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Muli seniori prezint diferite probleme sociale sau psihologice.

Rezolvarea acestor
probleme depinde n multe cazuri de furnizorii de servicii sociale. Astfel, asistenii sociali
devin prezene semnificative pentru persoanele aflate la anii senectuii. n timp ce btrnii
necesit alimentaie, adpost, asisten medical i asisten social, este necesar de asemenea
s fie tratai i cu respect. Respectul joac un rol psihosocial semnificativ pentru calitatea
ultimilor ani din via.
De fapt, n asistena social respectul pentru client este considerat pasul primordial n
procesul de furnizare a oricrui serviciu social (NASW,1996; Mayeroff,1971). Respectul
trebuie s precead orice form de asisten sau servicii (Gambrill, 1983; Reichel, 1995;
Rogers, 1961).
Cu ajutorul respectului, furnizorii demonstreaz o atitudine pozitiv fa de
beneficiarii lor, i trateaz corect, decent, cu buncuviin, i le afirm demnitatea
individual. Clienii respectai de ctre un furnizor i sporesc stima de sine i satisfacia vieii
i deasemenea i sporesc simul utilitii lor i implicarea n comunitate (Applegate & Morse,
1994; Ghusn et al., 1996; Damon-Rodriguez, 1998).
Respectul este un mesaj, un mesaj important care este transmis clientului de ctre
asistentul social i atrage dup sine o relaie furnizor-client benefic i productiv. Atunci
cnd un furnizor i demonstreaz prin aciunile sale respect clientului, relaia dintre acetia se
dezvolt. Clienii discut i abordeaz subiectele dificile din iniiativ i cu ncredere, se
implic activ n obinerea rezultatelor dorite i i analizeaz propriile contribuii (Gambrill,
1983). Studiul lui Gibbard (Gibbard A. Wise choices, apt feelings. 1990) a descoperit faptul
c felul n care este respectat e mai important pentru client dect ceea ce asistentul fce
pentru rezolvarea problemelor. Respectul cu toate c este important n toate etapele unui
serviciu, este deosebit de important n interaciunile cu noivenii i strinii. (Dillon,1992).
Carkhuff i Pierce (1976) considereau respectul alturi de empatie i cldur, ca fiind esenial
la primul contact.
n practic asistenii sociali manifest dificulti n exprimarea acestui mesaj
important, respectul. Asistenii sociali deseori se strduiesc din rsputeri s operaionalizeze
respectul fa de beneficiari (Campton si Gallaway, 1984). Unul din cele mai puin abordate
subiecte n asistena social era respectul oferit persoanelor beneficiare de servicii sociale.

Respectul este o expresie de apreciere binevoitoare, altruist sau nelegtoare fa de


alte persoane (Downie & Telfer, 1969). Pentru a respecta o persoan o tratm ntr-un anume
fel sau ne purtm ntr-un anume fel. Dillon (1969) demonstreaz c o persoan care respect
alt persoan manifest o atenie sporit pentru acea persoan i o trateaz serios. ns
respectul solicit mai mult dect atenia noastr. Dup cum Gibbard (1990) demonstreaz,
respecul implic anumite aciuni sau conduite. Respectul trebuie s se manifeste n forme
concrete de expresii comportamentale orientate ctre ngrijirea i deservirea altora
(Silverman i Maxwell, 1978). Astfel de expresii includ aciuni vocale (salutri, apelri),
micri fizice (ndrumare, servire), micri corporale (postur politicoas, recunoatere),
aspect exterior (mbrcminte cumsecade) samd (Sung, 2001). O persoan ce respect
manifest gesturi explicite i expresii care implic respect. Att cel ce respect ct i cel ce
este respectat vor percepe aceste gesturi ca simboluri semnificative (Hewit, 1988).
Asistenii sociali trebuie s fie capabili s descrie i s expun care gesturi i expresii
concrete demonstreaz respectul fa de beneficiari (Hugman & Smith, 1995). Numai atunci
cnd conceptul general de respect este precis definit i aciunile necesare sunt aplicate zi de
zi, respectul devine plin de neles, semnificativ att pentru furnizor ct i pentru beneficiar
(Gambrill, 1983).
Exist foarte puine studii despre formele de respect fa de vrstnici. Analiznd
literatura de specialitate descoperim patru studii empirice care expun forme i expresii prin
care oamenii i arat respectul fa de vrstnici. Silverman si Maxwell (1978) au identificat
apte forme de respect pentru cei n vrst plecnd de la 34 de societi din cele 186 de areale
populaionale descrise de studiile comparative, interculturale ale lui Murdock si White
(1969).
Cele apte forme sunt:
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Service respect (housekeeping) (Respect prin prestarea de servicii)


Victual respect (serving drinks and foods) (Respect prin procurarea de alimente)
Gift respect (presenting gifts) (Respect prin oferirea de cadouri)
Linguistic respect (using respectful language) (Respect prin exprimare)
Presentational respect (showing courteous manners) (Respect sugestiv)
Spatial respect (furnishing honorable seats or places)
Celebrative respect (celebrating birthdays) (Respect prin srbtorire)

Alte studii, efectuate de asisteni sociali dou n Asia i un altul n Statele Unite
identifc de asemenea forme ale respectului fa de vrstnici (Ingersoll-Dayton &

Saengtienchai, 1999; Mehta, 1997; Sung, 2002). Ingersoll-Dayton & Saengtienchai (1999),
folosind abordarea eantionului de populaie i interviul individual, disting expresii variate
ale respectului pentru vrstnici n urma studiului lor n patru ri asiatice. Mehta, studiind
doar un eantion de singaporezi, identific forme similare cu cele identificate de IngersollDayton i Saengtienchai. Sung (2002), folosind informaiile dintr-un sondaj efectuat pe
studeni americani, a identificat 12 forme de respect fa de vrstnici.
Chiar dac cele patru studii au analizat diferite contexte culturale i nu au avut un
cadru specific asistenei sociale, au obinut toate rezultate asemntoare, identificnd
urmtoarele forme, expresii ale respectului fa de vrstnici:
1. Care/service respect (providing care and services for elders),
Respect prin ngrijire
2. Acquiescent respect (assenting, listening to elders),
Respect prin consimire, afirmativitate
3. Consulting respect (seeking elders for advice),
Respect prin cerere de sfaturi
4. Precedent respect (providing services to elders first),
Respect prin ntietate
5. Salutatory respect (greeting and saluting elders),
Respect prin salut
6. Linguistic respect (using proper language in addressing to elders),
Respect prin limbaj
7. Victual respect (serving drinks and foods of elders choice),
Respect prin aprovizionare
8. Gift respect (presenting gifts to elders),
Respect prin oferirea de cadouri
9. Presentational respect (holding proper manners before elders),
Respect sugestiv
10. Celebrative respect (celebrating elders birthdays),
Respect prin srbtorire
11. Spatial respect (furnish elders with comfortable seats), and
Respect prin oferirea spaiului confortabil
12. Public respect (serving neighborhood elders and elders at large).
Respect

Aceste 12 forme, importante corolare ale respectului fa de vrstnici, le intersecteaz


i completeaz pe cele 7 distinse prin studiu intercultural de ctre Silvermann si Maxwell
(1978).

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3110652/#R27
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