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(a) few si (a) little

Pentru inceput sa vedem ce inseamna “few” si “little”.


Few = putini, putine
Little = putin, putina (desigur mai inseamna si “mic”, insa nu de acest sens ne ocupam noi acum)
Daca esti atent, poti observa ca in limba romana “putini”/”putine” poate fi folosit DOAR cu
substantive numarabile.
Ex.:
 putini baieti; putine fete
 putin curaj; putina speranta
In engleza lucrurile stau exact la fel.
“few” – se foloseste pentru substantive NUMARABILE
“little” – se foloseste pentru substantive NENUMARABILE
Exemple:
 few oranges = putine portocale
 few books = putine carti
 few computers = putine calculatoare
 few flowes = putine flori
etc.
 little sugar = putin zahar
 little coffee = putina cafea
 little gold = putin aur
 little time = putin timp
etc.
Singurul lucru care ar putea sa-ti puna probleme in a folosi corect “few” si “little” este acela ca
in limba engleza exista unele substantive NEnumarabile care in limba romana sunt numarabile.
De pilda, in engleza nu se numara: money (bani), advice (sfat), information (informatie) etc. Voi
discuta despre substantivele NEnumarabile intr-o postare viitoare.

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Am stabilit cand folosim “few” si “little”, sa vedem acum care e treaba cu “a few” si “a little”. In
esenta regula este aceeasi:
“a few” se foloseste pentru substantive NUMARABILE,
“a little” pentru substantive NENUMARABILE.
Articolul nehotarat din fata lor, adica “a”, le adauga un plus de cantitate.
Astfel:
Few = putini, putine; a few = cativa, cateva
Little = putin, putina; a little = ceva, catva
Exemple:
We still have a few oranges.
Inca mai avem cateva portocale.
Yes, but there is little coffee left.
Da, dar a mai ramas putina cafea.
We have eaten few apples so far.
Am mancat putine mere pana acum.
Have you caught a cold? I think you should drink a little tea.
Ai racit? Cred ca ar trebui sa bei ceva ceai. (niste ceai).

Adjective cu terminatie -ED sau -ING

  Pentru a descrie felul in care se simte cineva, folosim adjective terminate in “-ed”
Stress – stressed
Frighten – frightened
Interest – interested

Reguli de scriere (transformari) la adaugarea terminatiei “-ed”:


1. “-e” final dispare
Amuse – amused
Tire – tired
Please – pleased
Surprise – surprised

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2. “-y” precedat de consoana se transforma in “-i”
Satisfy – satisfied
Worry – worried

•    Pentru a descrie lucrul sau persoana care produce sentimentul, folosim adjective
terminate in “-ing”.
Stress – stressing
Frighten – frightening
Interest – interesting

Reguli de scriere (transformari) la adaugarea terminatiei “-ing”:


1. “-e” final dispare
Amuse – amusing
Tire – tiring
Please – pleasing
Surprise – surprising
2. “-y” ramane neschimbat
Satisfy – satisfying
Worry – worrying
Please – pleasing
Incearca si tu:
1. It’s frustrating / frustrated to spend your time with frustrating / frustrated people.
2. I’m interested / interesting in reading interested / interesting books.
3. I can’t hear you because there is a disturbed / disturbing noise.
4. What a shocked / shocking film! My mother was completely shocked / shocking.
5. This is an exciting / excited adventure. I’m sure the children will be excited / exciting about it.
6. He was fascinated / fascinating by the new construction.

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Articolul nehotarat

Articolul nehotarat
a; an = un, o => in functie de sunetul cu care incepe cuvantul precedat de articol
a => consoane si semivocalele [w] si [j]
an => vocale
· a bank manager [mænɪdʒə]; a great opportunity; a meeting, a jungle; a house; a BMW
· an idea; an interesting book; an hour; an orange dress; an umbrella; an LP
· !! a window, a whisper; a uniform, a university, a universe of my own; a year; a European
Cand se foloseste
· In fata unui substantiv care denumeste profesia, meseria sau nationalitatea ( dupa “to be” sau
“to become”)
He wants to become a politician.
My neighbour is an Englishman.
Her husband is a catholic.
Dan is a plumber.
· Cu anumite expresii de masuri (cantitate, distanta, timp)
I think I’ll finish in half an hour.
He was driving at 70 miles an hour.
He’s an Englishman. He drinks tea once a day, at about five o’clock.
This would help a great deal/ a lot.
· Expresii cu “what a…”
What a pretty girl!
What a foggy morning!
What an interesting idea!
What a pity!
Testeaza ce ai retinut:
_____ experiment
_____ universal law
______ discussion
______ utopian idea

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______ extreme sport
______ honourable man

Cand punem THE si cand nu

Ca regula generala, punem “the” atunci cand stim ceva despre substantiv sau cand
substantivul a fost mentionat anterior in conversatie. Ideea este ca eu stiu despre care
anume substantiv (de fapt ceea ce denumeste acel substantiv) este vorba.
I bought an apple and an orange. The orange was sour.
Am cumparat un mar si o portocala. Portocala a fost acra. (portocala de care tocmai ti-am spus).
The book that I am giving to you is borrowed from the library.
Cartea pe care ti-o dau e imprumutata de la biblioteca. (stiu anume care carte – cea pe care ti-o
aduc tie)
2. NU punem “the” atunci cand vorbim despre lucruri in general sau cand sunt implicate
notiuni   abstracte.
_Life is tough sometimes.
Viata e dura uneori.
_Football is boring, but _reading is interesting.
Fotbalul e plictisitor, dar cititul (sa citesti) este interesant.
3. Punem “the” in fata unui substantiv la singular care defineste de fapt o colectivitate.
The dog can be very loyal.
Cainele poate fi foarte loial. (e vorba de fapt de toti cainii)
ATENTIE! Daca am vorbi despre caini in general, la plural, NU am pune “the” deoarece nu
avem o referire la un substantiv anume (vezi regula 2).
_Dogs can be very loyal.
Cainii poat fi foarte loiali.
Daca am vorbi despre un caine anume, am pune din nou “the” (vezi regula 1).
This is the dog that barked all night.
Acesta este cainele care a latrat toata noaptea.

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De remarcat faptul ca exemplul si rationamentul expus anterior despre caine si caini se poate
aplica la orice substantiv. Totul este sa ne dam seama cand vorbim de anumite lucruri (punem
“the”) si cand vorbim in general (NU punem).
 
Pe langa aceste reguli generale enuntate mai sus, avem cateva reguli stricte pe care le voi arata
in continuare.
4. NU se pune “the” in fata numelor de persoane, cu exceptia numelor proprii la plural
(care desemneaza o familie) si a numelor precedate de un adjectiv.
I love _Jenny. ( O iubesc pe Jenny).
We are having lunch with the Kiyosakis. (Luam pranzul cu familia Kiyosaki.)
The famous Nietzsche died insane.
Vestitul Nietzsche a murit nebun.
5. Se pune “the” in fata numelor de ape, cu exceptia lacurilor.
I don’t like spending my holidays at the Black Sea, but I like the Atlantic.
Nu-mi place sa-mi petrec vacantele la Marea Neagra, dar imi place Atlanticul.
The Olt river flows into the Danube.
Raul Olt se varsa in Dunare.
A well known holiday destination is _Lake Balaton.
O destinatie bine cunoscuta de vacanta este lacul Balaton.
6. Se pune “the” in fata numelor de lanturi muntoase si a numelor de munti la plural (cu
cateva exceptii irelevante); NU se pune in fata denumirilor de munti la singular, sau
varfuri.
He usually goes skiing in the Alps.
De obicei merge sa schieze in Alpi.
The world’s highest mountain above the sea level is _Mount Everest.
Cel mai inalt munte deasupra nivelului marii este Muntele Everest.
7. NU se pune “the” in fata numelor de orase, tari, continente, cu exceptia tarilor cu
denumire la plural sau a celor ce contin “republic”, “state”, “union”.
I’d like to visit any city in _Europe, especially _London.
Mi-ar placea sa vizitez orice metropola din Europa, in special Londra.
Avem o exceptie cunoscuta de oras in fata caruia punem articol: theHague.

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ATENTIE la denumirile intregi ale Americii ( the United States of America) si Marii Britanii
(the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland).
Alte tari cu articol: the Philippines, the Netherlands
8. NU se pune “the” in fata numelor de zile, luni, anotimpuri.
We never go to work on _Sunday.
Niciodata nu mergem la lucru duminica.
My favourite month is _July and my favourite season is _summer.
Luna mea preferata este iulie, iar anotimpul preferat este vara.
ATENTIE: in fata anotimpurilor putem avea “the” atunci cand acesta inlocuieste pronumele
demonstrativ (this, that)
In the summer we had our house painted.
Vara (asta) am zugravit casa.
9. Se pune “the” in fata substantivelor precedate de prepozitie: onthe table; under the
bed, near the supermarket, between the houses, to the dentist etc.
ATENTIE!
Exista anumite substantive (bed, school, church, prison, hospital etc) care, desi sunt precedate de
“the”, nu au in fata articol atunci cand sunt mentionate ca avand scopul pentru care au fost
concepute.
I go to _bed at about 11 p.m. (Ma duc la culare la ora 11. – patul e facut pentru somn)
Your socks are under the bed. (Sosetele tale sunt sub pat. – patul NU este un dulap )
She goes to _church every Sunday. (Ea merge la biserica in fiecare duminica –  biserica este
pentru a asculta slujba)
She visited the church turned into a historical monument in Venice. (Ea a vizitat biserica
transformata in monument istoric din Venetia – scopul bisericii este serviciul religios, nu  pentru
a fi monument).
The children and teachers go to _school in the morning. (Copiii si profesorii merg la scoala
dimineata – scoala este pentru invatare)
He is going to the school to meet somebody. (El merge la scoala sa se intalneasca cu cineva –
scoala nu se foloseste pentru invatare)
10.Se pune “the” in fata punctelor cardinale. 
Timisoara lies in the east.

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Timisoara este asezata in est.
 11. Se pune “the” in fata grupurilor de insule de regula, nu in fata insulelor singure. 
the West Indies; the Bahamas
_Sardinia
12. Se pune “the” in fata celor mai multe nume de hoteluri.
the Grand Hotel; the Hilton
13. Se pune “the” in fata numelor de deserturi.
the Sahara
14. Se pune “the” in fata majoritatii numelor de muzee, galerii de arta, cinematografe,
teatre.
the Odeon; the British Museum
15. In general, nu se pune “the” in fata numelor de strazi.
New Street; Willow Road

FOR si SINCE
Ca regula generala FOR arata durata unei actiuni, iar SINCE arata inceputul unei actiuni.
Asadar:
FOR se pune atunci cand indicam o perioada de timp. Pe FOR il putem intalni cel mai des cu
un numeral, in formulari de felul urmator:
 for a week = (timp) de o saptamana
 for ten days = (timp) de zece zile
 for three months = (timp) de trei luni
 for five minutes = (timp) de cinci minute
 for two centuries = (timp) de doua secole
etc.
FOR se mai intalneste si in urmatoarele expresii:
 for a while = de scurt timp
 for a long time = de mult timp, de multa vreme
 for a long while = de mult timp, de multa vreme
 for a short time = de scurt timp, de scurta vreme
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 for a short while = de scurt timp, de scurta vreme
 for a few days/ years/ weeks… = (timp) de cateva zile/ ani/ saptamani…
 for many days/ years/ weeks… = (timp) de multe zile/ ani/ saptamani…
 for ages = de un car de ani, de o vesnicie (evident la figurat)
SINCE se pune atunci cand indicam inceputul unei perioade de timp. SINCE arata de cand
anume incepe o anumita actiune.
SINCE se foloseste in exprimari de genul urmator:
 since 1987 = din 1987
 since July = din iulie
 since lunchtime = din timpul pranzului
 since the beginning of the lesson = de la inceputul lectiei
 since 10 o’clock = de la ora 10
 since Wednesday = de miercuri
 since my friends arrived = de cand au sosit prietenii mei
 since I was a child = de cand eram copil
 since we graduated high school = de cand am absolvit liceul
etc.
Atentie! SINCE se poate folosi inclusiv cu propozitii. In propozitia introdusa prin “since”
avem verbul la Past Simple!
 
FOR si SINCE sunt specifice timpurilor perfecte (Present Perfect, Past Perfect, Future
Perfect).
Exemple:
I haven’t seen him for ages. => Present Perfect Simple
(Nu l-am vazut de un car de vreme.)
We have been friends since the beginning of the school year. =>Present Perfect Continuous
(Suntem prieteni de la inceputul anului scolar.)
He had been trying to repair the car for fifty minutes by the time the mechanic arrived. => Past
Perfect Continuous
(Incercase sa repare masina timp de 50 de minute pana cand a sosit mecanicul.)

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They had been married since 1970 when her husband died. => Past Perfect Simple
(Fusesera casatoriti din 1970 cand sotul ei a murit.)
The girls will have been making cookies for three hours by the time their guests arrive.
=> Future Perfect Continuous
(Fetele vor face prajiturele de trei ore pana cand vor sosi musafirii.)
The books will have been there since June by the time she finally notices them. => Future
Perfect Simple
(Cartile vor fi acolo din iunie pana cand, in cele din urma, le va observa si ea.)
Sa recapitulam:

SINCE FOR
arata inceputul perioadei, adica
doar punctul din care actiunea a arata o perioada intreaga, de la
inceput sa se desfasoare inceput pana la sfarsit
poate fi folosit si cu un verb (aflat
la Past Tense) nu poate fi folosit cu verb
se foloseste cu Present Perfect,
se foloseste numai cu Present Past Perfect, Future Perfect, dar
Perfect, Past Perfect, Future si cu alte timpuri atunci cand
Perfect exprimam o perioada
My cousin learns English for two hours every day. => Present Simple
(Verisoara mea invata engleza timp de doua ore in fiecare zi.)
The woman is practising the piano for only twenty minutes today. => Present Continuous
(Femeia exerseaza la pian doar 20 de minute astazi.)
Are you going to play for such a long time? => “Going to” Future
(Ai de gand sa te joci asa mult timp?)

HAVE si HAVE GOT


We have a house and a nice car.
We have got a house and a nice car.
(We’ve got a house and a nice car.)

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A avea (a poseda)  =>  have got
Numai la Present Simple
Afirmativ:   
I have got
you have got
he/she/it/ has got
we have got
you have got
they have got
Negativ:
I haven’t got
you haven’t got
he/she/it/ hasn’t got
we haven’t got
you haven’t got
they haven’t got
Interogativ:
Have I got…?
have you got…?
has he/she/it got…?
have we got…?
have you got…?
have they got…?
A avea  => to have
Present Simple
Afirmativ:  (dupa schema  S + V)     
I have
you have
he/she/it/ has
we have

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you have
they have
Negativ (dupa schema S + do/does + not + V):
I don’t have
you don’t have
he/she/it/ doesn’t have
we don’t have
you don’t have
they don’t have
Interogativ (dupa schema  Do/Does + S + V):
Do I have…?
Do you have…?
DOES he/she/it/ have…?
Do we have…?
Do you have…?
Do they have…?
A NU se confunda cu urmatoarele:
Have to = have got to (a trebui sa, a fi obligat sa)
“Have you got to do all these?”
“Yes, I’ve got to do them all.”
Get – got – got (gotten)
When did you get your car?”
“I got it last year.
His sons have got a lot of presents.

LIE si LAY

LIE [lai] si LAY [lei]
Sunt doua verbe care se confunda frecvent, mai ales pentru ca “lay” este si forma de Past Simple
pentru “lie”. Problema se complica si pentru faptul ca “lie” are, de fapt, doua forme de Past

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(forma a doua) si Past Participle (forma a treia), in functie de sensurile cu care este folosit.
Astfel:
Atunci cand “lie” inseamna “a sta intins”,  “a zacea” el are urmatoarele forme:
Lie [lai] – lay [lei] – lain [lein]
Atunci cand “lie” inseamna “a minti”, el este considerat verb regulat si, ca urmare, are
urmatoarele forme:
Lie [lai]  – lied [laid] – lied [laid]
Exemple:
He is lying on the bed now.
(El sta intins in pat acum.)
Observatie: “-ie” final se transforma in “-y” la adaugarea terminatiei “-ing.
Deci lie => lying
She lay in the sun all day long yesterday.
(A stat intinsa la soare toata ziua ieri.)
My brother has already lain on his favourite sofa.
(Fratele meu s-a intins deja pe canapeaua lui preferata.)
Don’t be taken in by his words! He usually lies.
(Nu te lasa inselat de vorbele lui! De obicei minte.)
He has lied me many times so far.
(M-a mintit de multe ori pana acum.)
“To lay” inseamna “a aseza”, “a pune (ceva) jos”. Formele sunt:
Lay [lei] – laid [leid] – laid [leid]
Jenny is laying the table this moment.
(Jenny pune masa in acest moment.)
Her mother laid the table yesterday.
(Mama ei a pus masa ieri.)
Her sister has just laid the plates and the cutlery on the table.
(Sora ei tocmai a asezat farfuriile si tacamurile pe masa.)

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MUCH – MANY – A LOT OF/PLENTY OF

Sa vedem, mai intai, care este traducerea acestora:


 Much = mult, multa
 Many = multi, multe
 A lot of (plenty of) = o multime de
Dupa cum cred ca intuiesti chiar din traducere, folosirea lor este sinonima cu cea din limba
romana – “mult, multa” (much) se foloseste pentru substantive NEnumarabile, iar “multi,
multe” (many) se foloseste pentru substantive numarabile.
Ex.:
 mult argint, multa fericire
 multi copii, multe jucarii
 much silver, much happiness
 many children, many toys
Ai grija insa la substantivele numarabile in limba romana, care sunt nenumarabile in limba
engleza (information, advice, money, news etc.)
Intotdeauna vei spune, de exemplu, much information (multeinformatii)
sau much money (multi bani).
De asemenea, inca un lucru pe care trebuie sa-l stii este ca “much” si “many” se folosesc cu
precadere in propozitii negative si interogative.
We don’t have much coffee left. (negativ)
Nu ne-a mai ramas multa cafea.
Do you usually eat many oranges? (interogativ)
De obicei mananci multe portocale?
Pentru afirmativ exista expresiile “a lot (of)” = o multime (de) sau chiar “plenty of” = o
multime de, o gramada de, berechet. Acestea se pot folosi atat cu substantive numarabile, cat
si NEnumarabile.
Ex.:
My boyfriend has brought a lot of chocolate. He knows I like sweets.
Prietenul meu a adus multa ciocolata. Stie ca-mi plac dulciurile.
He has a lot of cars and plenty of money.

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Are o multime de masini si o gramada de bani.
We have plenty of time to do that.
Avem timp berechet sa facem asta.
I have plenty of ideas for my site.
Am o gramada de idei pentru site-ul meu.

Must/ Have to

1. Oh, I like this magazine! I must read it.


2. I’m sorry, I can’t stay any longer. I have to write a report for tomorrow.
Intre cele doua situatii exista o diferenta foarte mica. Ambele exprima obligatia, insa “must” este
o obligatie venita de la cel care vorbeste, iar “have to” este o obligatie venita din exterior.
1. O, imi place revista aceasta! Trebuie s-o citesc.
2. Imi pare rau, nu mai pot sta. Trebuie sa scriu un raport pentru maine.
Astfel, vorbitorul din primul exemplu abia asteapta sa citeasca o revista care-i place => trebuie s-
o citeasca pentru ca el doreste asta.
Vorbitorul din al doilea exemplu este obligat de sef sau de altcineva sa scrie un raport; nu e un
lucru pe care si-l doreste neaparat.
Pronume personale
Pronume personale subiecte si complemente 
 
Foarte des se confunda pronumele personale care pot fi doar in cazul nominativ (subiecte, nume
predicative) cu pronumele personale care se pun pe pozitia de complement.
 
 

    
SUBIECT COMPLEMENT
I Me => mine, mă, -mi-, imi,
You You => tine, -te-, tie, iti,-ti-;
He Him => lui, îi, -i-;  (prepozitie) el
She Her => ei, îi, -i;  (prepozitie) ea

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It It => lui/ei, îi, -i-
We Us => nouă, ne, ni;  (prepozitie) noi
You You => vouă, vă, vi-, v-;  (prepozitie) voi
They Them => lor, le, li-;  (prepozitie) lor
 
 
Este simplu sa vezi subiectul unei propozitii. Cele mai multe greseli se fac, insa, in folosirea
pronumelor complemente.
 
Exemple:
 
Tell me a joke, please!  = Spune-mi o gluma, te rog!
 
He brought the chocolate for me = A adus ciocolata pentru mine.
*
I told you… = Ti-am spus eu…
 
We are going to invite you, too. = O sa te invitam si pe tine.
*
She went with him. = A mers cu el.
 
Can you give him this book? = Poti sa-i dai cartea asta?
*
I told her about the accident. = I-am spus (ei) despre accident.
 
They talked about her at the meeting. = Au vorbit despre ea la sedinta.
*
I gave it a bone. = I-am dat un os.
 
She has a dog and she walks it every day. = Are un caine si il plimba in fiecare zi.
*

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Our parents gave us a lot of money. = Ne-au dat parintii o gramada de bani.
 
They believe in us and in our potential. = Cred in noi si in potentialul nostru.
*
Have they told you the good news? = V-au spus vestea cea buna?
 
Who laughed at you? = Cine a ras de voi?
*
I must talk to them. = Trebuie sa vorbesc cu ei.
 
The teacher sent them the results yesterday. = Profesorul le-a trimis ieri rezultatele.
 
 
Pronumele in cazul nominativ pun si ele probleme atunci cand sunt nume predicative.
 
In engleza vorbita se folosesc mai degraba pronumele complemente, chiar daca avem un nume
predicativ (despre care stim ca sta in cazul nominativ).
 
It’s me at your door. = Eu sunt la usa ta.  (colocvial)
It is I at your door. = Eu sunt la usa ta.  (mai bine)
*
It’s him. = El este. (colovvial)
It’s he. (mai bine)
 
O alta problema consta in alegerea pronumelui dupa “as” si dupa “than”.
 
:
My sister is as young as me/I.  (??)
 
Corect: My sister is as young as I.  (verifica daca se poate continua propozitia cu predicat: My
sister is as young as I am.)

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Poti auzi, insa, si “My sister is as young as me” in engleza vorbita, colocviala.
 
La fel si pentru un comparativ:
:
He is younger than I. (than I am)
Colocvial merge si “He is younger than me.”
 
Atentie! Se poate intampla chiar uneori sa se schimbe sensul unei propozitii daca folosesti
pronumele-subiect in loc de pronumele-complement (sau invers.)
 
Exemplu:
Her boyfriend would rather tell her than me.
Prietenul ei i-ar spune mai degraba ei decat mie.
 
Sau:
:
Her boyfriend would rather tell her than I. (than I would rather tell her.)
Prietenul ei i-ar spune mai degraba decat eu. (decat sa-i spun eu ei.)

Pronume posesive – adjective posesive in limba engleza

pronume posesive adjective posesive


I      => mine (al/a/ai/ale
meu/mea/mei/mele) I      => my (meu, mea, mei, mele)
You => yours (al/a/ai/ale
tau/ta/tai/tale) You => your (tau, ta, tai, tale)
He   => his (al/a/ai/ale lui) He   => his (lui)
She  => hers (al/a/ai/ale ei) She  => her (ei)
It     => its(al/a/ai/ale lui/ei-animale, It     => its (lui/ei – animale,

18
obiecte) obiecte)
We   => ours (al/a/ai/ale We  => our (nostru, noastra,
nostru/noastra/nostri/noastre) nostri, noastre)
You  => yours (al/a/ai/ale You => your (vostru, voastra,
vostru/voastra/vostri/voastre) vostri, voastre)
They => theirs (al/a/ai/ale lor) They => their (lor)
 
 
Care este diferenta dintre un pronume posesiv si un adjectiv posesiv
 
Adjectivul posesiv sta in fata unui substantiv pe care il determina.
 
Ex.:
My room – camera mea
Your business – afacerea ta
His beautiful wife – frumoasa lui sotie
Her red shoes – pantofii ei rosii
Its shiny fur – blana lui/ei lucioasa (“its” se foloseste pentru animale sau obiecte)
Our nice garden –gradina noastra frumoasa
Your paintings – picturile voastre
Their beauty – frumusetea lor
 
Observatie: Daca un substantiv are mai multe adjective, adjectivul posesive este cel care se pune
primul.
 
Pronumele posesiv este de sine statator.
 
Ex.:
The room is mine. (Camera este a mea.)
 
“Whose business is going to be taken over?” “Yours.”

19
(“A cui afacere va fi preluata?” “A ta.”)
 
“Whose wife is Helen?” “It’s his.”
(“A cui sotie este Helen?” “E a lui.”)
 
The red shoes are hers. (Pantofii rosii sunt ai ei.)
 
My cousin has a dog and this toy is its.
(Verisoara mea are un caine, iar aceasta jucarie este a lui.)
 
That nice garden is ours. (Gradina aceea draguta este a noastra.)
 
The paintings which will be sold are yours.
(Picturile care vor fi vandute sunt ale voastre.)
 
“Whose beauty was praised?” “Theirs.”
(“A cui frumusete a fost laudata?” “A lor.”)
 
Observatii:
 
 “his” este si pronume posesiv si adjectiv posesiv. Evident, deosebirea se poate face doar
din context, precum si din faptul ca adjectivul posesiv sta inaintea unui substantiv.
 
 A nu se confunda “its” cu “it’s”!
 
“its” este pronumele posesiv;
“it’s” este forma prescurtata de la “it is”.

SO si SUCH

20
 SO
 
Dupa “so” urmeaza un adjectiv sau un adverb, precum si determinantii
“much”, “many”, “little” si “few”.
 
The book is so good.
 
What you are telling me is so amazing!
 
They left so far away.
 
This artist sings so beautifully.
 
There were so many people in the market.
 
So much has been said about it.
 
Pentru a exprima motivul si rezultatul (cauza si efectul):
 
 
 SO …. THAT….
 
Dupa SO urmeaza un adjectiv, iar dupa THAT urmeaza o propozitie.
 
The book was so good that I read it a second time.
 
She is so sleepy that she can barely keep her eyes open.
 
La fel putem avea si:
 
 SO …. AS TO….

21
 
He was so stupid as to take whatever she said for granted.
 
Your grandmother is so kind as to do everything you want.
 
 
 SUCH
  Cu adjective si substantive:
 
Such nice people…
 
It’s such a beautiful day!
 
 
Pentru a exprima motivul si rezultatul (cauza si efectul):
 
 SUCH (a/an) …. THAT….
 
Dupa SUCH urmeaza un adjectiv si un  substantiv, iar dupa THATurmeaza o propozitie.
 
My friend is reading such an interesting book that he keeps on talking about it.
 
She ate such good cakes in Austria that she got fat during the holiday.
 
They have such good beer that people usually order more.
 
Observatie:
Daca substantivul de langa “such” este numarabil, atunci se pune articolul nehotarat (a, an). Daca
substantivul este nenumarabil sau este la plural, atunci nu mai putem pune un articol hotarat.
 
Altele:

22
 
So that…
I explained a lot so that you could understand the matter.
 
So as to….
They left early so as to be there at 8 sharp.
 
Such as…
When the children visited the zoo, they saw different animals such aslions, gorillas, giraffes and
so on.

Some și Any

Ambele se pot folosi atat cu substantive numarabile, cat si nenumarabile si exprima o cantitate
nedefinita din ceva. “Some” si “any” se pot traduce in cateva moduri, depinzand de tipul de
propozitie in care le folosim.
Si hai sa vedem concret aceste cazuri:
SOME
 1. Se foloseste cu precadere in propozitii afirmative. In acest caz se traduce “niste”/
“ceva”/ “cativa”.
There is some milk left in the fridge.
A mai ramas niste (ceva) lapte in frigider.
*
We have some things to do today.
Avem niste (cateva) treburi de facut astazi.
*
She wants some flowers for her mother.
Vrea niste flori pentru mama ei.
*
Some scientists believe that quantum physics is our future.
Unii cercetatori considera ca fizica cuantica este viitorul nostru.
*

23
 2. Se mai foloseste la interogativ, dar atunci cand intrebarea este de fapt o cerere sau o
invitatie. Primele doua exemple se pot intalni ca cereri la cumparaturi:
Can I have some biscuits, please?
Imi dati, va rog, niste biscuiti?
*
Could I have some strawberries, please?
Dati-mi niste capsuni, va rog.
*
Why don’t you have some fun?
De ce nu te distrezi? (aici “some” se poate chiar omite in traducerea din limba romana sau,
eventual, se poate traduce “de ce nu te distrezi un pic?”)
*
Would you like some more juice?
Mai vrei niste suc?
 3. “Some” se mai foloseste la interogativ si atunci cand suntem (aproape) siguri ca
raspunsul la intrebare va fi afirmativ.
I know you like chocolate… Would you like some chocolate icecream?
Stiu ca-ti place ciocolata… Ai vrea niste inghetata de ciocolata?
*
ANY
 1. Se foloseste in propozitii negative si interogative, in care se poate traduce cu “niste”
sau in care, pur si simplu, “any” se va afla doar pentru intarire.
He hasn’t brought any food.
N-a adus mancare./ N-a adus niciun fel de mancare.
*
I don’t have any brothers or sisters.
Nu am frati sau surori. (observa faptul ca aici ar fi un non-sens sa traducem “nu am niste frati
sau surori”)
*
She doesn’t want any parties for her birthday because she hates parties.
Nu vrea nicio petrecere de ziua ei pentru ca uraste petrecerile.

24
Observatie: remarca faptul ca “any” este folosit cu substantive numarabile la plural, desi
traducerea in limba romana se face la singular.
*
 2. “Any” se foloste si la interogativ atunci cand nu stim daca raspunsul va fi negativ sau
afirmativ (spre deosebire, deci, de “some” care se foloseste la interogativ atunci cand
suntem sguri sau aproape siguri ca raspunsul va fi pozitiv)
Is there any milk left in the fridge?
A mai ramas niste lapte in frigider?
*
I don’t know if you like sweets…. Would you like any cakes?
Nu stiu daca iti plac dulciurile… Ai vrea niste prajituri?
*
Do you have any brothers or sisters?
Ai vreun frate sau vreo sora?
*
Have you made any new friends in that town?
Ti-ai facut vreun nou prieten in acel oras?
*
 3. “Any” se poate folosi si el in propozitii afirmative, insa traducerea si sensul sunt
diferite de ceea ce ti-am aratat mai sus. In cazul in care “any” este in propozitii
afirmative, el se traduce” orice”/ “oricare”….
You can come any day you want.
Poti veni in orice zi doresti.
*
I can give your brother any of my books if he is keen on reading.
Pot sa-i dau oricare din cartile mele fratelui tau daca e pasionat de citit.
*
Sa recapitulam pana aici:

Tipul
propozitiei Afirmativ Negativ Interogativ
SOME “niste”/”ceva”/ – “niste” – atunci

25
cand stim ca
raspunsul va fi
pozitiv, cand
avem o cerere,
invitatie, sau
“unii” sugestie!
“niste” (sau
chiar fara
traducere, doar
pentru a intari
cumva);
“vreun”/ “niste”/ “vreun”,
“vreo”/ “vreo” (cand nu
“orice” / “niciun”/ stiu cum va fi
ANY “oricare”… “nicio”… raspunsul)
Tot ceea ce am spus pana aici este valabil inclusiv pentru derivatele lui “some” si “any”.
Adica “somebody”, “someone”, “somewhere”, “something” se folosesc la fel ca si “some”,
iar “anybody”, “anyone”, “anywhere”, “anything” se folosesc la fel ca si “any”.
There is somebody at the door.
Este cineva la usa.
*
I am sure that I have good news for you:  is there somebody who wants to go on the trip?
Sunt sigur ca am vesti bune pentru voi: e cineva care vrea sa mearga in excursie?
*
Jenny, someone is calling you, can’t you hear?
Jenny, te striga cineva, nu auzi?
*
I would like to go somewhere to swim.
Mi-ar placea sa merg undeva sa inot.
*
Mother, can you give me something, please?

26
Mama, poti sa-mi dai ceva, te rog?
*
There isn’t anybody at the meeting.
Nu e nimeni la sedinta.
*
Is there anyone who would like to work on Saturday?
E cineva care ar vrea sa lucreze sambata?
*
Have you seen my purse anywhere?
Mi-ai vazut portofelul pe undeva?
*
Don’t you have anything to do now?
N-ai nimic de facut acum?
*
Anybody can do that.
Oricine poate face asta.
*
You can ask anyone – everybody will tell you the same.
Poti intreba pe oricine – toti iti vor spune acelasi lucru.
*
Now that he has money, he can go anywhere he likes.
Acum ca are bani, poate merge oriunde ii place.
*
Children can’t do anything they want.
Copiii nu pot face orice vor.
*
Observatie:
In propozitiile in care verbul este la negativ, componentele lui “any” vor avea sensurile:
“nimeni”, “nicaieri”/”niciunde”, “nimic”.
I didn’t see anybody in the park.
N-am vazut pe nimeni in parc.

27
*
She isn’t  going anywhere during this holiday.
Nu merge nicaieri in timpul acestei vacante.
*
There isn’t anything in the fridge.
Nu e nimic in frigider.
*
Aceleasi propozitii se pot exprima in engleza si cu “nobody”, “nowhere”, “nothing”, insa
verbele trebuie sa fie la AFIRMATIV!
I saw nobody in the parc.
N-am vazut pe nimeni in parc.
*
She is going  nowhere during this holiday.
Nu merge nicaieri in timpul acestei vacante.
*
There is nothing in the fridge.
Nu e nimic in frigider.

Verbe fara prepozitie


Exista cateva verbe care in limba romana cer prepozitie in mod logic, insa in limba engleza
acestea NU sunt urmate de prepozitii.
Verbele: ENTER, MARRY, RESEMBLE, APPROACH sunt urmate de complemente fara
prepozitie.
 To marry = a se casatori
In romana spunem “se casatoreste cu cineva”, insa in engleza “marry” este FARA PREPOZITIE.
His best friend married a very beautiful woman.
Cel mai bun prieten al lui s-a casatorit cu o femeie foarte frumoasa.
My cousin married a rich man.
(Verisoara mea s-a casatorit cu un om foarte bogat.)
 To enter = a intra
Noi spunem “intru in camera”, insa in engleza “enter” este FARA PREPOZITIE.
28
She enters the office at eight sharp.
(Intra in birou la opt fix.)
When the boss entered the room, everybody became silent.
(Cand seful a intrat in camera, toti au devenit tacuti/ au tacut toti.)
 To resemble = a semana
Noi spunem “seamana cu sora ei”, insa in limba engleza “resemble” este FARA PREPOZITIE.
He resembles his twin sister very much.
(Seamana foarte mult cu sora lui geamana.)
John, your test paper resembles your deskmate’s! Can you tell me what happened?
(John, lucrarea ta de control seamana cu cea a colegului de banca! Poti sa-mi spui ce s-a
intamplat?)
 To approach = a se apropia
In romana spunem “se apropie de…”, insa in limba engleza “approach” este FARA
PREPOZITIE.
The dwarf approached Snow White and whispered something in her ear.
(Piticul s-a apropiat de Alba ca Zapada si i-a soptit ceva la ureche.)
Give me a call when you approach my office.
(Da-mi un telefon cand te apropii de biroul meu.)
Observatie:
Unele dintre verbele de mai sus mai au si alte sensuri. In acest articol am abordat doar sensurile
care pun probleme.
EXERCIȚII

Conditionala (IF Clause)

1. If they had come to my place we (listen) to some good music.


2. What happens if you (boil) your cream?
3. You (drive) now if you hadn’t drunk beer.
4. He wouldn’t have visited you unless you (invite) him.
5. I (never succeed) unless you had helped me.
6. If you (be) late again, you’ll lose your job.

29
7. If I (know) how to swim, I would have swum already.
8. She’ll come to your party if you (invite) her.
9. If I (see) a snake, I would run.
10. I would be glad if she (come).
11. What would you do if you (not have) money?
12. I wouldn’t have read that book unless I (need) it.
13. If you had wanted to speak English, you (learn) it.
14. I would be a politician if I (can) understand politics.
15. If she (be) here, she could sing a carol for us.
16. But for the snow, winter (not be) so nice.
17. If  Mandy had paid attention,  she (not lose) her keys.
18. If I (be) you, I wouldn’t pay any attention to what she says.
19. Where you (go) if he offered you a holiday?
20. What she (say) if I visited her unexpectedly?

Diateza pasiva
December 12, 2010 by admin
Transformati urmatoarele propozitii aflate la diateza activa in propozitii la diateza pasiva:
Ex.: The mechanic war repairing the car. => The car was being repaired by the mechanic.
1. A dog has bitten him.
2. They had broken the mirror a few days before.
3. Somebody stole his gold watch.
4. They usually assemble cars by using robots.
5. His father damaged the TV yesterday.
6. My mother is making a cake.
7. My friend came when they were broadcasting the news.
8. The authorities are building a new street these days.
9. They must build a new street anyway.
10. My brother has just installed a new programme for me.
11. The party gave up the search; they couldn’t find the missing person.
12. He was moving the furniture when I called him.

30
13. I’ll mend my dress; I tore it.
14. She is going to write the composition.
15. He said people would move his car away.
16. A specialist will be repairing his computer at this time tomorrow.
17. She will have finished the cleaning of the room by then.
18. We can offer them some free tickets.
19. You should change your bed sheets!
20. Our partner may send a letter of complaint.
21. They told him about the competition.

Exercitii cu Past Simple – Past Perfect Simple- Past Perfect Continuous

1. The child (have) the dog, Cudly, for two months before it (disappear).
2. His sister (leave) the gate open and the little dog (go out) of the yard.
3. Both children and their parents (look for) the dog for three hours when they (decide) to
place some photos of the dog in the neighbourhood.
4. They (not know) that moment that another little child (find) Cudly.
5. He (play) with the dog for more than an hour.
6. They (be) happy playing with each other, running in the streets.
7. Suddenly, the boy (see) a photo of the dog on a fence and he (realize) the dog (run
away) before he (find) it.
8. What a pity! He (have to) take the dog back.

Past Perfect Simple & Continuous/ Past Simple

1. When I (phone) him, he already (buy) the tickets for the show.
2. By the time Maddie (notice), her two little children (paint) the cat.
3. She hardly (close) her bag when her mobile phone (ring) again.
4. No sooner the doctor (leave) than the old lady (call) him again.

31
5. Her grandfather (work) in the army for forty years before he (retire).
6. When I (talk) to him he (be) exhausted because he (train) for three hours.
7. Before the teacher (come in) the pupils (copy) the homework from one another for half
an hour.
8. Hardly the manager (sit down) when somebody (knock) at the door.
9. No sooner Jenny (turn on) the TV than the lights (go off).
10. When the man (see) the fire in the forest he (call) the firefighters.
11. When the firefighters (arrive), the people (try) to put out the fire for a long time.
12. She hardly (order) the drink when the waiter (bring) it.
13. She (tell) me that her brother already (go) out.
14. By the time Marianne (think) about his proposal he already (marry) somebody else.
15. No sooner she (open) her mouth than the dentist (pull) out her tooth.
16. Jennifer (explain) for five minutes when she (realize) everybody (leave).
17. The manager (tell) his staff that he (invite) some specialists from abroad.
18. By the time Jenny’s mother (come) back in the kitchen she (spread) the entire bag of
flour on the floor.
19. They (be) friends for five years before the (get married).
20. He (stop) the car the moment he (hear) that strange noise.
Past Simple/Continuous – Past Perfect Simple/Continuous

Pune verbele din paranteze la Past Simple – Past Continuous – Past Perfect Simple – Past Perfect
Continuous
1. “Hi, this is Donna!”
2. “Oh! Hi, Donna, I’m glad to hear you. What’s up?”
3. “Well, I just (browse) some photo albums when I (start) to remember our former classmates.”
4. “Oh, how nice! You (laugh) when you (see) our childish faces?”
5. “Not really. Some of us look the same. For example Damian… He already (divorce) when I
(talk) to him.”
6. “What (happen)? He (be) one of the most intelligent boys.”
7. “Just his luck… When I (meet) him, he (apply) for a position in a foreign company.”
8. “What about Alice? She (marry) by the time we (graduate) high-school.”

32
9. “I know. She has a company with her husband now. They (celebrate) her birthday at Miriam’s
restaurant when I accidentally (come across) them. They (invite) me to their table.”
10. “Donna, I’m awfully sorry! I would absolutely like to chat with you, but I  (bake) some
cookies for a while when you (call)…”
11. “O.k., don’t wory. I’ll talk to you later. Bye!”
Past Simple – Past Continuous – exercitii

1. “What you (do) when I (call) you yesterday?”


2. “I (be) very busy… I (dust) the furniture.”
3. “Why you (dust) it?”
4. “Because I (have to)…”
5. “You also (clean) the house?”
6. “Of course… But it (not be) so bad because while I (clean), I (listen) to music.”
7. “Really? I (not think) about that! I’ll do that, too.”
8. “The only problem (be) when I (use) the vacuum cleaner, because  I (cannot) hear very well…
I have a very noisy vacuum cleaner.”
9. “Now I understand why you (not answer) when I (phone) you.”
10.” Well…that, or… music  itself… I guess I (listen)  to really loud music…. Sorry…”
Exercitii Past Simple / Past Continuous

1. “What he (do) when you (arrive)?”


2. “He (write) emails.”
3. “When he (start) writing them?”
4. “He (not tell) me that.”
5. “And what you (do) when you (see) him at the computer?”
6. “Nothing, I just (turn on) the TV.”
7. “I (suppose) you (watch) TV while he (write) emails.”
8. “Yes, but after a while he (tell) me to turn it off and go to my room.”
9. “Oh, that’s why you (read) the newspaper when I (knock) at your door.”
10 “In fact I (read) the newspaper and I also (listen) to music.”
 

33
Past Simple/Past Continuous

1. When I (be) young, I (want) to become an engineer.


2. Jane (wait) for her friend when she (see) her cat under a car.
3. Denis (break) his leg while he (play) football.
4. While I (sit) on the toilet, my mobile phone (start) to ring.
5. My brother (sing) and (have) a shower while I (watch) TV.
6. At this time yesterday I (cycle) in the park.
7. What you (do) when I (phone) you?
8. I (not hear) when my father (call) me.
9. Everybody (have) fun when suddenly the lights (go) out.
10. Joan (not notice) me. She (look) somewhere else.
11. “You (see) her at the concert?” “Of course I (see) her. Unfortunately I (not can) talk to
her.”
12. We (have) a chat while we (wait) for our coffee in the restaurant.
13. You (watch) TV when the guests (arrive)?
14. She (laugh) while she (tell) us the joke. That’s why we (not understand) anything.
15. I (sleep) while my brother (paint) my face in red. When I (wake up), I (want) to beat him.
Fortunately our parents (come) and (stop) the fight.
16. When I last (meet) him, he (try) to find a job as an accountant.
17. My mum (cook) when my father (surprise) her with a bunch of flowers.
18. The radio was on, but nobody (listen) to it.
19. While we (play) in the park we (see) a terrible accident.
20. When Kim (find out) that he (cheat) on her, she (tell) him to get lost.
21. His grandfather (fall) asleep while he (listen) to the news.
22. He (try) to change a light bulb when he (fall) off the ladder and (break) his arm.
23. When I (come) in the office, the manager (talk) on the phone, his secretary (type) a letter
and another man (wait) on the chair in front of the desk.
24. When we (arrive) in the mountains, the sun (shine) and the birds (sing). It (be) a lovely
summer morning.
25. While they (travel) around Italy, they (meet) a lot of nice people.

34
26. What homework you (say) the teacher (give) us?
27. I’m sorry, I (not understand) because I (not pay) attention.
28. Grandma (lay) the table while her grandchildren (trim) the Christmas tree.
29. I (leave) home because I (not know) she (come) to my place.
30. Who you (talk) to when I (meet) you in the street?

Present Perfect Simple – Present Perfect Continuous – Past Simple

1. How long you (be) interested in books?


2. I think I (like) reading books since I (start) secondary school.
3. Really? And how you (become) interested in reading?
4. Well, I (not want) to eat and I (use to) ask my grandma to read a story for me while I was
eating. And this is how I (start)  to see how entertaining the books were.
5. So you (read) for a long time… How many books you (read) so far?
6. I couldn’t tell that! Who’d count the books?! I (read) a lot and I also (like) a lot.
7. What kind of books you (like)?
8. When I (be) a teenager I (like) adventure books, but for some time I (study) science
books.

1.”You (read) Think and grow rich”?


2. “Not yet. I mean I (start) reading it five months ago, but I (not finish) it.”
3. “Do you mean you (read) it for a few months?”
4. “Well, not exactly. Meanwhile, I (read) other books, too. I always (like) Anthony Robbins. In
fact I (send) him an email. I (wait) for his answer since then.”
5. “Oh, this is interesting! When and how it (occur) to you to write an email? I never (think)
about it.”
6. “To be honest I (think) about it since I (read) his first book.”
7.”I see. Well, it seems that you (be) very busy lately. I suppose you also (need) a lot of free time
these months…”
1. “What he (do) since he (arrive)?”
2. “Well, he (write) emails on the computer.”

35
3. “How many emails do you think he (write) so far?”
4. “I don’t know, but I’m sure he (write) a lot. He (write) for over an hour.
5. I wonder if he has a problem or something because he (write) emails yesterday, too.”
6. “You (see) him writing them yesterday?”
7. “No, but he (tell) me about that.”
8. “He (ask) you any help?”
9. “No, he (tell) me not to disturb him.
10. “I just wonder why he (write) emails for two days…”
1. It (rain) a lot this spring.
2. It (rain) yesterday and last week, too.
3. The weather (be) very bad so far.
4. In fact it’s raining this moment. It (rain) for half an hour.
5. It seems we (not see) a sunny day for ages.
6. I (be) happy when I (see) a few sunrays two days ago.
7. But my happiness (be) short lived because it immediately (start) raining.
8. I (be) very bored and tired lately because of the weather.
9. My friends (call) me for a few days in order to go to a club.
10. My mother also (tell) me for a while to go out.

1. I (know) him for a long time.


2. In fact, I (know) him since we (come) to the same school.
3. I (meet) him in the first school day.
4. We (talk) to each other for many years.
5. I even (talk) to him an hour ago.
6. He (call) to invite me to tea.
7. We often (have) tea together.
8. He (invite) people to tea for a few months.
9. His parents (ask) him to do so when they (come back) from their holiday.
10. I always (appreciate) his parents.

1. We (be) at the baker’s a few minutes ago.

36
2. “You (send) the mail?” “Yes, I just (send) it.”
3. I (lose) weight.
4. What he (do) when he (see) you?
5. They (have) dinner yet?
6. I (listen) to loud music for half an hour.
7. My father (have) this car for only one year.
8. What he (talk) about for so long?
9. Mary (be) in the kitchen since she (come). She (cook) for three hours.
10. How long Paul (wait) for the train?
11. It’s almost 3 p.m. I (call) you this morning, but I (can not) find you.
12. My cousin (work) very hard recently.
13. We (be) friends since we (be) little children.
14. When Paul and Sue (met)?
15. I (not receive) any e-mails so far.
16. Well, I (receive) about ten. Yesterday I (read) about ten, too.
17. He (ask) you to do that since you (show) up.
18. I (be) very busy today because I (study) for my Geography exam.
19. My God! The girls (talk) on the phone for an hour already.
20. She is very tired, she (work) all day long.
21. “When you (do) your homework, Dan?” “I (not finish) it yet, but I (write) it since I
(arrive).”
22. Her little sister (collect) napkins for a long time. She already (have) one hundred last
week.
23. How long they (be) here?
24. The mechanics (not fix) the car they (bring) two days ago.
25. “The little boy (trip) over a large stone and (break) his nose.” “When it (happen)?” “I
think it (be) a couple of hours ago.
26. Since they last (visit) me, they (see) so many wonderful places.
27. Excuse me, where you (find) this very nice bag?
28. What time the children (go) out?

37
29. “What you (do) during all this time?” “Well, we (move) to a new house and this week we
(carry) the furniture.”
30. I think he (get) his bike when he (pass) that difficult exam.

Mai jos ai cateva modele de intrebari de engleza care apar in testele pentru stewardese.
1. Radio City Music Hall can hold ___.
A. much audience
B. a large audience
C. much audiences
D. many audiences
2. ‘Where did you work before?”
‘I worked only minutes ___ airport.’
A. from
B. from the
C. near
D. away
3. You should buy a cell phone. ___ you would be able to call me
all the time.
A. So
B. Then
C. Well
D. Therefore
4. ___ Christmas, kids receive a lot of presents in the United
States.
A. At the
B. On
C. In
D. By
5. By my 60th birthday, I ___ married for over 31 years.
A. will be
B. will have been

38
C. would be
D. would have been
Tema eseu: Tell us three destinations that our company should fly and why.
Intelegere text: 
Rock star Sting has used his latest visit to Brazil to urge the government there to listen to the
concerns of indigenous peoples over a proposed new hydro-electric dam in the Amazon.
The former Police frontman has flown to the country to address the proposals for the
megastructure, known as the Belo Monte project, which will be the third largest dam of its kind
in the world.
British pop star Sting says Brazil’s government should listen to the voices of local indigenous
groups before building a massive hydroelectric dam in the Amazon rain forest.
He was speaking at a press conference in Sao Paulo where he was reunited with indigenous
leader Raoni Metyktire who joined him in a similar campaign 20 years ago which attracted
worldwide attention.
Indigenous tribes in the Amazon say the Belo Monte project poses a threat to their way of life.
The dam will flood much of their land making hunting and fishing in the area difficult.
Brazilian officials say the dam is needed to meet the energy demands of its growing economy,
while environmentalists say it will swallow rain forest, kill off native fish and displace
thousands.
Variante Intrebari:
Based on the article, Sting can be described as:
The Brazilan government want to increase the amount of ___ in Brazil.
The dam hasn’t been built yet (true/false).
Local tribal people want the dam built in their area (true/false).

1. My father normally reads the paper while eating __________.

 a breakfast

 the breakfast

 breakfast

 one breakfast

39
 the breakfasts

 breakfasts
2. To get to the Post Office, __ at the end of this road.

 go along

 go over

 turn right

 go past
3. I am sure I would have regretted it if I ……… to take the job.

 would agree

 did agree

 would have agreed

 had agreed
4. I've never __ to England.

 been

 went

 going

 go
5. My parents __ married since 1985.

 got

 were

 have been

 are
6. I'm hungry. ______ anything today.

 I ate

 Did I not eat


40
 I haven't eaten

 Ate

 Have I not eaten


7. I keep my grammar notes in a ___________ folder.

 plastic big red

 red big plastic

 big red plastic

 plastical big red

 red bigger plastic

 plastic redder big


8. If I __ earlier, I wouldn't have been late for work.

 left

 was leaving

 had left

 have left
9. Please remain seated __ the plane has come to a complete standstill.

 as

 while

 until

 as soon as
10. I didn't _______ listen to opera.

 used to

 use to

 be used to

41
 never
11. ___________ to the dentist after college so I can't play squash with you.

 I'm going

 I'll go

 I go

 I can go

 I went

 I was going
12. I didn't __ TV last night.

 not watched

 watch

 watching

 watched
13. Chen's looking forward __ his new job next week.

 to starting

 to start

 starting

 in starting
14. It looks __ it's going to rain.

 alike

 as like

 as

 as if
15. You should __ my advice!

 listen
42
 hear

 do

 take
16. Until last week, he __________ a motorbike before.

 had never ridden

 never had ridden

 had ridden never

 has never ridden

 has ever ridden

 hasn't ridden
17. By 2020 I think we will __ a settlement on Mar

 have built

 have been building

 be built

 built
18. What is this __ in English? I can't remember.

 called

 said

 named

 spoken
19. I don't enjoy computer games now, but I __________ like them when I was younger.

 was used to

 used to

 would have agreed

43
 had agreed

 have

 am
20. You __ be really excited about your trip to Germany.

 could

 must

 have to

 ought

44