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Universitatea Alexandru Ioan Cuza din Iasi Facultatea de Geografie de Geologie Specializarea Geografie Generala

Industria petrochimica din Bulgaria

In Bulgaria industria s-a dezvoltat considerabil si a contribuit cu mai mult de jumatate la produsul national brut. Tutunul si tigaretele alcatuiesc jumatate din exporturile din domeniul

agricol. Constructiile, prelucrarea bumbacului si industria chimica sunt ramuri importante ale industriei. Sofia si Pernik sunt principalele centre ale industriei grele, pe cand in Burgas sunt produse bunuri metalice si produse petrochimice. Turismul a fost dintotdeauna o parte importanta a industriei Bulgariei, in special litoralul Marii Negre dintre Burgas si Varna, cu faimoasele Nisipuri de Aur, care atrag milioane de vizitatori in fiecare vara. Alte atractii turistice sunt vechile manastiri din munti, bazele de schi in Muntii Rodopi, precum si arta si muzica populara bulgara. Dupa caderea comunismului in turism a avut loc o incetinire, dar acum se revigoreaza. S-a dezvoltat si industria electronica iar sectorul chimic produce o gama larga de produse, acestea includ ingrasaminte, parfumuri, cosmetice, vopsele si materiale plastice. O importanta mare o au si culturile industriale, ca cele de floarea-soareiui si de sfecla de zahar. Bulgaria are o productie de 34 de milioane de tone de lignit, provenita in principal din Pernik si Stara Zagora. Carbunele brun din apropierea Pernikului este folosit in industria prelucratoare de fier, iar lignitul din mine este folosit la Dimitrovgrad. 40% din energie provine din cea nucleara, iar restul din statiile de energie termica si din hidroelectricitate. In muntii Rodop se exploateaza minereuri de plumb, zinc si cupru. In Stara-Pianina, la nord de Sofia, se gasesc filoane bogate in minereuri de fier si metale neferoase. Bulgaria is among Europe's largest producers of lead, zinc and copper and produces around ten percent of the worlds hydraulic machinery. Other products include: machine tools, caustic soda, nuclear energy, military hardware/munitions and many other finished and semi-finished products. The country is the largest electricity exporter in South-eastern Europe. About 14% of the total industrial production relates to machine building, and 20% of the workforce is employed in this field. The country has conditions favourable to the development of industry. Bulgaria is located at the crossroads of Europe and Asia which lends itself to international transport. The country has rich mineral resources, a skilled work force, developed and improving transportation network and educational infrastructure, as well as relatively stable political and economic climate. Industry in Bulgaria can be traced back to 1833 when the Bulgaria industrialist Dobri Zhelyazkov opened the first modern factory in the Balkans at Sliven. The importance of industry dramatically increased during the Socialist period. In the era of economic planning industrial production accounted for more than 50% of national GDP. The main market for Bulgarian manufactured goods was Comecon, the Communist economic organization (comparable to the EU). Economia Bulgariei s-a contractat dramatic dup 1989 prin pierderea pieei sovietice, de care economia bulgar era strns legat. Nivelul de trai a sczut cu 40%, dar se ateapt s ating nivele pre-1990 pn la finalul lui 2003. n plus, sanciunile ONU mpotriva Iugoslaviei i Irakului au continuat s duc n declin economia bulgar. Primele semne de revenire au aprut n 1994, cnd PIB-ul a crescut i inflaia a sczut. n 1996, totui, economia s-a prbuit datorit reformelor economice srace i un sistem

bancar instabil. Din 1997 ara s-a aflat pe traiectoria revenirii, prin creterea PIB-ului la o rat de 4-5%, creterea FDI, stabilitatea macroeconomic i aderarea la UE stabilit pentru 2007. Guvernul curent, ales n 2001, a pledat pentru meninerea obiectivelor economice adoptate de predecesorul su n 1997. n ciuda faptului c prognozele economice pentru 2002 i 2003 au prezis cretere continu n economia bulgar, guvernul nc are de a face cu o rat a omajului mare i standarde sczute de via. Bulgaria, ca i Romnia a aderat la Uniunea European la 1 ianuarie 2007. Bulgaria i acoper pn la 98% din necesarul de gaze naturale din importurile ruseti. The first factory in what is now Bulgaria; was built by the industrialist Dobri Zhelyazkov in the town of Sliven, in 1833. It manufactured woollen textiles and was the first textile mill in the Ottoman Empire. Industrialisation before the independence in 1878 was largely concentrated around the major towns of Plovdiv, Gabrovo, Ruse, Sliven, Karlovo, Sofia and Samokov. These early companies were mostly small firms with a handful of workers, involved in light manufacture producing high end goods like: textiles, soap, alcohol, wine and leather products. Competition form more established Western European firms put many of these early enterprises out of business.

After the Liberation of Bulgaria the new country settled upon a low tariff regime and as a result local industry suffered from the increased import of cheaper and high-quality goods from more developed producers in Western Europe. A number of protectionist laws passed by the government in 1890s and early 20th Century lead to an increase in industrial output. At this time Bulgaria received an inflow of foreign capital largely from Germany, Belgium and AustriaHungary this was focused mainly in mining and agricultural processing industries. In the twenty five years between 1890 and 1915, industry provided 15% of GDP. Despite the upheavals of World War I, the number of manufacturing plants increased between the Wars. In 1939 there were 3,345 manufacturing enterprises which employed around 112,000 people. The average size was still fairly small-only around 30 employees per factory. The industry still was concentrated mainly in the large cities and their expanding suburbs. Ruse, Plovdiv, Varna, Sofia, Pleven, Stara Zagora, Gabrovo saw significant expansion between 1920 and 1940. Large parts of the country remained almost entirely agrarian. At the beginning of World War II only five cities; Sofia, Plovdiv, Ruse, Varna and Burgas) accounted for 46,5% of all industrial output.

A steel-producing installation at the Kremikovtsi metallurgy works.

Manufacturing was still predominantly light and export focused: textiles, leather, footwear and perishables such as tobacco, sugar, butter and meat were produced in large quantities. mining consisted of the extraction of coal (near Pernik) and small quantities of ferrous ores. Aircraft were produced in Lovech, Bozhurishte and Kazanlak. Darjavna Aeroplanna Rabotilnitsa State Aircraft Workshops had a plant in Bozhurishte which focused upon military aircraft DAR.

The Communist regime which ruled Bulgaria for over 40 years from the 9 September 1944, prioritised industrial development. All existing plants were nationalized and the entire Bulgarian economy was subjected to planned economy. There was a sustained increase in production, new industries were developed very quickly and, as in other Socialist countries, not always efficiently. New industrial complexes on a scale not before seen in the Balkans were constructed. New power plants, chemical works, metallurgical smelters, military producers and other new industries were inaugurated. The countries scientific and technical base was not neglected either new schools and universities being built feeding directly into the expanding industrial economy. The national economy was integrated in Comecon and Bulgaria specialized in the production of Bulgarian Computing, motor trucks and tinned food.

During the 1940s the main objective of the Bulgarian Communist Party was to rebuild the damage caused during the Second World War. New roads and railways were built as well as small factories. During the 1950s massive expansion of the electro-transit network brought electricity to all parts of the country. A number of hydro plants including the Batak Hydro-power System and several coal plants were constructed. The extraction of coal was increased and Bulgaria's first oil field, in Shabla went into production. During the next decade many military and metallurgical plants were constructed; like the Kremikovtsi steelworks. Cooperation on space technologies with the USSR was encouraged and the country supplied the Soviet space program with research devices and computers. Many new factories in the field of micro and

precision electronics were inaugurated. In the 1970s the industrial component of the Bulgarian economy continued to increase. In 1974 Bulgaria became the third communist state to have a functioning power station nuclear (see Kozloduy NPP). On the 10 April 1979 Bulgaria became the 6th nation in the world to send man in space. They used the Soviet Intercosmos program.[10] During the 80s Bulgaria was a mass producer of Pravetz series 8), in 1990 the computer technology industry produced 35% of FOREX earnings.
After 1989

After the over throw of the Communist Regime the inefficient Bulgarian economy was thrown into chaos. Years of inefficient state planning, environmental degradation and the use of outdated modes of production meant Bulgaria, lagging for years and heavily indebted struggled to compete in free market conditions. Many manufacturing plants were closed and others went into bankruptcy as the state gave up the battle to try and bring them to profit. Due to lack of investment the high-tech component of the Bulgarian economy went into terminal declineundercut by more modern Asian imports and the collapse of Comecon. The process of privatization was slow and difficult. However, since 2000 Bulgaria has seen heavy foreign investment and its economic fortunes have revived. Bulgarian industry today is the equal of that else were in the world. Bulgaria's stability both politically and economically can only help the country develop further with the aid of its EU partners. Energy is one of the most important sectors in the Bulgarian economy, it accounts for 18,2% of total industrial production and employs 10.9% of the workforce in the secondary sector. Bulgaria is the primary exporter of electricity in South-eastern Europe as well as a major transit country for Russian oil and gas. Bulgaria's role in the transit of fuels is going to increase after the construction of several pipelines currently in the planning stage. Coal is the only natural fuel found in the country in any abundance. Most of the coal reserves are of the lignite type total known reserves amount to (4.5 billion tons) in 18 basins. The largest deposit is Maritsa Iztok in Stara Zagora Province which contains 2.9 billion tons. This is followed in size by the Sofia basin in the Sofia valley (840 mln t.), the Elhovo basin (656 mln t.), the Lom basin (277 mln t.) and the Maritsa Zapad basian (170 mln t.). There is a large deposit of anthracite in Dobrich Province those reserves are estimated to amount to 1,2 bln t. However due to the large depth and moisture of the deposit it is still unexploited. The rate of coal extraction is currently 27,000,000 t per annum, ranking 19th in the world and 6th in the EU.There are small deposits of oil and natural gas, mainly in the north of the country. Although Bulgaria's fossil fuel deposits are not vast, the country is a major producer of electricity. As of 2007 Bulgaria produces 45.7 billion kWh of electricity.

Bulgarian Petroleum and Gas Association Representative non-governmental Organization about Trading and Distribution with liquids and gas

The Association is a voluntary non-political organization. Its founders are guided by the desire to pool their potential in order to protect the interests of distributors, producers and retailers of petroleum and gas products, develop petroleum and gas trade and industry in Bulgaria by reaffirming the equal status of economic subjects and fair competition. Being aware of the fact that they represent both the interests of the business circles and the general public, the members of the Association volunteer to act according to the rules of a Code of Ethics, which guarantees purity of business morals, increased care for the environmental protection and quality of the products offered. Bulgarian Petroleum and Gas Association was established in 1999 by the major companies active in the Petroleum and Gas industry in Bulgaria: "Petrol" AD, "Shell Bulgaria" EAD, "Overgas INC" AD, "Shell Gas Bulgaria" AD, "Toplivo" AD. Nowadays members of the Association are also "OMV Bulgaria" EOOD, "Eco Bulgaria EOOD", "Prista Oil", Bulmarket DM OOD, Vitogaz Bulgaria EAD, Gastrade AD, Lukoil Bulgaria EOOD, Lukoil Bulgaria Bunker EOOD, Kalvacha Gas AD, Naftex Petrol EOOD, Rompetrol Bulgaria AD, Insa Oil OOD, Synergon Petroleum EOOD. The Association was founded under the conditions of State monopoly in the petroleum industry. The dominating position of the State owned biggest refinery "Neftochim" and the non-privatized distributor "Petrol" determined the unequal basis for the players on the petroleum market. In this atmosphere the main task of the Association was predestined - to contribute to the process of demonopolisation of the petroleum industry and to the promotion of the Constitutional right of free business initiative. The organisation took active part in the subsequent events and nowadays the prices of the fuels are liberalised and subject only to the regulation of the market principles. Now both "Neftochim" and "Petrol" are private and follow the rules of the market economy. After achieving this first goal, Bulgarian Petroleum and Gas Association directs its activities towards the co-operation with the State authorities and the other non-political organisations in the process of harmonization of Bulgarian legislation with the Acquis Communautaire as a step towards the integration of Bulgaria into the European Union. Nowadays Bulgarian petroleum and gas association take part in working groups to Ministry of Iconomics, Energy and Tourism, Ministry of Finance, Customs Agency.

thousand tonnes Oil Production Imports Exports Stock changes Refinery intake months of 2013 .. .. -40 441 I .. .. -25 429 II* .. .. 54 338

thousand tonnes Motor gasoline Production Imports Exports International marine bunkers Stock changes Gross inland deliveries months of 2013 140 9 146 -18 21 I 133 28 90 31 40 II* 102 20 86 -5 41

thousand tonnes Road diesel Production Imports Exports International marine bunkers Stock changes Gross inland deliveries months of 2013 158 49 104 1 4 98 I 155 46 76 1 33 91 II* 137 52 63 17 108

thousand tonnes High sulphur fuel oil Production Imports Exports International marine bunkers Stock changes Gross inland deliveries months of 2013 131 152 2 -25 2 I 120 120 -2 2 II* 101 -77 2 22 -

thousand tonnes Petroleum coke Production Imports Exports International marine bunkers Stock changes Gross inland deliveries months of 2013 7 12 -10 22 I 7 16 -12 28 II* 5 35 13 22

GAS Interconnection Bulgaria - Romania (IBR)

Gas interconnection Ruse - Giurgiu will connect Bulgarian and Romanian gas networks, which will increase the security of natural gas supplies through diversification of the country natural gas supply sources and routs, as well as it will provide the connection of Bulgarian gas network to the common European gas market. Possibilities will be created for achieving the regional mechanism for joint reaction during supply crisis, because Romania has own natural gas production and several deposits. For this purpose the project foresees ability for reverse gas flow. Gas interconnection with Romania (Ruse - Giurgiu) will connect Bulgarian and Romanian gas networks, length around 23.8 km - pipeline length on the Bulgarian territory approx. 15.4 km; pipeline length on the Romanian territory approx. 7.2 km; pipeline length of undercrossing the Danube River approx. 1.2 km. The project requires the construction of two gas metering stations (Ruse and Giurgiu). It is the first interconnection between the national transmission systems of Bulgaria and Romania. IBR initial capacity will be around 0.5 bcm/y (1.5 bcm/y maximal technical capacity). In the beginning of June 2009 between Bulgartransgaz EAD and S.N.T.G.N. Transgaz S.A. a Memorandum of agreement was signed according to which the two countries are obliged to cooperate in the construction of the Gas Interconnection Bulgaria Romania Project. It is expected that the construction of the IBR interconnection will cost 27.6 million euro. During the realization of the project our country will receive grant co-financing from EU from the European Energy Programme for Recovery - 8.9 million euro (4.375 million euro grant for Bulgartransgaz EAD). The rest of the financing will be provided by the two gas companies (15 million euro - Bulgartransgaz EAD) and will be used mainly for co-financing the activities for the construction of the two gas metering stations (one on Bulgarian territory and one on Romanian territory) and for the supply of pipes and equipment. The design and construction of the pipeline on Bulgarian and Romanian territory will be implemented separately by Bulgartransgaz EAD and respectively S.N.T.G.N. Transgaz S.A. The passage through Danube river will be realized by joint errand of the two companies for design and construction. With Council of Ministers Decision 615/14.07.2009, the part of the gas pipeline Ruse Giurgiu which will be implemented on Bulgarian territory is announced for project of national importance according to the Law for management of the territory. Under the developed roadmap the pipeline will be put into operation in May 2013.

Sinteza O dovada a aceste activitati este numarul de patente inregistrate legate de acest domeniu. Numarul de patente acordate in toata lumea industriilor extractive s-a dublat din 2005 pana in 2010. Investitori strategici in acest domeniu sunt Chevron, BP, Statoil Ventures si KPC Ventures. Statoil si KPC sunt cu atat mai speciali, cu cat acestea sunt subsidiare a unor companii petroliere de stat Statoil (Norvegia) si Kuwait Petroleum Corporation. Ne place sau nu, insa combustibilii pe baza de hidrocarburi sunt o necesitate ce nu va fi inlocuita degraba. Inovatiile in domeniul petrolului si gazelor natural au ,din acest considerent, posibilitatea sa influenteze viata oricarui om. Si daca idea de a face bine semenilor din jur nu va incanta prea tare, atunci sa stiti ca inovatia in industria petroliera este si o propunere de afaceri considerabila. Exploatarea petrolului si gazelor naturale au loc astazi in unele din cele mai izolate locuri din lume. Este greu sa-ti imaginezi localitati mai indepartate de civilizatie decat Prudhoe Bay (coasta de nord a Alaskai) , campul Russkoe ( se afla dupa Cercul Polar) sau Campos Basin (in largul oceanului Atlantic). Companiile petroliere s-au invatat sa gestioneze aceasta izolare extrema, de multe ori cu ajutorul noilor tehnologii. Spre exemplu NuPhysica este o companie de telemedicina, care ajuta la solutionarea unor multiple probleme de ordin medical de la distanta, atunci cand angajatii se afla in mijlocul pustietatii. Tehnologiile sale permit diagnosticarea si tratarea la distanta a cazurilor medicale minore si medii, in care deplasarea angajatilor la cele mai apropiate puncte medicale ar costa zeci de mii de dolari. E clar ca tehnologiile verzi i energia regenerabila vor trebui sa mai astepte pana vor putea satisface nevoile civilizatiei de energie, fara a recurge la arderea infamelor hidrocarburi. Pana atunci, daca tot nu ne putem lipsi de ultimele, macar sa le limitam impactul negativ asupra mediului. Companii ca PWAbsorbents and GeoPure HydroTechnologies abordeaza problema tratarii apelor reziduale ce rezulta in urma extragerii resurselor naturale. Alte companii, cum este Cerion Energy, produc aditivi pentru benzina si motorina, pentru a reduce consumul acestora si a micsora emisiile de CO2 si sulf in atmosfera. O mare parte din rezervele de petrol a planetei noastrea se intalnesc in Bulgaria sub forma neconventionala, cum ar fi bitum sau petrol greu. De fapt rezervele de nisipuri petroliere, petrol greu, petrol de sist sunt cu mult mai mari decat rezervele de petrol conventional. Astfel exista companii, care prin intermediul unor tehnologii complexe permit distilarea acestor resurse neconventionale, de regula greu de rafinat, permitand accesarea unor noi surse de energie. Alte companii, precum Ciris Energy transforma surse de combustibil puternic poluante precum carbunele in gaz natural (prin distilarea distructiva a carbunelui), mai putin poluante. Agilyx a dezvoltat o tehnologie de transformare a deseurilor de plastic in petrol sintetic. Plasticul este incalzit pana se transforma in gaz, apoi gazul este condensate in lichide, de unde sunt separate hidrocarburile. Tehnologiile IT cuceresc lumea, iar industria petroliera nu este o exceptie. Campul petrolier digital este un buzzword in petrol si gaze. In general, aceasta inseamna o platforma vizuala de unde companiile pot gestiona operatiunile de explorare, producere, rafinare, trasnport. Aceasta este o oportunitate enorma pentru companiile petroliere, deoarece analistii sustin ca digitalizarea datelor despre campuri poate creste valoarea acestora cu pana la 25%. Marii jucatori de pe piata software, precum EMC, IBM, Microsoft, Cisco, Wipro toti acorda o atentie sporita

acestui domeniu pentru dezvoltarea software-urilor pentru geofizica, studii geologice si dirijarea proceselor tehnologice. Forarea dupa petrol este un pariu riscant in Bulgaria: costurile de forare cresc in fiecare an, astfel incat o companie poate pierde sume foarte mari de bani daca exploreaza sau dezvolta proprietati care in final nu produc hidrocarburi in cantitati comerciale. Cand au de a face cu aceste riscuri, companiile fac tot ce le sta in putere pentru a se proteja, pentru a asigura returnarea investitiilor si pentru a pastra o sansa de a face profit. Companiile doresc sa stie cat mai mult posibil despre profitabilitatea potentiala a proprietatii inainte sa inceapa sa o dezvolte. Prospectarea seismica este un instrument important cu ajutorul caruia acestea cerceteaza potentialul de productie a proprietatii.
Incetinirea economiei globale a atras scaderea cererii de combustibil, fapt ce a afectat profiturile companiilor din sectorul de rafinare, conducand la inchiderea, vanzarea sau conversia in spatii de depozitare. In Europa majoritatea capacitatilor de rafinare este controlata de companii integrate de petrol si gaze. Slabiciunea structurala in sectorul european de rafinare a determinat multe companii sa se orienteze spre segmentul upstream, in detrimentul segmentului downstream si chiar sa renunte la activele de rafinare.


UNGUREANU, A.,Geografia Economica, Universitatea Al. I. Cuza,Iasi, 1993 IAU, C., Geografia economic, Editura Economic, Bucuresti, 2002