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MM~~nn~~ssttiirrii [[ii bbiisseerriiccii ddiinn RRoommâânniiaa

MMoonnaasstteerriieess aanndd CChhuurrcchheess ooff RRoommaanniiaa

MMoollddoovvaa [[ii BBuuccoovviinnaa

MMoollddaavviiaa aanndd BBuukkoowwiinnaa

a [ [ i i B B u u c c o o v v i
DDeessccrriieerreeaa CCIIPP aa BBiibblliiootteecciiii NNaa]]iioonnaallee aa RRoommâânniieeii GGhheeoorrgghhiiuu,,
DDeessccrriieerreeaa CCIIPP aa BBiibblliiootteecciiii NNaa]]iioonnaallee aa RRoommâânniieeii
GGhheeoorrgghhiiuu,, MMiihhaaii
MM~~nn~~ssttiirrii ddiinn RRoommâânniiaa:: MMoollddoovvaa [[ii BBuuccoovviinnaa / text [i legend~:
Mihai Gheorghiu, Valeriu Cimpoeru; foto.: Dan Ioan Dinescu,
Mircea Savu, ßtefan Petrescu; grafic~: Ovidiu Morar, Mihaela Dulea;
trad.: Alina Cârâc.-Bucure[ti: NOI Media Print, 2005
ISBN: 973-7959-20-5
I. Cimpoeru, Valeriu
II. Dinescu, Dan Ioan (foto.)
III. Savu, Mircea (foto.)
IV. Petrescu, ßtefan (foto.)
V. Morar, Ovidiu (graf.)
VI. Dulea, Mihaela (graf.)
VII. Cârâc, Alina (trad.)

726.7(498)

CCuupprriinnss

CCoonntteennttss

MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa PPuuttnnaa

MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa NNeeaamm]]

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MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa SSffâânnttuull IIooaann cceell NNoouu

MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa VVoorroonnee]]

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BBiisseerriiccaa AArrbboorree

MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa DDoobbrroovv~~]]

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MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa MMoollddoovvii]]aa

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MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa HHuummoorr

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MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa SSuucceevvii]]aa

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MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa BBiissttrrii]]aa

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MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa SSllaattiinnaa

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MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa GGaallaattaa

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MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa DDrraaggoommiirrnnaa

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MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa BBaarrnnoovvaa

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MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa SSffiinn]]iiii TTrreeii IIeerraarrhhii

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MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa CCeett~~]]uuiiaa

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MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa AAggaappiiaa

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MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa VV~~rraatteecc

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MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa SSeeccuu

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BBrrooddeerriiii MMoollddoovveennee[[ttii

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TThhee PPuuttnnaa MMoonnaasstteerryy

TThhee NNeeaammtt MMoonnaasstteerryy

TThhee SSaaiinntt JJoohhnn tthhee NNeeww MMoonnaasstteerryy

TThhee VVoorroonneett MMoonnaasstteerryy

TThhee AArrbboorree CChhuurrcchh

TThhee DDoobbrroovvaatt MMoonnaasstteerryy

TThhee MMoollddoovviittaa MMoonnaasstteerryy

TThhee HHuummoorr MMoonnaasstteerryy

TThhee SSuucceevviittaa MMoonnaasstteerryy

TThhee BBiissttrriittaa MMoonnaasstteerryy

TThhee SSllaattiinnaa MMoonnaasstteerryy

TThhee GGaallaattaa MMoonnaasstteerryy

TThhee DDrraaggoommiirrnnaa MMoonnaasstteerryy

TThhee BBaarrnnoovvaa MMoonnaasstteerryy

TThhee HHoollyy TThhrreeee HHiieerraarrcchhss MMoonnaasstteerryy

TThhee CCeettaattuuiiaa MMoonnaasstteerryy

TThhee AAggaappiiaa MMoonnaasstteerryy

TThhee VVaarraatteecc MMoonnaasstteerryy

TThhee SSeeccuu MMoonnaasstteerryy

MMoollddaavviiaann EEmmbbrrooiiddeerriieess

MM~~nn~~ssttiirrii [[ii bbiisseerriiccii ddiinn RRoommâânniiaa

MMoonnaasstteerriieess aanndd CChhuurrcchheess ooff RRoommaanniiaa

MMoollddoovvaa [[ii BBuuccoovviinnaa

MMoollddaavviiaa aanndd BBuukkoowwiinnaa

a [ [ i i B B u u c c o o v v i

EEtthhoossuull mmeeddiieevvaall rroommâânneesscc

TThhee RRoommaanniiaann MMeeddiieevvaall EEtthhooss

Arhitectura religioas~ moldoveneasc~ este crea]ia remarcabil~ a unei civiliza]ii care î[i atinge maturitatea, echilibrul interior [i o anumit~ autonomie, având totodat~ con[tiin]a unei certe filia]ii spirituale. Tragedia c~derii Constantinopolului g~se[te ¥~rile Române într-un moment fast, de avânt [i consolidare. Transla]ia tradi]iei bizantine î[i g~se[te astfel un f~ga[ a[a-zicând „natural” la cur]ile domne[ti ale celor dou~ ]~ri.

Modelul impus de tradi]ia bizantin~ domin~ spa]iul valah, dar prime[te neîncetat pecetea unui genius loci românesc. De la ßtefan cel Mare, Petru Rare[ [i Vasile Lupu la Cantacuzini [i Brâncoveni, „Bizan]ul” românesc î[i tr~ie[te propriul ritm armonic dictat de o forma mentis autohton~. Stilul moldovenesc al arhitecturii religioase (influen]ate în mod cert de arhitectura militar~ [i civil~) [i al picturii murale este opera de bun augur a unei civiliza]ii aflate la apogeul creativit~]ii sale. A doua jum~tate a secolului al XV-lea [i întregul secol al XVI-lea alc~tuiesc vârsta de aur a medievalit~]ii române[ti, aflate în dezvoltare militar~, diplomatic~, cultural~ [i artistic~. Din 1400 pân~ în 1600 trec dou~ secole de acumul~ri în crea]ia româneasc~, ce începe s~-[i dezvolte personalitatea proprie, distinct~, dar permanent ancorat~ în matricea tradi]iei teologice [i estetice imperiale. Biserici, m~n~stiri, cet~]i, miniaturi, broderii, sculpturi [i atâtea altele recompun imaginea unei civiliza]ii constituite ca un continuum al tradi]iei bizantine [i asumându-[i permanent aceast~ matrice spiritual~. În toate aceste ctitorii se vede gestul voievodului care î[i împline[te datoria de protector [i slujitor al credin]ei. Pictura mural~ a bisericilor m~n~stirilor moldovene[ti din epoca lui ßtefan cel Mare [i cea a lui Petru Rare[ reprezint~ un patrimoniu universal, o dovad~ a autenticit~]ii [i creativit~]ii [colilor artistice

Moldavian religious architecture is the outstanding creation of a civilization about to reach maturity, interior poise, and a certain autonomy, while preserving its definite spiritual heritage. The tragic collapse of Constantinople found the Romanian Lands in a favorable moment of consolidation and progress. Thus, the Byzantine tradition got most naturally grafted on the local spirit of the Wallachian and Moldavian courts, constantly enhanced by the Romanian genius loci. From Stephen the Great, Petru Rares and Vasile Lupu to the Cantacuzinos and the Brancovans, the Romanian Byzantium experienced its own harmonious rhythm dictated by a distinct autochthonous cast of mind. The Moldavian style of religious architecture (bearing the obvious influence of military and civilian architecture) and of mural painting is the well-auguring creation of a civilization at an acme of creativeness. The second half of the 15 th century and the entire 16 th century represent the golden age of Romanian medievalism at the height of its military, diplomatic, cultural, and artistic development. From 1400 to 1600 the Romanian creation matured, finding a distinct personality, yet constantly anchored in the matrix of imperial theological and aesthetic tradition. Churches, monasteries, citadels, illuminations, embroideries, sculptures and many others compose the image of a civilization that went in the footsteps of the Byzantine tradition, constantly assuming this spiritual mould. All these artifacts evince also the desire of the ruling princes to fulfill their duty as protectors and servants of the faith. The mural paintings in the Moldavian monasteries and churches from the time of Stephen the Great and Petru Rares now belong to the world heritage, standing proof of the genius and creativity of the local art schools. The churches of the Moldavian monasteries are a historic, artistic and theological expression of the

moldovene[ti. Bisericile m~n~stirilor moldovene[ti sunt expresia istoric~, artistic~ [i teologic~ a spiritului medieval românesc. „Estetica” acestei picturi este în întregime de extrac]ie plastic~, „icoana” acestei picturi este fundamental frumuse]e teologic~, transmitere a mesajului liturgic. Umanitatea picturii murale este una trasfigurat~, lipsit~ de spa]ialitate, de perspectiv~, pentru c~ „zugravul” nu construie[te iluzia unei realit~]i cotidiene, ci aduce doar vedenia unei lumi v~zute sau întrev~zute de profe]i, sfin]i sau binecredincio[i. Reprezentarea trupului uman este aici canonic~, deci o func]ie a semnifica]iei teologice [i nu realist~, încercând s~ refac~ un concret vizibil natural. Imaginea este permanent~ trimitere la Evanghelie, la istoria sacr~ ante legem [i post legem. Ea aduce la prezen]~ sensul predat. Frumuse]ea pictural~ rezid~ în prospe]imea tipului de abordare, în armonia coloristicii, în ingeniozitatea solu]iilor cromatice, în m~iestria g~sirii coresponden]ei dintre pictur~ [i arhitectur~, în siguran]a desenului care „cite[te” Biblia. De la gestul ctitoririi pân~ la ultima imagine pictat~, biserica este un act de ofrand~ [i un leg~mânt de credin]~. Nimic nu este gratuit, nimic nu este în plus, totul este un întreg armonic. Frescele bisericilor moldovene[ti ascund [i transform~ piatra sau c~r~mida în liturghie [i vedere a adev~rului. Piatra zidirii este transfigurat~ de icoan~, materia este dizolvat~ în imagine [i culoare, în semn al nev~zutului. Biserica exprim~ omul medieval din spa]iul românesc, spiritul s~u c~l~uzit de istoria evanghelic~, întotdeauna deschis~ pentru sensul judec~]ii finale. Ctitorul este cel care arvune[te de aici comoara paradisului [i a judec~]ii lui Dumnezeu, iar biserica este chivotul unui stra[nic leg~mânt, a unei umilin]e des~vâr[ite numai în fa]a p~rintelui ceresc. El d~ruie[te [i se d~ruie[te, reunind smerenia [i mândria într-un singur gest.

Romanian medieval spirit. ”The aesthetics” of this painting is entirely plastic, its ”icon” expressing theological beauty, and conveying a liturgical message. The humanity of the murals is transfixed, lacking in spatiality and perspective since the artists did not depict the illusion of daily reality but the image of a world seen or glimpsed only by prophets, saints, and the faithful. The representation of the human body is therefore canonical, a function of the theological meaning, not realistic or attempting to present a concrete natural and visible world. Images are permanently suggesting the Gospels, the sacred history ante legem and post legem. Pictorial beauty springs from the freshness of the approach, the harmonious colors, the ingenious chromatic solutions, and the masterful correspondence between painting and architecture, the assuredness of the drawing that interprets the Bible. From their very foundation down to the last painted image, churches are an offering and a pledge of faith. Nothing is redundant, nothing is gratuitous, and everything creates a harmonious whole. The frescoes on the Moldavian churches ensconce and turn stone or brick into liturgy and perception of the truth. The icon transforms the building stone, matter dissolves into image and color as a token of the unseen. Churches express medieval men from the Romanian space, their spirit guided by the Gospels, and constantly open to the final judgement. The founders of religious abodes offer an advance down here for the paradisiacal treasure up there and for God’s judgement, while a church represents the ark of a mighty covenant, of consummate humility before the heavenly father. The founders give and also give themselves, combining meekness and pride in a single gesture. Frescoes dematerialize the walls, they pierce their opaqueness and gravitational force. Gothic churches send to the sky ever-sharper shapes in a final ascensional

MMoollddoovvaa

BB

Fresca dematerializeaz~ zidul, îi disloc~ opacitatea [i for]a gravita]ional~. Dac~ biserica gotic~ se înal]~ la cer în forme din ce în ce mai ascu]ite, într-o ultim~ încercare ascensional~, în schimb biserica pictat~ în exterior se dezvolt~ pe orizontal~, a[ezat~ molcom pe p~mânt [i perfect armonizat~ cu peisajul, dar g~se[te alt mod de a învinge gravita]ia [i materialitatea acoperindu-se cu icoane ale transparen]ei teologice [i p~strând astfel numai materialitatea strict necesar~ a mesajului purtat de dincolo c~tre aici [i de aici c~tre dincolo. „Este de datoria pictorilor s~ execute ceea ce P~rin]ii comand~ [i prescriu” dicteaz~ Conciliul de la Niceea (cf. Charles Diehl, Bizantine Art, Baynes & Moss, Byzantinum, 1948, p.179). „Zugravul” ortodox este un emerit care trebuie s~ picteze sub har [i în ascez~ o umanitate a p~catului [i a mântuirii. Marile fresce exterioare ale bisericilor m~n~stirilor bucovinene sunt teologie desf~[urat~ ca o mantie pe zidurile bisericilor, iar portretele votive ale domnitorilor, care închin~ „chivotele” bisericilor însu[i Mântuitorului, demonstreaz~ la rândul lor semnifica]ia major teologic~ a ctitoririi. Desigur, o dat~ cu începutul secolului al XVII-lea atât stilul arhitectural cât [i cel pictural se modific~, hieratismul picturii murale se atenueaz~ în bun~ m~sur~, iar arhitectura religioas~ se diversific~, dobândind influen]e renascentiste [i baroce care conduc la pierderea unit~]ii stilistice în favoarea ajungerii la formule unicat. Vasile Lupu, cu impresionanta sa apeten]~ pentru fast, tradi]ie imperial~ [i împrumuturi str~lucitoare, este reprezentativ prin ctitoriile sale în aceast~ epoc~ asupra c~reia î[i pune amprenta. Arta Moldovei intr~ acum într-o alt~ epoc~ [i într-un alt ritm al istoriei. Vârsta premodern~ [i cea modern~ î[i anun]~ venirea, influen]ele occidentale sunt din ce în ce mai puternice, iar stilul artei cre[tine din ce în ce mai elastic.

attempt. In exchange, churches painted on the outside grow on the horizontal, blandly stuck to the ground, in perfect harmony with the scenery. Nonetheless, they discover another method of defeating gravity and materialness: getting covered all over with icons of theological transparency, and thus preserving only as much materialness as necessary to convey the message from beyond over here and from down here to beyond. ”It is the duty of painters to carry out what the Fathers order and prescribe”, stipulates the Council of Niceea (cf. Charles Diehl, Byzantine Art, Baynes & Moss, Byzantium, 1948, p. 179). The Orthodox painter is an artist who must paint with afflatus and in austerity a humanity of sin and redemption. The great outer frescoes of the churches of the Bukovina monasteries are theology unfolding on walls like a mantle; the votive portraits of the princes dedicate the church arches to the Savior Himself, in order to prove one more time the major theological significance of the respective abodes. With the turn of the 17 th century architectural and pictorial styles changed. The hieratic nature of the murals considerably diminished, religious architecture diversified, acquiring Renaissance and baroque touches that shattered the stylistic unity in favor of unique formulas. By his foundations, Vasile Lupu, with his impressive penchant for pomp, imperial tradition and brilliant loans is representative for that epoch on which he left his indelible mark. Moldavian art entered then a new stage, a different historical rhythm. Pre-modern and modern times were already dawning, western influences became more and more powerful, and the style of Christian art showed tremendous elasticity. Byzantine tradition started to fade away, although mural painting continued to obey the Byzantine painting canons. The monuments and the painting of the 18 th century attest to all these changes as well as to the more and more diverse trends emerging.

uuccoovviinnaa

Tradi]ia bizantin~ devine un ecou din ce în ce mai palid, de[i pictura mural~ va respecta în continuare erminia picturii bizantine. Monumentele [i pictura secolului al XVIII-lea atest~ toate aceste schimb~ri, precum [i influen]ele din ce în ce mai diverse, care î[i fac sim]it~ prezen]a. Începând cu 1711, o dat~ cu prima domnie fanariot~, Moldova, [i cu ea întreaga civiliza]ie româneasc~, intr~ într-o epoc~ nou~, dominat~ de instabilitate, de control excesiv al Por]ii, dar [i de o deschidere pronun]at~ spre influen]ele occidentale vehiculate tocmai prin intermediul fanario]ilor. Aceste influen]e vor decide în final drumul spre modernitate al culturii române [i integrarea sa în concertul european al secolului al XIX-lea. Dar chipul culturii române va r~mâne totu[i dominat în permanen]~ de o tensiune dubl~ guvernat~ de o origine dubl~ a stilului na]ional. Orient bizantin [i occident european au fost [i r~mân dimensiuni ale sintezei culturii române[ti.

Starting with 1711 and the first ruler from the Phanar appointed to the Moldavian throne, the Romanian land and its entire civilization embarked upon a new epoch marred by instability and the Porte’s excessive control, yet also benefiting from western touches brought about by the very Phanar rulers. All this minglement would finally pave the way for the modern times of the Romanian lands, which became integrated into the European concert in the 19 th century. Still, the Romanian culture remained prone to a two-fold tension governed by the dual origin of the national style. The Byzantine Orient and the European Occident will stay for ever blended in the Romanian spirit and culture.

MMiihhaaii GGhheeoorrgghhiiuu

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BBiisseerriiccaa MM~~nn~~ssttiirriiii PPuuttnnaa,,

vv~~zzuutt~~ ddiinnsspprree ssuudd--vveesstt

TThhee cchhuurrcchh ooff tthhee PPuuttnnaa MMoonnaasstteerryy,,

sseeeenn ffrroomm tthhee ssoouutthhwweesstt

MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa PPuuttnnaa Litografie color de Knapp Franz

Xavier,1859-1860.

TThhee PPuuttnnaa MMoonnaasstteerryy Coloured litography Knapp Franz Xavier, 1859-1860.

MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa PPuuttnnaa

TThhee PPuuttnnaa MMoonnaasstteerryy

Ctitorie [i necropol~ a voievodului ßtefan cel Mare, centru artistic [i c~rtur~resc. Construit~ \n 1466-1469, ca m~n~stire fortificat~, a fost ref~cut~ \n 1472, \n urma unui incendiu. Pustiit~ de mai multe ori [i reconstruit~ \n 1966-1988, ea nu mai p~streaz~ din epoca lui ßtefan cel Mare decât Turnul Tezaurului (1481). Muzeul m~n~stirii posed~ o bogat~ colec]ie de broderii religioase vechi, manuscrise miniate [i obiecte de cult. De dimensiuni impun~toare, biserica m~n~stirii, cu hramul Adormirea Maicii Domnului, a fost ridicat~ \ntre 1654 [i 1662 de domnitorii Vasile Lupu [i Gheorghe ßtefan. Edificiul reia planul bisericii ini]iale: plan treflat, cu propor]ii alungite, având 37 m lungime, 15 m l~]ime \n dreptul absidelor laterale [i 33 m \n~l]ime. Interiorul este \mp~r]it \ntre tinda dreptunghiular~, pronaosul p~trat, camera mormintelor, dreptun- ghiular~, desp~r]it~ de naos prin dou~ coloane, naosul p~trat, prelungit lateral de absida secundar~, [i altarul din absida principal~. Biserica ad~poste[te mormântul lui ßtefan cel Mare [i pe cele ale urma[ilor s~i, pân~ la Petru Rare[.

Foundation and necropolis of Ruler Stephen the Great, a center of arts and letters, Putna was erected between 1466 and 1469 as a fortified monastery, and then retouched in 1472, following a fire. Laid waste several times, it was rebuilt between 1966 and 1988, the only element preserved from the time of Stephen the Great being the Treasury Tower (1481). The monastery’s museum boasts a rich collection of old religious embroideries, illuminated manuscripts, and objects of cult. Between 1654 and 1662, Rulers Vasile Lupu and Gheorghe Stefan erected the Dormition of the Virgin Church, so impressive in size, on a design similar to an older one. The church of the Putna Monastery is built on a trefoiled design of prolonged sizes, 37 m long and 15 m wide at the lateral apses, and 33 m high. The interior features the rectangular porch, the square pronaos, the rectangular mortuary separated from the naos by two columns, the square naos that goes laterally to the secondary apse, and the altar in the main apse. The abode shelters the tombs of Stephen the Great and his descendants, down to Petru Rares.

the altar in the main apse. The abode shelters the tombs of Stephen the Great and

VVeeddeerree ppaannoorraammiicc~~ ddiinnsspprree nnoorrdd--eesstt Turnul Tezaurului, a[ezat pe latura de vest a zidului incintei, este singurul element arhitectonic p~strat din ansamblul original.

PPaannoorraammiicc vviieeww ffrroomm tthhee nnoorrtthheeaasstt On the western side of the precincts wall, the Treasury Tower is the only architectural element still standing from the old ensemble.

CCaammeerraa mmoorrmmiinntteelloorr ddiinn bbiisseerriiccaa MM~~nn~~ssttiirriiii PPuuttnnaa Mormântul ctitorului ßtefan cel Mare (decedat \n 2 iulie 1504).

MMoorrttuuaarryy rroooomm iinn tthhee cchhuurrcchh ooff tthhee PPuuttnnaa MMoonnaasstteerryy Tomb of founder Stephen the Great (died on July 2, 1504).

e e P P u u t t n n a a M M o o
e e P P u u t t n n a a M M o o
„ßtefan Vod~ cel Bun, când s-au apucat s~ fac~ M~n~stirea Putna, au tras cu arcul

„ßtefan Vod~ cel Bun, când s-au apucat s~ fac~ M~n~stirea

Putna, au tras cu arcul ßtefan Vod~ dintr-un vârvu de munte, ce este lâng~ mân~stire, [i unde au agiuns s~geata au f~cut prestolul \n oltariu. ßi este mult loc de unde au tras pân~ la

mân~stire

(cronicar Ion Neculce, 1672-1745)

”Ruler Stephen the Kind, when he made up his mind to build the Monastery of Putna, he stretched his bow and shot an arrow that flew right from the top of the mount close to the monastery, and where the arrow struck there the table in the

altar was laid. And, I vouch, the distance between the monastery and the place from where he shot the arrow is quite

(chronicler Ion Neculce, 1672-1745)

remarkable “

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MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa NNeeaamm]],, vveeddeerree aaeerriiaann~~ Prim-plan cu aghiazmatarul.

TThhee NNeeaammtt MMoonnaasstteerryy,, bbiirrddss eeyyee vviieeww Close-up of the holy waterfont.

OO ppaarrttee ddiinn iinncciinnttaa mm~~nn~~ssttiirriiii,, ccuu bbiisseerriicciillee ççnn~~ll]]aarreeaa DDoommnnuulluuii ((sseeccoolluull aall XXVV--lleeaa)) [[ii SSffâânnttuull GGhheeoorrgghhee ((sseeccoolluull aall XXIIXX--lleeaa)) Vedere dinspre sud-vest.

PPaarrttss ooff tthhee mmoonnaasstteerryy pprreecciinnccttss wwiitthh tthhee AAsscceennssiioonn CChhuurrcchh ((1155 tthh cceennttuurryy)) aanndd SSaaiinntt GGeeoorrggee CChhuurrcchh ((1199 tthh cceennttuurryy)) View from the south-west.

MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa NNeeaamm]]

TThhee NNeeaammtt MMoonnaasstteerryy

A fost ctitorit~ \n secolul al XIV-lea, mai \ntâi de Petru Mu[at, apoi de Alexandru cel Bun. çn incinta m~n~stirii sunt dou~ biserici [i dou~ paraclise:

Biserica mare çn~l]area Domnului (secolul al XV-lea) [i Biserica Sfântul Gheorghe (secolul al XIX-lea), paraclisele Buna Vestire (secolul al XVI-lea) [i Adormirea Maicii Domnului (secolul al XVIII-lea). Biserica mare \ncununeaz~ prin arhitectura sa stilul moldovenesc ini]iat \n epoca lui ßtefan cel Mare. Este un monument arhitectonic impresionant, sintez~ a tuturor elementelor arhitecturii moldovene[ti, apogeu al arhitecturii religioase a epocii. Pictura original~ s-a mai p~strat \n altar, naos [i camera mormintelor; \n pridvor [i pronaos, pictura dateaz~ din timpul lui Petru Rare[. Ultima restaurare, realizat~ \ntre anii 1954 [i 1961, a readus la forma ini]ial~ biserica lui ßtefan [i cetatea. Biserica este caracterizat~ de elegan]~, armonie a propor]iilor, ingeniozitate a solu]iilor arhitectonice, armonia combina]iilor cu elemente arhitecturale gotice. A[ez~mântul posed~ cea mai mare bibliotec~ m~n~stireasc~ (18 000 volume, incluzând manuscrise de mare valoare) [i un muzeu cu o valoroas~ colec]ie de art~ bisericeasc~.

This abode was founded in the 14 th century first under the care of Petru Musat and then of Alexander the Kind. Within the monastery complex there are two churches and two chapels: the big Ascension Church (the 15 th century), the St. George Church (the 19 th century), the chapels The Annunciation (the 16 th century) and The Dormition (the 18 th century). The architecture of the big church is in Moldavian style dating from the time of Stephen the Great. An impressive monument of architecture, the church achieves a synthesis of all the elements of Moldavian architecture, being an acme of the religious art at that time. Original paintings have been preserved in the altar, naos and mortuary, while the paintings of the porch and the pronaos go back to the time of Petru Rares. The latest restoration works, carried out between 1954 and 1961, returned Stephen’s church and the fortress to their former looks. Elegant, of harmonious proportions, the church also evinces harmonious Gothic borrowings. The abode boasts the biggest monastery library (18.000 volumes, including highly valuable manuscripts) and a museum with a priceless collection of religious art.

(18.000 volumes, including highly valuable manuscripts) and a museum with a priceless collection of religious art.

SS~~rrbb~~ttooaarreeaa hhrraammuulluuii MM~~nn~~ssttiirriiii NNeeaamm]] Fotografie de epoc~.

CCeelleebbrraattiioonn ooff tthhee NNeeaammtt MMoonnaasstteerryy ddeeddiiccaattiioonn ddaayy Period photograph.

T T e e t t r r a a e e v v a

TTeettrraaeevvaanngghheelluull lluuii GGaavvrriiiill UUrriicc,, 11442299 Miniatur~: Sfântul Apostol Luca.

TThhee FFoouurr GGoossppeellss ooff GGaavvrriiiill UUrriicc,, 11442299 Miniature: Saint Apostle Luke.

i c c , , 1 1 4 4 2 2 9 9 Miniature: Saint Apostle

TTeettrraaeevvaanngghheelluull lluuii GGaavvrriiiill UUrriicc,, 11442299 çnceputul evangheliei dup~ Marcu.

TThhee FFoouurr GGoossppeellss ooff GGaavvrriiiill UUrriicc,, 11442299 Beginning of the Gospel according to Saint Mark.

4 2 2 9 9 Beginning of the Gospel according to Saint Mark. T T e

TTeettrraaeevvaanngghheelluull lluuii GGaavvrriiiill UUrriicc,, 11442299

Miniatur~: Sfântul Apostol Marcu.

TThhee FFoouurr GGoossppeellss ooff GGaavvrriiiill UUrriicc,, 11442299 Illumination: Holy Apostle Mark.

e l l s s o o f f G G a a v v r
T T r r a a p p e e z z a a M

TTrraappeezzaa MM~~nn~~ssttiirriiii NNeeaamm]] Imagine din perioada interbelic~.

RReeffeeccttoorryy ooff tthhee NNeeaammtt MMoonnaasstteerryy Picture from the interbellum period.

FFaa]]aaddaa vveessttiicc~~ [[ii aagghhiiaazzmmaattaarruull MM~~nn~~ssttiirriiii NNeeaamm]] Cl~direa are un acoper~mânt bulbat [i a fost construit~ \n 1836-

1847 [i pictat~ \n 1974-1977 de

Teodor Varahil-Moraru. ßi aceast~ cl~dire, dar mai ales turnul- clopotni]~ cu patru etaje sub care se arcuie[te intrarea \n incint~, creeaz~ o puternic~ impresie de monumentalitate. Fotografie interbelic~.

TThhee wweesstteerrff ffaaaaddee aanndd tthhee hhoollyy wwaatteerrffoonntt ooff tthhee NNeeaammtt MMoonnaasstteerryy The building with a bulbous roof was built between 1836 and

1847 and painted between 1974

and 1977 by Teodor Varahil- Moraru. This construction and particularly the four-storied belfry under which stands the entry give a powerful sense of monumentality. Interbellum photo.

BBiisseerriiccaa mmaarree,, IInn~~ll]]aarreeaa DDoommnnuulluuii. EExxoonnaarrtteexx Ni[a ferestrei [i fresce restaurate stângaci \n 1850.

TThhee bbiigg AAsscceennssiioonn CChhuurrcchh EExxoonnaarrtthheexx Window niche and awkwardly restored frescoes from 1850.

C h h u u r r c c h h E E x x o

MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa SSffâânnttuull IIooaann cceell NNoouu

TThhee SSaaiinntt JJoohhnn tthhee NNeeww MMoonnaasstteerryy

MM~~nn~~ssttiirreeaa SSffâânnttuull IIooaann cceell NNoouu Vedere aerian~ dinspre sud.

TThhee SSaaiinntt JJoohhnn tthhee NNeeww MMoonnaass