Sunteți pe pagina 1din 21

1.

Daca se considera stiva TCP/IP ca avand o arhitectura multi-plan, precizati caror plane (dintre cele trei)
apartin urmatoarele protcoale: IP, TCP, UDP, ICMP, RIP, BGP, OSPF, IGMP, SNMP, RSVP, RTP, RTCP, FTP.
Explicati pe scurt pentru fiecare in parte.

Network layer- ARP, IP, ICMP, IGMP, MAC, NDP, OSPF, PPP
Transport layer- RSVP,SCTP, TCP, UDP
Application layer- BGP, DHCP, DNS, FTP, HTTP, RIP, RTCP,RTP, SMTP, SNMP
Internet Protocol (sau IP, n traducere liber din englez Protocolul Interreea) este un protocol prin care datele sunt
trimise de la un calculator la altul prin intermediu Internetului. Fiecare calculator (cunoscut sub denumirea de
gazd), are pe Internet cel puin o adres IP unic, care l identific ntre toate computerele din reea. Cnd cineva
trimite sau primete informaii (de ex.: pot electronic, pagini web) mesajul este mprit n blocuri de mici
dimensiuni denumite pachete. Fiecare pachet cuprinde adresa expeditorului i pe cea a destinatarului. Fiecare pachet
este trimis, prima dat la un calculator-pasarel, care nelege o mic parte din internet. Comunicaia n Internet
funcioneaz dup cum urmeaz: nivelul transport preia iruri de date i le divide n datagrame.

Transmission Control Protocol (sau TCP, n traducere liber din englez Protocolul de Control al Transmisiei)
este un protocol folosit de obicei de aplicaii care au nevoie de confirmare de primire a datelor. Efectueaz o
conectare virtual full duplex ntre dou puncte terminale, fiecare punct fiind definit de ctre o adres IP i de
ctre un port TCP. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) este unul dintre protocoalele de baz ale suitei de
protocoale Internet. TCP este unul dintre cele dou componente originale ale suitei (celalalt fiind Protocolul
Internet, sau IP), astfel nct ntreaga suita este frecvent menionat ca stiva TCP/IP. n special, TCP ofer
ncredere, asigura livrarea ordonata a unui flux de octei de la un program de pe un computer la alt program de
pe un alt computer aflat n reea. Pe lng sarcinile sale de gestionare a traficului, TCP controleaz mrimea
segmentului de date, debitul de informaie, rata la care se face schimbul de date, precum i evitarea
congestionrii traficului de reea. Protocolul corespunde nivelului transport din stiva TCP/IP. TCP ofer un
serviciu de comunicare la un nivel intermediar ntre un program de aplica ie i Protocolul Internet (IP). Atunci
cnd un program de aplicare dorete sa trimit o bucat mare de date pe Internet, n loc sa fragmenteze datele n
pachete IP de dimensiuni mici i sa emit o serie de cereri pentru protocolul IP, software-ul poate emite o cerere
unic pentru TCP i sa lase protocolul TCP sa se ocupe de detaliile de manipulare.

User Datagram Protocol (sau UDP, n traducere liber din englez Protocolul Datagramelor Utilizator[1]) este
un protocol de comunicaie pentru calculatoare ce aparine nivelului Transport (nivelul 4 ) al modelului
standard OSI.

mpreun cu Internet Protocol (IP), acesta face posibil livrarea mesajelor ntr-o reea. Spre deosebire de
protocolul TCP, UDP constituie modul de comunicaie fr conexiune. Este similar cu sistemul potal, n sensul
c pachetele de informaii (corespondena) sunt trimise n general fr confirmare de primire, n speran a c ele
vor ajunge, fr a exista o legtur efectiv ntre expeditor i destinatar.[2] Practic, UDP este un protocol ce nu
ofer sigurana sosirii datelor la destinaie (nu dispune de mecanisme de confirmare); totodat nu dispune nici de
mecanisme de verificare a ordinii de sosire a datagramelor sau a datagramelor duplicate. UDP dispune, totusi, n
formatul datagramelor, de sume de control pentru verificarea integrit ii datelor sau de informa ii privind
numrul portului pentru adresarea diferitelor funcii la sursa/destina ie.

Internet Control Message Protocol (abreviat ICMP) este un protocol din suita TCP/IP care folosete la
semnalizarea i diagnosticarea problemelor din reea. Protocolul este definit in RFC792. Mesajele ICMP sunt
ncapsulate n interiorul pachetelor IP. Versiunea ICMP ptr IPv4 este adesea cunoscuta ca ICMPv4; in
schimb IPv6 dispune de un protocol similar cunoscut sub abrevierea ICMPv6.
Protocolul de Rutare a Informaiei (RIP, Routing Information Protocol n englez) este un protocol de
rutare de tip distanta-vector ce implica utilizarea ca metrica de rutare a numrului de pa i de rutat ( hop count).
Prin aceasta, RIP previne apariia buclelor de rutare, utiliznd o valoare limita maxima ca numr de pa i de
rutare pe calea de la sursa la destinaie. In general, limita este fixata la 15 (o valoare fixata la 16 reprezinta o
distanta de rutare infinita, inoperabila, prin urmare de evitat n selecia procesului de rutare). La nceputuri,
fiecare ruter capabil-RIP transmitea la fiecare 30 de secunde tabela sa de rutare . In implementrile ini iale,
tabelele de rutare erau de dimensiuni reduse i prin urmare traficul suplimentar era redus. Problemele apreau
odat cu dezvoltarea reelelor cnd, ntr-adevr traficul suplimentar de re ea ncepea sa devina consistent. Odat
cu trecerea timpului, acest protocol a fost mai puin preferat, n compara ie cu alte protocoale de re ea
precum OSPF sau EIGRP. RIP utilizeaz UDP ca i protocol de transport i ii este asignat portul cu numrul
520.
BGP (englez Border Gateway Protocol) este protocolul de rutare folosit n nucleul Internetului. El menine o
tabel cu reele IP (sau "prefixe") care arat calea folosit pentru a ajunge la reeaua respectiv prin
diferitele sisteme autonome (AS). BGP este considerat din acest motiv un protocol de rutare vector-cale (spre
deosebire de protocoalele vector-distan, care nu pstreaz toat calea). BGP nu folose te acelea i metrici ca
protocoalele de rutare folosite n interiorul AS-urilor, ci ia decizii bazndu-se pe cale i pe politicile de rutare ale
sistemului autonom din care face parte.Open Shortest Path First sau OSPF (RFC 2823), n traducere: deschide
nti calea cea mai scurt, este un protocol IP dinamic destinat rutrii n interiorul unei reele mari (guvernate
de un singur gestionar) - sistem autonom (AS). Principial, OSPF este bazat pe caracteristicile conexiunilor dintre
interfee. OSPF nlocuiete RIP ca protocol standard de interior (Interior Gateway Protocol - IGP) n special n
reele mari. Calitatea (metrica) legturii ntre interfeele ruterelor numit generic n cazul OSPF cost se
stabilete matematic avnd definitoriu criteriul limii de band. Caracteristic pentru OSPF este baza de date
cuprinznd linkurile spre routerele adiacente. Aceasta cuprinde o list a tuturor routerelor conectate direct -
constituind miezul topologiei reelei. Pentru a menine actual baza de date corespunztoare topologiei este
necesar un schimb permanent de informaie ntre routere. Schimbul de informa ie se face prin intermediul
pachetelor LSA (Link State Advertisments) care cuprind o procedur ierarhic de anunare bazat pe prioritizarea
routerelor din reea, a interfeelor unui ruter i a rolului (activ sau backup) jucat de fiecare link.

The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is a communications protocol used by hosts and
adjacent routers on IPv4 networks to establish multicast group memberships. IGMP is an integral part of IP
multicast.IGMP can be used for one-to-many networking applications such as online streaming
video and gaming, and allows more efficient use of resources when supporting these types of applications.
IGMP is used on IPv4 networks. Multicast management on IPv6 networks is handled by Multicast Listener
Discovery (MLD) which uses ICMPv6 messaging in contrast to IGMP's bare IP encapsulation.

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an Internet-standard protocol for collecting and organizing
information about managed devices on IP networks and for modifying that information to change device
behavior. Devices that typically support SNMP include cable modems, routers, switches, servers, workstations,
printers, and more

The Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) is a transport layer[1] protocol designed to reserve resources across
a network for an integrated services Internet. RSVP operates over an IPv4 or IPv6 Internet Layer and provides
receiver-initiated setup of resource reservations for multicast or unicast data flows with scaling and robustness.
It does not transport application data but is similar to a control protocol, like Internet Control Message
Protocol (ICMP) or Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP). RSVP is described in RFC 2205. RSVP can
be used by either hosts or routers to request or deliver specific levels of quality of service (QoS) for application
data streams or flows. RSVP defines how applications place reservations and how they can relinquish the
reserved resources once the need for them has ended. RSVP operation will generally result in resources being
reserved in each node along a path.RSVP is not a routing protocol and was designed to interoperate with current
and future routing protocols.

Protocolul de transport n timp real[1][2] (sau RTP de la engl. Real-time Transport Protocol) este un protocol
prin intermediul cruia se pot transmite informaii de tip media (sunete, imagini) printr-o re ea de
telecomunicaii. n Internet, de asemenea ca i n alte reele, este posibil pierderea pachetelor, schimbarea
ordinii n procesul de transmitere, de asemenea variaz timpului de transmitere a pachetelor la distan e mari.
Aplicaiile multimedia pun condiii foarte dure asupra ambianei de transmitere. Pentru convenirea cu
posibilitile Internetului a fost creat protocolul RTP. n practic, protocolul RTP nu este separat de
protocolul RTCP (protocolul de control RTP). Ultimul ndeplinete funcia ca monitorizare i pentru
transmiterea informaiei despre utilizatorii care schimb informaii. Protocolul RTP nu este un protocol strict,
care poate s transmit informaie unei aplicaii, modulele funcionale ale lui nu formeaz un strat aparte, dar
mai des se integreaz n program. Protocolul RTP nu este un protocol strict reglamentat.

The RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) is a sister protocol of the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP). Its basic
functionality and packet structure is defined in RFC 3550. RTCP provides out-of-band statistics and control
information for an RTP session. It partners with RTP in the delivery and packaging of multimedia data, but
does not transport any media data itself. The primary function of RTCP is to provide feedback on the quality of
service (QoS) in media distribution by periodically sending statistics information to participants in a streaming
multimedia session.

Protocolul pentru transfer de fiiere[1][2] (sau FTP, din engl. File Transfer Protocol) este un protocol (set de
reguli) utilizat pentru accesul la fiiere aflate pe servere din reele de calculatoare particulare sau din Internet.
FTP este utilizat ncepnd de prin anul 1985 i actualmente este foarte rspndit. Numeroase servere de FTP
din toat lumea permit s se fac o conectare la ele de oriunde din Internet, i ca fiierele plasate pe ele s fie
apoi transferate (ncrcate sau descrcate).

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a telecommunications protocol used for resolution of network layer
addresses into link layer addresses, a critical function in multiple-access networks. ARP was defined by RFC 826 in
1982.[1] It is Internet Standard STD 37ARP has been implemented in many combinations of network and overlaying
internetwork technologies, such as IPv4, Chaosnet, DECnet and Xerox PARC Universal Packet (PUP) using IEEE
802 standards, FDDI, X.25, Frame Relay and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), IPv4 over IEEE 802.3 and
IEEE 802.11 being the most common cases.In Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) networks, the functionality of ARP
is provided by the Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP).The Address Resolution Protocol is a request and reply
protocol that runs encapsulated by the line protocol. It is communicated within the boundaries of a single network,
never routed across internetwork nodes. This property places ARP into the Link Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite,
[2]
while in the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, it is often described as residing between Layers 2 and 3,
being encapsulated by Layer 2 protocols. However, ARP was not developed in the OSI framework.

2.Se poate face in principiu o rezervare de resurse de conectivitate in retea, pentru un flux de date definit de
parametrii (src_ address, dst_address, port_src, port_dst , protocol_id) folosind o semnalizare de tipul in
band?
a. Da
b. Nu
c. Conditionat

In band:
- Semnalele de semnalizare sunt transmise pe canalul de trafic (in cadrul pachetelor de date)
- Nu introduc trafic suplimentar in retea si nici intarzieri
- Nu sunt bune/potrivite pt rezervarea de resurse sau rutarea QoS , care trebuie fcauta inainte de transmisia datelor
- Transmisia in banda e de tipul PATH_COUPLED(nodurile de semnalizare trebuie colocate cu ruterele)
Out of band
- Informatia de semnalizare e transmisa in pachete dedicate,separate de tarficul de date
- Se introduce trafic suplimentar in retea si implic utilizarea unui protocol de semnalizare i o prelucrare ulterioar
deasupra stratului de reea, ceea ce tinde s produc rspunsuri mai lent dect semnalizarea n band
- E folosita pentru rezervarea de resurse sau rutarea QoS
- in funcie de modul n care calea de semnalizare este legat de calea de date asociat, semnalizarea este de tipul
PATH_COUPLED sau PATH_DECOUPLED (legat sau decuplat) ?

Path-coupled
- Nodurile de semnalizare trebuie s fie colocate(place side by side or in a particular relation) cu mesajele de
semnalizare a ruterelor - direcionate numai prin nodurile care sunt pe calea de date
- Avantajul costului redus global de procesare a semnalizrii (deoarece utilizeaz sarcini de rutare a nivelului de
reea)
- Dezavantajul inflexibilitii n modernizarea(update) routerelor sau n integrarea entitilor de control (de exemplu,
servere de politici) care nu sunt pe calea de date (sau metodele de rutare netradiionale) . Dac un mecanism
cuplat(path coupled) implic un protocol de semnalizare, routerele trebuie s susin protocolul i s poat procesa
Mesaje de semnalizare nrudite - Exemplu de protocol de semnalizare cuplat pe cale: RSVP
3.Este posibil a se reduce o congestie incipienta in retele TCP/IP doar folosind functiile traditionale
ale protocoalelor TCP/UDP/IP fara a folosi functii speciale, de exemplu explicit congestion
notification?
a. Da, in cazul cazul in care se foloseste ca transportor protocolul TCP
b. Da, cazul cazul in care se foloseste ca transportor protocolul UDP
c. Da, IP ofera asemenea functii
d. In nici unul dintre cazuri
Eu cred ca sunt abmele corecte(Mada)
Congestion Avoidance (CA)
CA keeps the load of the network under its capacity so that it can operate at an acceptable performance
level.Traditionally, CA require that the sender reduce the amount of traffic entering the network when
network congestion occurs (or is about to occur). Avoiding the potential for excessive delays due to
retransmissions after packet losses: explicit congestion notification (ECN) schemes ( e.g. IETF RFC 3168 -
ECN scheme for IP and TCP)
Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) is an extension to the Internet Protocol and to the Transmission
Control Protocol and is defined in RFC 3168 (2001). ECN allows end-to-end notification of network
congestion without dropping packets. ECN is an optional feature that may be used between two ECN-enabled
endpoints when the underlying network infrastructure also supports it. Conventionally, TCP/IP networks signal
congestion by dropping packets. When ECN is successfully negotiated, an ECN-aware router may set a mark
in the IP header instead of dropping a packet in order to signal impending congestion. The receiver of the
packet echoes the congestion indication to the sender, which reduces its transmission rate as if it detected a
dropped packet.
ECN requires specific support at both the Internet layer and the transport layer for the following reasons:
In TCP/IP, routers operate within the Internet layer, while the transmission rate is handled by the
endpoints at the transport layer.
Congestion may be handled only by the transmitter, but since it is known to have happened only
after a packet was sent, there must be an echo of the congestion indication by the receiver to the transmitter.

4.Care sunt avantajele si dezavantajele modelelor de business multi-domeniu: Hub si cascada ?

The Advantage and disadvantage of Hub is as follows:


1)A hub is used to internal connectivity between systems.
(Advantage)
2)A hub has minimum 4 ports and cannot accomodate for big
Networks (Disadvantage)
3)A console port is not available in Hub and so the Band
width provided by ISP is divided unequally among network
and could gain slow access to Internet.(DisAdvantage)
Advantages of waterfall model:
This model is simple and easy to understand and use.It is easy to manage due to the rigidity of the model
each phase has specific deliverables and a review process. In this model phases are processed and
completed one at a time. Phases do not overlap. Waterfall model works well for smaller projects where
requirements are very well understood
Disadvantages of waterfall model:
Once an application is in the testing stage, it is very difficult to go back and change something that was
not well-thought out in the concept stage. No working software is produced until late during the life
cycle.High amounts of risk and uncertainty. Not a good model for complex and object-oriented projects.
Poor model for long and ongoing projects. Not suitable for the projects where requirements are at a
moderate to high risk of changing.

6. Intr-o implementare Cloud computing , este strict necesara existenta tuturor actorilor dfin arhitectura
NIST? Explicati.
7. Care este cel mai simplu criteriu de clasificare a fluxurilor de date, in clase de echivalenta, intr-un ruter de
intrare MPLS?
Dupa etichete. ( scrie si in curs)
A Forwarding Equivalence Class (FEC) is a term used in Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) to describe a set of
packets with similar and / or identical characteristics which may be forwarded the same way; that is, they may be
bound to the same MPLS label. Characteristics determining the FEC of a higher-layer packet depend on the
configuration of the router, but typically this is at least the destination IP address. Quality of service class is also
often used. Thus, a Forward Equivalence Class tends to correspond to a label switched path (LSP). The reverse is
not true, however: an LSP may be (and usually is) used for multiple FECs.
In particular, it describes managed objects for specifying Forwarding Equivalence Class (FEC) to Next Hop Label
Forwarding Entry (NHLFE) mappings and corresponding actions for Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS). At the
ingress of an MPLS network, packets entering the MPLS domainare assigned to an FEC. Those packets belonging
to an FEC are associated with an NHLFE (i.e., MPLS label) via the FEC-to-NHLFE
(FTN) mapping [RFC3031]. This relationship defines how ingress LSRs will impose MPLS labels onto incoming
packets. It also defines how egress LSRs will decapsulate the MPLS shim header from MPLS packets.
Conceptually, some of the FTN table functionality could be implemented using the Forwarding Information Base
(FIB) to map all packets destined for a prefix to an LSP. However, this mapping is coarse in nature. Similar
functionality is already being used in other contexts such as security filters, access filters, and RSVP flow
identification. All of these require various combinations of matching based on IP header and upper-layer header
information to identify packets for a particular treatment. When packets match a particular rule, a corresponding
action is executed on those packets. For example, two popular actions to take when a successful match is identified
are allowing the packet to be forwarded or to discard it. However, other actions are possible, such as modifying the
TOS byte, or redirecting a packet to a particular outgoing interface. In the context of MPLS, the possible actions
performed by an NHLFE are to redirect packets to either an MPLS Label Switched Path (LSP) or an MPLS Traffic
Engineered (TE) Tunnel.
8. La sosirea unui pachet intr-un nod de retea: care dintre cele doua tehnologii poate determina mai rapid
identitatea portului de iesire (in interiorul functiei forwarding) si de ce?
1. IP
2.MPLS
3. Nu se poate da un raspuns ferm.
MPLS mai bun deoarece mai rapid si trafic mai mic.
MPLS has many advantages for traffic engineering. It increases network scalability, simplifies network
service integration, offers integrated recovery, and simplifies network management. Scalability is
addressed first by solving the n2 p r o b l e m .Only the real topology is advertised. From a routing
perspective,the LSP tunnels used for traffic engineering are only known to the head-end router. Further,
only one routing protocol is needed; there is no need for a separate layer 2 routing protocol. IP
understands the real topology. Assignment of traffic becomes natural; no special mechanisms are required
for loop prevention. The churn resulting from a topology change is greatly reduced. Service integration is
simplified by a number of means. First, MPLS offers a single QoS paradigm; but more important, it
makes it simple for services to request that QoS and have that request mapped through to traffic
engineering. This is achieved through use of the label stack and by mapping the experimental bits down.
LSP tunnels can carry multiple kinds
of traffic which are differentiated based on the experimental bits. Traffic from multiple control planes can
be mapped to a single traffic engineered tunnel. This also enhances the scalability of the system. Label
stacking and tunnel splicing offer effective means for local tunnel repair, enabling fast restoral. The fact
that there is one level of control means that recovery can be faster. Feedback through the routing system
permits tunnel headends to react quickly and intelligently to topology changes. RSVP signaling provides
for nondisruptive restoration. There are fewer boxes and fewer protocols to manage. Configuration and
troubleshooting become simpler, reducing overall network management complexity. The need to
coordinate and correlate management information from both layer 2 and an IP network is removed. MPLS
offers a more manageable and cost-effective traffic engineering solution. The net result is not only a
simpler system; it is a more responsive system, a more scalable system, and a system that can flexibly
support multiple service offerings.

9. Care dintre cele doua metode de dirijare (forwarding): 1. IP-clasic si 2. MPLS ofera posibilitati mai bune
pentru a aplica tehnici de traffic engineering si de ce?
Raspunsul este in intrebarile 8 si 10.
10. Comentati intr-un tabel comparativ principalele avantaje si dezavantaje ale tehnologiei MPLS fata de
dirijarea clasica IP.

Nota: Nu putem compora cele doua tehnologii ca doua entitati separate deoarece MPLS si IP lucreaza in conjunctie.
Avantaje MPLS:
- asigur suport suplimentar pentru controlul (QoS) MPLS fiind complementar cu tehnologii QoS specifice din
Internet (IntServ, Diffserv).
- mai rapid dect cutarea n tabele la nivel IP (table look-up), LSR sunt mai rapide dect ruterele tradiionale (se
pot folosi eventual chiar comutatoarele HW ATM)
- -compatibil cu orice nivel L2 sau L3 de ex. ATM i respective. In ATM valoarea etichetei se poate include n
VPI/VCI. Comutatoarele ATM intermediare vor lucra la fel ca n comutaia ATM propriu-zisa
- -faciliteaz creterea performanelor reelei: suport necesar pentru inginerie de trafic (Traffic Engineering- TE).
n MPLS este posibil a defini explicit rutele dorite (similar cu rutarea de tip sursa) - rezultate de exemplu din
considerente de TE, (ignornd sau folosind numai parial informaiile primite de la protocolul de rutare propriu-zis-
RIP, OSPF, etc.)
- -permite flexibilitate n clasificarea pachetelor (la intrarea n domeniul MPLS) n clase de echivalent , definite din
punct de vedere al dirijarii (FEC). n MPLS se pot folosi n principiu orice informaii de nivel L3 sau superior-
pentru clasificarea pachetelor (prin contrast, la rutarea tradiional IP singura informaie utilizabil este cea din
antetul de nivel 3).
- -etichetarea este flexibil. n particular ea poate fi dependent de ruterul de intrare. Un acelai pachet poate fi
etichetat diferit (i tratat n continuare n mod diferit) dac sosete pe unul sau altul dintre dou rutere de intrare din
domenii diferite (aciune imposibil n rutarea IP)
- -arhitectura mai clara: separ planul de date (dirijare) n raport cu planul de control, oferind flexibilitate prin
utilizarea de diferite plane de control.
Creste eficienta retelei [este mai rapid]: (la nivelul routerelor) Deciziile de routare se fac pe baza etichetelor (label-
uri) fara a fi nevoia de analiza tabele routare complexe plecand de la IPul adresei destinatie.
Cresterea capabilitatilor legate de Ingineria Traficului: Traficul este impartit in clase de trafic (voce, video, e-mail,
etc.). Se pot seta caracteristici de performanta pentru fiecare clasa de trafic.
Avantaje la crearea VPN-urilor (Virtual Private Networks): Providerii de servici pot crea tunnel-uri IP in interiorul
retelei fara a fi nevoie de a cripta datele. Securitatea MPLS este de tip carrier-based.
Functiile de complexe de control sunt folosite doar in faza de alocare a etichetelor si sunt executate o singura data.
Routere cu o inteligenta ridicata sunt necesare doar la granita MPLS (edge).
-compatibil cu orice nivel L2 sau L3 de ex. ATM i respective. In ATM valoarea etichetei se poate include n
VPI/VCI. Comutatoarele ATM intermediare vor lucra la fel ca n comutaia ATM propriu-zisa.
Lucreaza la fel ca in routarea de nivel 3 avand in plus simplitatea dirijarii asemantoare cu comutatia de nivel 2.
Permite realizarea de ierarhii de routare (mai multe nivele de etichete) si tehnice tunnel.
Poate colabora cu routerele traditionale (domeniile MPLS pot coopera cu domenii de routare traditionale).
permite introducerea treptata a tehnologiei MPLS.
Permite flexibilitate in clasificarea pachetelor.

Dezavantaje:
Pretul retelelor ce se bazeaza doar pe IP este mai mic;
-funcii i protocoale suplimentare n planul de control care s conlucreze cu cele de rutare pentru distribuia
etichetelor ntre nodurile LSR

Revine la modul de lucru CO, mosteneste in mod inerent si complexitatea acestuia + dinamism mai mic in
comparatie cu IP.
Caile MPLS trebuie construite in avans cu transferul pachetelor de date (din nou: dinamism mai mic);
Marele dezavantaj: deteriorarea unei cai MPLS duce la intreruperea transferului de date ceea ce face necesara
definerea de cai LSP (Label Switched Path) principale si de rezerva.

11.Comentati avantaje/dezavantaje ale unui arbore de tip bidirectional shared tree, in


raport cu unul de tip Shortest Path Tree (SPT) cu radacina in sursa.

Cel unidirectional nu este scalabil (trafic generat de calculul arborelui foarte mare) fata de bidirectional
calcul mult mai rapid la bidirectional.
A uni-directional shared tree allows sources to send multicast datagrams to members of a multicast group.
Members receive packets sent to the group by joining the shared tree, using a particular node in the network as
the root of the shared tree. The root of the shared tree is called the Rendezvous Point (RP). When using
undirectional shared trees, all sources' datagrams initially go to the root (RP) of the tree before being delivered
down the distribution tree. As a
result, there can be suboptimal delivery paths to the receivers close to the source.
When using bi-directional shared trees, data can flow in either direction on a branch of the tree. This allows
improved data delivery to receivers close to the source because the traffic traveling upstream to the root node is
"turned around" and forwarded on downstream branches Source-trees have the best delay characteristics so there
is a tradeoff between uni-directional shared trees with source-trees and bi-directional shared trees. For large
numbers of moderate to low rate sources, bi-directional PIM may offer significant advantages.

Pros and Cons of Bi-Directional Shared Trees


There are 3 basic advantages of bi-directional shared trees:
1. State is reduced compared to source trees. Each router in the multicast routing domain needs only keep state
for the group and not each source sending to each group.
2. Datagrams from sources to topologically near-by receivers do not have to travel all the way to the root of the
shared tree. These improved distribution paths also support better scoping semantics for applications that might
use TTL based expanding ring scope to look for nearby resources.
3. Bursty sources can send with no or little state in routers.

There are 3 basic disadvantages of bi-directional shared trees:


1. Since all traffic eventually goes to the root of the tree, there is a traffic concentration point at the root node
and links leading to it (pruning mechanisms could be added but at the cost of additional state and complexity).
Traffic always flows to the root node even when it doesn't have to. That is, if the root node has a single sender
branch, the root does not take part in forwarding traffic but it must receive the traffic because downstream nodes
don't know the group membership tree near the root.
2. The path taken between the source and receivers might not travel over the shortest path, although it is likely
to be a shorter path than via a uni-directional shared tree.
3. Bi-directional trees are incompatible with uni-directional so urce-trees. There is an increase in complexity
when both are used for the same group.

12.Care sunt avantajele si dezavantajele folosirii arborilor de tip Steiner in


comparatie cu cei de tip Shortest Path, in cazul unei comunicatii de grup de difuzare
tipul IPTV?
Necesitatea a fost problema de rutare, deci a fost necesara gasirea unui arbore cu cost minim de
la orice nod considerat ca sursa catre orice nod considerat ca destinatie.
Ca o comparatie, SPT functioneaza pe principiul ca costul obtinut pe orice cale sa fie minim, in
timp ce Steiner are ca obiectiv obtinerea unui cost total al arborelui minim.
- costul oricarei cai = minim ( SPT = Shortest path tree)
- cost total al arborelui = minim (arbori de tip Steiner)
Prin aplicarea acestor logici(principii), pe baza unui arbore, Steiner are avantajul fata de SPT
obtinerea unui cost mai mic si dezavantajul obtinerii unei distante medii (Dsav) mai mari.
The difference between the Steiner tree problem and the minimum spanning tree problem is that, in
the Steiner tree problem, extra intermediate vertices and edges may be added to the graph in order to reduce the
length of the spanning tree. These new vertices introduced to decrease the total length of connection are known
as Steiner points or Steiner vertices. It has been proved that the resulting connection is a tree, known as the
Steiner tree. There may be several Steiner trees for a given set of initial vertices.
A minimum spanning tree is a feasible but not usually optimal solution to the Steiner tree problem. The
Steiner ratio is the largest possible ratio between the total length of a minimum spanning tree and the total
length of a minimum Steiner tree.
A IPTV broadcast network architecture for digital multimedia distribution in a scalable, cost efficient,
and reliable manner. The architecture presents a managed solution for broadcasting digital television, where its
minimum-cost (Steiner) tree structure ensures significant bandwidth savings in the core, and its intelligent IGMP
snooping aggregation and access nodes provide fast channel zapping, subscriber authorization, and channel
profiling.
Desi costul pe o cale este mai mare la Steiner, costul mediu este mai mic, deci este mai eficient.

13.Care sunt dezavantajele unui arbore unidrectional cu punct central, fata de solutia cu
mai multi arbori de tip SPT avand radacinile in surse?
Caracteristici dorite ale protocolului: convegenta, optimalitate, complexitate redusa, robustete,
extensibilitate, echitate, fiabilitate, etc. (unele sunt contradictorii).
SINGURA CHESTIE AJUTATOARE ESTE IN RASPUNSUL DE LA 11.

14.Este necesar protocolul ARP, intr-un LAN care functioneaza pe un mediu fizic difuzant?
Explicati pe scurt.
a. conceptual nu ar fi necesar, dar creste eficienta
b. este strict necesar chiar din punct de vedere conceptual
c. este necesar deoarece adresa MAC are domeniu de valabilitate locala

Filtrarea pachetelor se face la nivelul 3 prin software, de aceea trebuie sa facem o corespondenta
individuala MAC-Ip. Pachetele se difuzeaza la nivel fizic.
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is needed in order for devices on a network to discover their
surroundings and neighbours. The protocol is used to enable computers to automatically map IP Network
Addresses to hardware addresses that are used by the data link protocol
Every device on a network has a hardware or Media Access Control (MAC) address. ARP is used to
map these to an IP address. The originating device broadcasts a datagram containing the destination IP address
over the network. The datagram, a packet of information, is received by the destination device, which in turn
transmits its own hardware address to the originator. A connection between both devices is made and data
transfer can begin.
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) hovers in the shadows of most networks. Because of its simplicity,
by comparison to higher layer protocols, ARP rarely intrudes upon the network administrator's routine. All
modern IP-capable operating systems provide support for ARP. The uncommon alternative to ARP is static link-
layer-to-IP mappings.
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) exists solely to glue together the IP and Ethernet networking layers.
Since networking hardware such as switches, hubs, and bridges operate on Ethernet frames, they are unaware of
the higher layer data carried by these frames . Similarly, IP layer devices, operating on IP packets need to be able
to transmit their IP data on Ethernets. ARP defines the conversation by which IP capable hosts can exchange
mappings of their Ethernet and IP addressing.
15.Protocolul Ipv4 (in varianta initiala):
a. Asigura protectia la erori pentru datele transferate
b. Garanteaza un timp de transfer constant al datagramelor prin retea
c. Garanteaza pastrarea secventialitatii pachetelor.
Niciuna

IP (Internet Protocol) este un protocol care asigur un serviciu de transmitere a datelor, fr conexiune
permanent. Acesta identific fiecare interfa logic a echipamentelor conectate printr-un numr numit adres
IP. Versiunea de standard folosit n majoritatea cazurilor este IPv4. n IPv4, standardul curent pentru
comunicarea n Internet, adresa IP este reprezentat pe 32 de bii (de ex. 192.168.0.1). Alocarea adreselor IP nu
este arbitrar; ea se face de ctre organizaii nsrcinate cu distribuirea de spaii de adrese. De
exemplu, RIPE este responsabil cu gestiunea spaiului de adrese atribuit Europei.

Internetul este n proces de evoluie ctre versiunea urmtoare de IP, numit IPv6, care practic ateapt un
utilizator major, care s oblige folosirea acestei versiuni superioare i de ctre al ii. Ramurile Ministerului
Aprrii al SUA (DoD) au anunat ca n decursul anilor 2009 - 2011 vor nceta relaiile cu furnizorii de servicii
Internet care nu folosesc IPv6

16.Pentru un pachet receptionat: demultiplexarea la nivelul IP, (pentru distribuirea


pachetului catre entitatea corecta de ordin superior) se face cu ajutorul campului:
a. Port, din pseudo-antetul pus in fata antetului TCP sau UDP
b. Identification din antetul IP
c. Type of Service din antetul IP
Pentru a se face distincie ntre multiplele programe ce se execut pe un acelai sistem, UDP utilizeaz
porturi de protocol, fiecare port fiind identificat printr-un numr, aa a fost ilustrat n paragraful anterior.
Serviciul furnizat de UDP este un serviciu fr conexiune, nefiabil, utilizatorii acestui serviciu (programele de
aplicaie) trebuind s aib n vedere c pot avea loc pierderi de mesaje, duplicri, livrarea mesajelor la destinaie
ntr-o ordine diferit de cea n care au fost emise. Dac este necesar, aceste funcii de cretere a calitii
serviciilor vor fi implementate la nivelul aplicaie. UDP apare n aproximativ toate implementrile stivei Internet
i este dedicat transferului de uniti de date pentru aplicaii care pot admite pierderea unei cantiti mici de date
(cum ar fi fluxurile multimedia). UDP este doar o interfa de aplicaie pentru IP i nu servete dect pentru
multiplexarea/demultiplexarea fluxurilor de aplicaie, transmiterea i recepionarea datagramelor, utilizarea
porturilor pentru redirectarea datagramelor. n figura 3.1 este ilustrat mecanismul de multiplexare/demultiplexare
pe baz de porturi, folosit de UDP.

17.Are vreun impact organizarea ierarhica a Internet-ului in straturile logice Tiers,


asupra lungimii medii a unei rute cu sursa si destinatia in doua domenii AS diferite?

Organizarea ierarhica duce la micsorarea lungimii medii a unei rute deoarece in Tier 1 sunt putine
rutere, in Tier 2 mai multe , iar Tier 3 contine partea de acces in retea.
Securitatea este mai usor de facut (doar la backbone).

Tier 1 networks are closer to the backbone of the Internet.


In reality, tier 1 networks usually have only a small number of peers (typically only other tier 1 networks and
very large tier 2 networks), while tier 2 networks are motivated to peer with many other tier 2 and end-user
networks. Thus a tier 2 Network with good peering is frequently much closer to most end users than a tier 1.
Tier 1 networks by definition offer better quality Internet connectivity.
By definition, there are networks which tier 1 networks have only one path to, and if they lose that path, they
have no backup transit which preserves their continuous connectivity.
Some tier 2 networks are significantly larger than some tier 1 networks, and are often able to provide more or
better connectivity.
Tier 2 networks are resellers of services from tier 1 networks.
Only tier 3 networks (who provide Internet access) are true resellers, while many large tier 2 networks peer with
the majority or even vast majority of the Internet directly except for a small portion of the Internet which is
reached via a transit provider.
A Tier 2 Network is an Internet service provider who engages in the practice of peering with other networks, but
who still purchases IP transit to reach some portion of the Internet.
Tier 2 providers are the most common providers on the Internet as it is much easier to purchase transit from a
Tier 1 network than it is to peer with them and then attempt to push into becoming a Tier 1 carrier.
The term Tier 3 is sometimes also used to describe networks who solely purchase IP transit from other networks
(typically Tier 2 networks) to reach the Internet.

18.Comparati intre ele cele doua stiluri de aflare a rutelor de catre un nod : proactiv si
la cerere:avantaje /dezavantaje (construiti un tabel cu trei coloane 1.criteriul 2.
Proactiv 3.La cerere)
Moduri de lucru ale protocolului:
- Proactiv
o Algoritmul lucreaza in permanenta ( background) si caluleaza rute;
o Info de rutare exista in permanenta in tabelul de fwd.
o Rutele pot sa nu mai fie actuale daca intervalul temporal de calcul e mare in
comparatie cu modificarile de topologie sau costuri ( ex. retele cu mobilitate)
o Daca perioada de calcul este f. Micaatunci rezulta un overhead cu trafic de control
- Reactiv ( on demand) o ruta se caluleaza la cererea unei statii
o De ex. in retele ad-hoc
- De tip mixt
o Alg. Poate rula in stil proactiv in anumite conditii si in mod reactiv in altele
Proactive routing protocols maintain routes to all destinations, regardless of whether or not these routes
are needed. In order to maintain correct route information, a node must periodically send control messages.
Therefore, proactive routing protocols may waste bandwidth since control messages are sent out unnecessarily
when there is no data traffic. The main advantage of this category of protocols is that hosts can quickly obtain
route information and quickly establish a session. For example, GSR introduced below is a proactive routing
protocol.
The proactive protocols are appropriate for less number of nodes in networks, as they need to update
node entries for each and every node in the routing table of every node. It results more Routing overhead
problem. There is consumption of more bandwidth in routing table..
Example of Proactive Routing Protocol is Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV)
Reactive routing protocols can dramatically reduce routing overhead because they do not
need to search for and maintain the routes on which there is no data traffic. This property
is very appealing in the resource-limited environment.
Reactive Protocol has lower overhead since routes are determined on demand. It employs flooding (global
search) concept. Constantly updation of route tables with the latest route topology is not required in on demand
concept.
Reactive protocol searches for the route in an on-demand manner and set the link in order to send out
and accept the packet from a source node to destination node. Route discovery process is used in on demand
routing by flooding the route request (RREQ) packets throughout the network.
Examples of reactive routing protocols are the dynamic source Routing (DSR), ad hoc on-demand distance
vector routing (AODV).
The tradeoffs between proactive and reactive routing strategies are quite complex. Which approach is
better depends on many factors, such as the size of the network, the mobility,the data traffic and so on. Proactive
routing protocols try to maintain routes to all possible destinations, regardless of whether or not they are needed.
Routing information is constantly propagated and maintained. In contrast, reactive routing protocols initiate
route discovery on the demand of data traffic. Routes are needed only to those desired destinations. This routing
approach can dramatically reduce routing overhead when a network is relatively static and the active traffic is
light. However, the source node has to wait until a route to the destination can be discovered, increasing the
response time.
19.Are sens existenta unei relatii de tip EGP protocol exterior intre doua
rutere de frontiera ale aceluiasi domeniu?
a. Nu, caci ele apartin aceluiasi domeniu
b. Da (in acest caz explicati explicati de ce)
c. Nu, deoarece un domeniu poate avea un singu ruter de conectare cu exteriorul
Fiecare router EGP trebuie sa anunte tot ce este in spatele sau. Un protocol extern transport informaiile de
rutare ntre entiti administrative independente, cum ar fi dou corporaii sau dou universiti. Fiecare dintre
aceste entiti menine o infrastructur de reea independent i folosete EGP pentru a putea comunica cu
cealalt entitate. Astzi, cel mai popular protocol extern este BGP . Este protocolul extern primar folosit ntre
reelele conectate la Internet i a fost proiectat special pentru acest lucru.

To establish point-to-point connections between peer autonomous systems (ASs), you configure a BGP
session on each interface of a point-to-point link. Generally, such sessions are made at network exit points with
neighboring hosts outside the AS. BGP peering creates mutually beneficial traffic exchange relationships
between two independent autonomous systems (ASs). It is especially useful at service provider exchange points.
This relationship has the primary benefit of reducing transit costs and equipment resources for both networks.
Other potential benefits of creating BGP peer groups include reducing the complexity of the BGP configuration
and increasing route redundancy by reducing the dependence on transit providers. BGP peering can be used to
create point-to-point traffic exchanges between two remote networks, such as a remote office and the company
headquarters. It can also be used to quickly connect two disparate networks, such as between two merged offices.

20.Un ruter dintr-un domeniu autonom, in arhitectura TCP/IP :


a. cunoaste obligatoriu graful (topologia) domeniului, altfel nu poate face dirijarea pachetelor
b. poate sti, in anumite conditii, pentru un pachet sosit pe o interfata de intrare a sa, care este
ruta completa ce va trebui parcursa pana la o destinatie,
c. in anumite solutii de rutare, deciziile de rutare se bazeaza numai pe informatii locale
B-la EIGRP SAU OSPF
C-la RIP
EIGRP este ca i predecesorul su un protocol de rutare bazat pe principiul distanei vectoriale, si const dintr-
un schimb de informaii cu celelalte rutere din reea, coroborat cu un proces intern de stocare a datelor primite de
la acestea, incluznd detaliile bazate pe caracteristicile calitative ale rutelor raportate, pe baza cror informa ii se
va lua decizia de alegere a rutei spre o anumit destinaie. Viteza mare de decizie privind nominalizarea unei rute
n cazul unor schimbri de topologie n reea face din EIGRP un concurent al OSPF.

Originally, each RIP router transmitted full updates every 30 seconds. In the early deployments, routing
tables were small enough that the traffic was not significant. As networks grew in size, however, it became
evident there could be a massive traffic burst every 30 seconds, even if the routers had been initialized at random
times. It was thought, as a result of random initialization, the routing updates would spread out in time, but this
was not true in practice. Sally Floyd and Van Jacobson showed in 1994[1] that, without slight randomization of
the update timer, the timers synchronized over time.

In most networking environments, RIP is not the preferred choice for routing as its time to
converge and scalability are poor compared to EIGRP, OSPF, or IS-IS. However, it is easy to configure, because
RIP does not require any parameters unlike other protocols.
21.O entitate de protocol de rutare :
a Foloseste obligatoriu o conexiune (pentru fiabilitate) TCP pentru a comunica cu entitati omoloage
deoarece informatiile de rutare sunt esentiale pentru retea
b Nu poate folosi o conexiune TCP caci entitatea de protocol este la nivel arhitectural 3 iar TCP este la
nivel 4
c Se interfateaza obligatoriu direct cu nivelul IP deoarece protocolul de rutare conlucreaza cu IP
pentru a-i furniza rutele

a) Discutie: False. Cuvantul obligatoriu nu este potrivit in acest caz. Exista protocoale de rutare
(dinamice) care nu folosesc obligatoriu TCP (cel mai bun exemplu fiind protocolul RIP care se
foloseste de datagrame UDP non-reliable), dar exista protocoale de rutare care folosesc TCP (de
exemplu: BGP care realizeaza o conexiune TCP pe portul 179), si in final exista protocoale care nu se
folosesc de conexiuni TCP/UDP (cel mai bun exemplu este OSPF).
b) False: Nu are legatura. Protocoale de rutare sunt aplicatii in planul de control. Exemplu BGP.
c) True: Toate protocoalele din stiva TCP/IP se folosesc de IP pentru adresare si pentru rutare.
(Discutie: Exista tehnologii alternative la IP, functii de adresare, gen IPX, AppleTalk care au
protocoale de routare specifice ce nu se folosesc de IPv4-ul clasic).

22. Limitarile principale ale protocolului de rutare RIP constau in:


a. utilizabil pentru retele de dimensiuni mici
b. metrica rudimentara
c. furnizeaza o singura ruta catre o destinatie anume

a) True: Da deoarece unul dintre dezavantaje RIP este slow convergence RIP nu gaseste
noile rute in mod rapid atunci cand rutele cunoscute nu mai sunt valabile. In cazul topologiilor
complicate pot aparea probleme.
b) True: Numarul maxim de hopuri permise este: 15. In plus folosete algoritmul vectorilor de
distanta (DVA Distance Vector Algorithm), fata de OSPF care foloseste Link State (mai
eficient). DVA trimite pe rutele cele mai scurte (chiar daca rutele respective au benzi mai mici
sau exista congestie pe ele).
c) True: E adevarat RIP mentine o singura ruta catre o destinatie. Este dezavantaj deoarece
metrica este destul de rigida. Nu poate evita eventuale congestii.
23. Tehnica numita tunnel se refera la:
a. transportul datagramelor de nivel trei prin incapsulare in unitati de date de nivel doi despre
care se spune ca formeaza un tunel
b. transportul unor pachete de nivel N ( exemplu 3) prin incapsulare in unitati de date ale altui
protocol N de acelasi nivel, dar diferit de primul, pe baza adresei unui punct de capat al
tunelului
c. transportul unor pachete de nivel N-1 prin incapsulare in unitati de date ale protocolului de
nivel N

Tunelare: un tunel exist i n IPv4 i reprezint ncapsularea unui pachet ntr-un alt pachet, cu scopul de
a ascunde adresa pachetului iniial. O aplicaie tipic IPv4 a unui tunel este urmtoarea: avem 2 filiale ale
unei companii, n 2 locaii diferite; n interiorul companiei se folosete o schem de adresare privat, de
exemplu reelele 192.168.1.0 i 192.168.2.0 n cele 2 locaii. Cele 2 reele snt conectate la Internet prin
cte un ruter de margine. Pentru ca fiecare host din cele 2 reele s aib conectivitate cu oricare alt host, se
creaz un tunel ntre cele 2 rutere. Un pachet din reeaua 1 cu destinaia reeaua 2 este ncapsulat, trimis
prin Internet, i decapsulat de ctre ruterul de margine al reelei 2. Prin ncapsulare este posibil ca adresele
private s fie pstrate, dar s nu fie vizibile n Internet.
n cazul IPv6, pachetele snt ncapsulate n interiorul unor pachete IPv4, circul prin Internetul
IPv4, i snt decapsulate la destinaie. Prin aceast tunelare este posibil conectarea mai multor insule
IPv6 izolate n Internetul IPv4.
Un dezavantaj al tunelrii n general este scderea dimensiunii maxime a pachetului: un pachet
transportat prin ncapsulare ntr-un alt pachet va avea, implicit, spaiul pentru ncrctura util (payload)
redus cu dimensiunea headerului pachetului care-l transport.

24. RIP nu se poate folosi pentru rutare inter-domenii (sisteme autonome) deoarece:
a. diferite sisteme autonome folosesc metrici diferite
b. exista probleme de extensibilitate
c. nu poate negocia o relatie de vecinatate intre sisteme autonome diferite

Protocoalele de routare dinamica RIP, OSPF, etc. au toate in comum rutarea pe baza unei metrici cu
caracter tehnic: numar de hop-uri, banda disponibila, etc. adica procesul de rutare determina singur
ruta optima intre oricare doua host-uri.
Presupunem un client (router client: C) conectat la doua ISP-uri ISP1 / ISP 2. Tot sistemul are activat un
protocol de routare dinamic (RIP sau OSPF) atunci nu numai C va putea trimite trafic pe ISP1 si ISP2 ci si ISP1
la ISP2 si invers (prin intermediul C). Presupunand ca legatura la ISP1 este mult mai rapida decat cea la ISP2
acesta din urma ar ajunge sa suporte tot traficul (al lui C si al lui ISP1). ISP1 si ISP2 platesc pentru conectarea
lor la internet si s-ar ajunge ca ISP1 sa nu mai plateasca nimic si ISP2 sa plateasca aproximativ dublu. Se
observa ca metrica tehnica nu mai este diferit. Intre ISP-uri trebuie implementat un protocol de rutare bazat pe
reguli politice (BGP).
a) True: RIP-ul functioneaza pe o metrica unica.
b) True: Daca vrem sa interconectam doua AS-uri care folosesc metrice diferite ne trebuie o inteligenta
superioara care sa asigura interconectibilitatea intre protocoale diferite.
c) True: Explicatia de la inceput.

25. Un ruter dintr-un domeniu autonom, in stiva TCP/IP :


a. cunoaste obligatoriu graful domeniului, altfel nu poate face calculul rutelor
b. poate cunoaste ruta completa ce va fi parcursa pana la o destinatie
c. nu cunoaste graful retelei si are initial informatii despre costuri numai catre vecinii sai
d. afla ruta prin interogare explicita atunci cand este nevoie de ea

a) False: Cunoasterea grafului complet ar fi inutila in special in cazul retelelor cu un caracter dinamic
ridicat (ex. Retele wireless). In acest caz se prefera solutia in care routerul cunoaste decat o parte a
grafului retelei, n special vecinii sai de prim rang (direct conectati) si vecinii de rang 2. Pachetele sunt
trimise din router in router si pe baza acestor informatii (legate de vecini) se face rutarea propriu-zisa.
Un alt argument care sa contrazica afirmatia: Un AS se poate imparti in mai multe zone. Un router
dintr-o zona cunoaste topologia zonei din care face parte si numai un sumar al zonelor exterioare din
acelasi AS (ex. OSPF).
b) True: Exemplu OSPF cunoaste tot graful.
c) True: Da, exemplu: Protocolul RIP determina next-hop-ul pe baza costurilor primite de la vecinii sai.

26.O entitate de protocol OSPF dintr-un ruter IP :


OSPF does not use a TCP/IP transport protocol (UDP, TCP), but is encapsulated directly in IP
datagrams with protocol number 89. This is in contrast to other routing protocols, such as the
Routing Information Protocol (RIP), or the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). OSPF handles its
own error detection and correction functions.
a. transmite periodic catre vecini, tabelul cu distantele pana la diferite destinatii
Nu. Transmite periodic niste mesaje de Hello pt a mentine active vecinatatile.
Hello sent at regular intervals to establish and maintain neighbour relationship Hello packets
are sent directly to neighbors on point-to-point links and non-broadcast networks.
On LANs, hello packets are sent to a predefined group or multicast IP address that can be received by all
routers. They send triggered updates when a network change occurs.
Trimite in schimb periodic updates, known as link-state refresh, at long time intervals, such as every 30
minutes.
b. retransmite catre ceilalti vecini tabelele de rutare primite pe un anumit port de la diferiti vecini
?? Nu. Primeste tabele de rutare pe baza carora isi calculeaza propriile tabele cu costuri. In protocolul de
rutare de tip link state, fiecare router pstreaz o baz de date cu descrierea topologiei sistemului
autonom. Fiecare router participant are aceeai baz de date. Fiecare element din aceast baz de date este
o descriere a unui router din cadrul sistemului autonom (de exemplu interfeele utilizabile ale router-ului i
vecinii la care acesta poate ajunge). Router-ul distribuie starea sa local in tot sistemul autonom prin flood-
are (inundare). Toate router-ele execut in paralel acelai algoritm. De la baza de date topologic, fiecare
router ii construiete un arbore cu cele mai scurte ci avand ca rdcin pe sine insui. Acest arbore cu cele
mai scurte ci asigur rutele ctre fiecare destinaie din sistemul autonom. Informaiile privind rutele
externe derivate apar ca frunze in arbore.
c. transmite catre vecini mesaje continand costurile link-urilor conectate direct la ruterul in
care ruleaza aceasta entitate
??DA

27.Utilizarea divizarii in arii OSPF are ca scopuri:


a. posibilitatea de utilizare a unor algoritmi de rutare diferiti in arii diferite
NU. OSPF este IGP - este nevoie de acelasi algoritm de rutare in toate ariile
b. reducerea dimensiunilor unor tabele de rutare DA
c. reducerea volumului de trafic de control DA
Avantajele impartirii in mai multe arii:
- tabele de rutare mai mici;
- informatia de semnalizare mai putina (se evita inundarea retelei);
- capacitatea necesara de procesare a ruterelor mai scazuta;
- se reduce frecventa de calcul a arborelui SPF (Shortest Path First).

28. Exista posibilitatea aparitiei unor bucle de rutare in protocolul OSPF ? Daca da, cum se rezolva
problema?

Fiecare ruter din topologie cunoaste intreaga topologie. Fiecare ruter calculeaza drumurile cele
mai scurte cu ajutorul algoritmului SPF. Pentru a se evita schimbul de LSA-uri, un ruter este ales
DR -designated router, el fiind singurul care trimite .
OSPF ABR and Loop Prevention
Q: How does OSPF prevent routing loops when exchanging summary LSAs?
A: In OSPF, the backbone area is used for exchanging inter-area routes between all other areas. Since there
is no common topology shared among different areas, loop prevention should be based on distance-vector
principles. There arethree main rules of generating and receiving inter-area routes (type-3 LSAs) in OSPF
that prevent control-plane routing loops: o Area Border Router (ABR) is a router that has at least one
interface in Area 0 and this interface is NOT in DOWN state. ABR is distinguished by setting the B
(border) bit in its router LSA to signal other routers in the
same area of its ABR status. Only ABR is allowed to generate summary LSAs and inject them in the
attached areas. o ABR expects summary LSAs from Area 0 only. This means there should be at least one
adjacency in FULL state built over Area 0 interface. In case if ABR has such adjacency, it will ignore
summary-LSAs received over non-backbone areas. These LSAs will be installed in the database, but not
used for SPF calculations. o ABR will accept and use summary-LSAs learned over non-backbone area if it
DOES NOT have a FULL adjacency built over an Area 0 interface. It is
safe to do so, since the ABR will not be able to flood the summary back into Area 0 creating routing loops.

29. Comentati motivele care justifica alegerea tipului de metrica pentru protocolul BGP si pozitia sa in
stiva de protocoale TCP/IP. De ce sunt necesare iBGP si eBGP?
BGP (englez Border Gateway Protocol) este protocolul de rutare folosit in nucleul
Internetului.El menine o tabel cu reele IP (sau "prefixe") care arat calea folosit pentru a
ajunge la reeaua respectiv prin diferitele sisteme autonome (AS). BGP este considerat din acest
motiv un protocol de rutare vector-cale (spre deosebire de protocoalele vector-distan, care nu
pstreaz toat calea). BGP nu folosete aceleai metrici ca protocoalele de rutare folosite in
interiorul AS-urilor, ci ia decizii bazandu-se pe cale i pe politicile de rutare ale sistemului
autonom din care face parte. Protocolul a fost creat pentru a inlocui un alt protocol de rutare
(EGP) i pentru a permite rutarea descentralizat in Internet, fcand inutil reeaua de nucleu a
acestuia, NSFNet.Versiunea patru a protocolului este folosit in Internet, toate versiunile
anterioare fiind considerate depite. Cel mai important progres al versiunii 4 a fost suportul
pentru CIDR i folosirea agregrii rutelor pentru a reduce dimensiunea tabelelor de rutare. BGPv4
este standardizat prin RFC 4271, care a trecut prin peste 20 de versiuni preliminare, bazate pe
versiunea de BGP din RFC 1771. RFC 4271 a corectat unele erori, a clarificat ambiguitile i a
apropiat standardul de practicile curente din industrie. Cei mai muli utilizatori de Internet nu
folosesc in mod direct acest protocol. Totui, deoarece majoritatea Internet Service Providerilor il
folosesc pentru a stabili rute intre reelele respective, BGP este unul din cele mai importante
protocoale de pe Internet. Importana sa este comparabil cu a protocolului SS7 pentru stabilirea
apelurilor telefonice intre operatorii PSTN. Reelele IP de mari dimensiuni folosesc BGP inclusiv
in interiorul reelei, de exemplu pentru a lega mai multe subreele suficient de mari pentru ca
protocolul de rutare OSPF s-i ating limitele. Alt caz de utilizare il reprezint conectarea mai
multor puncte de prezen ale unuisingur furnizor de acces Internet (acest caz este descris in RFC
1998).
Border Gateway Protocol este un protocol de rutare unic, deoarece, spre deosebire de
celelalte protocoale de rutare, stabilete i menine conexiuni intre routerele vecine folosind
protocolul TCP. In cazul routerelor aflate in AS-uri diferite, o conexiune BGP poate fi stabilit
doar dac routerele sunt direct conectate. Legtura se realizeaz pe portul TCP 179, fiind
meninutprin mesaje periodice de 19 octei (intervalul implicit este de 60 de secunde).
Cand BGP este rulat in interiorul unui sistem autonom, este folosit termenul iBGP
(englez Internal Border Gateway Protocol). Cand este rulat intre AS-uri, este numit eBGP
(englez External Border Gateway Protocol). In majoritatea ruterelor actuale, distana
administrativ (DA) pentru iBGP este mai mare (deci prioritatea este mai mic) decat cea pentru
alte protocoale de rutare intra-AS, care, la randul lor, au D.A. mai mare decat eBGP. Vecinii eBGP
trebuie sa fie direct conectai pentru a fi realizat conexiunea BGP, dar exist i excepii. De
exemplu, implementrile Cisco au opiunea "multihop", care permite realizarea de conexiuni
eBGP ctre routere nelegate direct. Aceast limitare nu exist pentru iBGP. Pentru a asigura
rutarea intre toate nodurile din reea care ruleaz BGP poate fi folosit un protocol de rutare IGP
(OSPF, RIP etc.). In mod normal, un ruter iBGP menine sesiuni cu toate celelalte routere iBGP
din AS, formand o topologie logica full-mesh (fiecare cu fiecare). Acest lucru este necesar
deoarece, pentru a preveni formarea de cicluri de rutare, iBGP nu transmite rute invate prin
iBGP altor vecini care ruleaz iBGP. Dac se dorete ca ruterele iBGP s schimbe rute BGP intre
ele, este necesar configurarea de reflectori de rute (englez route reflectors) sau confederaii.
Cand un ruter afl despre o ruta nou prin protocolul eBGP, va seta adresa urmtorului hop la
adresa ruterului vecin eBGP de la care a aflat ruta respectiv. Cand se primesc rute din interiorul
AS-ului, adresa urmtorului hop rmane neschimbat.

31.Un flux de aplicatie poate folosi transport TCP sau UDP. In


conditii de existenta a unei situatii de congestie incipienta in
retea (aglomeratie in noduri), care dintre protocoalele de
transport reuseste totusi sa ofere o viteza medie de transport
mai mare?
a. TCP
b. UDP
c. Nu se poate da o afirmatie generala
a.TCP- este mai lent deoarece trebuie sa asigure receptia corecta a datelor (secventialitatea
pachetelor-se pierde timp in cozi si datorita retransmisiilor). Orientat pe conexiune
b. UDP -Este mai rapid deoarece nu face corectia erorilor, retransmisii, ci doar transmite datele cat
mai repede. Ne-orientat pe conexiune (orientat pe datagrame)
c. Nu se poate da o afirmatie generala--Un algoritm de dirijare bun poate ajuta la evitarea congestiei prin
rspandirea traficului dealungultuturor liniilor, in timp ce un algoritm neperformant a r putea trimite toate
pachetele pe aceeailinie, care deja este congestionat . Da. In anumite conditii, mai ales daca avem
congestie in noduri, nici UDP nici TCP nu poate fi sigur mai rapid unul decat celalalt.
SAU
a) False: TCP-ul retransmite cadrele eronate. Round-trip-time-ul este mai mare. (De exemplu este total
nepotrivit pentru aplicatiile in timp real: VoIP, Video OnDemand etc.)
b) True: Nu garanteaza receptia corecta, nu retransmite, nu corecteaza erori.
c) False

32.Se considera trei fluxuri de aplicatii :FTP, E-mail, Video-streaming, care trec, intr-un
ruter, printr-un mecansim traffic shaping. In principiu, in care caz, fluxul poate suferi
modificari care sa influenteze mai mult (in sens negativ) performanta aplicatiei:
a. FTP
b. E-mail
c. Video-streaming
d. Nu se poate da o afirmatie generala

a. NU- FTP este un rotocolul pentru transfer de fiiere[1][2] (sau FTP, dup engl. File
Transfer
Protocol) este un protocol (set de reguli) utilizat pentru accesul la fiiere aflate pe servere din
reele de calculatoare particulare sau din Internet si nu foloseste o comunicatie in timp real.
b. Dac serverul este dispus s primeasc e-mail, clientul anun de la cine vine scrisoarea i
cui ii
este adresat. Dac un asemenea receptor exist la destinaie, serverul ii acord clientului
permisiunea s trimit mesajul. Apoi clientul trimite mesajul i serverul il confirm. In general
nu este necesar ataarea unei sume de control deoarece TCP furnizeaz un flux sigur de
octei
c. DA. Este nevoie de comunicatie in timp real

Vom examina acum o tehnic numit formarea traficului (traffic shaping), care uniformizeaz
traficul mai degrab pentru server dect pentru client. Formarea traficului se ocup cu
uniformizarea ratei medii de transmisie a datelor (atenuarea rafalelor).n contrast, protocoalele
cu fereastr glisant pe care le-am studiat anterior limiteaz volumul de date n tranzit la un
moment dat i nu rata la care sunt transmise acestea. La momentul stabilirii unei conexiuni,
utilizatorul i subreeaua (clientul i furnizorul) stabilesc un anumit model al traficului
(form) pentru acel circuit. n unele cazuri aceasta se numete nelegere la nivelul serviciilor
(service level agreement). Att timp ct clientul i respect partea sa de contract i trimite
pachete
conform nelegerii ncheiate, furnizorul promite livrarea lor n timp util. Formarea traficului
reduce congestia i ajut furnizorul s-i in promisiunea. Astfel de nelegeri nu sunt foarte
importante pentru transferul de fiiere, ns sunt deosebit de importante pentru datele n
timp real, cum ar fi conexiunile audio sau video, care au cerine stringente de calitate a
serviciilor.

33. Fie o arhitectura multi-plan. Care sunt functiile minimum necesare, care trebuie sa
existe in planul de date, pentru ca o rezervare a resurselor pentru un flux sa poata fi
efectiva?

Data plane ( DPl)- transport of user data traffic directly:


o Examples of functions: traffic classification, packet marking traffic policing, traffic
shaping, buffer management, congestion avoidance, queuing and scheduling
o transfer the user data flows and accomplish the traffic control mechanisms to assure
the desired level of QoS
Buffer Management ??
Rezervarea resurselor
Un bun inceput pentru garantarea calitii serviciilor este capabilitatea de a regla forma traficului
oferit. Totui, folosirea efectiv a acestei informaii inseamn implicit s ceri ca toate pachetele
dintr-un flux s urmeze aceeai rut. Rspandirea lor aleatoare pe rutere face dificil de garantat
orice.
Ca o consecin, trebuie ca intre surs i destinaie s se creeze ceva similar unui circuit virtual i
ca toate pachetele care aparin fluxului s urmeze aceast cale. Odat ce avem o rut specific
pentru un flux, devine posibil s rezervi resurse de-a lungul acelei rute pentru a te asigura c este
disponibil capacitatea necesar. Pot fi rezervate trei tipuri diferitede resurse:
1. Limea de band
2. Zona tampon
3. Ciclurile procesorului
Prima, limea de band este cea mai evident. Dac un flux cere 1 Mbps i linia pe care se iese
are capacitatea de 2 Mbps, incercarea de a dirija trei fluxuri prin acea linie nu va reui. Astfel, a
rezerva lime de band inseamn s nu se supraincarce vreo linie de ieire.
O a doua resurs care este adeseori insuficient este spaiul tampon. Cand sosete un pachet,
acesta este de obicei depozitat pe placa de reea de ctre hardware. Software-ul ruterului trebuie
s copieze apoi pachetul intr-o zon tampon din RAM i s adauge acest tampon in coada pentru
transmisie pe linia de ieire aleas. Dac nu este disponibil nici un tampon, pachetul trebuie
aruncat deoarece nu exist spaiu in care s poat fi pus. Pentru o bun calitate a serviciilor, unele zone
tampon pot fi rezervate pentru un anumit flux in aa fel incat acel flux s nu trebuiasc s concureze
pentru tampoane cu alte fluxuri. Intotdeauna va exista o zon tampon disponibil atunci cand
fluxul va avea nevoie, dar pan la o anumit limit.
In cele din urm, ciclurile procesorului sunt de asemenea resurse rare. Ruterul are nevoie de
timp de procesor pentru a prelucra un pachet, deci un ruter poate procesa doar un anumit numr
de pachete pe secund. Este necesar s ne asigurm c procesorul nu este supraincrcat pentru a
asigura prelucrarea in timp util a fiecrui pachet.
Functia minima este Buffer Management-Buffer (Queue) Management (QM)
QM decides which packets, a waiting transmission, to store or drop.
Important goals:
- minimize the steady-state queue size
- while not underutilizing links
- preventing a single flow from monopolizing the queue space.
QM schemes differ mainly in the criteria for dropping packets and what packets
(e.g., the front or tail of the queue) to drop.

34.Presupunem ca pe o interfata de intrare a unui ruter (cu


capabilitati QoS) toate fluxurile au pachete deja marcate. Mai are
sens introducerea unei functii de marker pentru aceasta
interfata? P104
a. nu caci pachetele sosesc deja marcate. Ruterul trebuie doar sa
tina seama de marcaje
b. da, explicati in acest caz
c. da, dar cu conditia sa existe si un traffic shaper

Packets are marked according to specific service classes they will receive in the network on a
per-packet basis. Typically performed by an edge node: assigning a value to a designated header field of
a packet in a standard way
Examples:
- Type of Service byte (ToS) - in the IP header
- EXP bits ( 3 bit field used to tag packets) of the MPLS shim header)
i s used to codify externally observable behaviors of routers in the DiffServ or
MPLS-DiffServ.
Marking can be done by a host/source: it should be checked and may be changed (either
promoted or demoted) by an edge node according to SLAs or local policies.
a. nu caci pachetele sosesc deja marcate. Ruterul trebuie doar sa tina seama de
marcaje
S-ar pierde foarte mult timp daca fiecare router ar marca pachetele. De accea se face
marcarea pachetelor pe edge router, iar restul routerlor doar tin cont de aceste marcaje.
Classifier: identify a flow of packets to which an arriving packet belongs
- classification function placed at the input ports of a router
- identification may be a complex operation- depending on the complexity of classification
criterion
- store the classification information internally (to be used by other functional blocks of the
router)
Where to perform classification in the network ( in some routers, in all routers) ?
- Classification on each core router of an AS - expensive
- Alternative solution:
- execute classification at the ingress of the network
- explicitly mark the classified packets
- advantage: the intermediate core routers recognize the marking (no need of a new
classifying action for each packet)
c. da, dar cu conditia sa existe si un traffic shaper
formarea traficului (traffic shaping), care uniformizeaz traficul mai degrab pentru
server decat pentru client. Se ocupa de ratele de transmisie a fluxurilor care ies din
routere, nu este neaparat necesara.
Traffic Shaping - method to limit the input traffic rate by delaying the packets whose parameters
are not conformant with some limits

35.In general, intr-o arhitectura multi-plan QoS-capabila, nu este


strict necesar ca toate functiile mentionate in planele D,C,M sa fie
implementate. Daca s-a implementat o functie de ,QoS routing -
cu ajutorul unor protocoale de rutare capabile QoS -atunci ar mai
fi nevoie de existenta unor rezervari de resurse?
a. Nu
b. Da
c. Nu se poate da o afirmatie generala.

Control plane - pathways for user data traffic: Admission control, QoS routing, and resource
reservation.
Da. QOS Routing verifica niste reguli setate fluxurilor de date. De aceea resursele trebuiesc
intai
rezervate.
QOS Routing-Selection of a path satisfying the QoS requirements of a flow
The path selected most likely is not the traditional shortest path
Depending on the specifics and the no. of QoS metrics involved, computation required for
path can become prohibitively expensive as the network size grows.
Practical QoS routing schemes consider mainly cases for:
-a single QoS metric (e.g., bandwidth or delay) or,
- for dual QoS metrics (e.g., cost-delay, cost-bandwidth, and bandwidthdelay).
Routing strategies to reduce the complexity of path computation exist
Criteria of classification:
how the state information is maintained
how the search of feasible paths is carried out
Strategies: source routing, distributed routing, and hierarchical routing [4]
Generalization of QoS routing: constraint- based routing

Resource Reservation (RR)


Sets aside required network resources on demand for delivering desired network performance
Reservation request is granted/rejected by AC mechanism .All the considerations for admission control
therefore apply QOS Routing functioneaza in paralel cu RSVP (Resource Reser vation Protocol)-este
nevoie de rezervare de resurse inainte.

36. Comparati pe scurt tehnologiile QoS Inserv si Diffserv. Efectuati comparatia intr-
un tabel cu trei coloane : criteriul de comparatie, Intserv si Diffserv ( PAG 90-92
CARTE PROFU !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!)

IntServ specifies a fine-grained QoS system, meaning there are many levels of QoS, which are
defined and stored in the routers. DiffServ is the opposite - it is a coarse-grained control system,
with only several QoS levels.
DiffServ is a model for providing QoS in the Internet by differentiating the traffic whereas
IntServ is a model for providing QoS in networks by building a virtual circuit in the Internet
using the bandwidth reservation technique. DiffServ does not require the nodes in the network to
remember any state information about the flow as oppose to IntServ, which remembers state
information in the routers. Furthermore, reserving paths and remembering state information in a
busy network such as the Internet would be a tedious task. Therefore, implementing IntServ
would be practically difficult in the Internet. Because of that, IntServ would be suitable for
smaller private networks whereas DiffServ is much suitable for the Internet.

37.Prin actiunea de modelare a traficului in IP (shaping) se


intelege:
a. multiplexarea mai multor pachete de la surse diferite in acelasi
flux
b. micsorarea raportului debit binar_de_varf/debit_binar_mediu
c. reducerea variatiilor intervalelor de timp dintre pachete
successive

PAG 93
a. multiplexarea mai multor pachete de la surse diferite in acelasi flux
NU. A traffic shaper works by delaying metered traffic such that each packet complies
with the relevant traffic contract. Metering may be implemented with for example the
leaky bucket or token bucket algorithms (the former typically in ATM and the latter in IP
networks). Metered packets or cells are then stored in a FIFO buffer for each separately
shaped class, until they can be transmitted in compliance with the prevailing traffic
contract. This may occur immediately (if the traffic arriving at the shaper is already
compliant), after some delay (waiting in the buffer until its scheduled release time) or
never.
b. micsorarea raportului debit de varf/debit mediu de celule
NU
c. reducerea variatiilor intervalelor de timp intre pachete succesive
Da

Formarea traficului se ocup cu uniformizarea ratei medii de transmisie a datelor (atenuarea


rafalelor).in contrast, protocoalele cu fereastr glisant pe care le-am studiat anterior limiteaz volumul
de date in tranzit la un moment dat i nu rata la care sunt transmise acestea. La momentul
stabilirii unei conexiuni, utilizatorul i subreeaua (clientul i furnizorul) stabilesc un anumit model al
traficului (form) pentru acel circuit. In unele cazuri aceasta se numete inelegere la nivelul
serviciilor
(service level agreement).
TS controls the rate and volume of traffic entering the network. Entity responsible for TS buffers
nonconformant packets until it brings the respective aggregate in compliance with the traffic
The resulted traffic thus is not as bursty as the original and is more predictable.Shaping often
needs to be performed between the egress and ingress nodes.Two key methods/algorithms for
traffic shaping:- Leaky Bucket (LB) - Token Bucket (TB
LB and TB are used now as shaping algorithms
Traffic shaping (also known as "packet shaping") is a computer network traffic management
technique which delays some or all datagrams to bring them into compliance with a desired
traffic profile.[1][2] Traffic shaping is a form of rate limiting
Traffic shaping is used to optimize or guarantee performance, improve latency, and/or increase
usable bandwidth for some kinds of packets by delaying other kinds.

38. Ce rol are functia de Policing de la intrarea unui ruter Diffserv?.


Cum se face acest policing?. Dati un exemplu.

The simplest concept in traffic conditioning (and in providing PHB for AF classes in the core of
a DS-domain), packets are metered, and different actions are taken, depending if the packet in
question conforms, violates, or exceeds the configured average-rate, committed Burst (Bc), or
excess Burst (Be) [Ref-E]. A packet can be transmitted, dropped, or remarked with a different
DSCP value (moving it into a lower AF class, or changing its drop precedence value), depending
on the configured policy. One goal of QoS based services is to provide bandwidth guarantees
In order to be able to do this the amount of input traffic in the network should be controlled measured,
and
limited by dropping, marking and dropping or shaping )
Traffic Policing
-Verifies by measuring whether the incoming flow follows obey some limits (are conformant) established
previously by a traffic contract and proceed accordingly if not ( drop, mark, change priority, etc.)
- does not modify the traffic characteristics
Typical policing paramters
- Peak Rate ( PR), Average Rate (AR), Burst Size (BS),
- one policer may use one or several parameters, dpending on the type of traffic contract
Traffic Shaping - method to limit the input traffic rate by delaying the packets whose
parameters are not conformant with some limits

39.Care dintre cele mecanisme introduce in principiu o intarziere mai mare a pachetelor
in planul de date ?
a. RED
b. Traffic Shaping
c. Policing

40. Este necesar un protocol de semnalizare in planul de control, intre rutere in


tehnologia DiffServ ?
Explicati.

carte profu pagina 98-99

41.Exista functia Admission Control in tehnologia Diffserv ?


Ar fi utila? Daca da, atunci explicati ce functionalitati
suplimentare ar presupune si efect ar avea aceasta.

-vezi paginile 98-99 carte profu (spor la citit)

42. Este utila existenta a doua functii cu actiuni aparent asemenatoare Admission
Control si Policing
intr- o arhitectura QoS capabila ? Analizati.

Admission Control ---pagina102 carte citeste si vezi ce scrie pe acolo poate


te descuri cumva
Policing-pagina 114 ---la fel si dup ace intelegi fa sit u o comparative si analizeaza sigur te
descurci spor :*

43. Controlul de conformitate al debitului prin metoda tamponului cu jetoane (Token


Bucket) declara neconform un pachet daca prin calculul asociat mecanismului TB se
detecteaza depasire pentru:
a. debitul binar mediu
b. debitul binar instantaneu
c. lungimea maxima a unui grup compact de biti (rafala) de traffic

PAG 110 CARTE PT MAI MULTE DETALII PLUS CE E MAI JOS:

Algoritmul gleii gurite impune un model rigid al ieirii, din punct de vedere al ratei medii,
indiferent de cum arat traficul. Pentru numeroase aplicaii este mai convenabil s se permit
o
creterea vitezei de ieire la apariia unor rafale mari, astfel incat este necesar un algoritm mai
flexibil, de preferat unul care nu pierde date. Un astfel de algoritm este algoritmul gleii cu
jeton (the token bucket algorithm). In acest algoritm, gleata gurit pstreaz jetoane,
generate de un ceas cu rata de un jeton la fiecareT sec. Algoritmul gleii cu jeton permite
aceast acumulare, mergand pan la dimensiunea maxim a gleii, n. Aceast
proprietate
permite ca rafale de pan la n pachete s fie trimise dintr-o dat, permiand apariia
unor
rafale la ieire i asigurand un rspuns mai rapid la apariia brusc a unor rafale la
intrare.
TB advantages
- simple implementation
- usable in traffic contract to detect conforming/nonconforming packets
- R is a bound on average rate
- B is the maximum busrt size for this flow
- Traffic anvelope provide a maximum limit of traffic in any time interval (useful to
dimension the data buffers size in the router)
TB - formal definition of a rate of transfer.
TB components: a burst size, a mean rate, and a time interval (Tc).
mean rate = burst size / time interval
Mean rate also called Committed Information Rate (CIR): how much data can be sent or
forwarded per unit time on average.
Burst size - also called the Committed Burst (Bc) size: specifies in bits (or bytes) per burst
how
much traffic can be sent within a given unit of time to not create scheduling concerns.
Time interval - also called the measurement interval: the time quantum in seconds per burst.

44. Care planificator la iesirea unui ruter, ofera cea mai buna
echitate intre diferite fluxuri? Dar garantii de
banda medie [in b/s]? :
a. FIFO;
b. Round Robin;
c. Deficit Round Robin;
d. Nu se poate da o afirmatie generala; depinde de tipurile de
trafic asociate fluxurilor in cauza.

a. FIFO;
Nu ofera echitate intre fluxuri si nici garantii de banda.
with simple FIFO serving policy it cannot contribute to bandwidth and delay guarantees
fulfillment; some other sophisticated scheduling will be necessary in routers.
All packets are treated equally, and a sender can obtain more than a fair share of network
bandwidth by simply transmitting packets excessively
Need for some other more flexible and fair treatment of packets.
Nu e bun pt pachet mari
b. Round Robin;
conditionat adevarat Algoritmul RR este usor de implementat, ofera protectie si echitate
pentru trafic BE dar numai daca pachetele sunt de lungimi comparabile. Echitatea este de fapt
asigurata doar in medie pe intervale mai mari de timp decat durata unui pachet. Dezavantajul sau
este ca pachetele lungi pot monopoliza coada unica deci si capacitatea link-ului(nu ofera echitate
pt anumite fluxuri)
c. Deficit Round Robin;
Planificatorul circular cu credit (Deficit Round Robin DRR) asociaxa o variabila de credit
pentru fiecare coada. Se defineste Ci = contor de credit cumulativ pentru coada Qi. Cozile sunt
vizitate circular. Vizitarea unei cozi Qi _ Ci = Ci + ( cuanta de credit quantum of credit). Un
pachet nu poate fi transmis decat daca in coada sa exista credit sufficient, altfel asteapata in
coada
acumulare de credit.
The major advantage of this method of scheduling is that it does not require the size of the
incoming packets on the different links to be known to the scheduler, as opposed to a
simpler weighted round robin scheduling. Are o complexitate mare.
d. Nu se poate da o afirmatie generala; depinde de tipurile de trafic asociate fluxurilor in cauza.
DA.