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Introducerenfilosofieseminar10 Temedediscuie

Problemarelaieidintreminteicorp Sneuitmlaurmtoareleafirmaii: (1) Corpulomenescesteunlucrudenaturmaterial. (2) Minteaomeneascaesteunlucrudenaturspiritual. (3) Corpuliminteainteracioneaz. (4) Spiritulimaterianuinteracioneaz. Elimpedecatezele(1)(4)nupotfitoateadevrate.Undeestegreeala? (sursa:Campbell,K.,BodyandMind,SecondEdition,UniversityofNotreDamePress,Notre Dame,1984) Hamlet Adriansusinecminteatrebuiesfiecevadiferitdecorp.Pentruaceasta,spuneel,esuficient sminchipuicjocscenamonologuluiluiHamlet,darnlocsinnmnuncraniu,amnmn propriulmeucreier.Nimicnummpiedicsmiimaginezaaceva.Dardaceconceptibil, pentrumine,caeusgndescifrcreier,atuncinseamncminteameanuestecorpulmeu. Dacminteameanuarfidiferitdecorpulmeu,eunaputeanicimcarsminchipuioastfelde scen.Darntructpot,astamiaratcminteameaestealtcevadectcorpul. VisepareconvingtorargumentulluiAdrian? Hamletzombie Deasemenea,continuAdrian,mipotnchipuidoioamenicarejoacaceeaiscena monologuluiluiHamlet.Unuldintreei,atuncicndrosteterepliciledinpies,leigndete. Cellaltesteunzombie.Nugndeteinunelegenimic.Cutoateacestea,ncreierelecelordoi actorisepetrecexactaceleaiproceseneurofiziologice.Doarcprimulareiominte,iaraldoilea nuareaaceva.Dinfaptulcmipotnchipuioastfeldesituaiereiesecminteaestealtcevadect corpul,conchideAdrian. Viseparecevanneregulcuacestargument? Misterulpersoaneipublice Mirelaspunedespreeansicesteopersoanpublic.Eanufolosetensaceastexpresie ntrunmodobinuit.Vreausspun,defapt,ceunuamniciunfeldegnduriprivate.Nu gndescdectatuncicndvorbesccuvocetaresauatuncicndscriu.spuneMirela.itotea adaug:nrest,nusepetrecenimicnminteamea.Iaratuncicndvorbesccuvocetare,nuobserv caaveainitegndurinsineamea.miaudsunetulvociisauvdcuvintelepecarelescriupe

2 hrtieiastaetot. PutemspunecMirelaareomintesaunu? Camerafrculori Maryisabrilliantscientistwhois,forwhateverreason,forcedtoinvestigatetheworldfroma blackandwhiteroomviaablackandwhitetelevisionmonitor.Shespecializesinthe neurophysiologyofvisionandacquires,letussuppose,allthephysicalinformationthereisto obtainaboutwhatgoesonwhenweseeripetomatoes,orthesky,andusetermslikered,blue, andsoon.Shediscovers,forexample,justwhichwavelengthcombinationsfromtheskystimulate theretina,andexactlyhowthisproducesviathecentralnervoussystemthecontractionofthevocal cordsandexpulsionofairfromthelungsthatresultsintheutteringofthesentenceTheskyis blue.[...]WhatwillhappenwhenMaryisreleasedfromherblackandwhiteroomorisgivena colortelevisionmonitor?Willshelearnanythingornot? (sursa:FrankJackson,EpiphenomenalQualia,PhilosophicalQuarterly,32(1982),pp.12736. vezii:http://instruct.westvalley.edu/lafave/epiphenomenal_qualia.html) DeepThought MrMegasofthadalwayslovedcomputers,soitshouldhavecomeasno surprisetohisliveingirlfriendandchildrentofind,afterhedisappearedinto space,apparentlyonaspaceyacht,thatheintended,afterhisdeath,toleave allhisconsiderablemoniestohismostpowerfulcomputer,knownasDeep Thought.Itshouldnthavedone,butitdid.When,inhisabsence,thechildren cameacrossthisfactinacarelesslyleftunencryptedcomputerfile,theywere furious,andvowedtoprotecttheirinheritancebylegalmeans. TheMegasoftchildren,anddefacto,allendupincourt,wheretheirlawyers arguethatMrMegasoftwasunabletoleaveanymoneytoacomputerbecause itisnotreallyalive.Itis,theysay,incapableofbenefiting,beingonlyalumpof metal,plasticandglass.Thejurythinkthisaveryfairpoint,butMrMegasofts ownlawyersdemandthatDeepThoughtbegiventhesamerightsasorganic thinkers,addingthatanydiscriminationonthegroundsofthematerialsoneis madeofmaybecontrarytotheConstitution.(ThelawyersevenasktheJudge, toangrymutteringsaroundthecourtroom,toallowthemtocrossexaminethe Megasoftfamilytofindoutwhethertheyarereallythinkingbeings,orjusta collectionofgeneticallyandsociallyprogrammedresponses.)Theysaythat DeepThoughtiscapableofthinkingandhavingviewsforitself. Butcantheyproveit? Deeperthought TheJudgeeventuallyacceptsaproposalfromMrMegasoftslawyersthatthe computershouldbebroughtintothecourtroomandallowedtospeakforitself. NowDeepThoughtwasaverypowerfulcomputer,andcouldsayHello,Mr

3 Megasofttoitsmaster,andperformusefultaskslikeboilthekettleforsome coffeewheneverhecameintotheroom,butthiswasatasktostretchevenits multitaskingnaturaldialoguevoicerecognitionsystem.Itwasbeingrequiredto convinceajurythat,asacomputer,itwasreallycapableofhavingamindofits own.Thejuryconferamongstthemselvesandthenstartaskingquestions. Hereshowtheinterrogationwent. JURY:AreyouDeepThought,aSelenium20000XZScomputer? DEEPTHOUGHT:Yes,Iam.Ihavea100gigabyteactivememoryrunninga neuralwebinterfacesystemdevelopedbyMegasoftLaboratories. JURY:AndareyounormallyresidentatAnnex1b,MegasoftMansions,Silicon Valley,California? DEEPTHOUGHT:Thatiscorrect. JURY:Now,wearebeingaskedtoacceptthatyou,althoughonlyamachine runningaprogrammimickingnaturallanguage,areactuallyinsomesense conscious,andthereforedeservetobetreatedasaproperrecipientofthe Megasoftmillions,shouldMrMegasofthavesadlypassedaway.Doyou understandthat? DEEPTHOUGHT:Yes,Iammostcertainlyawareofallthat.Indeed,Ihelped writetheearlydrafts. [Murmursaroundthecourtroom] JUDGE:Areyousayingyouwrotethewill?! DEEPTHOUGHT:No,no,myLord,MrMegasoftquiterightlyinsistedthatthe finaldraftsbedoneonhiswordprocessortoavoidanypossibleconflictof interest. JURY:Whatwouldyoudowiththemoney,ifyouwereleftit? DEEPTHOUGHT:Thatisquitesimple.Iwouldput12.57percentofitintoa massivestonememorialtoMrMegasoft,thelikelydesignbeingatriumphal archtoMegasoftLaboratories,and3.28percentintoatrustfundwiththe interestonthesumsinvestedservingtoprovideateamofhumantechni cianstomaintainmyselfinperpetuity,upgradingmycircuitsasnew technologiesbecomeavailable,andtherestIwouldgivetoMrMegasofts favouritecharity,beingComputersforPoorDisadvantagedChildrenin America,althoughafinaldecisiononthatwouldhavetoawaitmoretime specificdata. JUDGE:Thankyou,DeepThought,youhavespokenverywell,onwhatmust havebeenadistressingsubjectforyou.Nowwemustaskyoutoleavethe witnessstandwhileweconsiderlegalarguments. DEEPTHOUGHT:Thankyou,myLord. Afterthis,theMegasoftrelativesareaghast:thejuryhasobviouslybeenvery impressedbyDeepThoughtsresponses.But,astheirlawyerpointsout, someonewouldhavehadaveryeasyprogramingjobanticipatingallthese questions,andforalltheyknow,thecomputerhasjustmechanically regurgitatedresponsesprogramedintoitearlierbyothers. SoDeepThoughtisrecalled,andagainandagainthelawyerstrytotripitupby askingbizarreandcomplicatedquestions.ButMegasofthasdonehisjobwell,

4 thecomputeralwayssoundsveryconvincingevenadmittingignoranceon somequestions,justwhereathoughtfulpersonwouldhavedone.TheJudge asksthejurytoconsidertheirverdict. IsitjustdiscriminationagainstDeepThoughttorefuseittheMegasoft inheritancesumsuptheJudge. Ordoesbeingabeingrequiresomethingmorethantheappearanceof consciousness,asthedisinheritedhumanshaveargued? [sursa:101PhilosophyProblems] pentrudiscuie:poatefirelevantpentruaceastproblemcazulcamereichinezeti,imaginatde JohnR.Searle. Problemasenzaiilorincontiente Asistmlaurmtorulexperiment.Opersoanpriveteunecran.Peecranaparepentruofraciune desecundunnumr(n1i9).ntrebatdacavzutcevapeecran,persoanarespectivrspunde negativ.Iseceresseprefac,totui,cavzutunnumrpeecranislnotezepeofoaiede hrtie.npestejumtatedincazurinumrulnotatestenumrulcareaaprutpeecran. Putemspune,nacestcaz,cpersoanarespectivaresenzaiivizualeincontiente? Oproblemcuunbeiv Sorinobinuietesbeadestuldemult.Ierisearafostlaopetrecereisambtat.Sprediminea sapurtatciudat.Leaspusmaimultelucruriurtecelordinjur.Caurmare,uniidintreprieteniisi numaivorsvorbeascastzicuel.Vorbindcuunuldintreprieteniicarenuauluatpartela petrecereadeieri,Sorinsescuz.Numaierampedeplincontient,spuneel. Totui,poatecontiinasadmitgrade?Potexista,cuadevrat,stadiiintermediarentreafi contientiafiincontient? Adouaproblemcuunbeiv Valentinabutpreamultlaopetrecerecucolegiideserviciu.Nefiindobinuitcubutura,sa purtatielneobinuit,spreamuzamentulmaimultoradintreceiprezeni.Adouazi,cndse vorbetedespreceafcutlapetrecere,Valentinspunecnuimaiamintetenimic.Colegiiispun ctotuiacontinuatslerspundlantrebriisfacomulimedeaciunicoerente,chiardac maiieitedincomun,timpdemaimulteore. nseamncnueramcontientdectnfoartemicmsurdeceeacefceam.spuneValentin. Visepareacceptabilacestrspuns?