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Nanotehnologia

Nanotehnologia are capacitatea de a schimba lumea in multe feluri positive,


poate imbunatatii multe produse pe care la folosim zi de zi, si poate sa formeze multe
produse noi. Pe scurt Nanotehnologia se ocupa cu studiul "lucrurilor" mici, de obicei a
celora mai mici de 100 de nanometri.Ganditiva ca, 1 nanometru este egal cu 1000 de
micrometri. Cand vorbim de Nanotehnologie vorbim defapt despre atomi.
Haideti sa ne gandim putin la cabon, mai exact la atomii de carbon : daca
aranjam atomii de carbon intrun fel putem obtine diamantul, daca ii arajam in alt fel
putem obtine grafit.
Majoritatea lcrurilor din ziua de azi sunt facute dintro bucata mare pe care o
prelucram prin topire, frezare aschiere si asa mai departe; ei bine in lumea
nanotehnologiei incepem sa construim materialul de la atom in sus ceea ce iti da un
control incredibil
Prin nanotehnologie, materialul poate sa se compuna singur. Celulele sunt
capabile sa faca chestia asta, obiectivul este sa gasim metode ca si omul sa o poata
face.

Nanofirele
Nanofirul este un fir care are dimensiuni foate mici (10 -9 metri)

Este posibila crea unui nanofir cu diametru de doar un nanometru, de i ingineri i


oameni de tiin tind s lucreze cu nanofire, care sunt ntre 30 i 60 de nanometri.
Alternativ nanofirele pot fi definite ca fiind structuri care au dimensiuni laterale
constranse la zeci de nanometri sau mai putin
Exista multe tipuri ne nanofire si anume:
- Metalice (e.g., Ni, Pt, Au)
- Semiconductoare (e.g., InP, Si, GaN, etc.)
- Izolatoare (e.g., SiO2,TiO2).
Molecular, nanofirele sunt compuse prin repetarea unitatilor moleculare fie
organice sau anorganice.
Structura unui nanofir este atat de simpla incat nu este loc pentru greseli, iar
electronii trec nestingheriti prin acesta. Aceasta ocole te o problem major cu
semiconductori cristalini tipice, cum ar fi cele realizate dintr-o plachet de siliciu. Exist
ntotdeauna defecte n acele structuri, i acele defecte pot interfera cu trecerea
electronilor.

Intrebuintarile Nanofirelor
Nanowire Applications
Perhaps the most obvious use for nanowires is in electronics. Some nanowires are very good conductors
or semiconductors, and their miniscule size means that manufacturers could fit millions more transistors
on a single microprocessor. As a result, computer speed would increase dramatically.

Nanowires may play an important role in the field of quantum computers. A team of researchers in
the Netherlands created nanowires out of indium arsenide and attached them to aluminum electrodes.
At temperatures near absolute zero, aluminum becomes a superconductor, meaning it can conduct
electricity without any resistance. The nanowires also became superconductors due to theproximity
effect. The researchers could control the superconductivity of the nanowires by running various voltages
through the substrate under the wires [source: New Scientist].
Nanowires may also play an important role in nano-size devices likenanorobots. Doctors could use the
nanorobots to treat diseases likecancer. Some nanorobot designs have onboard power systems, which
would require structures like nanowires to generate and conduct power.
Using piezoelectric material, nanoscientists could create nanowires that generate electricity from kinetic
energy. The piezoelectric effect is a phenomenon certain materials exhibit -- when you apply physical
force to a piezoelectric material, it emits an electric charge. If you apply an electric charge to this same
material, it vibrates. Piezoelectric nanowires might provide power to nano-size systems in the future,
though at present there are no practical applications.
There are hundreds of other potential nanowire applications in electronics. Researchers in Japan are
working on atomic switches that might some day replace semiconductor switches in electronic devices.
Scientists with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory hope that coaxial nanowires will improve the
energy efficiency of solar cells. Because we are still learning about the properties of nanowires and other
nanoscale structures, there could be thousands of applications we haven't even considered yet.
To learn more about nanowires and related topics, follow the links on the next page.
NANOWIRES IN MEDICINE

Not all nanowire applications are in the field of electronics. At the University of Arkansas, researchers are
using nanowires to coat titanium implants. Doctors have discovered that muscle tissue sometimes doesn't
adhere well to titanium, but when coated with the nanowires, the tissue can anchor itself to the implant,
reducing the risk of implant failure.

Semiconductor Nano Shish Kebabs creat cu un potential pentru tehnologiile 3D


Cercetatorii au dezvoltat un nou tip de structur la scara nanometrica care seamana cu
o "nano-shish kebab-," format din mai multe nanofoi bidimensionale care par a fi trase
n eap pe un nanofir unidimensional. Dar e n eltor, ca nanofirul si nanofoaia sunt de
fapt o structur unic, tridimensional constnd dintr-o singur serie, fr sudur de
cristale. Structura detine promisiune pentru utilizare n crearea de noi tehnologii,
tridimensionale.
- Nanofirul genereaza putere prin colectarea energiei din mediul inconjurator

Deoarece dimensiunile dispozitivelor mobile si nu numai se reduc spre scara


microscopica, i chiar se spre scara nanometrica, exist o nevoie tot mai mare de surse
de energie corespunztoare si pentru ca si cea mai mica baterie este prea mare pentru
a fi utilizata n dispozitivele la scara nanometrica, oamenii de stiinta exploreaza sisteme
nano care pot salva energie din mediul nconjurtor. Cercetatorii au demonstrat acum
ca un singur nanofir poate produce energie prin recoltarea de energie mecanic.
- 'Nanowire' measurements could improve computer memory
Recent measurements may have revealed the optimal characteristics for a new type of
highly efficient computer memory now under development -- nanowire-based chargetrapping memory devices.