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CENTRALA ELECTRICA LA O NAVA IN

CURENT ALTERNATIV
UNIVERSITATEA MARITIMA CONSTANTA
FACULTATEA DE ELECTROMECANICA NAVALA
SPECIALIZARE: ELECTROTEHNICA

STUDENT:
MERTOIU ALEXANDRU
GRUPA: ET41

TEMA DE PROIECT

Sa se proiecteze centrala electrica la o nava in curent alternativ avand puterea instalata


Pi = 1407.7 Kw. Tensiunea de alimentare la barele TPD este de 3x400 V c.a. si frecventa f = 50 Hz.
ETAPA I
Determinarea puterii cerute a centralei in regim de mars utilizand metoda tabelelor de
sarcina.
a. Pierderile in retelele de cabluri se considera 5% din pierderile consumatorului
b. Factorul de incarcare pentru fiecare consumator
c. Factorul de simultaneitate sunt cuprinsi intre

K 0.65 0.95

K S 0.33 1

K GSK 0.8 0.01 n


K GSint 0.3 0.01 n
Unde

n 28

Observatii:
1. Consumatorii marcati cu 7 10 11 12 16 17 functioneaza in regim intermitent
2. Consumatorii marcati cu 14 21 functioneaza in regim de scurta durata
3. Restul consumatorilor functioneaza in regim continuu

P
Pgi K S K n t i
n
1 cos 2 i
tgi
cos i
Q gi Pgi tg i
ETAPA II-a
Alegerea numarului si puterii generatoarelor centralei electrice.
Pentru consumatori de 220 V se aleg transformatoarele de forta trifazate

K GSK 0.8 0.01 n 0.8 0.01 28 1.08


2

K GSint 0.3 0.01 n 0.3 0.01 28 0.58

P 1.05 K GSK PgKi K GSint Pg int j max Psdl


i 1
j1

P 1.05 1.08 440.030 0.58 97.270


147.541 702.8217
P 702.8217 KVA

Q 1.05 K GSK QgKi K GSint Qg int j max Qsdl


i 1
j1

Q 1.05 1.08 230.393 0.58 60.344 83.5082 379.8527


Q 379.8527 KVA
S P 2 Q 2 702.8217 2 379.8527 2 798.9033

S 798.9033 KWAR
cos

P 702.8217

0.8797
S 798.9033

S' 1.25 S 1.25 798.9033 998.6291


S'
SNG
2

998.6291
SNG
2
;

499.3145 SNG
;

Alegem din catalog trei generatoare de tipul MCK 500 1500


TIP

PUTERE

TEN

IN

XS

Xd

X 'd

X"d

ra

'd S '

S
[KVA]

[KW]

[V]

[A]
3

MCK
500 -

500

400

400

722

0.045
7

1.666

0.2

0.18

0.0197

0.34

1500

SCHEMA MONOFILARA A CENTRALEI ELECTRICE


SECTIASECTIA
1
SECTIA
2
SECTIA
3
SECTIA
4
SECTIA
5
SECTIA
6
SECTIA
7
SECTIA
8
9

aI

500 KVA

DG 3
G
S

500 KVA

10 CONSUMATORI

DG 2
G
S

5 CONSUMATORI

DG 1
G
S
500 KVA

M
8 CONSUMATORI

14 CONSUMATORI

5 CONSUMATORI

a II

11 CONSUMATORI

RST
3X400 V 50 Hz

TLM
TTAN 63 KVA
400/220
TTAN 63 KVA
400/220

RST
3 xe 400 V ; 50
Hz
e 07 1,3,5 e 08 1,3,5 e10 1,3,5
02 1,3,5 e 04 1,3,5
2,4,6
2,4,6
2,4,6
2,4,6
2,4,6
a 02 RST a 04 RST a 07 RST a 08 RST a10 RST
DTm
DTm
ABC
ABC
ABC
ABC
ABC
T1S1
T1S1
T2 S2
T2S2
L02RST L04RST L07RST L08RST L10RST

Alegem din din catalog transformatoarele identice de 220 V de tipul TTAN cu urmatorii
parametrii:

S 63 KVA

U1N 380 V

MSC % 3.7%

0.95

U 2N 220 V

PSC PCU 2.4%

ETAPA III-a
Proiectarea sistemului de distributie a energiei electrice:
-

Alegerea sectiunii cablurilor dintre generator si TPD


Alegerea barelor TPD
Alegerea cablurilor dintre TPD si consumatori

Lungimea cablurilor de legatura intre generator si TPD este

lG TPD 10 n 10 28 38 m
Lungimea cablurilor de legatura intre TPD si consumatori este

lCTPD 25 n 25 28 53 m
a.

Alegerea sectiunii cablurilor intre generator si TPD

I NG

SN 103 500 10
3

721.687[A]
3 U NG
3 400
[75]

Alegem 4 cabluri de policlorura de vinil termorezistenta

cu sectiunea

SG TPD 4 3 120 [mm 2 ]


Verificarea la caderi de tensiune admisibila

U G

3 I NG lG TPD cos
G 100

3 721.687

38 0.879
100

0.150%
NG U N
48 4 120
400

U G 0.150% 1%
b. Alegerea sectiunii cablurilor intre TPD si consumatori

I Nm

Pi 103

3 380 cos

75 103
I Nm1
143.145[A] S1 150[mm 2 ]
3 380 0.87 0.915

I Nm2

3.9 103

8.812[A] S2 2.5[mm 2 ]
3 380 0.82 0.82

4 103
I Nm3
9.038[A] S3 2.5[mm 2 ]
3 380 0.82 0.82

I Nm4

84.7 103

170.58[A] S4 95[mm 2 ]
3 380
0.87 0.92

I Nm5

15 103
30.648[A] S5 16[mm 2 ]
3 380 0.845 0.89

I Nm6

18.5 103
37.155[A] S6 16[mm 2 ]
3 380
0.85 0.89

I Nm7

7.5 103

15.866[A] S7 4[mm 2 ]
3 380 0.84 0.855

I Nm8

4 103

9.038[A] S8 2.5[mm 2 ]
3 380 0.82 0.82

I Nm9

2 103

4.808[A] S9 1[mm 2 ]
3 380 0.8 0.79

I Nm10

15 103
30.648[A] S10 10[mm 2 ]
3 380 0.845 0.88

I Nm11

11 103
22.869[A] S11 6[mm 2 ]
3 380 0.84 0.87

I Nm12

39.6 103

76.879[A] S12 35[mm 2 ]


3 380 0.86 0.91

26 103
I Nm13
51.335[A] S13 35[mm 2 ]
3 380 0.855 0.9

I Nm14

59 103

112.607[A] S14 95[mm 2 ]


3 380 0.87 0.915

I Nm15

90 103

170.84[A] S15 120[mm 2 ]


3 380 0.87 0.92

I Nm16

7.5 103
15.866[A] S16 4[mm 2 ]
3 380 0.84 0.855

I Nm17

13.8 103
28.196[A] S17 10[mm 2 ]
3 380 0.845 0.88

11 103
I Nm18
22.869[A] S18 10[mm 2 ]
3 380 0.84 0.87

I Nm19

110 103

205.316[A] S19 150[mm 2 ]PVC75


3 380 0.88 0.925

I Nm20

11 103

22.869[A] S20 10[mm 2 ]


3 380 0.84 0.87

75 103
I Nm21
143.145[A] S20 120[mm 2 ]
3 380 0.87 0.915

I Nm22

45.7 103
119.931[A] S22 120[mm 2 ]
3 220

I Nm23

30 103
78.729[A] S22 70[mm 2 ]
3 220

Alegerea sectiunii cablurilor s-a facut conform tabelelor

POLICLORURA SE VINIL(PVC)

60

75

5.6

9.1

8.4

11.9

S[mm 2 ]

REGIM INTERN

REGIM DE S.

60

75

1.0

6.104

9.919

5.936

1.5

9.156

12.971

8.904

DURATA

11.9

16.8

2.5

13.09

18.48

12.614

15.4

22.4

4.0

17.566

25.536

16.324

20.3

29.7

6.0

23.751

33.579

21.518

28

39.3

10

33.88

48.279

29.68

37.8

53.2

16

47.628

67.032

40.068

49.7

70

25

64.61

91

53.179

60.9

87.5

35

80.999

116.375

65.163

10

73.5

105

50

100.695

143.85

79.38

11

91.5

133

70

132.3

186.2

100.005

12

115.5

161

95

164.01

228.62

129.36

13

133

189

120

191.52

272.16

151.62

14

154

217

150

223.3

314.65

180.18

15

175

245

185

210

16

203

290.5

240

251.72

17

234.5

332.5

300

300.16

Verificarea la caderi de tensiune admisibile

3 I l cos

100

NG U N

U1

3 143.145 38 0.87
100

0.284%
48 150 400

U 2

3 8.812 38 0.82
100

0.990%
48 2.5 400

U 3

3 9.038 38 0.82
100

1.016%
48 2.5 400

U 4

3 160.78 38 0.87
100

0.504%
48 95 400

U 5

3 30.648 38 0.845

100

0.554%
48 16 400

U 6

3 37.155 38 0.845

100

0.676%
48 16 400

48

10

U 7

3 15.866 38 0.84
100

1.142%
48 4 400

U8

3 9.038 38 0.82
100

1.016%
48 2.5 400

U 9

3 4.808 38 0.8
100

1.318%
48 1 400

U10

3 30.648 38 0.845

100

0.887%
48 10 400

U11

3 22.869 38 0.84
100

1.097%
48 6 400

U12

3 76.879 38 0.86
100

0.647%
48 35 400

U13

3 51.335 38 0.87
100

0.429%
48 35 400

U14

3 112.607 38 0.87
100

0.353%
48 95 400

U15

3 170.84 38 0.87
100

0.424%
48 120 400

U16

3 15.866 38 0.84
100

1.142%
48 4 400

U17

3 28.196 38 0.845

100

0.816%
48 10 400

U18

3 22.869 38 0.84
100

0.658%
48 10 400

U19

3 205.316 38 0.88
100

0.412%
48 150 400

U 20

3 22.869 38 0.84
100

0.658%
48 10 400

U 21

3 143.145 38 0.87
100

0.355%
48 120 400
11

Curentul in secundarul transformatorului

63000
165.332[A] S 185[mm 2 ]
3 220

U TR sec undar TAD

3 165.332 38 100

0.557%
48 185 220

Curentul in primarul transformatorului

63000
100.756[A] S 95[mm 2 ]
3 380 0.95

U TPDTRprimar

3 100.756 38 100

0.661%
48 95 220

Alegerea barelor

60 10

Iadm 1425[A]

ETAPA IV-a
Alegerea aparatelor de comutatie si protectie pentru generatoare si consumatori
-

Intrerupatoare automate
Sigurante fuzibile
Relee termice
Contactoare

12

Nr.

Ifi

Sigurante Fuzibile

Ie

Contactoare Intrerupator

Crt

ISNi

USOL

Relee
Termice

515.322

214.717

TCA200

500/100

178.93 TSAW400

27.493

LF 63/33

11.455

TCA10

100/10

11.01

TSA32

28.198

LF 63/33

11.749

TCA10

100/10

11.29

TSA32

578.808

241.17

TCA200

500/320

200.97 TSAW400

102.977

SIST 165/125

42.907

TCA40

100/32

38.31

TSA63

124.84

SIST 165/125

52.17

TCA63

100/40

46.44

TSA63

49.501

LF 63/33

20.625

TCA32

100/16

19.83

TSA32

28.198

LF 63/33

11.749

TCA10

100/10

11.29

TSA32

15

LF 25/16

6.25

TCA6

100/63

6.01

TSA10

10

95.621

SIST 160/100

39.842

TCA40

100/32

38.31

TSA63

11

71.351

SIST 160/80

29.729

TCA40

100/25

28.58

TSA32

12

322.891

107.63

TCA200

500/100

96.09 TSAW400

13

172.485

71.869

TCA63

500/100

64.16 TSAW400

14

378.359

157.649

TCA200

500/100

140.75 TSAW400

15

615.024

256.26

TCA250

500/320

213.55 TSAW400

16

49.501

SIST 160/100

20.623

TCA32

100/16

19.83

TSA32

17

94.738

SIST 160/100

40.416

TCA63

100/32

35.24

TSA63

18

71.351

SIST 160/80

29.842

TCA32

100/25

28.58

TSA32

19

739.137

307.974

TCA250

500/400

256.64 TSAW400

20

111.486

SIST 160/100

29.842

TCA32

100/25

28.56

21

805.19

214.717

TCA250

500/100

178.93 TSAW400

22

402.981

167.903

TCA200

500/100

149.91 TSAW400

23 264.529

110.22

TCA125

250/125

98.41 TSAW400

Tr 321.614

134.005

TCA125

250/160

119.64 TSAW400

Tr 555.515

231.664

TCA200

250/250

206.66 TSAW400

TSA32

ETAPA V-a
13

Determinarea curentilor de scurt circuit prin metoda curbelor de calcul.


1.

Intocmirea schemei monofilare pentru calculul curentilor de scurtcircuit


a4

S N 500KVA
U N 400 V

G1

3:

K1

a1

3:

l1

K2

K5

a5

K6

a2

500KVA

3:

G2

3:

400V
500KVA

G3

K4
K3

a3
a 26

K 27

a 28

K 28

3:
400V

380 / 220

2. Intocmirea schemei echivalente de calcul a curentilor de scurtcircuit

14

K5

x ,,d1

ra1

K1
x C1

R C1

x,,d 2

ra 2

K2
xC2

RC2

x ,,d 3

ra 3

R C4

K4

K3
x C3

xC4

R C3

xC 26

R C 26

xC 27

R C 27
K 28

lG 10 n 10 28 38 m
x1 x 0 l 0.073 10
3 38
2.774

103

x Cf 1

x1 2.774 103

0.693 103
4
4

x C1 2 x Cf 1 2 0.693 10
3 1.387

103
r1 r0 l 0.18 10
3 38
6.84
103

r1 6.84 103
rCf 1
1.71 103
4
4
rC1 2 rCf 1 2 1.71

10
3

3.42
103

15

Sbaza 3 S1 3 500 1500 KVA


U b U l 400 V
Ib

Sb 103 1500 10
3

2165.063 A
3 U b
3 400

Sb 103
1500 10
3
r ra1
0.0197
0.184
U 2b
4002

x1 x ''d1

Sb
1500
0.108
0.324
S1
500

Sb 103
3
3 1500 10
x x c1
1.386 10
0.012
U 2b
4002

c1

rc1 rc1

x2

r2

Sb 103
3
3 1500 10

3.42

10
0.032
U 2b
4002

xC2 rC 2
xC1

x3

r3

xC3 rC3

rC1
Z1 rC1 jxC1

Z2
Z1
Z3
x 2 x 2 x C2 0.324 0.012 0.336

Z2 0.336 j 0.216

r2 r2 rC2
0.184 0.032 0.216

16

x 3 x 3 x C3 0.324 0.012 0.336

Z3 0.336 j 0.216

r3 r3 rC3
0.184 0.032 0.216

Z1 rC1
j x C1 0.032 j 0.012

Zp

Z 2 Z3
Z
0.336 j 0.216
2
0.168 j 0.108
Z2 Z3 2
2

ZCT Zp Z1 0.168 j 0.108 0.032 j 0.012 0.2 j 0.12

ZCT 0.22 0.12 2 0.233

K SOC e

rCT
x CT

1 e

0.2
0.12

1 1.005

iSOCG 2 I0,01 I0 K SOC 1

I0,01 4.5

I0 4.9

iSOCG 2 4.5 4.9 1.005 1 6.398

iSOCGreal iSOCG Ib
I b 2165.063 A
iSOCGreal 6.398 2165.063 13853.392
i KG 52000 A iSOCGreal

Z1

K4

Z2
Z3

17

1
1
1
1 2Z1Z2 Z2

Zp Z1 Z2 Z3
Z1Z2
Zp

Z1Z2
0.009 j 0.023
2Z1 Z2

ZCT 0.0092 0.0232 0.024

K SOC e

0.009
0.023

1 0.293

iSOCG 2 4.5 4.9 0.293 1 1.464

iSOCGreal iSOCG Ib 1.464 2165.063 3169.652 A

K5
Schema electrica bloc de calcul pentru punctul

Z1
Z2

K5
Z4

Z3

USOL 100

x 0 0.082 103

I Nm13 51.335 A
l 10 m

S13 35 mm 2

r0 0.617 103

x1 x 0 l 0.00082
18

x Cf1 x1 0.00082
x C1 2 x Cf 1 2 0.00082 0.0164

r1 r0 l 0.00671
rCf 1 r1 0.00671
rC1 2 rCf 1 0.01234
x C1 Sb 10
3
x
0.153
U 2b

C1

rC1 Sb 10
3
r
0.115
U 2b

C1

Z4 0.115 0.153 j
ZCT 0.011 0.005 j 0.115 0.153 j 0.126 0.158 j
ZCT 0.1262 0.1582 9.202

K SOC e

0.126
0.158

1 0.4

iSOCU100 2 4.2 4.6 0.4 1 2.036

iSOCU100real iSOCG I b 2.036 2165.063 4409.08 A

I rU100 iSOCU100real
Nu se verifica

I NmG 6 37.155 A

deci vom inlocui USOL 100/80 cu unul de 500/100

S 16 mm 2

l 10 m

19

x 0 0.087 103

r0 1.35 103

x1 x 0 l 0.00087
x Cf1 x1 0.00087
x C1 2 x Cf 1 2 0.00087 0.00174
r1 r0 l 0.0135
rCf 1 r1 0.0135
rC1 2 rCf 1 0.027
x C1

rC1

x C1 Sb 10
3
0.253
U 2b

rC1 Sb 10
3
0.163
U 2b

Z4 0.253 0.163 j
ZCT 0.0686 0.1109 j 0.253 0.153 j 0.3216 0.1272 j
ZCT 0.3216 2 0.12722 0.345

K SOC e

0.3216
0.1272

1 1.000355

iSOCU100 2 2.6 2.9 1.000355 1 3.678

iSOCU100real iSOCG I b 3.678 2165.063 7963.101 A

i rU100 iSOCGreal
20

USOL250

I Nm1 143.145 A

S1 150 mm 2

x 0 0.073 103

r0 1.144 103

l 10 m

x1 x 0 l 0.00073
x C1 2 x1 2 0.00073 0.00146
r1 r0 l 0.00144
rC1 2 r1 0.00288
x C1 Sb 10
3
x
0.0136
U 2b

C1

rC1 Sb 10
3
r
0.027
U 2b

C1

ZCT 0.0956 0.1245 j


ZCT 0.0956 2 0.12452 0.156

K SOC e

0.0956
0.1245

1 1.089

iSOCU100 2 6 6.8 1.089 1 9.341

iSOCU 250real iSOCG I b 9.341 2165.063 20224.207 A

21

iSOCGreal i r
Nu se verifica deoarece

deci alegem in locul USOL-ului de 250 din punctul 1,

unul de 500/100

I Nm21 143.145 A
x 0 0.073 103

S21 20 mm 2

l 10 m

r0 0.18 103

x1 x 0 l 0.00073
x C1 2 x1 2 0.00073 0.00146
r1 r0 l 0.0018
rC1 2 r1 0.0036
x C1 Sb 10
3
x
0.0136
U 2b

C1

rC1 Sb 10
3
r
0.00337
U 2b

C1

ZCT 0.1023 0.1245 j


ZCT 0.10232 0.12452 0.161

K SOC e

0.1023
0.1245

1 1.075

iSOCU 250 2 5.9 6.6 1.075 1 9.043

iSOC 9.341 2165.063 19578.664 A

22

iSOC i r
Nu se verifica deoarece

deci alegem in locul USOL-ului de 250 din punctul 21,

unul de 500/100

I Nm14 112.607 A
x 0 0.075 103

S14 95 mm 2

l 10 m

r0 0.227 103

x1 x 0 l 0.00075
x C1 2 x1 2 0.00075 0.0015
r1 r0 l 0.00227
rC1 2 r1 0.00454
x C1 Sb 10
3
x
0.014
U 2b

C1

rC1 Sb 10
3
r
0.0425
U 2b

C1

ZCT 0.1111 0.1249 j


ZCT 0.11112 0.12492 0.167

K SOC e

0.1111
0.1249

1 1.061

iSOCU250 2 5.8 6.5 1.061 1 7.61

iSOCU 250real 7.6 2165.063 16477.674 A


Nu se vrifica deci vom alege USOL 500/100
23

USOL 500

x 0 0.073 103

r0 0.118 103

x1 x 0 l 0.00073
x C1 2 x1 2 0.00073 0.00146
r1 r0 l 0.00118
rC1 2 r1 0.00236
x C1 Sb 10
3
x
0.0136
U 2b

C1

rC1 Sb 10
3
r
0.00221
U 2b

C1

ZCT 0.0907 0.1245 j


ZCT 0.0907 2 0.12452 0.154

K SOC e

0.0907
0.1245

1 1.101

iSOCU500 2 6 6.8 1.101 1 9.456

iSOCU500 ir
Se verifica deoarece

24

25

2
4
6
2
4
6
efSSS
e12
f3

f4
0
0
e
ff5
6
1
1
0
3
1
2

b01

0 1500
A A
0
R
S
T

TR
ST
RS
0
RS
ST
TR

H gK
03
0-600
V
V
g01 g02z w
Rg1
V1 V2 11
12
13
14
246
RS1T1R1S2T22
10
1357
89
220 V

23111
0
12
13
22
23
24
456789
114
3
15 DYD81
U< S A S S P-b02
25
119
3
20
10c 14
u357u9
1U01
u15
p
r
a
s
a
r
c
i
n
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26

TENSIUNE

TR

ST
BARE

RS

b 01

TR
ST GENERATOR

RS

FRECVENT
A BARE
GENERATO
R

PUTERE
ACTIVA

i
u
n
e
m
i
n
i
m
BLOC PROTECTIE GENERATOR
a

CURENT GENERATOR

0
1 fazaR

b 02

2 fazaS
3 fazaT

27

380 V 50 Hz Tensiune borne genera


380 V 50 Hz Tensiune bare

dS12
10
dG
2 4

E 09
m

PFS
1PFS3
aGaG
PFS2PFS4
E 09

2
dB
2
0
4
dB 1 hS10 hS
0 bhd
0 bhc
0
2
11
1 1E 09
dG
2
dS
5
V
A
3
8
0
/
2
4
1
2
.
5
V

PFS5
aG
PFS6
0
d01
dG0
1 1

R
R
U 02

S
S 56

28

POZITIE
INTRERUPATOR

E 08

1 3

m 01
380/
220
V 2 4
400
E 08
VA
E 04

LEILAMPI
14

SINCRONIZARE

bhd

bhc

DECUPLAT CUPLAT

dm3
U 01

Bloc excitatie

ALIMENTARE CIRCUITE
380 V 50 Hz

ILUMINARE MOTOR

DESTINATIA
CIRCUITULUI

E 04

Dlm

LEI15

dB

SUPRAVEGHERE PREZENTA
1 GENERATOR
TENSIUNEbs
BARE
dg

U 02

bs2
12

BLOC DE
SINCRONIZARE

BC ds
CB

E0

E1

PFd5
CS
PFd6

PSF7
aG
PSF8

CS
dS

Ce

29

R
S
T

3 x 380 V 50 Hz
3
PFd
M
RST
C64
5
6
aG
EI
1
CE
2
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10
11
12
13
14
1615
16
18C7
15
17
ED
3
PFs
PFd
13
CSD 10
11
12
7
Tm
U<
9
e
G
e
0
1

e
0
3

e
0
2

e e05
0
h
4
h
2
1

eB

AUTOMENTINERE

CUPLARE INTRERUPATOR
MANUAL
SEMIAUTOMAT

BLOC PROTECTIE
DECLANSA- DECUPLAR
DECONECTARE LA
TOR DE E INTRERUSCURTCIRCUIT PUTERE TENSIUNE
PATOR
INVERSA SUPRASARCINA MINIMA
TENSIUNE MINIMA

MANUAL LA BARE
RECI

ALIMENTARE
380/220 V
50Hz

ELECTROCIRCUIT
MOTOR EGALIZARE
ARMARE
RESORT

e06 e07
m
l
3
8
0/
2
2
0
V

30

BLOC
CIRCUIT
CIRCUIT
PROTECTIE
SINCRONIZARE COMANDA
GENERATOR

T.D.P.

SIGURANTE CIRCUIT
GENERALE
DE
BARA
MASURA

CIRCUIT
SINCRONIZARE

GENERATOR

CIRCUIT
MASURA

31