirii Vedere aerian~. The Wooden church (the infirmary) in the monastery cemetery Birds eye view.

Pe locul unei biserici de lemn de la sfr[itul secolului al XVI-lea, Preda Brncoveanu a zidit, n 1634-1635, actuala biseric~, cu hramul Na[terea Maicii Domnului. n 1684, erban Cantacuzino i-a ad~ugat acesteia pridvorul, iar n 1707 i s-a ad~ugat turla de pe pronaos. Din acela[i an dateaz~ pictura, executat~ de me[terul zugrav Constantinos. M~n~stirea a fost ref~cut~ [i completat~ cu noi cl~diri n secolele XIX-XX, iar restaur~ri [i mbun~t~]iri importante s-au f~cut ncepnd din 1955. n biseric~ se afl~ mormintele so]iei [i fiului lui erban Cantacuzino. Biserica-bolni]~ din lemn, cu hramul Adormirea Maicii Domnului, a fost construit~ n anii 1810-1814, pe locul unui legendar stejar [i pe temelia altei bisericu]e de lemn din secolul al XVI-lea. M~n~stirea are o valoroas~ colec]ie de obiecte vechi biserice[ti, ca de exemplu o Evanghelie din timpul lui Constantin Brncoveanu [i icoana Maica Domnului cu Pruncul, ferecat~ n argint, despre care tradi]ia spune c~ a fost g~sit~ n stejarul din care s-a construit bisericu]a de lemn.

On the spot of a wooden church from the late 16th century, between 1634-1635, Preda Brancoveanu erected the present church, dedicated to The Birth of the Virgin. In 1684, Serban Cantacuzino added a porch, and in 1707 the turret on the pronaos. The painting, made by master Constantinos, dates from the same year. The monastery was redesigned and completed by new buildings in the 19th and 20th centuries, and since 1955 it has been undergoing important restoration works. The church houses the tombs of Serban Cantacuzinos wife and son. The wooden infirmary church dedicated to The Dormition of the Virgin was built between 1810 and 1814 on the spot of a legendary oak tree and the foundations of another wooden church from the 16th century. The monastery boasts a valuable collection of old religious articles, such as a Gospel from the epoch of Constantin Brancovan, and The Madonna with Infant, wrought in silver. Tradition has it this icon was found in the oak from which the wooden church was built (a translation of its name would be the One-Wood Church).

Vedere aerian~ panoramic~ a m~n~stirii, dinspre sud-est Panoramic birds eye view of the monastery seen from southeast

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Maica Domnului
Icoan~ pe lemn ferecat~ n argint, din naosul bisericii (secolul al XVI-lea).

The Madonna
Wood icon wrought in silver from the church naos (16th century).

Matei Basarab voievod [i Doamna Elina


Pridvorul bisericii, peretele estic, tablou votiv.

Ruler Matei Basarab and Princess Elina


The church porch, the eastern wall, votive painting.

Biserica m~n~stirii v~zut~ dinspre sud-vest The monastery church seen from the southwest

Bisericu]a de lemn (bolni]a) din cimitirul m~n~stirii The wooden church ("the infirmary) in the monastery cemetery

54

55

M~n~stirea Govora

The Govora Monastery


Biserica [i incinta m~n~stirii, v~zute dinspre vest Imagine din perioada interbelic~. The church and the precincts of the monastery seen from the west Photo from the interwar period.

A fost construit~ n secolele XIVXV, par]ial de voievodul Vlad epe[, par]ial de Vlad C~lug~rul [i Radu cel Mare. Exteriorul bisericii (cu hramul Adormirea Maicii Domnului) este decorat cu un bru median pictat, iar ferestrele au ancadramente de piatr~ sculptat~. Pictura dateaz~ din 1711. Iconostasul este [i el valoros, cu icoane pictate pe fond aurit. M~n~stirea a fost reparat~ n ntregime de voievodul Matei Basarab n anii 1640-1645, n vederea instal~rii tiparni]ei d~ruite de mitropolitul Petru Movil~ din Kiev. La nceputul secolului al XVIII-lea au fost construite clopotni]a [i cl~dirile de pe latura nordic~, iar n 1775, trapeza. M~n~stirea a fost renovat~ n anii 1957-1969. n tiparni]a de la Govora, n anii 1636-1642 s-au tip~rit c~r]i biserice[ti n slavon~, prima carte de legi n romne[te, dup~ tip~riturile lui Coresi din Transilvania.

Erected in the 14th-15th centuries, it is the joint work of Ruler Vlad Tepes (The Impaler), Vlad Calugarul (The Monk) and Radu the Great, and is dedicated to The Dormition of the Virgin. The exterior of the church is decorated with a painted mid girdle, and the windows have frames of carved stone. The painting dates to 1711. The valuable iconostasis features icons painted on a golden background. The monastery was fully refurbished by Ruler Matei Basarab between 1640 and 1645 in view of having installed a printing machine given by metropolitan Peter Movila of Kiev. The belfry and the buildings of the northern wing were put up in the 18th century, and the refectory in 1775. The monastery was renovated between 1957 and 1969. The Govora printing house published religious books in Old Church Slavonic, the first code of laws in Romanian after Coresis printings in Transylvania.

Col]ul de nord-est al incintei, cu turnul-clopotni]~ The northeastern corner of the precincts with the belfry tower

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58

Biserica, bolta pridvorului: Iisus

Maica Domnului ndrum~toare


Icoan~ din iconostasul bisericii.

Emmanuel
The church, vault of the porch:

Jesus Immanuel Madonna Hodegetria


(She who points the way) Icon of the church iconostasis.

Biserica, absida de sud a naosului: Sfin]i mucenici The church, the south apse of the naos: Martyr saints Biserica [i incinta m~n~stirii The church and the precincts of the monastery

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60

M~n~stirea Hurez

The Hurez Monastery


Paraclisul m~n~stirii, v~zut din pridvorul bisericii mari The chapel of the monastery seen from the porch of the big church

Este ctitoria domnitorului Constantin Brncoveanu, terminat~ n 1697. Biserica (1690-1693), avnd hramul Sfin]ii mp~ra]i Constantin [i Elena, este construit~ n plan trilobat, cu pridvor specific stilului brncovenesc, decorat~ n exterior cu panouri dreptunghiulare, firide ornamentale cu cercuri [i avnd un ancadrament de marmur~ sculptat~ la u[a de la intrare. Pictura, de o mare valoare artistic~, pe lng~ scenele religioase are [i o galerie de portrete ale Brncovenilor, Basarabilor [i Cantacuzinilor. Catapeteasma este sculptat~ n lemn de tei [i suflat~ cu aur. A[ez~mntul a fost reparat [i restaurat n secolele XIX-XX. M~n~stirea Hurez mai cuprinde: biserica bolni]ei, ctitorit~ de Maria Brncoveanu n 1696-1699, bisericaparaclis, ctitorit~ de Constantin Brncoveanu n 1696-1697, schiturile Sfntul tefan (ctitorit de tefan, fiul domni-

A foundation of Ruler Constantin Brancoveanu, the construction was finished in 1697. The church (1690-1693), dedicated to Saints Emperor Constantin and Empress Elena is built on a trefoiled design, with a specific Brancovan porch, decorated on the outside with rectangular panels, niches ornamented with circles, and a carved marble frame on the entrance door. The highly valuable painting presents religious scenes as well as several portraits of the Brancoveanu, Basarab and Cantacuzino families. The altar screen is sculpted in lime tree and gilded. The establishment was repaired and restored in the 19th20th centuries. The Hurez Monastery also includes the church of the infirmary, founded by Maria Brancoveanu in 1696-1699, the chapel-church, founded by Constantin Brancoveanu between 1696-1697, the Saint Stephen skete, built by Stephen,

Incinta m~n~stirii [i biserica mare v~zute dinspre sud-vest The monastery precincts and the church seen from the southwest

61

Biserica mare, bolta pronaosului: sfin]i din calendar ( Sinaxar) The big church, the pronaos vault: calendar saints ( Synaxarium)

M~n~stirea Hurez Acuarel~ de A. Preziosi, 1869. The Hurez Monastery Water color by A. Preziosi, 1869.

62

torului, n 1703), Sfin]ii Apostoli [i Sfntul Ioan (1698). De asemenea, m~n~stirea cel mai complet [i reu[it ansamblu brncovenesc are o bogat~ colec]ie de obiecte de cult, unele datnd de la ntemeiere, precum [i o valoroas~ bibliotec~. La 20 iunie 1992, Sinodul Bisericii Ortodoxe Romne a hot~rt canonizarea, ca sfin]i martiri, a lui Constantin Brncoveanu, a celor patru fii ai s~i (Constantin, tefan, Radu [i Matei) [i a sfetnicului Ianache, uci[i la Istambul, la 16 august 1714.

the Rulers son, the Saints Apostles and Saint John Skete (1698). The monastery, the most accomplished and complex Brancovan ensemble, also boasts a rich collection of religious articles, some of them dating to the foundation days, as well as a valuable library. On June 20, 1992, the Synod of the Romanian Orthodox Church decided to canonize as martyr saints Constantin Brancoveanu and his four sons (Constantin, Stephen, Radu and Matei), and counselor Ianache, all killed in Istanbul on August 16, 1714.

Biserica bolni]ei Peretele estic al pridvorului, cu pisania [i icoana de hram (Adormirea Maicii Domnului). The infirmary church The eastern wall of the porch with the votive inscription and dedication icon (The Dormition of the Virgin).

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Voievodul Constantin Brncoveanu, Doamna Maria, fiii [i fiicele lor


Biserica mare, tablou votiv.

Ruler Constantin Brancoveanu, Princess Maria, their sons and daughters


The big church, votive painting.

Cantacuzinii
Biserica mare, tablou votiv.

The Cantacuzinos
The big church, votive painting.

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Incinta m~n~stirii v~zut~ dinspre sud-vest The precincts of the monastery seen from the southwest

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M~n~stirea N~m~ie[ti

The Namaiesti Monastery


Stnca n care a fost construit~ biserica rupestr~ The rock in which the church was built

Existen]a m~n~stirii este atestat~ documentar n anul 1547, n vremea domnitorului Mircea Ciobanu. A[ez~mntul era ntemeiat ns~ mai nainte, n jurul unei biserici s~pate n stnc~ (dup~ unii, fosta catacomb~ cre[tin~ n perioada roman~), n grota c~reia tradi]ia spune c~ s-ar fi g~sit, n vremea lui Negru Vod~, o icoan~ a Maicii Domnului f~c~toare de minuni, pictat~ de nsu[i Sfntul Evanghelist Marcu. Icoana respectiv~, ferecat~ ulterior n argint, se p~streaz~ n biseric~ [i n zilele noastre. Biserica rupestr~, cu hramul Intrarea n Biseric~ a Maicii Domnului, a fost l~rgit~ [i extins~ n anul 1843. ntregul a[ez~mnt a fost restaurat n 19181921, dup~ stric~ciunile grave f~cute de artileria german~ n 1916. M~n~stirea are o colec]ie muzeal~ cu obiecte de art~ feudal~ bisericeasc~ [i popular~ [i carte veche romneasc~.

The monastery goes back to 1547 as attested by documents, to the time of Ruler Mircea Ciobanu. Nonetheles, the establishment was founded earlier, around a church dug in rock (according to some a former Christian catacomb from the Roman times) in a grotto where tradition says that a miracleworking icon of the Madonna was found, painted by the very Saint of the Gospel, Mark. The respective icon, subsequently wrought in silver, has been preserved to this day. The rock church dedicated to The Entrance into the Temple of the Virgin was extended and enlarged in 1843. The entire abode was restored between 1918 and 1921 as it was heavily damaged by the German artillery in 1916. The monastery displays in a museum a collection of religious and folk feudal art items and old Romanians books.

Biserica semi-rupestr~ (fa]ada vestic~) Clopotni]a [i corpul de chilii cu muzeul. The part-rock church (western faade) The belfry and the cell building with the museum.

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M~n~stirea Polovragi

The Polovragi Monastery


Fa]ada vestic~ a bisericii [i col]ul de nord al incintei The western faade of the church and the northen corner of the precincts

Dup~ cercet~rile istorice, vechimea acestei m~n~stiri ar ncepe pe la anul 1505. Actuala biseric~, cu hramul Adormirea Maicii Domnului, a fost ctitorit~ la 1645 de logof~tul Danciu Prianu, care a nzestrat m~n~stirea cu bunuri, nchinnd-o ns~ Sfntului Mormnt de la Ierusalim, ceea ce a dus la ruinarea sa material~. Voievodul Constantin Brncoveanu a r~scump~rat-o n 1693 [i a restaurat-o n 1703-1712, fiind pictat~ de me[teri zugravi din [coala de la Hurez. Biserica bolni]ei a fost construit~ n anii 1731-1732 [i conserv~ nc~ pictura din 1738. M~n~stirea a fost renovat~ la sfr[itul secolului trecut. Ea ad~poste[te o colec]ie muzeal~ [i un depozit de carte veche [i icoane cu valoare de patrimoniu.

Historical research has found this monastery to originate round 1505. The present church dedicated to The Dormition of the Virgin was erected in 1645 by chancellor Danciu Paraianu, who endowed the monastery with various articles but dedicated it to the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, which resulted in its material downfall. Ruler Constantin Brancoveanu bought it back in 1693 and restored it between 1703 and 1712, when it was painted by masters of the Hurez school. The infirmary church was erected between 1731-1732, and to this day it has preserved some of the paintings of 1738. The monastery was refurbished at the end of the 19th century, and now it also features a museum storing old books and highly valuable icons.

Biserica bolni]ei, vedere dinspre sud-vest The infirmary church, view from the southwest

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Scene din via]a Maicii Domnului Biserica, pridvor, pictur~ mural~. Scenes from the life of the Virgin The church, porch, mural painting.

Adormirea Maicii Domnului,


icoan~ de hram Pridvorul bisericii, peretele estic, pictur~ mural~.

The Dormition of the Virgin,


dedication icon The porch of the church, eastern wall, mural painting.

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Adormirea Maicii Domnului


Icoana mp~r~teasc~ n iconostasul bisericii.

The Dormition of the Virgin


Main icon from the church iconostasis.

Biserica bolni]ei, peretele nordic al naosului Picturi murale: Sfin]ii mp~ra]i

Constantin [i Elena, Sfin]i militari, nvierea Domnului [.a.m.d.


The infirmary church, northern wall of the naos Mural paintings: Holy Emperor Constantin

and Empress Elena, Military Saints, The Resurrection of the Lord a.s.o.

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M~n~stirea Sinaia

The Sinaia Monastery


Biserica mare, vedere general~ dinspre sud-vest The big church, general view from the southwest

A fost ntemeiat~ de sp~tarul Mihail Cantacuzino, dup~ o vizit~ la m~n~stirile de la Muntele Sinai. n anii 1690-1695 s-a construit biserica mic~ Adormirea Maicii Domnului , pictat~ de Prvu Mutu, [i cetatea din jurul ei, cu chilii [i paraclis. Biserica mare, cu hramul Sfnta Treime, [i chiliile de pe laturile de nord [i sud au fost construite n 1843-1846. n 1896 s-a construit clopotni]a [i cl~direa muzeului primul muzeu de art~ religioas~. n anii 1898-1903 au fost restaurate cetatea de chilii [i biserica mare, prezentnd ca elemente specifice ornamenta]ia exterioar~ cu c~r~mid~ sm~l]uit~ [i ocni]ele cu picturi. n naos, pe peretele vestic, sunt picta]i Regele Carol I, Regina Elisabeta [i fiica lor Maria. n 1922, n incinta veche s-a amenajat cavoul lui Tache Ionescu, cunoscut om politic.

The abode was founded by Spatharius Mihail Cantacuzino after a visit paid to the monasteries on Mount Athos. Between 1690 and 1695 the little church was built (The Dormition of the Virgin) painted by Parvu Mutu as well as the citadel around it, with cells and chapel. The big church (dedicated to the Holy Trinity) and the cells on the northern and southern sides were put up between 1843 and 1846. The belfry and the museum building (the first museum of religious art) were constructed in 1896. The cells and the big church, with specific ornamentation of glazed bricks and painted niches were restored between 1898 and 1903. On the western wall of the naos stand the pictures of King Carol I, Queen Elisabeth and their daughter, Maria. The crypt of Tache Ionescu, a renowned Romanian politician, was arranged in the old precincts in 1922.

Biserica mic~, pridvor Pictura mural~ de pe peretele estic [i bolta. The small church, porch Mural painting on the eastern wall and the vault.

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Biserica mare: detaliu din pridvor The big church: the portal, detail

Biserica mare: pridvorul [i portalul The big church: the porch and the portal

Col]ul de sud-est al incintei cet~]ii Chiliile, st~re]ia. The southeastern corner of the citadel precincts The cells, the abbey.

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75

Biserica Stavropoleos

The Stavropoleos Church


Pridvorul bisericii The porch of the church

Este ctitoria c~lug~rului grec Ioanichie, stabilit n Bucure[ti prin anul 1720, devenit n 1726 mitropolit al Stavropolei, de unde numele ansamblului (biseric~ [i han-m~n~stire) pe care l-a construit n perioada 1722-1730. Biserica ini]ial~ (a hanului), terminat~ n 1724, era o construc]ie n plan dreptunghiular. n 1730, episcopul Ioanichie a decis modificarea ei ntr-una de plan treflat, prin lungirea absidei altarului, ad~ugarea absidelor laterale [i a unui pridvor deschis pe coloane din piatr~ sculptat~ tr~s~turi specifice arhitecturii bisericilor m~n~stirilor brncovene[ti, ceea ce demonstreaz~ [i extinderea func]iei l~ca[ului la cea de biseric~ m~n~stireasc~. Biserica a fost restaurat~ dup~ cutremurele din 18521858, iar n 1861 a fost acoperit~ cu zugr~veal~ pictura mural~ interioar~ [i cu vopsea galben~ o mare parte din tmpl~, care ini]ial avea decor aurit. n 1904, arhitectul Ioan Mincu a ntreprins lucr~ri de restaurare a ntregului complex, reconstituind turla (ndep~rtat~ n 1841) [i proiectnd pe locul fostului han-m~n~stire (disp~rut n 1863-1871), actuala incint~. n anii 1999-2001 s-a restaurat tmpla [i dup~ aceast~ dat~ s-au ini]iat lucr~ri ample de restaurare a bisericii [i a ntregului ansamblu.

The founder of this abode was the Greek monk Ioanichie, settled in Bucharest around 1720, and turned Stavropole metropolitan in 1726, hence the name of the ensemble (church and innmonastery) he erected between 1722 and 1730. The initial church (of the inn) was finished in 1724 as a rectangular construction. In 1730, bishop Ioanichie decided to alter it on a trefoiled design by extending the altar apse, adding lateral apses and an open porch on sculpted stone columns, specific for the architecture of Brancovan monastery churches. That also proves the enlarged function of the abode, turned into a monastery church. After the earthquakes of 1852 and 1858 it was restored, and in 1861 the inner murals were covered with paint, and most of the altarpiece (initially boasting gilded decorations) was painted in yellow. In 1904, the reputed architect Ion Mincu started restoration works of the entire complex, remaking the turret (removed in 1841) and designing the present precincts on the spot of the former inn-monastery (demolished in 1863-1871). The altar screen was restored in 1999-2001 and afterwards ample works of restoration of the church and of the entire ensemble began.

Incinta de tip chiostro, proiectat~ de arhitectul Ion Mincu (1904)

The chiostro type precincts designed


by architect Ion Mincu (1904)

77

78

Biserica Stavropoleos Acuarel~ de A. Preziosi, 1869. The Stavropoleos Church Water color by A. Preziosi, 1869.

U[ile mp~r~te[ti cu Bunavestire Royal Doors with the Annunciation

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M~n~stirea Surpatele

The Surpatele Monastery


Turnul-clopotni]~ [i fa]ada sudic~ a bisericii The belfry tower and southern faade of the church

M~n~stirea Surpatele Acuarel~ de A. Preziosi, 1869. The Surpatele Monastery Water color by A. Preziosi, 1869.

Biserica, avnd hramul Sfnta Treime, a fost ntemeiat~ la nceputul secolului al XVI-lea, ref~cut~ apoi de boierii Buze[ti, reparat~ n secolul al XVII-lea, apoi reconstruit~ din zid de doamna Maria Brncoveanu n 17031706, reparat~ [i repictat~ n 1815. Are o catapeteasm~ [i u[i n stil brncovenesc minunat sculptate. Din 1872 m~n~stirea a fost nchis~ pn~ la restaurarea din 1927-1935. n 1958-1959 s-au f~cut alte lucr~ri de restaurare [i, ulterior, de modernizare.

Dedicated to The Holy Trinity the church was founded in the early 16th century, remade by the Buzesti boyars, repaired in the 17th century, built in brick by Princess Maria Brancoveanu in 1703-1706, repaired and painted again in 1815. It features a beautifully carved altar piece and Brancovan-style doors. In 1872, the monastery was closed until its restoration in 1927-1935. Other repairs were undertaken between 1958-1959, when the establishment was modernized.

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M~n~stirea Suzana

The Suzana Monastery


Biserica m~n~stirii Vedere general~ dinspre sud-vest. The monastery church General view from the southwest.

Primul a[ez~mnt monahal, cu o biseric~ de lemn, a fost fondat aici n 1740, de Stanca Ar[ica din S~cele, c~lug~rit~ cu numele Suzana. n 1840, biserica de lemn a fost nlocuit~ cu una de zid, care s-a d~rmat la un cutremur. Actuala biseric~, cu hramul Sfntul Nicolae, a fost construit~ n 1880-1882, n timpul stare]ei Natalia Perlea. Pictura n ulei este opera lui Petre Nicolau, ucenic al lui Gh. Tattarescu, restaurat~ n 1976 de Gh. Vn~toru. M~n~stirea mai are o biseric~ mic~, cu hramul Acoper~mntul Maicii Domnului, construit~ n 1911, unde se fac slujbe n timpul iernii.

The first monastic establishement featuring a wooden church was founded in 1740 by Stanca Arsica of Sacele, a nun under the name of Suzana. In 1840, the wooden church was replaced by a brick one which was tumbled by an earthquake. The present church dedicated to Saint Nicholas was erected between 1880 and 1882 at the time of mother superior Natalia Perlea. The oil painting was achieved by Petre Nicolau, a student of G. Tattarescu and was restored in 1976 by G. Vanatoru. The monastery has a small church dedicated to The veil of the Virgin, erected in 1911, where mass is said in winter.

Case monahale Col]ul de nord-est al incintei. Monastic houses The northeastern corner of the precincts.

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M~n~stirea Tismana

The Tismana Monastery


M~n~stirea Tismana Litografie de Benesch Ladislau, secolul al XIX-lea. The Tismana Monastery Lithograph by Benesch Ladislau, the 19th century.

ntemeiat~ de cuviosul Nicodim (a c~rui chilie, n stnc~, se afl~ n apropiere), n secolul al XIV-lea, avndu-i drept ctitori pe Radu I [i fiii s~i, Dan I [i Mircea cel B~trn, M~n~stirea Tismana a fost sfin]it~ n anul 1378. A fost reconstruit~ ulterior de Radu cel Mare (1485-1508), p~strnd arhitectura specific~ secolului al XIV-lea. Biserica, cu hramul Adormirea Maicii Domnului, a fost pictat~ n 1564, repictat~ n 1735 (naosul) [i 1766 (pronaosul), ultima pictur~ fiind decapat~ n 1955-1956, cnd s-a restaurat pictura originar~. La renovarea din 1980-1989, s-a ref~cut, n forma sa ini]ial~, [i pridvorul bisericii. M~n~stirea are o bogat~ colec]ie muzeal~: icoane, obiecte [i c~r]i de cult, ve[minte [i fragmente din pictura executat~ n 1766.

Founded by priest Nicodim (who had a cell in a rock close by) in the 14th century, the abode was actually erected by Radu I and his sons, Dan I and Mircea the Old, being hallowed in 1378. Subsequently rebuilt by Radu the Great (1485-1508), it preserves the specific architecture of the 14th century. Dedicated the The Dormition of the Virgin, the church was painted in 1564, and repainted in 1735 (the naos) and 1766 (the pronaos), the last painting being retouched in 1955-1956 when the original frescoes were restored. During the 1980-1989 restoration works the church porch was also brought to its initial shape. The monastery has a rich museum displaying icons, religious articles, old books, religious vestments and fragments of painting made in 1766.

Vedere general~ a m~n~stirii General view of the monastery

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Pila[trii arcului triumfal Picturi murale: Sfntul Estavie [i

Sfntul Nicodim.
The pilasters of the triumphal arch Mural paintings: Saint Estavie and

Saint Nicodemus.

Absida nordic~ a naosului Pictur~ mural~: Sfin]i

militari.
Northern apse of the naos Mural painting: Military

saints.

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Cruce cu picior lucrat~ n filigran, 1781 (muzeul m~n~stirii) Cross with foot in filigree, 1781 (museum of the monastery)

U[i mp~r~te[ti, Buna Vestire Royal Doors, The Annunciation

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Sfin]ii prooroci Daniel [i Aaron


Fragment din pictura mural~ executat~ n 1766 (muzeul m~n~stirii).

Prophets Daniel and Aaron


Fragment of the mural painting made in 1766 (museum of the monastery).

Sfin]i martiri
Fragment din pictura mural~ din 1766 (muzeul m~n~stirii).

Martyr saints
Fragment of the 1766 mural painting (museum of the monastery).

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Pomelnicul M~n~stirii Tismana, 1840 (muzeul m~n~stirii) The diptych of the Tismana Monastery, 1840 (museum of the monastery)

Adormirea Maicii Domnului


Fragment din pictura mural~ de la 1766 (muzeul m~n~stirii).

The Dormition of the Virgin


Fragment of the 1766 mural painting (museum of the monastery).

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M~n~stirea Zamfira

The Zamfira Monastery


Biserica Sfnta Treime din cimitirul m~n~stirii Vedere dinspre sud-vest. The Holy Trinity Church in the monastery cemetery View from the southwest.

A fost ntemeiat~ de arhimandritul Elefterie, stare]ul M~n~stirii Ghighiu. Biserica, cu hramul Intrarea n Biseric~ a Maicii Domnului, a fost construit~ n anii 1855-1857 [i pictat~, n 1856-1857, de Anton Chladek [i Nicolae Grigorescu. M~n~stirea [i-a luat numele de la cel al so]iei unui negustor, care n 1743 a construit biserica mic~ din cimitir, cu hramul Sfnta Treime. n cimitir se afl~ mormintele a cinci membri din familia marelui istoric, publicist [i om politic Nicolae Iorga. Biserica mare, avariat~ de cutremurele din 1940, 1977 [i 1986, a fost reparat~ [i renovat~, n mai multe rnduri, la ultima restaurare (1986-1989), fiind nl~turate interven]iile f~cute anterior asupra picturii originare. M~n~stirea are o colec]ie de obiecte biserice[ti de patrimoniu.

The abode was founded by archimandrite Elefterie, abbot of Ghighiu Monastery. The church, dedicated to The Entrance in the Temple of the Virgin was erected between 1855 and 1857 and painted by Anton Chladek and Nicolae Grigorescu between 1856-1857. The name of the monastery comes from the wife of a merchant who in 1743 erected a small church in the cemetery, dedicated to The Holy Trinity. Five members of the family of the great Romanian historian, journalist and politician Nicolae Iorga are buried in this graveyard. The big church was badly damaged by the earthquakes of 1940, 1977, and 1986 and had to be repaired and restored several times, the last works (1986-1989) being made to restore the original painting. The monastery boasts a collection of valuable religious articles.

Iconostasul bisericii Icoane pictate de Nicolae Grigorescu. The church iconostasis Icons painted by Nicolae Grigorescu.

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Sfin]ii Arhangheli Mihail [i Gavriil


Icoane din iconostas, pictate de Nicolae Grigorescu (1856-1857).

Saints Archangels Michael and Gabriel


Icons of the iconostasis painted by Nicolae Grigorescu (1856-1857).

92

Sfntul Nicolae
Icoan~ din iconostas pictat~ de Nicolae Grigorescu.

Saint Nicholas
Icon of the iconostasis painted by Nicolae Grigorescu.

93

Iisus Pantocrator
Fresc~ de Nicolae Grigorescu n calota turlei bisericii.

Jesus Pantocrator
Fresco by Nicolae Grigorescu in the vault of the church turret.

Sfin]ii mp~ra]i Constantin [i Elena


Fresc~ de Nicolae Grigorescu, n absida de nord a naosului bisericii.

Saint Emperor Constantin and Empress Elena


Fresco by Nicolae Grigorescu in the northern apse of the church naos.

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Judecata de Apoi (fragment)


Pictur~ mural~ pe peretele estic al pridvorului bisericii din cimitir.

Last Judgement (fragment)


Mural painting on the eastern wall of the porch of the cemetery church.

Portalul cu pisania al bisericii din cimitir Portal with the votive inscription of the cemetery church

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Introducere

Introduction

Hieromonah Iustin Marchi[ Selec]ie imagini [i legende Selection of the images and captions

Valeriu Cimpoeru Versiune englez~ English version

Alina Crc Imagini Photograph Credits

Dan Ioan Dinescu tefan Petrescu Mircea Savu Imagini de arhiv~ Archive images

Funda]ia ARTEXPO NOI Media Print Colec]ii private Concep]ie grafic~ Graphic Design

Ovidiu Morar (MECENA Consult srl.) DTP Roxana Enciu Coperta Cover Design

Adrian Sorin Georgescu (MECENA Consult srl.) Coordonator proiect Project co-ordinator

Arpad Harangozo Ovidiu Morar

NOI MEDIA PRINT B-dul. Nicolae B~lcescu nr. 18 Bloc Dalles, Bucure[ti Tel. 021 222 79 72 Fax: 021 202 91 82 E-mail: nmp@nmp.ro

Biserici

onasteries

M~n~stiri [i biserici din Romnia

Monasteries and Churches of Romania


Transilvania

Transylvania

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Na]ionale a Romniei DINESCU, DAN IOAN M~n~stiri din Romnia: Transilvania / foto.: Dan Ioan Dinescu, Mircea Savu, tefan Petrescu; text: Iustin Marchi[; trad.: Alina Crc; grafic~: Adrian Sorin Georgescu. -Bucure[ti: NOI Media Print, 2005 ISBN: 973-7959-25-6 I. Savu, Mircea (foto.) II. Petrescu, tefan (foto.) III. Marchi[, Iustin (text) IV. Crc, Alina (trad.) V. Georgescu, Adrian Sorin (graf.) 726.7(498.4)

Cuprins

Contents
Biserica de lemn din Brsana M~n~stirea Brncoveanu Bisericile de lemn din Bude[ti Bisericile de lemn din C~line[ti Biserica din Densu[ Biserica din Gurasada M~n~stirea Hodo[-Bodrog Bisericile de lemn din Ieud M~n~stirea Moisei M~n~stirea Nicula Biserica de lemn din Plopi[ M~n~stirea Prislop M~n~stirea Rme] Biserica de lemn din Rogoz M~n~stirea S~raca Bisericile de lemn din Srbi Biserica Sfntul Nicolae Biserica din Strei Biserica din Strem] Biserica de lemn din urde[ti M~n~stirea Topli]a The wood church of Barsana The Brancoveanu Monastery The wood churches of Budesti The wood churches of Calinesti The Densus Church The Gurasada Church The Hodos-Bodrog Monastery The wood churches of Ieud The Moisei Monastery The Nicula Monastery The wood church of Plopis The Prislop Monastery The Ramet Monastery The wood church of Rogoz The Saraca Monastery The wood churches of Sarbi The Saint Nicholas Church The Strei Church The Stremt Church The wood church of Surdesti The Toplita Monastery

12 16 22 26 28 32 36 38 44 46 48 52 54 58 62 64 66 68 72 74 78

M~n~stiri [i biserici din Romnia

Monasteries and Churches of Romania


Transilvania

Transylvania

Cteva repere de istorie [i arhitectur~ sacr~

A Few Landmarks of History and Religious Architecture

nd am luat hot~rrea de a intra n via]a monahal~, ca fiu al Eparhiei Clujului, am avut de ales ntre M~n~stirile Nicula [i Rohia, pe atunci singurele din Transilvania. Cu mult~ greutate, chiar n ziua plec~rii spre m~n~stire, chiriarhul locului mi-a dat binecuvntarea pentru a fi primit n ob[tea M~n~stirii Cozia, care era [i a r~mas cea mai veche m~n~stire din Romnia cu via]~ monahal~ aproape nentrerupt~. Am amintit acest detaliu biografic pentru a ar~ta celor de azi situa]ia m~n~stirilor din Transilvania la sfr[itul anilor 70: existau pu]ine a[ez~minte monahale, pu]ini monahi [i monahii, dup~ ce n anul 1959, printr-un decret al puterii seculare, multe dintre acestea fuseser~ nchise, iar vie]uitorii lor obliga]i s~ le p~r~seasc~ [i s~ se ncadreze n munc~. Aceasta dup~ ce, n trecut, via]a monahal~ din Transilvania mai fusese greu ncercat~: peste 150 de schituri [i m~n~stiri, ne spun istoricii, au fost distruse de tunurile generalului austriac Bukow, n a doua jum~tate a secolului al XVIII-lea. Vizitatorii pot vedea pn~ ast~zi, ntr-o reproducere cu biserica M~n~stirii Smb~ta, de lng~ F~g~ra[, ce a r~mas n urma obuzelor. Via]a bisericeasc~ din Transilvania a fost profund marcat~ de momentele importante din istoria acestei p~r]i a Romniei; zidirea de biserici, ntemeierea a[ez~mintelor monahale, nflorirea culturii [i a artei liturgice ortodoxe nu cunoa[te o dezvoltare de amploarea celei din Moldova sau ara Romneasc~. Chiar datele sau m~rturiile despre l~ca[urile de cult sau arta bisericeasc~ sunt mai pu]ine, comparativ cu cele din restul provinciilor romne[ti, predominnd studiile privind istoria acestei regiuni [i cele ce subliniaz~ influen]a apusean~ n dezvoltarea arhitecturii [i artei decorative din Transilvania. De aceea o prezentare a l~ca[elor de cult din Transilvania trebuie s~ porneasc~ de la a aminti momentele esen]iale din istoria acestei provincii.

hen I decided to take up monastic life, as a son of the Cluj Eparchy I had to choose between the Monasteries of Nicula and Rohia, the only ones in Transylvania. With much difficulty, on the very day of my departure to the monastery, the bishop of the place gave me the blessing to join the community of the Cozia Monastery, still the oldest monastery in Romania with almost uninterrupted monastic life. I mentioned this biographic detail just to show younger persons the situation of Transylvanian monasteries in the late 70s. Few monastic establishments had been left standing following a 1959 decree of the lay power, and their monks had been forced to leave and get secular jobs. Not that monastic life in Transylvania had been free from hardships in the past. According to historians, more than 150 sketes and monasteries had been destroyed by the guns of Austrian General Bukow in the late 18th century. To this day, visitors can see in a reproduction of Sambata Monastery, near Fagaras, the damages inflicted by canon balls. Church life in Transylvania was deeply marked by important moments in the history of this Romanian region. The building of churches, the foundation of monastic settlements, the flourishing of Christian Orthodox liturgical culture and art did not record the same impetus as in Moldavia or Wallachia. Even data or testimonies about religious abodes or religious art are less numerous as compared to the other Romanian provinces. Prevailing are studies of regional history or those stressing Western influence in the development of Transylvanian architecture and decorative art. That is why a presentation of religious abodes in Transylvania should set out from an outline of the major events in the history of this province. After the occupation of Transylvania by the Hungarian Kingdom, Orthodox abodes were replaced

Dup~ ocuparea Transilvaniei de c~tre Regatul Maghiar, l~ca[urile de nchin~ciune ortodoxe sunt nlocuite cu cele catolice sau chiar distruse, iar o parte din cler, datorit~ prigoanei asupra Bisericii Ortodoxe, c~reia i se refuz~ dreptul la propriet~]i, se catolicizeaz~. Reforma, [i n special propaganda calvin~ n rndul ortodoc[ilor majoritari, va duce n cele din urm~, pentru Ortodoxie la statutul de religie tolerat~. O dat~ cu st~pnirea habsburgic~ (1688) [i ac]iunile ini]iate de iezui]i care \ntr-un final vor duce la Unirea cu Roma prin promisiuni f~cute clerului ortodox leg~turile cu ara Romneasc~ [i Moldova devin din ce n ce mai dificile. Monahii (ntre ei, Visarion [i Sofronie), dar [i preo]i (ca Moise M~cinic din Sibiel [i Ioan din Gale[) [i chiar ]~rani (cum este cazul lui Oprea Micl~u[) sunt mpotriva unia]iei [i ndeamn~ poporul s~ refuze slujbele oficiate de preo]i unia]i. Ei vor deveni m~rturisitori ai dreptei credin]e fiind pomeni]i n calendarul ortodox pe data de 21 octombrie. Al~turi de ace[tia nu trebuie s~-i uit~m pe ierarhii m~rturisitori Ilie Iorest [i Sava Brancovici, mitropoli]i ai Transilvaniei n acele vremuri, pomeni]i n calendarul Bisericii Ortodoxe Romne pe data de 24 aprilie. Dar cea mai grea lovitur~ are loc n secolul al XVIIIlea, cnd mai sus pomenitul general Bukow, din ordinul mp~r~tesei Maria Tereza, distruge cu tunurile bisericile [i m~n~stirile. Monahii sunt alunga]i, mul]i dintre ei refugiindu-se n chinoviile din Muntenia [i Moldova. Dintre ace[tia, unii se vor ntoarce [i, cu experien]a duhovniceasc~ dobndit~ n m~n~stirile n care au vie]uit, vor rectitori vechile l~ca[uri distruse sau vor ridica noi m~n~stiri [i schituri cu binecuvntarea ierarhilor locului. De[i att de ncerca]i n timp, romnii ortodoc[i din Transilvania r~mn lega]i de Biserica lor. Chiar dac~ Sinodul episcopilor catolici din Ungaria, ntrunit

by Catholic ones or downright destroyed, and part of the Orthodox Church clergy, subject to persecutions and denied the right to own property, became Catholic. The Reform, and particularly the Calvinist propaganda among the majority Christian Orthodox was to bring about eventually the statute of tolerated religion for Christian Orthodoxy. With the Hapsburg rule (1688) and the actions of the Jesuits who were finally to result in the Union with Rome following the promises made to the Orthodox clergy the bonds with Wallachia and Moldavia weakened ever more. Monks (among them, Visarion and Sofronie), priests (Moise Macinic of Sibiel and Ioan of Gales), and even peasants (like Oprea Miclaus, for example) spoke against Uniatism and urged the people to refuse services officiated by Uniate priests. They were to become the representatives of the true faith, being celebrated by the Orthodox Calendar on October 21. Alongside these we should not forget hierarchs Ilie Iorest and Sava Brancovici, metropolitans of Transylvania in those times, and mentioned in the calendar of the Romanian Orthodox Church on April 24. The harshest blow was incurred in the 18th century when General Bukow, on orders from Empress Maria Theresa, gunned down churches and monasteries. The clergy was chased away, many of them having to take refuge in the cenobitic communities of Wallachia and Moldavia. Some of them returned and, with the religious experience acquired in the respective monasteries, rebuilt the abodes destroyed, or erected new monasteries and sketes with the blessing of the superior clergy of the place. Seriously tested all that while, the Romanian Orthodox of Transylvania stayed attached to their Church. The Synod of the Catholic bishops of Hungary, reunited in 1278, forbade schismatics
7

T r a n s Transylvania
n 1278, interzicea schismaticilor (adic~ ortodoc[ilor) s~vr[irea slujbelor [i ridicarea de noi biserici, romnii continu~ s~ zideasc~ biserici [i m~n~stiri iar n cele existente s~-[i duc~ via]a de ob[te. Cea mai veche m~n~stire din Transilvania, men]ionat~ n documente la 1391, este cea din Peri, stavropighie a Patriarhiei de Constantinopol. Tot din secolul al XIVlea este [i M~n~stirea de la Prislop, ridicat~ dup~ tradi]ie de ucenicii Sfntului Nicodim de la Tismana, cel care a avut un rol important n via]a monahal~ a romnilor. M~n~stirile din Hodo[Bodrog (secolul al XII-lea), Rme] (unde e pomenit numele primului ierarh ortodox romn, Ghelasie), Voievozi (secolul al XIV-lea), Geoagiu sunt primele men]ionate n documentele istorice. Se spune despre ele c~ aveau o via]~ grea, a[a cum erau [i vremurile: monahii lucrau p~mntul, copiau c~r]ile sfinte, nv~]au buchiile chirilice. Pe lng~ aceste vechi m~n~stiri s-au p~strat pn~ n zilele noastre biserici romne[ti din piatr~, unele din secolele XIII-XIV. ntre acestea, cea din Densu[, restaurat~ de curnd, unic~ n arhitectura romneasc~ prin folosirea n construc]ie a materialelor provenite de la Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, apoi cele din Strei, Gurasada, Snt~m~rie-Orlea (ajuns~ mai trziu n minile calvinilor) unde se p~streaz~ valoroase [i originale fragmente de pictur~ mural~. Nu n ultimul rnd trebuie amintite bisericile din Ostrov, Le[nic, Ribi]a, Crscior, ultima fiind ctitorie a voievodului Blea, cea mai veche zidire romneasc~ p~strat~ integral. Unele dintre acestea au fost ridicate cu sprijinul domnitorilor [i boierilor munteni sau moldoveni, ca de exemplu Biserica Sfntul Nicolae din Scheii Bra[ovului (secolul al XV-lea), sau Biserica din Vad (secolul al XV-lea), amndou~ importante loca[uri de cult [i valoroase monumente de arhitectur~ ce preiau elemente gotice asemeni bisericilor moldovene[ti din aceea[i epoc~. (i.e. the Romanian Orthodox) to carry out services and to build new religious abodes. Yet the Romanians continued to put up churches and monasteries and pursued their religious life in the places still standing. The oldest monastery of Transylvania, mentioned in documents from 1391, is the one of Peri, stavropighia of the Constantinople Patriarchy. From the 14th century also dates the Monastery of Prislop, erected according to the tradition by the apprentice of Saint Nicodemus of Tismana, who played a consequential role in the Romanians monastic life. The monasteries of HodosBodrog (the 12th century), Ramet (where the name of the first Romanian orthodox priest, Ghelasie, is mentioned), Voievozi (the 14th century), and Geoagiu are the first mentioned in historical documents. Their life was as difficult, they say, as the times. The monks used to till the land, copy holy books, and learn old church Slavonic letters. Besides these old monasteries, Romanian stone churches have been preserved to these days, some dating from the 13th-14th centuries. Among them mention should be made of the Densus one, recently restored, unique in the Romanian architecture as it used materials from the Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa citadel; then the Strei, Gurasada, Santamarie-Orlea (later taken over by Calvinists) where valuable original fragments of murals can still be admired. Last but not least we should speak of the churches of Ostrov, Lesnic, Ribita, Crascior, the last a foundation of Ruler Balea, the oldest Romanian construction fully preserved. Some of them were raised with the support of Wallachian or Moldavian princes and boyars, like, for instance, the Saint Nicholas Church of Scheii Brasovului (the 15th century) or the Vad Church (the 15th century), both important religious abodes and valuable architecture monuments featuring Gothic elements like the Moldavian churches of the same epoch.

s i l v a n i a ia
n secolul al XVII-lea, vechilor m~n~stiri care [i continu~ existen]a li se adaug~ altele noi: Topli]a, Moisei, metoc al M~n~stirii Putna, Smb~ta de Sus ctitoria lui Constantin Brncoveanu. n afara lor, existau n Transilvania peste 180 de schituri din lemn, ridicate prin rvna, evlavia [i jertfa credincio[ilor; cea mai mare parte dintre ele au fost incendiate n secolul al XVIII-lea, iar altele au fost mutate n sate nvecinate sau au fost apoi transformate n biserici de mir. i n Banat, unele m~n~stiri au fost desfiin]ate din ordinul mp~ratului Iosif al II-lea dar s-au ref~cut ulterior. M~n~stirea S~raca, a c~rei biseric~ a r~mas pn~ n zilele noastre p~strnd valoroase fragmente de pictur~, este una dintre cele mai vechi din aceast~ regiune. De[i a trecut prin multe perioade dificile, arhitectura bisericeasc~ a p~strat [i n Transilvania tr~s~turi specifice. Predomin~ stilul autohton, cu plan dreptunghiular [i cu turn-clopotni]~ pe fa]ada apusean~; s-au ridicat ns~ [i biserici de plan triconc, m~rturie a influen]ei muntene[ti n arhitectura bisericeasc~ transilv~nean~. De o deosebit~ originalitate sunt ns~ bisericile de lemn din Maramure[; ele preiau elemente ale arhitecturii ]~r~ne[ti att n planimetrie ct [i n decora]ie. Elementul specific r~mne turnul foarte nalt, ridicat deasupra pronaosului. n acest stil s-au construit bisericile din Brsana, Susani, Ieud, urde[ti, pentru a le aminti doar pe cele mai cunoscute dintre ele. Un fenomen unic n ntreaga Ortodoxie [i specific Transilvaniei este pictura de icoane pe sticl~, f~cut~ deopotriv~ de monahi [i ]~rani. Icoana f~c~toare de minuni de la Nicula, pictat~ pe lemn de preotul Luca din Iclod-Cluj, p~strat~ n biserica m~n~stirii, a sporit evlavia iconarilor care au continuat pn~ ast~zi s~ zugr~veasc~ chipuri de sfin]i pe glaj~. Me[te[ugul pict~rii icoanelor pe sticl~ preluat de la Nicula se r~spnde[te [i n alte locuri din Transilvania, fiind un fenomen viu [i de mare amploare. In the 17th century new monasteries were added to the ones still standing: Toplita, Moisei, a subsidiary of Putna Monastery, Sambata de Sus, the foundation of Constantin Brancoveanu. Besides these, there are more than 180 wood sketes in Transylvania, built thanks to the dedication and sacrifice of the faithful. Most of them were burnt in the 18th century, and others were moved to neighboring villages or turned into churches (independent of monasteries). In Banat some monasteries were dismantled on order from Emperor Joseph II, and then remade subsequently. The Saraca Monastery with a church still standing to these days, boasts numerous fragments of painting, being one of the oldest in the region. For all the difficult spells it went through, religious architecture preserved specific features in Transylvania as well. The prevailing style is local, with a rectangular plan and a belfry on the western side. There are also trefoil churches, a token of Wallachian influence on the Transylvanian architecture. Highly original are the wood churches of Maramures, which feature elements of peasant architecture both in matters of design and decoration. The specific elements is the very high tower above the pronaos. This is the style of the churches of Barsana, Susani, Ieud, and Surdesti, to name only some of the most famous. A unique feat of the entire orthodoxy, specific for Transylvania is represented by icons painted on glass, a trade both of the clergy and of the peasantry. The Nicula icon that works miracles, painted on wood by priest Luca of Iclod-Cluj and kept in the church of the monastery, has boosted the dedication of icon painters who even today paint saints on glass. This art spread from Nicula to other places in Transylvania so as to become a living, wide-scope phenomenon.

Cultura scris~ a fost sprijinit~ [i ea de domnitori din ara Romneasc~ Constantin Brncoveanu a nzestrat M~n~stirea Smb~ta cu c~r]i de slujb~ tip~rite n ara Romneasc~ care s-au r~spndit n bisericile romne[ti din principatul transilv~nean, fiind caligrafiate cu grij~. ntr-o vreme n care limba slavon~ era pe cale de a disp~rea din Biseric~ [i pu]ini o mai n]elegeau, preo]i [i monahi nv~]a]i copiau cu mult~ rvn~ [i trud~ c~r]ile pentru slujbele de fiecare zi. M~n~stirile erau n acela[i timp [i loca[uri n care tinerii deprindeau cititul [i scrisul, al~turi de nv~]~tura [i cnt~rile Bisericii. i tot prin purtarea de grij~ a preo]ilor, monahilor [i dasc~lilor romni s-au mpodobit cu icoane [i picturi l~ca[urile sfinte. Dup~ 1990, voca]ia ctitoriceasc~ a romnilor din Transilvania, Banat [i Maramure[ continu~; ei nu vor zidi doar biserici noi n m~n~stirile vechi sau vor ridica m~n~stiri noi, ci [i incinte n care sunt ad~postite colec]ii cu valoroase obiecte de art~ bisericeasc~ din trecut [i biblioteci cu manuscrise [i c~r]i vechi dar [i numeroase volume de teologie, istorie [i art~. Noile edificii cople[esc prin stil [i propor]ii vechile zidiri; le lipse[te ns~ autenticitatea, sobrietatea [i frumuse]ea acelora. Este cazul noilor construc]ii de la Gai, Bodrog, Moisei, Nicula, Rme]i, Rohia, Topli]a, Brsana [i altele. Cu toate acestea, pelerinii [i vizitatorii de ast~zi se bucur~ de tinerii monahi pe care i ntlnesc, majoritatea dintre ei cu studii teologice [i laice, vorbitori de limbi str~ine [i unii chiar cu doctorate n ]ar~ [i str~in~tate. Monahiile continu~ tradi]ia, brodnd [i croind ve[minte, pictnd icoane pe lemn [i pe sticl~, ]esnd covoare, dup~ cum monahii sculpteaz~ n lemn cruci [i mobilier bisericesc [i picteaz~. i unii, [i al]ii au descoperit me[te[ugul cnt~rii tradi]ionale, deprins n m~n~stirile din ara Romneasc~ [i Moldova.
10

Written culture was assisted by numerous princes from Wallachia, like, for example, Constantin Brancoveanu who endowed the Sambata Monastery with religious books printed in Wallachia that spread to several Romanian churches in the Transylvanian principality, being penned with much care. At a time when Old Slavonic was disappearing from Church and few could still understand it, bright priests and monks copied the books for every day service with extreme self-sacrifice. In monasteries, young people could learn to read and write alongside the Church teachings and songs. Thanks to the dutiful conduct of priests, monks and teachers the holy abodes acquired paintings and icons. After 1990, the constructive vocation of Romanians in Transylvania, Banat and Maramures continued with the same diligence. They not only build new churches in the old monasteries but also new monasteries and shelters for valuable collections of old religious art, libraries with precious manuscripts, volumes of theology, history and art. The new edifices with their sumptuous style and proportions overwhelm the old walls. Still, they miss the latters sobriety, genuineness and beauty. Such is the case of the new constructions of Gai, Bodrog, Moisei, Nicula, Rameti, Rohia, Toplita, Barsana, and others. Nonetheless, pilgrims and visitors today are glad to meet young priests, most of them with both theological and lay studies, speaking several foreign languages, and having a Ph.D obtained in this country or abroad. Monastic abodes promote traditions, still embroidering or cutting clothes, paintings icons on wood and glass, weaving carpets, carving in wood crosses and church furniture and painting them. From the monasteries in Wallachia and Moldavia they have all discovered the delight of traditional singing.

Toate acestea stau m~rturie despre schimb~rile radicale care s-au petrecut n aspectele exterioare ale vie]ii m~n~stirilor [i monahilor, n timp ce via]a interioar~ le este ritmat~ de slujbe la care chemarea se face ca dintotdeauna cu toaca [i clopote. Sunt unele l~ca[uri ntre acestea n care rnduiala athonit~, cu privegheri [i slujbe de noapte, e urmat~ cu rvn~. n ultimii 15 ani nu doar pelerinii, ntre care tot mai numero[i sunt tinerii catehiza]i n [coli, ci [i vizitatorii obi[nui]i merg la m~n~stiri [i se nchin~ la sfintele icoane f~c~toare de minuni [i la moa[tele unor sfin]i. O parte dintre ei [i pleac~ genunchii la spovedanie [i primesc pov~]uire duhovniceasc~, de la mari duhovnici. La Nicula l ntlnesc pe nv~]atul arhiepiscop al Clujului, Bartolomeu Anania, traduc~torul celei mai recente edi]ii a Sfintei Scripturi, care le treze[te interesul pentru [tiin]a biblic~. La Smb~ta l ntlnesc pe P~rintele Teofil care le d~ sfat [i curaj; n Mun]ii Apuseni l caut~ pe P~rintele Rafail Noica, acesta transmi]ndu-le cultura duhului, iar la Prislop g~sesc, lng~ mormntul P~rintelui Arsenie Boca, nt~rire duhovniceasc~. Ei cuprind astfel n c~ut~rile [i evlavia lor trecutul [i prezentul, pe cei de ieri [i cei de azi [i dau n~dejdi Bisericii care ne cheam~ pe to]i, arhierei, clerici, monahi [i laici la slujirea celui s~rac, fl~mnd, gol, bolnav, dar [i a celui ntristat, singur, dezn~d~jduit [i f~r~ credin]~, nt~ri]i fiind de pilda Maicii Domnului, chip al des~vr[itei smerenii [i iubiri. Ieromonah Iustin Marchi[

All this stands proof of the radical changes in exterior aspects undergone by monastic life, while interior life continues to be settled by services to which the monks are called by bells and the specific toaca. There still are some abodes where the athonite rites are obeyed, with night vigils and services. In the last 15 years not only pilgrims, more and more of them youths catechized in schools, but also ordinary visitors go to monasteries and pray at the miraculous icons or the remains of saints. Some of them kneel to be blessed and to receive spiritual guidance from great clergy. At Nicula they can meet the learned archbishop of Cluj, Bartolomeu Anania who made the latest translation of the Holy Bible, and is widely knowledgeable in biblical science. At Sambata there is Father Teofil who administers advice and urges courage, in the Apuseni Mountains Father Rafail Noica may be found, who conveys spiritual warmth, and at Prislop, near the tomb of Father Arsenie Boca, or can meet with several men of the cloth. Their quests and dedication include the past and present, and they are the hope of the Church, which calls all, lower and higher orders of priests, monks and lay men alike, to be in the service of the poor, of the hungry, naked and sick, and also of those who are melancholy, lonely, despondent and faithless, steeled by the example of the Mother of the Lord, an image of immaculate meekness and love.

Hieromonk Iustin Marchi[

11

Biserica de lemn din Brsana

The wood church of Barsana


Serafimi, pictur~ mural~ Seraphim, mural painting

Biserica, avnd hramul Intrarea Maicii Domnului n Biseric~ a fost construit~ n 1720, dup~ devastarea [i incendiarea satului de c~tre t~tari (1717), ca biseric~ de m~n~stire ortodox~. Apar]ine grupului de biserici tipice pentru Maramure[, de dimensiuni reduse, cu acoperi[ n dou~ ape. A servit ca biseric~ aba]ial~ (sub autoritatea c~lug~rilor unia]i bazilieni \ncepnd cu a doua jum~tate a secolului al XVIII-lea), apoi a fost transformat~ n biseric~ parohial~ n 1806, cnd a fost mutat~ pe locul actual (brnele p~streaz~ nc~ numerotarea incizat~ necesar~ noii ridic~ri). Pictura realizat~ n cursul aceluia[i an de Toader Ponor [i Ioan Plohod, este de o valoare deosebit~, constituind un ansamblu decorativ structurat dup~ legile barocului, cel mai coerent din jude]ul Maramure[. Iconostasul se ncadreaz~ n acela[i stil.

The church dedicated to the Virgins Entry was erected in 1720, after the Tartars devastated the village and set it on fire (1717), as an Orthodox monastery church. It belongs to the group of typical Maramures religious abodes of small size and coupled roof. First it was an abbey church (under the authority of Uniate Basilian monks beginning in the second half of the 18th century), then, in 1806, turned into a parish church, and moved to the current location. Its beams still preserve numbers incised at the start of the new construction. The abode was painted in the same year by Toader Ponor and Ioan Plohod. Of exceptional value, the painting makes up a decorative ensemble based on Baroque rules, the most consistent structure of the kind in Maramures County. The iconostasis pertains to the same style.

Biserica Intrarea Maicii Domnului n Biseric~ Vedere general~ dinspre nord. The Church of the Virgin Entering the Temple General view from the north.

13

Heruvimi, pictur~ mural~ Cherubim, mural painting

Picturi murale pe peretele de sud al naosului Mural paintings on the southern wall of the naos

14

Fragment de iconostas Iconostasis fragment

Col]ul de nord-est al naosului The north-eastern corner of the naos

15

M~n~stirea Brncoveanu

The Brancoveanu Monastery


Biserica veche a m~n~stirii [i turnul por]ii v~zute dinspre sud-est The old church of the monastery and the gate tower seen from the south-east

A fost ntemeiat~ de Preda Brncoveanu, biserica de lemn ini]ial~, fiind nlocuit~ la sfr[itul secolului al XVIIlea cu cea actual~, de zid, de voievodul Constantin Brncoveanu, care a ref~cut [i m~n~stirea. n 1785 a fost distrus~ (ca [i alte m~n~stiri din Transilvania) de armata generalului Bukow, r~mnnd p~r~sit~ pn~ n 1936. n anii 1925-1936, mitropolitul Nicolae B~lan a restaurat, treptat, biserica (cu dou~ hramuri: Adormirea Maicii Domnului [i Izvorul T~m~duirii) [i chiliile, la cteva sute de metri dep~rtare de aceasta. M~n~stirea a fost ref~cut~ integral n perioada 1984-1993, corpul de cl~diri din nord cuprinznd [i o biseric~ mare cu hramul Sfin]ii Martiri Brncoveni, care a fost sfin]it~, mpreun~ cu ntreaga m~n~stire nou-zidit~, la 15 august 1993 (Adormirea Maicii Domnului) de patriarhii Bartolomeu I [i Teoctist, mpreun~ cu un mare sobor de ierarhi, preo]i [i diaconi. M~n~stirea are o colec]ie renumit~ de icoane pe sticl~, multe dintre ele provenind din [coala de pictur~ pe sticl~ de aici, ntemeiat~ de c~lug~rul Timotei Toh~neanu.

Founded by Preda Brancoveanu, the abode featured a wooden church replaced, in the late 17th century, by the present, brick one, by Constantin Brancoveanu, who also remade the monastery. In 1785, it was destroyed, like many other monasteries in Transylvania, by General Bukows army, and remained abandoned until 1936. Between 1925 and 1936 metropolitan Nicolae Balan gradually rebuilt the church (dedicated to the Dormition of the Virgin and The Healing Source) and the cells, a few hundreds meters away. The monastery was fully reconstructed between 1984 and 1993, the northern ensemble containing also a big church dedicated to the Holy Brancoveanu Martyrs, and hallowed together with the newly built monastery on August 15, 1993 (the Dormition of the Mother of God) by patriarchs Bartolomeu I and Teoctist, together with a great assembly of hierarchs, priests and deacons. The monastery boasts a renowned collection of glass icons, many of them creations of the local glass painting school, founded by monk Timotei Tohaneanu.

Vedere aerian~ dinspre sud-est Birds eye view from the south-east

17

Foi[orul din corpul de cl~diri de pe latura nordic~ a incintei The belvedere of the ensemble of buildings on the northern side of the precincts

Vedere aerian~ dinspre nord-vest Birds eye view from the north-west

18

19

Schimbarea la fa]~
Pictur~ mural~ pe bolta pridvorului bisericii vechi.

The Transfiguration
Mural on the vault of the old church porch.

Biserica nou~ a m~n~stirii Col]ul de sud-est al naosului. The new church of the monastery The south-eastern corner of the naos.

20

Biserica veche a m~n~stirii n pridvor. The old church of the monastery On the porch.

21

Bisericile de lemn din Bude[ti

The wood churches of Budesti


Biserica de lemn din Bude[ti-Josani Vedere general~ dinspre sud-vest. The wood church of Budesti-Josani General view from the south-west.

Biserica din Bude[ti-Josani, construit~ din lemn de stejar n 1643 (conform inscrip]iei \ncrustate pe rama u[ii), cu modific~ri n secolul al XVIII-lea, a fost nchinat~ Sfntului Nicoar~ (vechiul nume romnesc al Sfntului Nicolae). Este o biseric~ tipic~ pentru Maramure[, de plan dreptunghiular, cu absid~ poligonal~, turn nalt pe pronaos, prev~zut cu coif [i patru turnule]e [i acoperi[ cu dubl~ poal~. Pere]ii interiori sunt acoperi]i cu picturi murale populare ce dateaz~ din 1762. Biserica din Bude[ti-Susani, construit~ n 1760, cu transform~ri datnd din secolul al XIX-lea, este pu]in interesant~ ca arhitectur~. n schimb, pictura mural~ executat~ de Alexandru Pronehalski (1760) este reprezentativ~ pentru fenomenul de rusticizare a artei de tradi]ie medieval~.

The church of Budesti-Josani, built in oak wood in 1643 (according to the inscription incised in the door frame), with modifications brought in the 18th century, was dedicated to Saint Nicoara (the old Romanian name of Saint Nicholas). It is a typical church for Maramures on a rectangular design, with a polygonal apse, tall tower on the pronaos provided with cover, four turrets and a saddle roof. Inside, the walls are adorned with murals in the folk style dating from the 1762. The Budesti-Susani church, erected in 1760, with modifications from the 19th century has a less interesting architecture, its highlight being the murals executed by Alexandru Pronehalski (1760). The painting is representative of the rusticization of medieval tradition art.

Pictur~ mural~ de Alexandru Pronehalski Biserica din Bude[ti-Susani. Mural painted by Alexandru Pronehalski The Budesti-Susani Church.

23

Pictur~ mural~ popular~ (fragment), 1762 Biserica din Bude[ti-Josani. Folk-style mural (fragment), 1762 The Budesti-Josani Church.

Remu[carea lui Cain


Pictur~ mural~ (detaliu), 1760, biserica din Bude[ti-Susani.

Cains Remorse
Mural painting (detail), 1760, the Budesti-Susani Church.

R~stignirea
Pictur~ mural~ (1762), biserica din Bude[ti-Josani.

The Crucifixion
Mural painting (1762), the BudestiJosani Church.

Purtarea crucii
Pictur~ mural~ (1760), biserica din Bude[ti-Susani.

The Carrying of the Cross


Mural painting (1760), the BudestiSusani Church.

Bisericile de lemn din C~line[ti

The Wood Churches of Calinesti


Biserica Na[terea Domnului Vedere general~ dinspre sud. The Birth of the Lord Church General view from the south.

Biserica, avnd hramul Na[terea Domnului, construit~ n anul 1663, a fostei m~n~stiri C~eni, avea ini]ial un plan dreptunghiular cu absida poligonal~ [i, pe pronaos, un turn-clopotni]~ cu foi[or. n secolul al XIX-lea a fost amplificat~ prin ad~ugarea, pe latura nordic~, a unei nave mai nguste, ceea ce i confer~ o asimetrie expresiv~. Pridvorul este decorat cu crest~turi n lemn. n interior are un valoros ansamblu de pictur~ mural~, executat~ n 1754, de Alexandru Pronehalski. Biserica mai posed~ icoane pe lemn [i pe sticl~ de la sfr[itul secolului al XVIII-lea. n satul Susani, apar]innd aceleia[i comune, mai exist~ o biseric~ de lemn din secolul al XVIII-lea, pre]ios martor al influen]ei moldovene[ti n Maramure[.

The church dedicated to The Birth of the Lord, erected in 1663, of the former Caeni Monastery, had initially a rectangular design, with a polygonal apse, and a belfry with a belvedere on the pronaos. In the 19th century a slimmer nave was added on the northern side, which resulted in an expressive sort of asymmetry. The porch is decorated with wood incisions. The interior features a valuable ensemble of mural paintings created in 1754 by Alexandru Pronehalski. The church also has icons on wood and glass dating from the late 18th century. In Susani village that belongs to the same commune there stands another wood church from the 18th century, a valuable witness of Moldavian influence in Maramures.

Arhanghel
Pictur~ mural~ (detaliu), 1754.

Archangel
Mural painting (detail), 1754.

27

Biserica din Densu[

The Densus Church


Biserica Sfntul Nicolae Vedere dinspre sud-est. The Saint Nicholas Church View from the south-east.

Biserica, avnd hramul Sfntul Nicolae, este una dintre cele mai vechi biserici romne[ti, fiind ridicat~ \n secolul al XIII-lea pe locul unei construc]ii din secolul al IV-lea; nc~perile anexe de pe latura sudic~ au fost ad~ugate \n secolele XIV-XV. Construit din pietre scoase din ruinele Ulpiei Traiana Sarmizegetusa, biserica are un plan ptrat (6 x 6 m), naosul fiind strpuns de un turn n jurul cruia se afl un spa]iu ngust, acoperit de o bolt de sprijin. Acoperi[ul este din pl~ci de piatr~. Valoroasele fragmente de pictur mural (din 1443) sunt opera unei echipe de me[teri conduse de me[terul tefan, unul din primii zugravi romni cunoscu]i.

The church dedicated to Saint Nicholas is one of the oldest Romanian churches erected in the 13th century on the spot of a construction dating to the 4th century. The annex constructions on the southern side were added in the 14th-15th centuries. Built with stones taken from the ruins of the Ulpia Trajana Sarmizegetusa citadel, the church features a square plan (6 x 6 m), the naos being pierced by a tower around which there is a narrow space covered by a supporting vault. The roof is made of stone slabs. The previous fragments of mural painting (from 1443) were created by a team of artists headed by Stephan, one of the first known Romanian painters.

Interiorul bisericii Imagine interbelic~. Interior of the church Inter-war picture.

29

Picturi murale (detalii), 1443 Biserica Sfntul Nicolae din Densu[. Mural paintings (details), 1443 The Saint Nicholas Church of Densus.

30

Interiorul navei n stlpul din primplan, o lespede cu inscrip]ie roman~. Interior of the nave A slab with a Roman inscription in the pillar in the foreground.

31

Biserica din Gurasada

The Gurasada Church


Biserica Sfntul Arhanghel Mihail Vedere dinspre sud. The Saint Archangel Michael Church View from the south.

Biserica, avnd hramul Sfntul Arhanghel Mihail, dateaz~ din secolul al XIII-lea fiind men]ionat~ \ntr-un document din 1292 al regelui maghiar Andrei al III-lea. Construit~ din piatr~ brut~ [i mortar, nucleul central, de plan cvadrilobat, este ncununat cu o turl~ cu sec]iune dreptunghiular~ suspendat~ deasupra bol]ilor celor patru abside. Ulterior, spre vest au fost construite mai multe nc~peri anexe [i un turn-clopotni]~, prev~zut cu foi[or de lemn. Picturile au fost realizate \n 1765 de zugravii Ioan din Deva [i Nicolae din Pite[ti.

The church dedicated to Saint Archangel Michael dates from the 13th century, being mentioned in a document from 1292 of Hungarian King Andrew III. Built in raw stone and mortar, the central core on a fourlobed design is crowned by a turret with a rectangular section suspended above the vaults of the four apses. Subsequently, several annexes and a belfry with a wooden belvedere, were erected to the west. The paintings, created in 1765, are signed by artists Ioan of Deva and Nicolae of Pitesti.

nvierea lui Iisus Pictur~ mural~ (1765). The resurrection of Jesus Mural painting (1765).

33

n~l]area Domnului Pictur~ mural~ (1765). The Ascension of the Lord . Mural painting (1765).

Judecata de Apoi, cu scene de critic~ social~ Pictur~ mural~ (1765). The Last Judgement with scenes of social criticism Mural painting (1765).

Schimbarea la fa]~ [i Prinderea lui Iisus Picturi murale (1765). The Transfiguration and Jesus being captured . Mural paintings (1765).

34

35

M~n~stirea Hodo[-Bodrog

The Hodos-Bodrog Monastery


Turnul clopotni]~ (secolul al XIV-lea) [i biserica nou~ Vedere pa]ial~ a m~n~stirii dinspre sud. The belfry (14th century) and the new church Partial view of the monastery from the south.

Este o ctitorie c~lug~reasc~, prima atestare documentar~ datnd din 1177. Dup~ tradi]ie, ar fi construit~ n urma descoperirii unei icoane a Maicii Domnului (care se p~streaz~ n~untru, deasupra u[ii) de c~tre un taur, prin scormonirea cu coarnele. n locul bisericii de lemn din secolul al XII-lea, acum disp~rut~, s-a construit n secolul al XIV-lea actuala biseric~ (cu hramul Intrarea Maicii Domnului n Biseric~) de plan triconc, asem~n~toare bisericilor unor m~n~stiri din ara Romneasc~ (Curtea de Arge[, Cozia, Tismana [.a.); din acela[i secol dateaz~ [i turnul-clopotni]~. St~re]ia [i cl~dirile din partea de r~s~rit s-au construit n a doua jum~tate a secolului al XVIII-lea, iar paraclisul [i chiliile din partea de apus, n anii 1904-1907. M~n~stirea a fost desfiin]at~ n 1959, devenind gospod~rie anex~ a episcopiei. Renfiin]at~ n 1975, a suferit ample lucr~ri de restaurare [i consolidare n anii 1979-1985; dup~ 1990 s-a restaurat [i pictura bisericii, cea din naos [i altar datnd din secolul al XIV-lea.

It was founded by monks, being attested for the first time in a document dated 1177. Tradition says it was build on the spot where an icon of the Mother of God was found by a bull that poked the soil with its horns. The 12th century wood abode gone, it was replaced by the present church, erected in the 14th century and dedicated to the Virgin entering the Temple. The construction is trefoil, similar to the monastery churches in Wallachia (Curtea de Arges, Tismana, a.o.). The belfry tower dates from the same century. The abbey and the buildings of the eastern side were erected in the second half of the 18th century, and the chapel and cells on the western side between 1904 and 1907. In 1959 the monastery was dismantled, and turned into an annex of the bishopric. Reopened in 1975, it was amply restored and consolidated between 1979 and 1985. After 1990 the church paintings were also restored, particularly those in the naos and the altar, dating from the 14th century.

Biserica Intrarea Maicii Domnului \n Biseric~ Vedere general~ dinspre sud. The Church The Virgins Entering the Temple General view from the south.

37

Bisericile de lemn din Ieud

The Wood Churches of Ieud


Biserica Na[terea Maicii Domnului Vedere general~ dinspre sud-vest. The Birth of the Virgin Church General view from the south-west.

Biserica Na[terea Maicii Domnului din Ieud (biserica din deal) este una dintre cele mai frumoase l~ca[e de cult din Transilvania. Amplasat~ \n cimitirul satului, pe un versant pietros, pe malul rului Ighi[, dateaz~ din prima jum~tate a secolului al XVIII-lea, fiind construit~ pe locul unei biserici de lemn mai vechi (secolul al XIV-lea) distrus~ de invazia t~tar~ din 1717. Avnd un acoperi[ n dou~ ape (tipic pentru bisericile din Maramure[), biserica se remarc~ prin silueta sa relansat~ [i prin boga]ia decora]iei sculptate. Pictura interioar~, de factur~ popular~ care acoper~ \ntreaga suprafa]~, este opera lui Alexandru Pronehalski (1782). n Ieud se mai afl~ o biseric~ de lemn (biserica din [es, 1717), exemplar str~lucit de arhitectur~ \n lemn, caracteristic~ pentru Valea Izei.

The Birth of the Virgin Church of Ieud (the church on the hill) is one of the most beautiful cult abodes in Transylvania. Situated in the village graveyard, on a stony slope on the bank of the river Ighis, it goes back to the first half of the 18th century, being erected on the place of an older wood church (the 14th century) destroyed by the Tartar invasion of 1717. With a saddle roof (typical for the churches of Maramures), this abode stands out by its slender silhouette and the richness of its sculpted decoration. The folk inspired painting covering almost all the interior surfaces was created by Alexandru Pronehalski (1782). Ieud also features another wooden church (the church in the plain, 1717), a brilliant example of wood architecture characteristic for the Iza Valley.

Fa]ada sudic~ a bisericii Femei la slujb~. The southern faade of the church Women during mass.

39

Ieud Vedere panoramic~, iarna. Ieud Panoramic view, in winter.

40

41

Judecata de Apoi (fragment)


Pictur~ mural~ pe peretele vestic al pronaosului.

The Last Judgement (fragment)


Mural on the western wall of the pronaos.

Col]ul de sud-est al pronaosului Picturi murale [i icoane. The south-eastern corner of the pronaos Murals and icons.

42

Heruvim
Pictur~ mural~ pe tavanul naosului (detaliu).

Cherubim
Mural on the naos ceiling (detail).

Intrarea lui Iisus n Ierusalim


Pictur~ mural~ pe peretele sudic al naosului.

Jesus entering Jerusalem


Mural on the southern wall of the naos.

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M~n~stirea Moisei

The Moisei Church


Biserica de lemn (1672) V~zut~ dinspre sud-vest. The wood church (1672) Seen from the south-west.

Este amintit~ n documentele vremii la 1637, dar, dup~ unii cercet~tori, ar data din secolul al XIV-lea. Biserica de lemn, sfin]it~ de mitropolitul Sava Brancovici n 1672, a fost restaurat~ n anii 1928-1929. Pe pere]ii interiori, mai ales pe bol]i, se mai p~streaz~ fragmente de pictur~. n aceast~ m~n~stire a func]ionat, la nceputul secolului al XVII-lea, o [coal~ de pictur~. Biserica de zid, cu hramul Adormirea Maicii Domnului, a fost construit~ n anul 1911, n stil neoclasic, renovat~ [i repictat~ n anii 80. St~re]ia [i chiliile s-au construit n ultimii ani.

Documents from 1637 mention this abode but there are researchers who claim it dates from the 14th century. The wood church, hallowed by metropolitan Sava Brancovici in 1672 was restored between 1928 and 1929. The inside walls, especially the vaults, still evince fragments of paintings. In the early 17th century this monastery had a famous school of painting. The wall church dedicated to the Dormition of the Virgin was erected in 1911 in neo-classical style, and then refurbished and repainted in the 1980. The abbey and the cells were put up in recent years.

Biserica mare (1911) Fa]ada vestic~. The big church (1911) The western faade.

45

M~n~stirea Nicula

The Nicula Monastery


Biserica de lemn (1701) [i turlele bisericii Sfntul Ioan Botez~torul Vedere general~ dinspre nord-est. The wood church (1701) and the turrets of the Saint John the Baptist Church General view from the north-east.

Acest a[ez~mnt monahal dateaz~ din secolele XVI-XVII. Biserica de lemn, construit~ de pustnicul Nicolae cu ajutorul credincio[ilor, a ars n 1973; pe clopotul ei era scris anul 1696. n locul acesteia a fost adus~ alta, tot de lemn, din 1701, din jude]ul Bistri]a-N~s~ud. Biserica de zid, cu hramul Sfntul Ioan Botez~torul, a fost construit~ n anii 1875-1879, \n stil neoromanic, n form~ de nav~, cu dou~ turnuriclopotni]~; iconostasul, unic ca stil, are multe elemente brncovene[ti, iar pictura, n tempera, este n stil bizantin. M~n~stirea Nicula este un vestit centru de iconari pe sticl~, nfiin]at n secolul al XVIII-lea, ale c~ror lucr~ri, r~spndite n toat~ Transilvania, se recunosc prin desenul naiv, expresiv, compozi]ia simpl~ [i coloritul viu. Are o valoroas~ colec]ie de c~r]i vechi [i icoane (pe sticl~ [i lemn) din secolele XVII-XX.

This monastic abode dates from the 16th-17th centuries. A wood church erected by hermit Nicolae with the help of other faithful burnt in 1973. Its bell read the year 1696. In its place another wood church was brought from Bistrita-Nasaud County in 1701. The stone church dedicated to Saint John the Baptist was built between 1875 and 1879 in the neo-Roman style, shipshaped, with two belfries. The iconostasis, unique in style, features several Brancovan elements, and the tempera painting is Byzantine. The Nicula Monastery is a famed center of glass icon makers, set up in the 18th century, from where icons have been disseminated throughout Transylvania. Their feature a naive trademark, expressive drawing, simple composition, and vivid colors. The monastery boasts a valuable collection of old books and icons (on glass and wood) from the 17th-20th centuries.

Biserica Sfntul Ioan Botez~torul Iconostasul. The Saint John the Baptist Church The iconostasis.

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Biserica de lemn din Plopi[

The Wood Church of Plopis


Biserica Sfin]ii Arhangheli Vedere dinspre vest. The Saint Archangels Church View from the west.

Sfnta Treime
Pictur~ mural~.

Biserica din satul Plopi[, cu hramul Sfin]ii Arhangheli, construit~ n anii 1796-1798, este una din cele mai reprezentative realiz~ri ale arhitecturii de lemn din Romnia, avnd influen]e ale bisericilor tipice Transilvaniei de nord, ct, mai ales prin configura]ia volumetric~ [i siluet~, ale celor din Maramure[. De plan dreptunghiular, cu absida decro[at~ [i cu pridvor pe latura de vest, se caracterizeaz~ prin n~l]imea deosebit~ a turnului-clopotni]~, cu foi[or [i acoperi[ prelung, decorat cu patru turnule]e. Pictura mural~ dateaz~ din 1811 [i i apar]ine me[terului tefan (conform unei inscrip]ii de pe una din icoane).

The church from Plopis village, dedicated to the Saints Archangels and built between 1796 and 1798 is one of the most representative achievements of Romanian wood architecture, featuring obvious influences from northern Transylvanian churches, and also from Maramures churches, in what regards volumes and silhouette. Erected on a rectangular design, with an out-of-step apse and a porch on the western side, the abode stands out by the tallness of the belfry tower, with a belvedere and long roof, decorated with four turrets. The mural painting dates from 1811 and was created by artist Stephan (as the inscription on one of the icons tells us).

The Holy Trinity


Mural painting.

49

50

Coborrea de pe cruce
Pictur~ mural~.

Descent from the cross


. Mural painting.

Biserica Sfin]ii Arhangheli Vedere general~ dinspre est. The Saint Archangels Church General view from the east.

Sfntul Prooroc Ilie


Pictur~ mural~.

The Saint Prophet Elijah


Mural painting.

51

M~n~stirea Prislop

The Prislop Monastery


Biserica Sfntul Ioan Evanghelistul Fa]ada vestic~ cu icoana de hram. The Saint John the Evangelist Church The western faade with the dedication icon.

Biserica m~n~stirii, avnd hramul Sfntul Ioan Evanghelistul, ar fi fost zidit~, pe locul unei a[ez~ri sih~stre[ti mai vechi, dup~ tradi]ie [i caracteristici, de ucenicii lui Nicodim de la Tismana, n jurul anului 1400 cu ajutorul primit de la Mircea cel B~trn. Biserica actual~ avnd o arhitectur~ specific~ bisericilor din Muntenia [i Moldova, a fost ctitorit~ [i \nzestrat~ de domni]a Zamfira, fiica lui Moise Basarab al ~rii Romne[ti, la 1564. n secolul al XVI-lea a fost re[edin]a episcopului Siliva[ului, ulterior fiind preluat~ de greco-catolici (secolul al XVIII-lea). Incendiat~ de generalul Bukow \n anul 1762, a fost restaurat~ de mai multe ori \n secolele urm~toare. n perioada 1959-1976 a fost desfiin]at~. n prezent este m~n~stire de maici, n ea func]ionnd [i un seminar monahal pentru fete.

The monastery church dedicated to Saint John the Evangelist is said to have been erected, with the assistance of Ruler Mircea the Old, in the place of an older hermit abode belonging, according to the tradition, to the apprentices of Nicodemus of Tismana, around 1400. The present day church has an architecture specific for Wallachian and Moldavian churches, and was founded and endowed, in 1564, by Princess Zamfira, daughter of Moise Basarab, Ruler of Wallachia. In the 16th century it was the residence of the bishop of Silivas, and subsequently it was taken over by the Greek Catholics (the 18th century). Set on fire by General Bukows armies in 1762, it was restored several times in the following centuries. Between 1959 and 1976 it was dismantled. At present, it is a nunnery, also featuring a monastic seminar for girls.

Vedere general~ a m~n~stirii dinspre est General view of the monastery from the east

53

M~n~stirea Rme]

The Ramet Monastery


Incinta m~n~stirii, cu cele dou~ biserici v~zute dinspre nord-est The monastery precincts, with the two churches seen from the north-east

Conform tradi]iei, a fost ntemeiat~ n anul 1214, de doi c~lug~ri Ghenadie [i Romulus. Biserica veche, cu hramul Izvorul T~m~duirii, are mai multe straturi de pictur~, datnd din anii 1300, 1310, 1377, 1450, 1600, 1714, 1809. A[ez~mntul, cel mai puternic centru ortodox din Transilvania, a fost distrus de generalul Bukow n 1762 [i 1785, fiind p~r~sit apoi timp de 100 de ani; n 1826 a fost transformat n biseric~ parohial~, redevenind m~n~stire de c~lug~ri n 1932, iar n 1955, m~n~stire de maici. n 1960 a fost desfin]at~ [i transformat~ n caban~ turistic~. n 1968, o parte din fostele maici s-au stabilit aici ca lucr~toare de covoare, reu[ind, sub conducerea ieromonahului Dometie, s~ construiasc~ o caban~ n afara m~n~stirii, pe care au dat-o n schimbul cl~dirilor m~n~stirii. n perioada 1982-1992 a fost construit~ biserica nou~, cu hramurile Adormirea Maicii Domnului [i Sfin]ii Apostoli Petru [i Pavel. n anii 1987-1989 a fost restaurat~ biserica veche, apoi st~re]ia [i cl~dirile cu chiliile. M~n~stirea are un muzeu cu c~r]i vechi, icoane pe lemn [i sticl~, obiecte de cult [i etnografice.

The abode was founded, according to tradition, in the year 1214 by two monks, Ghenadie and Romulus. The old church dedicated to the Source of Healing features several layers of painting, dating from 1300, 1310, 1377, 1450, 1600, 1714, and 1809. The monastery, the most powerful Christian Orthodox center in Transylvania, was attacked by General Bukows armies in 1762 and 1785, being then abandoned for 100 years. In 1826 it was turned into a parish church, then in 1932 it became again a monastery of monks, and of nuns in 1955. In 1960 it was turned into a tourist chalet. In 1968 part of the former nuns settled in the locality as carpet weavers and, under the guidance of hieromonk Dometie, they managed to build a chalet outside the religious abode, which they traded for the monastery buildings. Between 1982 and 1992 a new church was erected dedicated to the Dormition of the Virgin and to Saints Apostles Peter and Paul. Between 1987 and 1989 the old church was restored, then the abbey and the buildings of cells. The monastery boasts a museum of old books, wood and glass icons, religious and ethnographic utensils.

M~n~stirea [i Cheile Rme]ilor Vedere panoramic~. The Monastery and the Rameti Gorges Panoramic view.

55

n~l]area Domnului
Pictura mural~ \n biserica veche (naos).

The Ascension of the Lord


Mural in the old church (naos).

Biserica nou~, v~zut~ dinspre est The new church seen from the east

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Deisis
Pictur~ mural~ \n biserica veche (absida altarului).

Deisis
Mural in the old church (altar apse).

Biserica de lemn din Rogoz

The Wood Church of Rogoz


Biserica Cuvioasa Paraschiva Vedere dinspre sud-est. The Pious Paraschiva Church . View from the south-east.

Biserica cu hramul Cuvioasa Paraschiva a fost ridicat~ n 1663 [i ref~cut~ \n 1717 dup~ invazia t~tar~. Avnd o configura]ie planimetric~ tipic~ pentru majoritatea bisericilor din ara L~pu[ului (pronaos, naos [i altar desprins din intrarea situat~ pe partea de sud), se deosebe[te de bisericile maramure[ene prin spa]iile interioare mult mai mici: pere]ii nedep~sind 3 m \n~l]ime, bolta semicilindric~ pleac~ de la acest nivel. Acoperi[ul are o siluet~ asimetric~, datorit~ stre[inii l~rgite c~tre nord ce confer~ turnului clopotni]~ un aspect fragil [i impozant n acela[i timp. Monument reprezentativ pentru ara L~pu[ului, este remarcabil prin frumuse]ea siluetei [i prin bog~]ia decora]iei, prezent~ att la nivelul pere]ilor exteriori ct [i a celor interiori, n special n altar. Frumoasele picturi murale au fost executate de Radu Munteanu din Ungureni (1785) [i de Grigore Badea (1834) dup~ cum atest~ inscrip]iile cu caractere chirilice, p~strate n altar [i n peretele de sud al naosului.

The church dedicated to the Pious Paraschiva was erected in 1663 and remade in 1717 after the Tartar inroad. On a design typical for most of the churches in Lapus region (pronaos, naos, and altar detached from the entry situated in the south), it stands out among other Maramures churches by the much smaller interior spaces, its walls never exceeding three meters in height, with a semicircular vault going from this level up. The roof is asymmetrical because of the eaves enlarged to the north, which makes the belfry tower seems frail yet imposing. This representative monument of Lapus region has a tremendously beautiful silhouette and an extremely rich decoration both on the outer and inner walls, particularly the altar. The exquisite murals are the work of Radu Munteanu of Ungureni (1785) and Grigore Badea (1834), as attested by the inscription in Old Church Slavonic, preserved in the altar and on the southern wall of the naos.

Facerea femeii
Pictur~ mural~ (1785).

The making of the woman


Mural painting (1785).

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Sfntul Mucenic Iraclie


Pictur~ mural~ (1834).

Saint Martyr Iraclie


Mural painting (1834).

Decora]ii n lemn pe fa]ada vestic~ Wooden decorations on the western faade

Biserica de lemn [i cimitirul din Rogoz Vedere general~ dinspre nord-est. The wood church and the cemetery of Rogoz General view from the north-east.

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61

M~n~stirea S~raca

The Saraca Monastery


Maica Domnului Platytera
Pictur~ mural~ pe bolta pronaosului bisericii.

Mother of God Platytera


Mural on the vault of the church pronaos.

Na[terea Maicii Domnului


Pictur~ mural~ \n pronaosul bisericii.

Documentele istorice atest~ existen]a m~n~stirii, cu o bogat~ activitate, n anii 1270-1271. Exist~ unele men]iuni de la nceputul secolului al XV-lea, cnd superiorul c~lug~rilor franciscani raporta c~ m~n~stirea este o ap~r~toare a schismaticilor. n anul 1778 a mp~rt~[it soarta altor m~n~stiri romne[ti, pe care mp~ratul Iosif al II-lea le-a trecut n proprietatea statului; n 1782 a fost cump~rat~ la licita]ie de marele dreg~tor Ioan Ostoici din Timi[oara, care a f~cut din ea cavoul familiei sale. C~zut~ n paragin~, a revenit n 1934 sub obl~duirea Episcopiei Caransebe[ului; n anii 1948-1987 a avut statut de parohie. Biserica, cu hramul Schimbarea la fa]~, are form~ de cruce greac~; pictura n fresc~, dateaz~ din secolul al XVI-lea [i a fost restaurat~ n 1730 (fapt consemnat n pisania g~sit~ de curnd). Din 1983 s-au ntreprins lucr~ri complexe de restaurare, a picturii [i a cl~dirii.

Historical documents attest to this monastery with a rich activity back to the years 1270-1271. There are some mentions from the early 15th century, when the father superior of the Franciscan monks reported that the monastery was a defender of the schismatics. In 1778 the abode shared the destiny of other Romanian monastery which Emperor Joseph II put into the property of the state. In 1782, it was purchased on auction by high steward Ioan Ostoici of Timisoara, who turned it into the crypt of his family. Fallen into dereliction, in 1934 it returned to the Bishopric of Caransebes, and between 1948 and 1987 it held the status of parish. The church, dedicated to The Transfiguration, is shaped as a Greek cross. The fresco painting dates from the 16th century, and it was restored in 1730 (a fact recorded in the votive inscription recently discovered). From 1983 ample restoration works of the painting and of the building have been undertaken.

Birth of the Mother of God


Mural in the church pronaos.

Biserica m~n~stirii v~zut~ dinspre nord-vest The monastery church seen from the north-west

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Bisericile de lemn din Srbi

The Wood Churches of Sarbi


Biserica de lemn din Srbi-Josani Vedere general~ dinspre sud. The wood church of Sarbi-Josani General view from the south.

Asemenea majorit~t~]ii localit~]ilor de pe Valea Cos~ului, comuna Srbi are dou~ biserici de lemn: una \n satul Susani, cealalt~ \n Josani. Biserica din Susani, cu hramul Sfnta Paraschiva, a fost construit~ din lemn de stejar \n 1532. Tmpla altarului a fost pictat~ la 1760 de c~tre me[terii Iosif, Iacob [i Alexa. Pictura interioar~ a fost par]ial restaurat~ n 1800 de tefan Amachievici. Biserica de]ine icoane pe lemn din secolul al XVIII-lea, realizate de Radu Munteanu. Biserica din Josani a fost construit~ la 1667 tot din lemn de stejar, n apropierea locului unde exista o veche m~n~stire, pe Gruiul Maiului", distrus~ la invazia t~tarilor din 1717. Pictura de pe pere]i este distrus~ n cea mai mare parte, dar s-au p~strat o serie de icoane pe lemn [i sticl~. Interiorul, ca [i exteriorul bisericii, aminte[te de o cas~ ]~r~neasc~.

Like most of the localities on Cosaul River, the commune of Sarbi boasts two wood churches: one in the village of Susani, and the other in Josani. The church of Susani, dedicated to Saint Paraschiva, was built in oak wood in 1532. The altar screen was painted in 1760 by masters Iosif, Iacob, and Alexa. In 1800, Stefan Amachievici partly restored the inner paintings. The church holds wood icons from the 18th century, created by Radu Munteanu. The Josani church was built in 1667 in oak wood, close to the place of an older monastery, on the Mai Hill, pulled down by the Tartars in 1717. Most of the wall paintings have been destroyed but several wood and glass icons have been preserved miraculously. The interior as well as the exterior of the abode remind of a peasant household.

Plngerea lui Iisus


Pictur~ mural~ \n biserica din Srbi-Susani.

Mourning Jesus
Mural from the church of Sarbi-Susani.

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Biserica Sfntul Nicolae

The Saint Nicholas Church


Biserica Sfntul Nicolae, ntr-o litografie de acum dou~ veacuri The Saint Nicholas Church in a two-century old lithograph

Valoros monument istoric, biserica Sfntul Nicolae din Scheii Bra[ovului a fost construit~ pe locul unei biserici de lemn de la 1403 [i ref~cut~ de mai multe ori n perioada 1518-1594, cu ajutorul voievozilor din ~rile Romne: Vlad C~lug~rul, Neagoe Basarab, Petru Cercel, Aron Vod~ [i Mihai Viteazul. nf~]i[area actual~ a bisericii (plan triconc, cu dou~ paraclise laterale) se datoreaz~ transform~rilor din secolul al XVIII-lea. n 1760 a fost ref~cut~ [i cl~direa al~turat~, a vechii [coli romne[ti din secolul al XV-lea, ast~zi muzeu de art~ veche romnesc~. ncepnd din secolul al XV-lea, preo]ii romni de aici, au primit danii n ve[minte, odoare [i c~r]i de la domnitorii munteni [i moldoveni, ai c~ror t~lmaci sau soli au fost (dup~ cum atest~ mai multe documente [i hrisoave). Cea mai cunoscut~ familie de preo]i, familia Tempea, a slujit aici timp de [ase genera]ii, a l~sat o istorie [i o cronic~, cu rol important n p~strarea credin]ei [i identit~]ii romnilor bra[oveni.

A valuable historic monument, the Saint Nicholas Church of Scheii Brasovului was erected on the spot of a wood church of 1403, remade several times between 1518 and 1594 with the help of Wallachian Rulers Vlad the Monk, Neagoe Basarab, Petru Earring, Aron, and Michael the Brave. The present design of the church (trefoiled, with two lateral chapels) is the result of the transformations undergone in the 18th century. In 1760 the abode was remade. The adjoining building of the 15th century old Romanian school is today a museum of old Romanian art. Starting with the 15th century the Romanian priests here received donations in attire, precious objects and books from Wallachian and Moldavian rulers whose translators or messengers they were (as attested by numerous documents and parchments). The most celebrated family of priests, Tempea, served here for six generations, and left a history and a chronicle with a considerable role in the preservation of the faith and identity of Brasov Romanians.

Biserica Sfntul Nicolae Vedere general~ dinspre sud. n prim plan, lng~ capel~, mormntul celebrului diplomat [i om politic Nicolae Titulescu (1882-1941). The Saint Nicholas Church General view from the south. In the foreground, close to the chapel, the grave of the famous diplomat and politician Nicolae Titulescu (1882-1941).

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Biserica din trei

The Strei Church


Biserica Adormirea Maicii Domnului Vedere dinspre sud. The Dormition of the Virgin Church View from the south.

Biserica din cimitirul satului (pe locul unei villa rustica romana), avnd hramul Adormirea Maicii Domnului, dateaz~ din secolul al XVIII-lea, fiind printre cele mai vechi monumente romne[ti p~strate. De mici dimensiuni, construit~ din piatr~ brut~, are un turn-clopotni]~ pe fa]ada vestic~, o nav~ scurt~ cu bolt~ de scnduri [i un altar dreptunghiular boltit n cruce pe nervuri masive de piatr~. Odinioar~ pictat~ [i la exterior, ast~zi mai p~streaz~ nc~ un valoros ansamblu de picturi murale interioare executate de me[terul zugrav Grozie sintez~ de influen]e bizantine [i norditaliene din a doua jum~tate a secolului al XIV-lea.

The church in the village cemetery (taking the place of a Roman villa rustica), dedicated to the Dormition of the Virgin, dates from the 18th century, being one of the oldest Romanian monuments preserved. Small, in rubblework, it features a belfry tower on the western faade, a short nave with a plank arch vault and a cross-shaped vaulted rectangular altar on massive stone nervures. Once painted on the inside and the outside, today the abode preserves only a valuable ensemble of inner murals crated by Grozie, a synthesis of Byzantine and North Italian influences from the late 14th century.

Biserica Adormirea Maicii Domnului Portalul de pe fa]ada vestic~. The Dormition of the Virgin Church The portal on the western faade.

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70

Picturi murale de interior (secolul al XIV-lea) Biserica Adormirea Maicii Domnului. Interior murals from the 14th century The Dormition of the Virgin Church.

Iisus n glorie [i Cortegiul apostolilor


Pictur~ mural~ \n altarul bisericii.

Jesus in Glory and the Cortege of Apostles


Mural painting in the church altar.

71

Biserica din Strem]

The Stremt Church


Vedere general~ a bisericii dinspre sud General view of the church from the south

A fost intemeiat~ n 1521-1525 de voievodul muntean Radu de la Afuma]i ca m~n~stire ortodox~ [i transformat~ ulterior \n sediu de episcopat ortodox (1557). Biserica, avnd hramul Intrarea n Biseric~, a suferit o serie de transform~ri \nainte de 1724, fiind singurul edificiu din vechea m~n~stire care s-a p~strat pn~ ast~zi. Decora]ia fa]adelor cu un bru median demonstreaz~ influen]a arhitecturii din ara Romneasc~. n interior se p~streaz~ pictur~ mural~ valoroas~, cu caractere artistice postbrncovene[ti, realizat~ \n 1724 de zugravii Ion [i Nistor.

The abode was founded in 15211525 by Wallachian Ruler Radu of Afumati as an Orthodox Church, and then turned into the headquarters of the Orthodox Bishopric (1557). The church, dedicated to The Entry in the Temple, underwent several transformations before 1724, being the only edifice still standing from the old monastery. The decoration of the faades, with a medium-height belt, shows a Wallachian influence. Inside, the murals preserved are highly valuable, evincing postBrancovan touches. They are the work from 1724 of artists Ion and Nistor.

Maica Domnului cu Pruncul


Pictur~ mural~ (1724).

The Virgin with the Infant


Mural painting (1724).

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Biserica de lemn din urde[ti

The Wood Church of Surdesti


Biserica Sfin]ii Arhangheli Vedere dinspre sud-vest. The Holy Archangels Church View from the south-west.

Naosul, iconostasul, interiorul bisericii The naos, the iconostasis, the interior of the church

Biserica Sfin]ii Arhangheli a fost ridicat~ conform unei inscrip]ii s~pate \n partea superioar~ a ancadramentului u[ii din brne de gorun \n 1724 de me[terul Toma Macarie. La construc]ie, turnul prezenta \n vrf o semilun~, amplasat~ de c~tre s~teni, pentru a feri biserica de distrugerea t~t~rilor. Biserica, unicul exemplar cu dubl~ poal~ din Valea Chioarului, se remarc~ prin silueta prelung~ a turnuluiclopotni]~, cu patru turnule]e, \nalt de 54m (\nal]imea total~ de la sol este de 72m), fiind considerat~ cea mai nalt~ construc]ie de lemn din lume. Pridvorul de pe latura vestic~ a fost ad~ugat ulterior [i prev~zut cu dou~ rnduri de arcade suprapuse, crestate. Acoperi[ul este etajat, cu dubl~ strea[in~, pe por]iunea de perete cuprins~ ntre stre[ini existnd un al doilea rnd de ferestre, identice cu cele aflate la nivelul inferior. Remarcabil este [i brul n funie r~sucit~. Interiorul, este decorat cu picturi murale [i icoane valoroase executate de tefan Zugravul \n 1783.

The Holy Apostles Church was erected, according to an inscription carved up on the door frame, from common oak beams by master Toma Macarie, in the year 1724. Initially, the tower had a crescent top, which the villagers had erected in order to guard the church from the Tartars inroads. The abode, the unique piece with a saddle roof on the Chioar Valley, stands out by the elongated silhouette of the 54-m tall belfry tower, with four turrets, (total height from the soil, 72 meters), being considered the tallest wood construction in the world. The wood porch on the western side was added subsequently and provided with two rows of superposed, indented arcades. The roof is tiered, saddled. On the wall between the eaves there is a second row of windows identical to the ones below. The entwined rope girdle is downright outstanding. The interior is decorated with murals and admirable icons painted by artist Stephan the Painter, in 1783.

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Necredin]a lui Toma


Pictur~ mural~ (1783).

Picturi murale interioare tefan Zugravul, 1783. Inner murals Stephan the Painter, 1783.

Thomas the Disbeliever


Mural painting (1783).

Biserica de lemn din urde[ti Vedere general~ dinspre sud. The wood church of Surdesti General view from the south.

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77

M~n~stirea Topli]a

The Toplita Monastery


Paraclisul [i corpul de chilii v~zute dinspre nord-vest The chapel and the buildings of cells seen from the north-west

Este ctitoria episcopului Miron Cristea (devenit primul patriarh al Romniei, 1925-1939), care a adus aici, n 1910, o biseric~ de lemn din Stnceni-Harghita, din 1847, a c~rei arhitectur~ mbin~ stilul moldovenesc cu cel transilv~nean; a fost pictat~ n 1927 de Dimitrie Belizarie. Cl~direa st~re]iei a fost ridicat~ n 1928, s-a restaurat n 1975-1976, iar n 19851990 s-au f~cut extinderi prin construirea unui paraclis [i a unui depozit pentru obiectele biserice[ti cu valoare de patrimoniu cultural na]ional din jude]ul Harghita. Acesta [i muzeul m~n~stirii cuprind obiecte de art~ valoroase, multe provenite din biserici ortodoxe de pe teritoriul jude]ului, r~mase f~r~ enoria[i. Men]ion~m din muzeu: dou~ tmple (catapetesme) din 1747 [i 1844, icoane din secolul al XVIII-lea, c~r]i rare ca Psaltirea din 1544, manuscrisul Cazaniei lui Varlaam, 1643 [i cel al unei Evanghelii de la nceputul secolului al XVIII-lea.

This is the foundation of bishop Miron Cristea (who was the first patriarch of Romania, between 1925 and 1939). In 1910, he brought here, from Stanceni-Harghita, a wood church dating to 1847. Its architecture is a blend of Moldavian and Transylvanian styles. It was painted in 1927 by Dimitrie Belizarie. The abbey building was erected in 1928, restored between 1975 and 1976, and between 1985 and 1990 is gained a new chapel and a storeroom for religious utensils of extreme value from the county of Harghita. This and the monastery museum feature precious art objects, many of them coming from Orthodox Churches in the region left now without parishioners. Two altar screens from 1747 and 1844, icons from the 18th century, rare books like The Psalter of 1544, the manuscript of Varlaams Lectionary, 1643 and of The Gospels from the early 18th century make the pride of the museum.

Vedere general~ a m~n~stirii dinspre sud-vest General view of the monastery seen from the south-west

79

Introducere

Introduction

Ieromonah / Hieromonk Iustin Marchi[ Selec]ie imagini [i legende Selection of the images and captions

Valeriu Cimpoeru Versiune englez~ English version

Alina Crc Imagini Photograph Credits

Dan Ioan Dinescu tefan Petrescu Mircea Savu Grafic~ [i DTP Layout and DTP

Roxana Enciu Redactare Editing

Irina Spirescu Dana Voiculescu Coperta Cover Design

Adrian Sorin Georgescu (MECENA Consult srl.) Coordonator proiect Project co-ordinator

Arpad Harangozo Ovidiu Morar

NOI MEDIA PRINT B-dul. Nicolae B~lcescu nr. 18 Bloc Dalles, Bucure[ti Tel. 021 222 79 72 Fax: 021 202 91 82 E-mail: nmp@nmp.ro