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GEORGETA RA

TIMIOARA, 2002

Refereni tiinifici:
Conf. univ. dr. ADRIAN BORCEAN
U.S.A.M.V.B. Timioara
Lector univ. dr. LUMINIA TURCU
Universitatea tefan cel Mare Suceava
ef de lucrri drd. IONEL SAMFIRA
U.S.A.M.V.B. Timioara

CONTENTS
FOREWORD
UNIT 1 AGRICULTURE: DEFINITION AND IMPORTANCE
Grammar: Articles
Social Skills: Expressing Enthusiasm
UNIT 2 THE FARM
Grammar: The Verbs Be, Have, and Do
Social Skills: Expressing Lack of Enthusiasm
UNIT 3 THE FARM: SEASONAL WORK
Grammar: The Verbs May and Can
Social Skills: Offering to Do Something
UNIT 4 TYPES OF AGRICULTURE
Grammar: The Verbs 'Must', 'Have to', and 'Need (to)'
Social Skills: Making Suggestions
UNIT 5 CROP PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE: AGRONOMY
Grammar: The Verbs Ought (to), Dare (to) and Used (to)
Social Skills: Giving Instructions
UNIT 6 ORGANIC GARDENING
Grammar: The Verbs Will, Would, Shall, and Should
Social Skills: Showing Sympathy
UNIT 7 ORGANIC FERTILISERS
Grammar: Sequence of Tenses
Social Skills: Asking Opinions
UNIT 8 GENETIC ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES
Grammar: The Passive Voice
Social Skills: Expressing Disagreement
UNIT 9 CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS
Grammar: Reported Speech (I)
Social Skills: Approving
UNIT 10 AGRICULTURAL REGIONS
Grammar: Reported Speech (II)
Social Skills: Expressing Wish
UNIT 11 AGRICULTURE IN THE WORLD
Grammar: Numerals, Dates, and Weights and Measures
Social Skills: Expressing Regret
UNIT 12 AGRICULTURE AFTER WORLD WAR II
Grammar: Spelling Rules
Social Skills: Giving Opinions
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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CUVNT NAINTE
Limba englez pentru agricultori se adreseaz studenilor
din anul al II-lea ai Facultii de Agricultur, profilul agricol,
specializarea agricultur, i conine elementele teoretice i practice
necesare nsuirii i folosirii limbajului agricol n limba englez.
Cartea cuprinde dousprezece teme preluate din New
Standard Encyclopedia (1995) i adaptate la nevoile studierii limbii
engleze n nvmntul superior agricol. Temele se refer att la
agricultur n general (definiie, importan, regiuni agricole,
agricultura n lume, istoria agriculturii), ct i la ferma agricol
(produsele de ferm, munca zilnic i munca sezonier ntr-o ferm),
la cultura plantelor (agronomie), la metodele de lucru n agricultur
(agricultura organic), la ngrminte, la ameliorarea plantelor i la
soluri.
Temele gramaticale aparin att morfologiei (articolul, verbele
modale, diateza pasiv, numeralul), ct i sintaxei frazei
(concordana timpurilor, vorbirea indirect) i ortografiei.
Sunt ilustrate printr-o serie de formule specifice i exersate
ntr-un context adecvat o serie de acte de limbaj dintre cele mai
frecvent ntlnite.
Fiecare lecie se ncheie cu o serie de exerciii lexicale i
gramaticale variate menite s faciliteze formarea unor deprinderi de
limb corecte (nelegere dup auz, vorbire, citire, scriere) i
nsuirea unui bogat vocabular agricol necesar att comunicrii orale
ct i consultrii bibliografiei de specialitate n limba englez.
Lector dr. Georgeta Ra

UNIT 1
AGRICULTURE: DEFINITION AND IMPORTANCE
Topic: Agriculture
Grammar: Articles
Social Skills: Expressing Enthusiasm
Agriculture deals with the growing of plants or raising of
animals for human use and enjoyment. Agriculture consists of
two kinds of activities: improving the environment of the plants grown
and the animal raised, and improving the usefulness of the plants
and animals themselves. Among ways of improving the
environment are the preparation of soil for planting, the use of
fertilisers, the killing of injurious insects and other pests, and the
sheltering and feeding of the animals. The usefulness of the plants
and animals is improved primarily through selective breeding.
Seeds from the most productive plants of the previous harvest are
chosen for planting. Unwanted animals are culled, or removed, from
herds and flocks, so that only the healthiest and most useful will
breed. The practice or business of agriculture is usually called
farming. A person engaged in farming is a farmer; the place
where he works is called a farm. Agribusiness is a term used to
describe farming and its related activities the manufacturing and
distribution of farm equipment and supplies and the processing,
storing, shipping, and marketing of agricultural products.
Agriculture is mans most important source of food. Hunting
and gathering are of no importance except in the technologically
most backward areas of the earth. Only fishing, among nonagricultural activities, provides an important though not a major
share of the worlds food supply. Agriculture also provides important
raw materials for various industries, and many drugs. Agriculture is
one of the most important sectors (parts) in the economies of most
nations. It contributes its share of the total economic output of a
nation through the sale value of its products. Also, agriculture uses
great quantities of equipment, fertilisers, and other products thus
creating a market for goods and services or for other sectors such as
manufacturing and trade. (After New Standard Encyclopaedia)
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GLOSSARY
to grow = to cause to grow (Roum. a crete)
to raise = to grow
use = the act of employing, using, or putting into service (Roum.
utilizare)
enjoyment = delight, gratification (Roum. ncntare)
to improve = to make better (Roum. a mbunti)
environment = the aggregate of surrounding things, conditions, or
influences (Roum. mediu)
among = (Roum.) printre
killing = (Roum.) distrugere
injurious = damaging, destructive (Roum. distrugtor)
pest = (Roum.) duntor
sheltering = providing with a shelter (Roum. adpostire)
feeding = giving food to (Roum. hrnire)
through = (Roum.) prin
previous = (Roum.) anterior
culled = chosen, selected
supplies = provision, stock
storing = depositing
shipping = transport
hunting = (Roum.) vntoare
gathering = (Roum.) cules
1. Answer the following.

What does agriculture deal with?


What does it consist of?
What ways of improving the environment are there?
How is the usefulness of the plants and animals
improved?
What is selective breeding?
What is farming? A farmer? A farm? Agribusiness?
What is hunting? Gathering? Fishing?
What does agriculture provide for the various industries?
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What relationship is there between agriculture and other


economic sectors?

2. Match the following.


1. fruit
2. grain
3. nut
4. root

a. a hard, indehiscent, one-seeded fruit, as the chestnut


or the acorn
b. a part of the body of a plant that develops, typically,
from the radicle and grows downward into the soil, fixing
the plant and absorbing nutriment and moisture
c. a small, hard seed, especially the seed of one of the
food plants, as wheat, corn, rye, oats, rice, and millet
d. the edible part of a plant developed from a flower, with
any accessory tissues, as the peach, mulberry, banana,
etc.

3. Fill in the blanks with the following nouns.


Agriculture - blades - clods - fertilisers - furrows - harrow land - machine - manure - plough - roller - seeds - soil sowing - tractor.
... (or the tilling of the land) depends on the nature of the ...
and the climate. If the soil is barren (or sterile) it cannot be expected
to yield any return. Even if it is fertile, you cannot grow plants that are
not adapted to the weather conditions. Poor soil can be reclaimed; a
great deal of ... and artificial ... will then be needed. Nothing but
scanty vegetation grows on waste ... (or wastes ground). The British
farmers year begins in autumn when the fields are turned up, or
ploughed. On many farms the ... has replaced the horse and a
modern ... can draw several ... at a time. Then follows.... For ages
the work of scattering the ... over the field was done by hand. Now it
is done with sowing ... (or seeds drills). The seeds must be covered
and the ... of earth broken. So the fields are harrowed by means of a
sharp-toothed.... Then, when the first ... of grass come up, or sprout,
a ... goes over them.
4. Make sentences with the following.
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Agribusiness agricultural - agricultural agent (A.E.) or county


agent - agriculturally - agriculture - agricultur(al)ist - nonagricultural - pre-agricultural.
5. Point out the technical terms in the text below.
Growth of cities and increased use of machines are steadily
reducing the farm populations of many parts of the world. Before the
Industrial Revolution began in the mid-18 th century, more than 90 per
cent of the worlds workers were agricultural. By the late 1930s this
percentage was down to 60, today it is below 45. Nevertheless
agriculture is still the most widespread single occupation. Synthetic
products have lessened the usefulness of many non-food agricultural
products. Nylon, for example, has largely replaced silk. New uses,
however, have been found for farm products in the chemical industry
and other industries. For example, hundreds of products from
cosmetics to plastics are made from peanuts and corn.
6. Put the text under 5 into Romanian.
7. Do you have relatives in the countryside? Speak about their
lives.
GRAMMAR: ARTICLES
1. THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE
The same for all genders, the indefinite article is used:
- before a singular noun which is countable when it is mentioned
for the first time and represents no particular person or thing:
A dog is an animal.
- before a singular countable noun which is used as an example of
a class of things:
A palm tree is usually very tall. (All palm trees are tall)
- with a noun complement:
He is a good engineer.
- in certain numerical expressions:
a couple, a gross (144), a lot of, a score (20), half a dozen
- in expressions of price, speed, ratio, etc.:
a pound a metre, four times a day, sixty kilometres an hour
- with few and little:
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a few friends (two or three, twenty or thirty)


a little time (days or years)
- in exclamations before singular, countable nouns:
What a dirty river!
- before Mr/Mrs/Miss + surname:
a Mr Smith (a man called Smith)
The indefinite article is not used:
- before plural nouns:
Dogs are animals.
- before singular and uncountable nouns in English:
advice, baggage, furniture, information, luggage, news
- before nouns of materials:
cloth, coffee, glass, iron, paper, stone, tea, wine, wood, etc.
- before abstract nouns:
beauty, death, fear, happiness, hope, etc.
- before names of meals:
I never have breakfast.
2. THE DEFINITE ARTICLE
The same for singular and plural and for all genders, the definite
article is used:
- before nouns of which there is only one, or which are considered
as one:
the earth, the North Pole, the sea, the sky, the weather
- before a noun which has become definite as a result of being
mentioned a second time:
His car struck a tree; I saw the mark on the tree.
- before a noun made definite by the addition of a phrase or clause:
The place where I met him was polluted.
- before a noun which, by reason of locality, can represent only one
particular thing:
They were all in the garden. (= the garden of their house).
- before superlatives and first/second etc., and only, used as
adjectives or pronouns:
The Himalaya is the highest mountain in the world.
- before singular nouns used to represent a class of objects:
The beaver is hardworking. (= all beavers are hardworking)
- before an adjective used to represent a class of persons:
I like 'The Young and the Restless'.
- before names of chains of mountains, groups of islands, rivers,
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seas, and plural names of countries:


the Alps, the Hesperides, the Olt, the Black Sea, the USA
- before musical instruments:
I cannot play the piano.
- before names of meals:
The breakfast I had in the morning was OK.
The definite article is not used:
- before countries, proper names, towns:
He returned to Romania and bought a house in Bucharest.
- before abstract nouns:
Children fear darkness.
- after a noun in the possessive case, or a possessive adjective:
the mother of the boy = the boy's mother
- before names of meals:
The Romanians have soup for lunch.
- before parts of the body and articles of clothing, as these normally
prefer a possessive adjective:
Take off your coat; you may leave your hat on.
- before indefinite plural nouns:
Big rivers all over the world are more and more polluted.
- before church, college, home, hospital, market, prison, school:
We go to school to study.
1. Explain the use of Articles in the first paragraph of the text
'Agriculture: Definition and Importance'.
2. Insert a or an if necessary.
travel agent would give you information about hotels.
- Do you take sugar in coffee? - He is vegetarian; you won't
get meat at his house. - I have hour and half for lunch. We had fish and chips for lunch. - What name to give
girl! - When he was charged with murder he said he had alibi.
3. Insert the if necessary.
youngest boy has just started going to school; elder
boy is at college. - Do you know time? - He was sent to
prison for six months for shop-lifting. - I am on night duty. 12

I'd like to see Mr Smith, please. - My mother goes to church in


morning, and in afternoon goes to visit friends. - There's a
telephone box just round corner.
4. Change the following according to the model.
A rose is a beautiful flower.
Roses are beautiful flowers.
I have a textbook and a dictionary. (from the library)
The textbook is from the library.
A professor should always be a model for his students. Almost all my students have cell phones in my English class. (on
their desks) - Ann has a cap and a pair of mittens. (in her drawer) He has a cat and a dog. (back home) - Helen has a dress and a pair
of shoes. (in her bag) - I have a cellular phone. (in my bag) - I have
an English-Romanian dictionary. (in my bookcase) - John bought a
CD and a DVD. (from the shop) - My aunt got a letter and a postcard.
(from the States) - She has a pen and a pencil. (on her desk) - The
elephant is a very strong animal.
5. Put into English.
Am cumprat o jumtate de duzin de ou. - Ce pru
murdar! - Frumuseea trece, prietenia rmne. - Ion tie s cnte la
trompet. - Mi-a plcut mult mncarea franuzeasc. - Merg la
facultate n fiecare zi. - Nu iau niciodat cina dup ora apte seara. Pn seara ei s-au strns cu toii n curte. - Scoate-i cizmele nainte
de a intra n camer. - Stejarul este, de obicei, foarte btrn.
SPEECH ACTS: EXPRESSING ENTHUSIASM
Use the following to express your enthusiasm about the
prospective of living in the countryside.
is exciting / sensational / thrilling / etc.!
Fantastic! / Great! / Hooray! / Smashing! / Super! / Terrific! /
Yippee!
How exciting / marvellous / wonderful !
I can't deny my enthusiasm for
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I'm (really) very enthusiastic about it


What a great idea!
UNIT 2
THE FARM
Topic: The Farm
Grammar: The Verbs Be, Have, and Do
Social Skills: Expressing Lack of Enthusiasm
The farm is an establishment that produces crops,
livestock, or both. In the United States, a farmer and his family own
the typical farm. Many farms, however, are operated not by their
owners, but by professional managers or tenant farmers. In some
nations farms consist of several parcels of land rather than of a
single tract. In most Communist nations, all or most farmland is
owned either by the government or by large groups of farmers
collectively.
A farmer has been defined as one who makes his entire living
from farming, one who makes some of his living from farming, one
who lives on a farm, or one who owns a farm. We use here the
definition of a farmer as one who makes most of his living from
farming.
A commercial farm is one that produces items primarily for
sale. A subsistence farm is a low-income farm whose products are
primarily for the use of the operator and his family. Most commercial
farms are either family farms (farms where the operator and his
family provides most of the labour) or family-controlled farms (farms
where the business is family-controlled, but most of the labour is
done by hired workers).
Most farm work must be done outdoors, during daylight, in
good weather, and in the proper season. Work hours are irregular.
They are extremely long at times, especially at planting and harvest
time. During periods of little outdoor work, such as winter, efficient
farmers do indoors work such as repairing equipment. Some kinds of
work must be done every day of the year. Farm work calls for many
skills. The farmer may need to be a machine operator, repairman,
mechanic, carpenter, business manager, investor in the commodities
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market, and labourer, and he must be able to care properly for the
livestock and crops that are his primary source of income. (After New
Standard Encyclopedia)
GLOSSARY
establishment = a place of business, together with its employees,
merchandise, etc. (Roum. stabiliment)
crops = the cultivated produce of the ground, while growing or
when gathered (Roum. cultur, recolt)
livestock = the horses, cattle, sheep, and other useful animals kept
or raised on a farm or ranch
to own = to have / possess
to operate = to manage (Roum. a conduce)
tract = an expanse or area of land, water, etc.; region, stretch
to make ones living = (Roum.) a-i ctiga traiul
most of = (Roum.) cea mai mare parte a
item = a separate article or particular (Roum. bucat, exemplar;
obiect)
sale = (Roum. vnzare)
low-income = (Roum.) cu venit mic
to provide = (Roum.) a asigura
to hire = (Roum.) a angaja
outdoors = (Roum.) afar, n aer liber
skill = ability (Roum. pricepere)
carpenter = (Roum.) dulgher
commodities = goods (Roum. bunuri)
1. Answer the following.

What is a farm?
What does it produce?
Who operates it?
Who owns all or most farmland in most Communist
nations?
What is a farmer?
What definition would you prefer to use for Romanian
farmers?
What is a commercial farm?
15

What is a subsistence farm?


Where must be done most farm work?
What skills does farm work call for?
2. Fill in the blanks with a, an, and the.
Some British families have been running ... same farms for
generations. ... farmstead includes ... farmhouse and several
outbuildings and sheds grouped round ... farmyard. Filthy farms with
ramshackle (or dilapidated) buildings are ... most uncommon sights
in Great Britain. Water is no longer supplied from wells but from
pumps. Although ... farmer necessarily uses traditional agricultural
implements, British agriculture is among ... most highly industrialised
in ... world.
3. Make sentences with the following.
Farm (n.) - farm (v.) - farm adviser - farm butter - farm
equipment - farm facilities - farm hand - farm outfit - farm
practices - farm tractor - farmable - farmer - farmer cheese Farmer-Labour party - farmhouse - farming - farming
industry - farmstead - farmyard - farmyard manure.
4. Put into Romanian.
Because each type of crop and livestock requires different
care, only a general description of farm work can be given here.
Many farms are organised around the production of a specific type of
livestock, such as chickens, beef cattle, or hogs. On these farms, the
most efficient feeding schedule for the animals is the major
consideration in organising farm work. On other farms, the farmer
derives most of his income from a specific crop, such as cotton,
wheat, or a particular kind of fruit, each of which has its own
susceptibilities to disease, weather, and insects.
5. Find the scientific and the common name of the following
hay, feed, and forage crops.
Alfalfa - beet - bent grass - bermuda grass - bluegrass bromegrass - buckwheat - buffalo grass - carrot - clover 16

corn - cowpea - fescue - grass - hay - kafir - kudzu lespedeza - millet - milo - oats - pea - peanut - rape - rye sorghum - sun-flower - timothy - vetch.
GRAMMAR: THE VERBS BE, HAVE, AND DO
1. TO BE
a. Used as an ordinary verb, it denotes existence of, or gives
information about (a person or thing):
My father was an officer in the army. (when a noun representing
a definite person or thing is the subject)
There is a dog in the yard. (when a noun representing an
indefinite person or thing is the subject)
b. As an auxiliary verb, it is used:
- in the formation of tenses:
She is working. (continuous active form)
They were followed by their dog. (passive form)
He is being carried by her. (continuous form in the passive)
- with the infinitive:
to convey orders or instructions:
He is to stay here until further notice.
to convey a plan:
They are to get married next April.
to express the immediate future:
They are about to leave. (= They are just going to leave,
They are on the point of leaving)
to express a more remote future, usually a future in the past:
They didn't know they were never to meet again.
c. Other uses. To be is also used to express:
- physical or mental condition:
I am cold / furious.
- age:
I am forty-nine (years old).
- size and weight:
I am 1.62 metres and 80 kilos.
- distance:
Suceava is six hundred kilometres far from Timioara.
- price:
This book is 200,000 ROL.
- weather:
17

It is chilly.
- time and date:
It's 1.00 p.m., October 11.
2. TO HAVE
a. Used as an ordinary verb, it means:
- possess:
I have lots of books in my book-case.
- take (a bath / drink / food / lesson / meal):
We usually have lunch at one.
- give (a party), entertain (guests):
We are having a party next week.
- encounter (difficulties / trouble):
I have never had trouble with the Customs.
- experience, enjoy:
I hope I'll have a good holiday.
b. As an auxiliary verb, it is used:
- in the formation of tenses:
I have worked. (the present perfect)
I had worked. (the past perfect)
I shall have worked. (the future perfect)
I should have worked. (the perfect conditional)
- with the infinitive to express:
present obligation:
I have to go now. (= I must go now)
past obligation:
I had to leave.
- with an object and a past participle to express sentences of the
type I employed someone to do something for me:
I had my hair cut.
- with an object and a past participle to replace a passive verb:
He had his car stolen before he had the chance to drive it.
3. TO DO
Used as an auxiliary verb, it is:
- used in short answers to avoid repetition of the main verb:
A: Do you like chocolate?
B: Yes, I do.
- placed before the imperative to make a request more persuasive:
Do work a little harder.
- used as an approving or encouraging affirmative answer to
18

someone asking for approval of, or permission to do, some action:


A: Shall I read it?
B: (Yes,) do.
1. Change the following according to the model.
The Dean wants us to meet them at 5.

We are to meet them at 5.


I don't want you to talk back to me. - John doesn't want you to
use his computer. - My mother wants me to lose a few pounds. - Our
sons want us to paint the hall. - The professor doesn't want you to
take this book. - The rector is not to be disturbed. - What do you want
me to do with this book? - You are forbidden to enter this room.
2. Put into English using have to.
A trebuit s atept mai mult de o or venirea poliiei. - A trebuit
s stau la rnd ca s vd expoziia de pictur impresionist. Candidaii trebuie s vorbeasc engleza i italiana fluent. - Studenii
trebuie s-i termine proiectul pentru mine. - Toi candidaii trebuie
s dea un test scris. - Toi ofierii trebuie s ias la raport mine
diminea. - Trebuie s fac toate exerciiile astea pn mine.
3. Put into English using the different forms of to do.
Ai frecventat Colegiul Loga? - Citete-mi, te rog, scrisoarea. El lucreaz n aceast universitate ? - ntr-adevr, el i face temele
singur. - Locuieti n acest ora? - Maria nu s-a dus ieri la film. - Nam destul timp ca s ajung la teatru. - Nu asculta prostiile astea.
SPEECH ACTS: EXPRESSING LACK OF ENTHUSIASM
Use the following to express your lack of enthusiasm about
the fact that you have to help your grandparents with their
work on the farm.
Get lost!
I can't say I'm at all pleased (about)
19

I really hate
Look here,
Oh, bloody hell!
Oh, no, what's next?
UNIT 3
THE FARM: SEASONAL WORK
Topic: The Farm
Grammar: The Verbs May and Can
Social Skills: Offering to Do Something
Spring Work on a crop farm centres around planting.
Normally, ploughing is necessary to break up the soil to prepare it for
planting. A harrow is used to level ploughed earth and break up clods
of soil. To enrich the soil the farmer may apply manure or commercial
fertiliser, usually with mechanised fertiliser spreaders.
Summer Work includes cultivating, haying, and harvesting.
Cultivating consists of periodically breaking up the soil. Its purpose is
to stimulate crop growth by killing weeds, increasing the waterholding capacity of the soil, stimulating beneficial soil bacteria, and
increasing circulation of oxygen through the soil. For some grains,
the use of herbicides to control weeds can reduce or eliminate the
need for cultivation. Crops can be planted closer together, increasing
the yield per acre, when space does not have to be left to permit
tractors to pull cultivators through the field.
Fall Work completes the harvesting and prepares for the next
planting. Unpinned corn and grass, called green crops, are chopped
up with the silage cutter for storage in the silo. After storage they will
make nutritious winter food for the livestock. Later in the season,
corn is picked, usually with a mechanical picker. Late-maturing crops
are gathered, including some kinds of apples and some other fruits.
Sometimes, to replenish certain nutrients in the soil, a clover crop is
planted in the fall to be ploughed under in the spring. Before the
ground freezes, winter wheat and some young fruit trees are planted.
Winter Work consists mainly of chores, especially the care of
livestock and poultry. Feeding requires constant work since the
animals cannot forage for themselves. Farmers may repair their
houses, machinery, and equipment at this time of year. In pleasant
20

weather, they may work on their fences. This is the best time of year
for them to bring their financial and other records up to date, plan
crop rotation for the coming year, and study possible improvements
for their farms. (After New Standard Encyclopedia)
GLOSSARY
crop farm = (Roum.) ferm vegetal
ploughing = (Roum.) arat
harrow = (Roum.) grap, boroan
clod = (Roum.) bulgre (de pmnt)
manure = (Roum.) gunoi de grajd
spreader = (Roum.) mprtietoare (de blegar, etc.)
haying = making hay
harvesting = gathering the crops (Roum. recoltare)
weeds = (Roum.) buruieni
yield = production
unpinned = (Roum.) nedesfcut
to chop = (Roum.) a toca, a ciopri
silage = ensilage (Roum. siloz)
picker = (Roum.) culegtor, recoltator
to replenish = (Roum.) a completa (cu)
to freeze = (Roum.) a nghea
chores = (Roum.) ndeletniciri
to forage = (Roum.) a se hrni cu nutre
fence = (Roum.) gard, ngrditur
crop rotation = (Roum.) asolament
1. Answer the following.

What does spring work centre around?


Why is ploughing necessary?
What may the farmer do to enrich the soil?
What does summer work include?
What does cultivating consist of?
What is the purpose of breaking up the soil?
What are herbicides for?
How can crops be planted?
What does fall work complete?
21


When is maize picked?

What do they plant before the ground freezes?

What does winter work consist of?

What does feeding require?


2. Fill in the blanks with the following words:
Basket makers - blacksmith - saddler - tinkers - vendors wheelwright.
An important member of the village community used to be
the ... and the musical ring of the hammer on the anvil as well as the
glow of the forge used to attract many a villager to the smithy. He
would occasionally shoe horses that are nail horseshoes under the
animals` hoofs. The ...`s work is to make and repair carts. If a shaft
or a wheel is broken, he makes a new one. A cartwheel is composed
of the nave (or hub) in which are inserted the spooks, which join it to
the rim. The two wheels turn round the axle. The ... makes saddles
and harness. A rider governs his horse by means of a rein and bridle;
he sets spurs to his horse to quicken his pace. A horse is harnessed
to a cart by means of traces. If tramps and vagrants are now figures
of the past, gypsies are occasionally to be met with, driving past in
their brightly painted caravans or sitting round their campfire. They
are ... and.... Itinerant ... visit villages at regular intervals.
3. What are the following?
Hay (n.) - hay (v.) - hay asthma - hay bacillus - hay barrack hay cold - hay fever - hay kicker - hay season - hay
spreader - hay staker - hay tedder - hay-bird - haycock haylolf - haymaker - haymaking - haymaking season - hay
market - hayrack - hayrick - hayseed - haystack.
5. Put into Romanian.
Livestock farmers devote much of their day to keeping pens
and barns clean, preparing feed mixes, checking animals for signs of
disease or injury, and monitoring animals` growth. Dairy cows must
be brought in daily from the pasture (where they are allowed to feed
on uncut grass or clover) or from the feedlot (where the farmer
22

provides hay and other feed) to the milking shed. Most farms with
more than a few cows use milking machines. Frequently the livestock
farmer raises his own feeder crop, which must be planted, cultivated,
harvested, dried, and stored.
GRAMMAR: THE VERBS 'MAY' AND 'CAN'
1. 'MAY'/'MIGHT' is chiefly used to express:
- permission:
granted, refused or requested in the present:
You may come in now. (= I allow you to come in)
granted, refused or requested in the past:
I allowed him to come in.
I said that he might come in.
- possibility:
may / might + present infinitive expresses possibility in the
present or future:
He may / might come today. (= perhaps he will come)
may / might + perfect infinitive is used in speculations about
past actions:
They may have gone. (= it is possible that they went)
He is not there; he might have got lost. (uncertainty no
longer exists)
may / might can be used in conditional sentences instead of
will / would to indicate a possible instead of a certain result:
If I see him I may stop. (possible) If I see him I will stop.
(certain)
'May' / 'might' can also be used:
- to express an intention:
I may / might as well go there tonight.
- to suggest or recommend an action:
You may / might as well go there.
- to suggest an alternative action, implying disapproval of a
previous suggested one:
You might just as well go there.
- to express a very casual command:
You might take the dog out.
- to make a persuasive request:
You might tell me what he said. (= please tell me)
- to express irritation:
23

You might pay us. (= we are annoyed that you don't pay us)
You might have paid us. (= we are annoyed that you didn't)
- to express faith and hope:
May you be rich! (= I hope you will be rich)
2. 'CAN'/'COULD' is used to express:
- permission:
as an informal alternative to may:
You can't go there. (= I don't allow it / your mother doesn't allow
it)
They couldn't use the Hi-Fi tower. (= they were not allowed to
use it)
- possibility:
in the present:
You can ski there. (= there is enough snow)
in the future:
People will be able to ski there.
- ability:
in the present:
She can speak English fluently.
in the past:
She could swim when she was younger.
He was able to skate years ago.
He could see her in the dark. (ability + a particular action)
He could have told her. (= but he didn't)
John could have taken the paper. (= I don't know whether he
did it or not)
in the future:
She will be able to speak French in six months.
- condition:
Could he get another job? (= if he left this one)
- request:
Could you please fetch me a glass of water?
- negative deduction:
about a present event:
You can't be hungry. (= you have just had lunch)
about a past event:
He can't have done it by himself. (= he is too young for that)

24

1. What does the verb may express in the text The Farm:
Seasonal Work?
2. Put the phrases under Grammar into Romanian. Give as
many versions as possible.
3. Put into English.
Acum pot schia pentru c am schiuri. - Ai fi putut s-mi spui ce
s-a ntmplat. - Ar fi putut nva poezia, dar n-a vrut. - Aud pai
repezi pe scri. - Cnd a mplinit optsprezece ani, i s-a dat voie s
voteze. - Copiilor li s-a dat voie s mearg la not. - Ea nc nu
vorbete franuzete dar va vorbi peste civa ani. - Eu tiu cinci limbi
strine. - I s-a permis s plece cu avionul. - mi permitei s dau un
telefon? - Nu cred c a fost plecat la ar: l-am ntlnit ieri pe strad. N-am putut vizita Luvrul anul trecut. - Nu e lumin la geam: nu poate
fi acas. - Nu poate fi mai trziu de opt. - Nu poate fi miezul nopii.
4. Same exercise.
Nu-l puteam vedea n ntuneric. - Nu se poate s fi costat att
de mult. - Nu se poate s-l fi cunoscut vara trecut. - Pare att de
tnr: nu poate avea mai mult de treizeci de ani. - Pe unde ar putea
fi el acum? - Pot s iau umbrela ta? - Pot s plec? - Poi atepta
cteva minute? - Puteam alerga mai repede dect fratele meu acum
trei ani. - Putei s m ajutai la bagaje? - S-ar putea ca Mary s
lucreze n grdin. - S-ar putea s plece azi la ar. - Se poate s-mi
fi pierdut cheile. - Voi putea traduce texte mai grele anul viitor.
5. Speak about what you could / were allowed to do when you
were seven / eighteen / twenty-one.
SPEECH ACTS: OFFERING TO DO SOMETHING
Use the following to offer to do something for your cousins
working on their parents farm.
Can I help you with ?
Do you fancy / need ?
I'll give you
25

If you like, I could


Is there anything I could ?
May I help you with your ?
You should allow me to
Would you like any help ?
UNIT 4
TYPES OF AGRICULTURE
Topic: Agriculture
Grammar: The Verbs 'Must', 'Have to', and 'Need (to)'
Social Skills: Making Suggestions
There are two major classifications of agriculture by product
crop production agriculture and animal husbandry.
Crop Production Agriculture. The products of a specific type
are often also products of a broader type. Agronomy refers to the
production of field crop crops, such as wheat and oats, raised in
large-scale farming and to soil management. Fruit Culture
includes all fruit production from trees, shrubs, and vines. Gardening
or Horticulture deals with the cultivation of fruits, vegetables,
flowers, herbs, and ornamental trees and shrubs. Truck Farming
refers to the production of commercial vegetable crops on relatively
large farms. Other Types of crop production agriculture include the
cultivation of fruit, vegetables, flowers, herbs, and other useful plants
on small plots near the cultivators home. The collective term for
these activities is gardening. There are several specialised
gardening, or horticultural, activities. Arboriculture is the cultivation
of trees and shrubs for decorative, shade, or ornamental purposes.
Floriculture is the cultivation of flowering plants for ornamental
purposes. Nursery Farming is intensive cultivation of young plants,
principally trees and shrubs, for commercial purposes.
Animal Husbandry refers to all types of farming concerned
with raising animals. Dairy Farming refers to the production of milk,
cream, and related products (such as cheese) using domesticated
cattle as a source. In various other areas of the world buffalo, yaks,
and goats are sources of milk and milk products. Fur Farming is the
raising of fur-bearing animals for their pelts. Ranching is any form of
large-scale agriculture involving livestock raised for meat, hides and
26

skins, and hair products (wool). Other Types. Apiculture is the


keeping of bees for the production of honey and wax. Aviculture is
the raising of birds for ornamental, recreational, or scientific
purposes. Sericulture is the raising of silk worms for their silk. (After
New Standard Encyclopedia)
GLOSSARY
animal husbandry = (Roum.) creterea vitelor
field crop = (Roum.) cultur de cmp
shrub = a woody, perennial plant smaller than a tree, usually
having permanent stems branching from or near the ground
(Roum. arbust)
plot = a small piece or area of ground (Roum. lot)
dairy farming = (Roum.) creterea vacilor de lapte
cream = the part of whole milk that is rich in butterfat (Roum.
smntn)
cheese = the curd of milk separated from the whey and prepared in
many ways as a food (Roum. brnz)
cattle = bovine animals, especially domesticated members of the
genus Bos
fur farming = (Roum.) creterea animalelor cu blan
pelt = (Roum.) piele de animal cu blan (netuns sau tuns)
hide = (Roum.) piele de animal
skin = (Roum.) piele jupuit de pe un animal
wax = (Roum.) cear
silk worm = (Roum.) vierme de mtase
1. Answer the following.

How many major classifications by product are there in


agriculture?
What does crop production agriculture include?
What does agronomy refer to?
What does fruit culture include?
What does gardening deal with?
What does truck farming refer to?
What does animal husbandry include?
What does dairy farming refer to?
27

What is fur farming?


What is ranching? Does it still exist?
What is apiculture?
What does aviculture refer to?
What is the purpose of sericulture?
2. Pick up the terms related to farming.
Farms and other agricultural enterprises are usually classified
as either commercial or subsistence, and as either diversified or
specialised. Commercial farms produce items primarily for sale to
others, rather than for the farmers own use. Subsistence farms
produce items primarily for the use of the farmer, rather than for sale
to others. Diversified farms produce a variety of crops and livestock.
Diversification may allow the farmer to space his period of heavy
work around the year. Such a farm may be commercial or
subsistence. Specialised farms are commercial or subsistence farms
that produce only one major product or group of products. This
economic classification may be applied to a farm (wheat farm, cattle
ranch, etc.) or to a region (milk shed or truck farming area).
3. Fill in the blanks with by, in, into, and to.
his business, his journeys from his home his office,
his dealings with his family, his sports and amusements and his
politics, the American uses words and phrases unintelligible the
Englishmen or intelligible only after a laborious consideration. A
familiar anecdote offers an example miniature. A young American
living a region of prolific orchards was asked an Englishman
what the residents do with so much fruit. His reply was a pun: We
eat all we can, and can what we cant. When the Englishman got
home he translated the pun English We eat all we can, and what
we cant, we tin, and the joke was lost.
4. Make sentences with the following.
Plant (n.) - plant (v.) - plant acid - plant breeding - plant
louse (pl. plant lice) - plant pathology - plant rubber - plant
wax - plantable - plantain - plantation - planter - plantlet 28

plant like.
5. Answer the following.
What do your relatives in the countryside grow? Why?
What do they raise? Why?
6. Put into Romanian.
For commercial farmers, diversification lessens danger of
financial ruin when one crop or animal product suffers a loss in value.
Whether a commercial farm is classed as diversified is based not on
how many different crops and kinds of livestock products are
produced, but on how many are sold. A Midwestern farmer who
produces and sells wheat, soybeans, poultry, eggs, milk, and hogs,
for example, is a diversified farmer. However, if he grows grain for
hog feed only, raises vegetables and poultry for his own use, and
sells only the hogs, he is a specialised farmer.
GRAMMAR: THE VERBS 'MUST', 'HAVE TO', AND 'NEED (TO)'
These verbs can express:
a. Positive obligation, with the help of must and have to:
- in the affirmative, both verbs express obligation, but must
expresses an obligation imposed by the speaker while have to
expresses an external obligation (i.e. one imposed by external
authority or circumstances):
You must do your homework (= these are my orders).
You will have to do your homework (academic rules will oblige
you to do it)
- in the interrogative, have (got) to expresses:
obligations in the future:
Will you have to do your homework next term too? Yes, this
is an academic rule.
Do all students have to do it?
habits:
Have you got to go to the library now?
b. Negative obligation, with the help of must not in the present or
future implying the speaker's authority or very strong advice:
You must not prompt = I forbid you to prompt or I very strongly
29

advise you not to prompt


c. Absence of obligation, with the help of:
needn't, when the speaker gives authority for the nonperformance of some action in the present or in the future:
You needn't translate the whole text.
don't need to, haven't (got) to and needn't, when an external
authority is involved, in the present:
You don't need to attend this lecture if you don't like it.
don't have to, when an external authority is involved and a
habitual action is referred to, in the present:
You don't have to attend all three courses.
won't have / need to, when an external authority is involved, in
the future:
You won't need to take your dictionaries with you to attend the
conference.
didn't have / need to, hadn't (got) to, for actions in the past:
You didn't have to go to the library: I've got the book you need.
1. Put into English using must or have to.
Ana e absent azi: cred c e bolnav. - Maria va trebui s
rescrie compunerea. - Nu avei voie s v jucai n mijlocul strzii. S-a dus la culcare la ora apte seara: cred c e foarte obosit. Trebuie s-i cer s pleci imediat. - Trebuie s-o ajui, n-ai ce-i face.
2. Put into English using must or need (to).
El trebuia s fie n Bucureti n seara asta. - Maria trebuie s
plece. - N-a fost nevoie s ia un taxi pentru c gara era aproape. - Na mai fost nevoie s sparg geamul pentru c vecinii aveau o
dublur a cheii. - N-a trebuit s-i spun ce s-a ntmplat pentru c
tia deja tot adevrul. - Nu trebuie s rspunzi chiar la toate
ntrebrile lui. - Profesorul i-a spus c nu trebuie s mai repete
greeala.
SPEECH ACTS: MAKING SUGGESTIONS
Use the following to make suggestions about starting a
business of your own in the countryside.
30

Have you thought of?


How / what about?
Suppose we
What if?
UNIT 5
CROP PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE: AGRONOMY
Topic: Agriculture
Grammar: The Verbs 'Must', 'Have to', and 'Need (to)'
Social Skills: Making Suggestions
Agronomy is defined as the branch of agriculture that
deals with field crop production and soil studies. Crop scientists
study plant species and varieties for developing plants best adapted
to various soil and climate conditions. Such scientists employ the
principles of genetics, chemistry, physics, and biology to plants and
soils in order to develop more efficient methods of crop production.
Plant Breeding. Because the supply of agricultural land is
steadily decreasing and the population is increasing, it is necessary
to use the available land to greatest advantage. By breeding higheryielding plant varieties, agronomists aid in increasing agricultural
productivity. Annual crop production is increased through the
development of plant varieties that are resistant to disease, drought,
heat, cold, wind, and various insects. Plant breeding has also aided
in improving crop quality, giving crops, among other things, better
flavour and higher vitamin content.
Soil Studies. Agronomists study the soil extensively. They
determine the mineral content of the soil and use this as a basis on
which to recommend the proper fertiliser. The composition of
fertilisers is of great interest because virtually every type of soil
requires a different fertiliser. Physical and chemical properties of soils
are also studied to determine the suitability of a particular soil for a
given crop. As much soil is carried away every year by erosion,
agronomists help curtail erosion by devising means to keep the soil
in place, including planting grass and shrubs, using contour
ploughing and other cultivation methods, or planting windbreaks
31

(rows of trees or shrubs, or both) in dry areas. Agronomists also


recommend proper irrigation methods to help maintain soil conditions
that are beneficial to crops. (After New Standard Encyclopedia)
GLOSSARY
to deal with = to take action with respect to a thing or person
(Roum. a se ocupa de)
field crop production = (Roum.) producie vegetal pe suprafee
mari
crop scientist = (Roum.) specialist n cultura cmpului
in order to = as a means to, with the purpose of (Roum. pentru a,
ca s)
plant breeding = (Roum.) selecia plantelor
supply = stock, store (Roum. rezerv)
steadily = regularly
available = accessible
high-yielding plant varieties = (Roum.) soiuri de plante cu
productivitate mare
to aid = to help
drought = (Roum.) secet
proper = (Roum.) corespunztor
to require = to need (Roum. a cere, a avea nevoie)
suitability = (Roum.) compatibilitate
to curtail = to reduce
to devise = to elaborate
windbreak = (Roum.) perdea de protecie (ir de arbori sdii n
linie dreapt cu scopul de a proteja culturile mpotriva
vnturilor)
1. Answer the following.

How is agronomy defined?


What do crop scientists study? What for? What do they
employ?
What is plant breeding?
How is annual crop production increased?
32

What does plant breeding also aid in?


Why do agronomists determine the mineral content of the
soil?
Why are physical and chemical properties of soils also
studied?
What is much soil carried away by every year?
2. Fill in the blanks with the following.
Adorned - appear - cut - grow - grown - has - is - mind open - require.
A great variety of flowers are ... in the flowerbeds: daffodils,
tulips, and hyacinths in spring; lilies, pinks (or carnations) in summer.
The lily of the valley ... small white bell-shaped flowers. If there ... a
garden pond, it is ... with water-lilies and forget-me-nots. On rosetrees ... a wide variety of roses. From the time the first shoots ... to
that when the buds ... out, rose-trees ... a great deal of care and
attention. Roses are sweet-scented (or fragrant) flowers. But ... the
thorns when you ... some of them off to make a bunch (or bouquet).
3. Make sentences of your own using the following.
Agronomic(al) - agronomics - agronomist - agronomy agronomy farm.
4. Which of the following are herbaceous?
Alfalfa - beet - carrot - fescue - kafir - lespedeza - millet oats - peanut - rape - sunflower - timothy - vetch.
5. Put into Romanian.
Floriculture is defined as the cultivation of ornamental
flowering plants. The term is applied particularly to commercial flower
growing. Floriculturists supply customers with cut flowers, potted
plants, and plants to be transplanted in gardens. They also produce
seeds, bulbs, corms, and tubers from which plants can be grown. An
important aspect of floriculture involves the introduction of new and
33

improved plant varieties. These are introduced from abroad, selected


from mutations, or produced by hybridising. Fruit Culture includes all
fruit production from trees, shrubs, and vines, in fruit and vegetable
gardens, or in orchards. The orchard is a planting of fruit trees, nut
trees, sugar maples, or other food-producing trees. Apples, pears,
peaches, cherries, and plums are fruits commonly raised in United
States orchards. Citrus-fruit orchards are usually called groves.
GRAMMAR: THE VERBS 'OUGHT (TO)', 'DARE (TO)' AND
'USED (TO)'
1. OUGHT (TO) expresses:
- the subject's obligations or duty as reminded by the speaker,
without any speaker's authority (as with must) or an outside
authority (as with have to):
You ought to obey your mothers. (= You should obey your
mothers).
- advice (much less forceful than must):
You ought to see a doctor.
- an unfulfilled duty or a sensible action that was neglected:
I ought to have told him the truth. (= I should have told him the
truth).
2. DARE (TO) in the interrogative can express indignation:
How dare you smoke in class? (= I am indignant because he
smokes in class).
I daresay means:
- I suppose:
I daresay there'll be students in the class.
- I accept what you say (but it doesn't make any difference):
Romanian tourist: But I drive on the right in Romania!
English police officer: I daresay you do, but you must drive on
the left here.
3. USED (TO) can express:
- a discontinued habit:
My hair used to be black, then grey; but it's bleached now.
- a past routine, not necessarily discontinued:
Most students used to spend their spare time reading. (= They
did it years ago; very likely they still do it).

34

1. Put the sentences under Grammar into English giving as


many versions as possible.
2. Turn as many sentences from the text 'Crop Production
Agriculture: Agronomy' as possible according to the model.
Agriculture is defined as the branch of agriculture
Agriculture may / should be defined
3. Turn the following according to the model.
He should study more. He should have studied
more.
She ought to work harder. She ought to have worked
harder.
The letter should be sent e-mail. - They should visit England. We ought to telephone her. - You ought to put some money in the
bank each week. - You ought to prepare your work more carefully. You should pay more attention to the grammar rules. - You should
speak to them in English. - You should write your paper in ink.
4. Complete the following.
Everyone should - He ought to - I should - John
should - No one should - She ought not to - She shouldn't
- We ought not to - You should - You shouldn't
5. Put into English using must, have to, should and ought
to.
Ar trebui s fii asculttor. - Ar fi trebuit s-i asculi. - Fii
asculttor! - S-ar cuveni s fii asculttor. - Trebuie s-i asculi
prinii. - Trebuie s fii asculttor dac vrei s reueti.
SPEECH ACTS: GIVING INSTRUCTIONS
Use the following to give instructions to the people you have
hired to work on your farm.
35

Check!
Clean!
Don't let / place / position / remove / spray / take!
Go clean / place / position / remove / soften / spray / take!
Place!
Remove!
Spray!
Take!
UNIT 6
TYPES OF FARMING METHODS: ORGANIC GARDENING
Topic: Farming Methods
Grammar: The Verbs Will, Would, Shall, and Should
Social Skills: Showing Sympathy
Organic Gardening is a type of gardening in which only
naturally occurring materials are used in all the phases of plant
growing including soil improvement, fertilising, and pest
control. Organic gardening is practised both by home gardeners and
by commercial farmers. The organic foods produced for commerce
undergo a minimum of processing and are largely or totally free of
chemical preservatives and other additives. They are sometimes
called health foods. Organic gardening is essentially the same type
of gardening as that practised before the advent of manufactured
chemical fertilisers and pesticides. The revived interest in organic
gardening is in large part due to the growing concern about polluting
the environment and harming the body with pesticides and other
chemicals. It is also argued that organically grown foods are more
nutritious than those subjected to commercial processing.
Organic gardeners use compost or manure to fertilise the soil
and improve its structure, and rely on earthworms to condition the
soil. The gardeners add nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, and
phosphorus, but only from natural sources. For example, nitrogen is
supplied by hoof and horn meal or fish-meal, potassium by granite
dust or potash rock, and phosphorus by bone meal or finely ground
phosphate rock. Weeds are pulled rather than eliminated by chemical
36

weed killers. Their growth may also be inhibited by frequent


cultivation or the application of mulches, such as straw or hay,
around the bases of the desirable plants. Instead of using chemical
insecticides to control pests, organic gardeners prefer to use natural
predators, such as birds and certain insects (such as ladybugs and
praying mantises). Other measures include the use of botanical
insecticides, such as pyrethrum and ryania, derived from roots or
foliage of certain plants. (After New Standard Encyclopaedia)
GLOSSARY
to occur = to be found
to undergo = to be subjected to, to experience (Roum. a suferi)
processing = (Roum.) prelucrare
to be free of = not to have
preservative = chemical substance used to preserve foods from
decomposition or fermentation (Roum. conservant)
advent = arrival, coming
to harm = to damage (Roum. a face ru)
to subject to = to expose
to rely on = to depend confidently (Roum. a se baza pe)
earthworm = any of the numerous annelid worms that burrow in
soil and feed on soil and decaying organic matter (Roum.
rm)
hoof and horn meal = (Roum.) fin de oase (plus copite i coarne)
fish meal = dried fish that has been ground, used as fertiliser or as
an ingredient in foods (Roum. fin de pete)
ground = reduced to fine particles or dust by grinding (Roum.
mcinat)
weed killer = herbicide
mulch = a covering, as of straw, leaves, manure, etc., spread or left
on the ground around plants to prevent excessive
evaporation or erosion, enrich the soil etc. (Roum. mulci)
straw = dried wheat, rye, oats, and barley stalk or stem (Roum. pai)
ladybug = any of the numerous, often brightly coloured beetles of
the family Coccinellidae, feeding chiefly on aphids and other
small insects
praying mantis = any of several predaceous insects of the order
Mantidae
37

1. Answer the following.

What is organic gardening? Who practices it?


What are the features of organic foods?
What caused the revived interest in organic gardening?
What do organic gardeners use as fertiliser? As weed
killers? As insecticides?

2. Match the following.


1. bent (grass)
2. bermuda grass
3. bluegrass
4. bromegrass
5. buffalo grass
6. fescue grass
7. grass

a. iarba cmpului/vntului, piu (Agrostis)


b. iarb din grupul Poa
c. iarb, plant ierboas
d. iarb scurt (Buchloe dactyloides)
e. iarb trtoare (Cynodon dactylon)
f. obsig (Bromus)
g. piu (Festuca sp.)

3. Fill in the blanks with the following.


Flowers - herb - leaves - plantains - species.
The weed is a small perennial ... with fibrous roots. The
ribbed, dark-green ... grow close to the ground, and the tiny, dullwhite ... are borne in a spike. Species that invade lawns in the United
States include the broad-leaved and narrow-leaved ... , native to
Europe; and Rugel's plantain, a North American ... that resembles
the broad-leaved.
4. Make sentences with ten of the phrases below.
Garden balsam - garden bed - garden cabbage - garden city
- garden cress - garden frame - garden house - garden label
- garden lover - garden mould - garden party - garden plot garden pruner - garden roller - garden scissors - garden
stand - garden stuff - garden tillage - garden truck - garden
warbler - garden woodbine - garden worm.
38

5. Put into Romanian.


Plantation agriculture is the worlds major source of crops from
tropical and subtropical regions. The plantation is a large farm on
which a commercial crop is grown. Plantations are found in tropical
regions. They are worked by unskilled labour hired from the
surrounding area and are supervised by professional managers.
Principal products of plantation agriculture include rubber, sugarcane,
coffee, and cocoa. Only one kind of crop is raised.
GRAMMAR: THE VERBS WILL, WOULD, SHALL AND
SHOULD
These verbs are used as follows:
1. WILL, for:
- assumptions:
He will be here in ten minutes.
- commands:
You will stay here till you finish your paper.
- habits:
A dog will usually obey his master.
- invitations:
Will you have some more coffee?
- obstinate insistence:
If you will feed your dog only vegetables, it is hardly surprising
that he cannot run or swim.
- requests:
Will you type this report for me, please?
2. WOULD, for:
- habits:
When I was younger I would read for hours.
- intentions:
He said (that) he would help me.
- invitations:
Would you care to see my translation?
Would you care for another cup of coffee?
- not very hopeful wishes concerning the future:
I wish it would stop snowing.
- obstinate insistence:
39

He would come though they warned him that it would be


impolite.
- preferences:
I would rather / sooner go back home.
- regret that another person is unwilling to do something that the
speaker approves of:
I wish he would go more often to the library.
- regret that another person persists in doing something that the
speaker disapproves of:
I wish he wouldn't keep saying bad jokes.
- wishes:
I would like to buy that book (= I want to buy it).
- polite requests:
Would you mind opening the window, please?
3. SHALL is used:
- with the first person, in the interrogative:
in requests for orders:
Where shall I put the books?
in requests for advice:
Which one shall I read?
in offers:
Shall I translate the text?
in suggestions:
Shall we leave it for tomorrow?
- with second and third persons, to express:
the subject's intention to perform a certain action or to cause it
to be performed:
You shall read the book (= I'll see that you read it)
command:
Each competitor shall make three tries.
4. SHOULD is used:
- to express advice:
You should practise English more.
- to express an assumption:
They should be here by now.
- to express duty:
You should return the books to the library.
- to express fear or anxiety:
She was terrified lest she should step on the dog's tail.
40

- to express a purpose:
She bleached her hair so that no one should recognise her.
- to express surprise:
What should I find but an ugly woman!
- to indicate a correct action:
You should add some more sugar.
- to indicate a sensible action:
Businessmen should sponsor cultural activities more often.
- to query the reasonableness or justice of an assumption:
I don't know why you should think that she did it.
1. Put into English using shall or will.
Copiii tot copii rmn. - Cred c ne va scrie imediat ce va
putea. - Ion nu va iei din cas fr permisiunea doctorului. - M ajui
s fac traducerea? - N-ai s faci asta! - Nu vom ajunge la timp la
gar ca s prindem trenul. - S cumpr nite banane? - Vom pleca la
munte luni dac vremea va fi frumoas. - Vrei s faci asta pentru
mine, te rog ? - Vrei s-mi aduci corespondena, te rog?
2. Put into English using should or would.
Ar fi trebuit s termine cartea pn azi. - Ar trebui s ncepem
orele de englez imediat. - Ar trebui s te duci imediat la doctor. Ascult, Maria, ar trebui s o ajuu mai mult pe mama ta. - Ct timp
ar trebui s pierd cu traducerea aceasta? - Ce ar trebui s fac un
student pentru a avea note bune? - Copilul ar trebui pedepsit pentru
o asemenea greeal. - Dorii o ceac de cafea? - I-ar face plcere
s vin cu noi la munte. - N-ar trebui s lai cinele n ploaie. - Vrei
s semnai n registru, v rog?
SPEECH ACTS: SHOWING SYMPATHY
Use the following to show sympathy about those who got sick
after eating chemically treated fruit and vegetables.
How terrible
I do sympathise with
I'm (most) awfully / dreadfully sorry to
I'm (very) sorry to hear that
41

Isn't that a pity that !


It's a pity / shame that
(Oh,) that's terribly bad luck
Poor
That is a pity / shame
What terribly bad luck to

UNIT 7
ORGANIC FERTILISERS
Topic: Fertiliser
Grammar: Sequence of Tenses
Social Skills: Asking Opinions
Organic fertilisers are composed of the remains of, or
products of, plants and animals.
Animal manures, the most common organic fertilisers,
contain substantial amounts of the primary nutrients. By the time they
are applied to the land, however, they are usually low in these
nutrients because of losses from leaching (washing out of soluble
substances) and overheating. Manure is valuable in conditioning soil.
Manure containing straw or other litter will form humus, which
increases a soils water-holding ability. This helps protect plants from
drought, it hinders the leaching of fertilisers, and it aids in preventing
erosion. Manure also makes the soil easier to till and promotes soil
aeration. By chemical action, it releases fertilising substances locked
in soil particles. Manure also feeds the bacteria, fungi, and other
organisms that change fertilising substances into forms that plants
can use to make food. Green manure is a crop, used in rotation with
other crops that is ploughed under to serve the same purposes as
animal manure. Leguminous crops are especially favoured as green
manures because they add nitrogen to the soil. Compost consists of
partly decayed plant and animal matter that is used similarly to
manure. Making a heap of alternating layers of organic matter and
soil forms it. Commercial fertilisers also can be added to the heap.
42

The compost heap is kept moist to promote the activity of organisms


that decay plant and animal matter. Peat consists of plant remains; it
improves soil structure. Other organic fertilisers include bird and
bat droppings (called guano), blood meal, bone meal, tankage
(animal wastes from packing plants), and fish-meal. All these
substances contain nitrogen and other essential elements. Bone
meal is an excellent source of the element phosphorus. They are
best used as feed for livestock. As fertilisers, they are useful to
gardeners and greenhouse operators. (After New Standard
Encyclopedia)
GLOSSARY
amount = quantity
to be low in = (Roum.) a avea un coninut sczut n
loss = (Roum.) pierdere
overheating = heating to excess (Roum. supranclzire)
conditioning = (Roum.) condiionare, luarea de msuri pentru
pstrarea n stare bun
litter = straw, hay, or the like, used as bedding for animals,
protection for plants, etc. (Roum. litier, mulci)
water-holding ability = (Roum.) capacitatea de a reine ap
to hinder = to prevent from, to stop (Roum. a mpiedica, a opri)
to till = to plough (Roum. a ara)
to release = to let go
to lock = to make immovable
fungus (pl. fungi) = any of numerous thallophytes of the division
Fungi
to decay = to putrefy
heap = (Roum.) grmad, morman
to keep moist = (Roum.) a pstra n stare umed
peat = (Roum.) turb
bat = any nocturnal or crepuscular flying mammal of the order
Chiroptera
droppings = dung of animals (Roum. excremente de animale)
bone meal = bones ground to a coarse powder, used as fertiliser or
feed
tankage = (Roum.) resturi, deeuri
1. Answer the following.
43

What are organic fertilisers composed of?


What organic fertilisers do you know?
What does animal manure contain?
What does it feed?
What is green manure?
What does compost consist of? And peat?
What does bone meal contain?
What do your relatives in the countryside fertilise their
lands with?
2. Fill in the blanks with the following.
Fertiliser - fish - guano - manure - plants - wastes - wood.
Fertilisers in the form of ... and human ... have been known
since ancient times. The ancient Greeks also used potassium nitrate
and ... ashes (potash) as fertilisers. Green manure was used in
ancient Rome. In the New World, too, fertilisers have a long history.
Peruvian Indians used ... as a fertiliser and in North America Indians
taught the Pilgrims to fertilise hills of corn with.... Scientific work on
fertilisers began near the middle of the 19 th century. Justus von
Liebig, a German chemist, investigated the chemical composition
of ... and experimented with chemical fertilisers. In 1840 von Liebig
published a work showing potassium salts and phosphoric acid could
be used to improve plants. In 1842 John Bennet Lawes, an English
agriculturist, obtained a patent for making super-phosphate and
established a super-phosphate factory. Lawes also experimented
with other fertilisers at his Agricultural Experimental Station. The use
of Chilean nitrate as a fertiliser began about the middle of the 19 th
century. Processes for fixation of atmospheric nitrogen for use in ...
were developed in the early 1900s. Although the first large-scale
production was in Norway, Germany soon became the worlds
leading producer and held that position for many years. In the United
States production grew steadily after World War I.
3. Make sentences with the following.
Fertile - fertility - fertilisable - fertilisation - fertilise - fertiliser 44

fertiliser manure.
4. Put into Romanian.
There are at least 16 substances that plants must get from the
soil and air in order to grow; these are called the essential elements.
From the soil, plants obtain 13 of these elements; the other 3
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen come from water and carbon dioxide in
the air. The 13 elements, which are provided by the soil and by the
application of fertilisers, are classified in three groups: primary
nutrients, secondary nutrients, and micronutrients.
GRAMMAR: SEQUENCE OF TENSES
A sentence can contain a main verb and one or more subordinate
clauses (i.e., a group of words containing a subject and verb and
forming part of a sentence):
Main Clause
Subordinate Clause
I knew (that) the book was not there.
When the main verb of a sentence is in the past tense, verbs in
subordinate clauses must be in a past tense also:
Tense of verb
in main clause
Present
Past
Present
Past
Present
Past
Present Perfect

Examples
He thinks
that she will come.
He thought
that she would come.
She sees
that he has made a mistake.
She saw
that he had made a mistake.
You work so hard
that you are always busy.
You worked so hard
that you were always busy.
I have done all
45

Tense of verb in
subordinate
clause
Future
Conditional
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
Present
Past
Present

Past Perfect
Present
Past

that is necessary.
I had done all
that was necessary.
They say
they are going to go there.
They said
that they were going to go there.

Past
Present
Continuous
Past Continuous

1. Put the sentences under Grammar into Romanian.


2. How can you explain the differences?
3. Put the verb between brackets into the right form. Give as
many versions as possible.
Daniel dreamt that he (to fly) to the moon. - He did not know
how he (can) best (to help) her. - I was greatly amused by what she
(to tell) me. - John said he (to be pleased) to welcome our new
colleagues. - Mary couldn't make out where the sound (to come)
from. - My mother inquired at the shop when her dress (to be ready).
- She told me that the debt (to be paid). - The chief engineer
suggests that the new method (to be implemented) at once. - The
little boy watched how his father (to repair) the bike. - We did not
know that our student (to be awarded) the prize.
4. Put into English.
Ai putea nva ceva mai bine, sunt sigur de asta. - Ce ai
face tu dac ai avea un copil aa ca tine? - Ce ai zice dac prinii ti
nu i-ar mai trimite bani? - Credeam c vii mai trziu. - Dac l-a
putea ajuta, a face-o cu plcere, dar nu-i dau bani de poman. Intrnd n camer, mi-a spus c nu va putea lua examenul. - mi
spusese c i va cumpra cri cu banii primii. - n timp ce citeam o
carte interesant, mama mea a trecut s m vad. - Nu i-a spus c
se va duce mine la bibliotec? - Studenta care trece acum pe culoar
este fiica prietenei mele.
SPEECH ACTS: ASKING FOR OPINIONS

46

Use the following to ask for your colleagues opinions about


organic gardening.
Are you sure that ?
Do you happen to known ?
Do you think that ?
Has it ever crossed your mind that ?
Has it ever occurred to you that ?
Tell me, please,
What do you feel / think about ?
UNIT 8
GENETIC ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES
Topic: Genetic Engineering
Grammar: The Passive Voice
Social Skills: Expressing Disagreement
Genetic engineering is defined as the process of extracting
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, which makes up the genes of all living
things) from one organism and combining it with the DNA of another
organism, thus introducing new hereditary traits into the recipient
organism.
Genetic engineering is performed by technicians using highpowered microscopes and microsurgical instruments. Genetically
engineering micro-organisms are created using a technique called
gene splicing, or gene cloning. In this technique, segments of DNA
are cut out of a donor cell from an organism and inserted into the
DNA of a vector. A vector is usually a plasmid, a circular structure
extracted from a bacterium and containing some of that bacteriums
DNA; in some cases, the vector is a modified virus. The vector, with
the combined DNA, is then inserted into a host cell from a species
different from that of the donor cell. Once in the host cell, the DNA
makes exact genetic copies, or clones, of itself. In genetic
engineering of plants, the object is not to produce chemicals but to
induce desirable traits into the genes of crop plants. A number of
techniques are being used. In one, DNA with the desirable trait is
47

spliced into a plasmid obtained from a bacterium that causes galls on


plants. Bacteria with the hybrid plasmid are then allowed to infect a
crop plant and produce galls. The plant cells in the galls receive the
desirable trait from the hybrid plasmid. These cells are removed and
placed in a culture dish, where they develop by vegetative
propagation into new plants with the desired characteristics. This
technique is being used to develop plants that can protect
themselves by producing a toxin that is lethal to certain insects.
Botanists use gene splicing to develop crop plants with such traits as
resistance to disease, drought, insects, and frost. In 1994, a tomato
designed to resist spoilage became the first genetically engineered
food marketed in the U. S. (After New Standard Encyclopedia)
GLOSSARY
trait = attribute, property
to perform = to carry out, to execute, to do
gene splicing = (Roum.) unire a genelor
donor cell = (Roum.) celul donatoare
host cell = (Roum.) celul gazd
to splice = to join or unite
gall = any abnormal vegetable growth or excrescence on plants,
caused by various agents, as insects, nematodes, fungi,
bacteria, viruses, chemicals, and mechanical injuries (Roum.
excrescen)
culture dish = (Roum.) recipient de cultur
frost = a degree or state of coldness sufficient to cause the freezing
of water (Roum. ger)
spoilage = (Roum.) alterare
1. Answer the following.

What is genetic engineering?


What is DNA?
Who performs genetic engineering?
What do technicians use in genetic engineering?
How are genetically engineering micro-organisms
created?
What happens in gene cloning?
48

What is a plasmid?
What does the DNA make once in the host cell?
What is the object in genetic engineering of plants?
What do botanists use gene splicing for?
What is the most recent achievement of genetic
engineers?
Do you agree with cloning? Why?

2. Make sentences with the words below.


Cultiva(ta)ble - cultivability - cultivar - cultivate - cultivated cultivated area - cultivation - cultivator - cultivator plough.
3. Fill in with the following.
Drugs - hormone - insulin - interferon - urokinase - vaccines.
Genetic engineering is used in medicine to manufacture
certain and hormones. The first products thus produced were a
substance used to kill certain viruses and cancer cells, and human,
a hormone used to control diabetes. and tissue plasminogen
activator, substances that dissolve blood clots, are produced by
genetically engineered bacteria and mice. Human growth, which
corrects a form of dwarfism and helps heal wounds, is produced by
genetically engineered bacteria and yeasts. In 1986 the first
genetically engineered were approved for use against
pseudorabies, a fatal herpes infection of pigs, and hepatitis B, and a
virus infection of humans.
4. Put into Romanian.
In each plant species, certain individual plants have more
desirable qualities than others, from the viewpoint of human do
needs do. These qualities include size and flavour of edible parts and
attractive foliage. Plants are able to pass these qualities on, through
their seeds, to their descendants. Humans learned long ago, by trial
and error, to select the seeds of desirable plants and thus improve,
year after year, the quality of the species they cultivated. Today there
are thousands of varieties of agricultural and garden plants.
49

5. Put into English.


Ameliorarea plantelor a devenit o tiin nc de la sfritul
secolului al XIX-lea, cnd au fost descoperite legile ereditii.
Cresctorii de plante au produs varieti care rezist la boli, cum ar fi
putregaiul, mlura i ofilirea. Cercettorii sunt acum capabili i s
creeze noi varietti de plante care s rspund unor cerine
deosebite. Iat cteva exemple n acest sens: petuniile btute,
grepfrutul fr semine i grul timpuriu. Toate aceste trsturi mult
dorite au fost introduse n genele petuniilor, ale grepfrutului i ale
grului cu ajutorul tehnicilor ingineriei genetice.
GRAMMAR: THE PASSIVE VOICE
The passive voice is used in English when it is more convenient
or interesting to stress the thing done than the doer of it, or when
the doer is unknown:
My cell phone was stolen. vs Thieves stole my cell phone.
In theory a sentence containing a direct and an indirect object
could have two passive forms:
She was given a Staff.
Someone gave her a Staff.
A Staff was given to
her.
a. Prepositions with passive verbs:
- when the agent, or doer of the action is mentioned it is
preceded by by:
This book was written by me.
- when a verb + preposition/adverb + object combination is put
into the passive, the preposition will remain immediately after
the verb:
I must write to him. He must be written to.
She threw away the old books. The old books were
thrown away.
b. Infinitive constructions after passive verbs :
- after acknowledge, believe, claim, consider, find, know,
say, report, think, and understand two passive forms are
50

possible:
It is considered that he is/to be
- suppose in the passive followed by the present/past infinitive
usually conveys an idea of duty:
Pupils are supposed to work hard. = It is their duty to ...
I am supposed to have finished it. = I should have finished it.
- an infinitive placed after a passive verb is normally a full
infinitive :
I made them work. They were made to work.
- the continuous present/perfect infinitive can be used after the
passive of believe, know, report, say, suppose, think,
understand:
He is believed to speak English well.
You are said to have been reading it.
1. Turn the following passive constructions into active ones.
Genetic engineering is defined as a process. - It is performed
by technicians. - Genetically engineering micro-organisms are
created by genetic engineers. - Segments of DNA are cut out of a
donor cell. - The vector is inserted into a host cell.
2. Same exercise.
Many farms, however, are operated not by their owners, but
by professional managers or tenant farmers. - Genetic engineering is
performed by technicians using high-powered microscopes and
microsurgical instruments.
3. Change the following according to the model.
My mother gave me a dictionary.
I was given a dictionary.
Ann will tell you what time the plane leaves. - Father promised
my brothers new bikes. - He is showing them the house. - I gave the
students a test in English. - I'll pay the plumber for his work. - My
husband lent them the new phonebook. - The actress will give him
her autograph. - The captain ordered the crew to wait on the deck. The professor will ask them a few questions. - They have appointed
51

Ann-Marie president of the company. - They offered them flowers for


their birthday.
4. Put into the passive. Use the agent only if it is necessary.
A machine could do this much easily. - An earthquake
destroyed the town. - Any student can put this text into English. Candidates may not use dictionaries. - Anybody can translate this
letter without a dictionary. - He didn't introduce her to his mother. Nobody has used this room for ages. - She is watching my house. Students can use dictionaries without problems. - The examiner will
read the passage for dictation only once. - They brought the children
up in Romania. - They haven't stamped the letter. - They threw away
the rubbish.
5. Put into the active.
A biscuit was given to me for dinner. - A post card was sent to
my parents from the States. - Columbus is known to have discovered
America. - He is said to be writing a biography now. - Mary is said to
be marrying John next summer. - She is said to be visiting us next
week. - She is said to have been the most beautiful girl in the town. The dragon is said to have lived for hundreds of years. - They are
expected to visit Timioara this month.
6. Put into English using passive constructions.
Aceast situaie trebuie bine cntrit. - Colegii ti au s rd
de tine dac i pui cciula asta caraghioas. - Cutiile de Coca-Cola
nu trebuie aruncate. - Elevii fuseser bine ndrumai de profesorii
lor. - M-a pclit cu minciunile lui frumoase. - Mariei nu-i place ca
bieii s se uite fix la ea. - Nu se mai lucrase de ani de zile n
grdin cnd au venit ei. - Pn la prnz nu se mncase deloc din
prjitur. - Pisica cea neagr a vecinilor mei a fost clcat de o
main. - Trebuie s dai explicaii pentru fiecare greeal.
SPEECH ACTS: EXPRESSING DISAGREEMENT

52

You heard the farmer providing you with fresh vegetables


fertilises the soil with manure. Express your disagreement
using the following.
I disagree with
I don't agree
I don't think that at all
I see things rather
differently (myself)
I'm afraid I can't accept
I'm afraid I disagree with
Never!
No way!
Nonsense!
UNIT 9
CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS
Topic: Soil
Grammar: Reported Speech (I)
Social Skills: Approving
Various systems of soil classification have been devised. In
general, soils are classified according to their profile and to their
physical and chemical characteristics. Classification systems help
soil scientists to evaluate the usefulness of different kinds of soils.
Broad classes of soil are determined to a large extent by
climate and natural vegetation. They show the distribution of soils
across large regions of a country or a continent. Within these
regions, the soil may vary a great deal, depending on such factors as
the type of rock from which the soil developed, drainage, slope, and
disturbance by human activities. Very specific classes are used to
distinguish different soils in much smaller areas, such as within a
county or on an individual farm.
Some classification systems are based on a system
developed by Russian scientists around the beginning of the 20 th
53

century. In this system there are three general classes: zonal soils,
intrazonal soils and azonal soils.
In this system there are some 60 great soil groups recognised
for the entire world. An example of a great soil group is the
chernozem (a term derived from Russian meaning black earth). It
consists of dark-coloured soils formed under a natural grass cover in
areas of temperate to cool climate of limited rainfall, such as the
Ukraine and the grasslands of central North America.
The classification system used by the U. S. department of
Agriculture is based more directly on the soil profile and the physical
and chemical characteristics of the soil than is the Russian system,
simplifying the classification of soils whose development is unknown
or soils that have been altered by agriculture. Nevertheless, there are
similarities in the classes of soils recognised by the two systems. The
American system has 10 orders and 47 suborders. (After New
Standard Encyclopedia)
GLOSSARY
usefulness = (Roum.) utilitate, folos
broad = liberal (Roum. larg, cuprinztor, liberal)
to a large extent = (Roum.) ntr-o mare msur
a great deal = (Roum.) foarte mult
drainage = (Roum.) ameliorare a solului, asanare
slope = a portion of ground having a natural incline, as the side of a
hill (Roum. pant, povrni, coast)
disturbance = (Roum.) dislocare
chernozem = (Roum.) cernoziom
rainfall = the amount of water falling in rain, snow, etc., within a
given time and area, usually expressed as a hypothetical
depth of coverage (Roum. (cantitate de) precipitaii)
altered = modified
nevertheless = (Roum.) totui, cu toate acestea
1. Answer the following.

Who do classification systems of soils help?


How are soils classified in general?
How are broad classes of soil determined?
54

What do they show?


How many general soil classes are there in the Russian
system?
What is chernozem?
What is the American soil classification system based on?
How many orders and suborders does it have?

2. Fill in with the following.


Centuries - food - management - resource - soil.
conservation is of vital importance; the tremendous growth
of the worlds population has greatly increased the demand for, but
the amount of good farmland is limited. Soil is a renewable , but
the process of soil formation is extremely slow. It may take to
replace the soil that can be lost in a few years through careless ;
with proper management it can be used indefinitely.
3. Make sentences with the words below.
Soil - to soil - soil cutting - soil formation - soil lifting - soil
pipe - soilless.
4. Put into Romanian.
Soil is a natural covering on the earths land surface,
composed of loose, unconsolidated materials such as tiny mineral
particles, decayed organic matter, living organisms, water, and air.
Soil is one of the most valuable natural resources; without it, virtually
no life would be possible on land. The worlds food supply depends
essentially upon the uppermost layer of soil the topsoil. The depth
and quality of the topsoil vary considerably from area to area.
Despite the importance of the topsoil, its use has often been poorly
managed, resulting in a decrease of the soils fertility and in the loss
of large amounts of soil through erosion by wind and running water.
Early farmers discovered that some kinds of soils were better for
growing certain crops than others grow. Soil science, or pedology,
however, is a relatively young science. It was not until the late 19 th
55

century that the nature of soil began to be correctly understood and


the classification of soils was begun.
5. Put into English.
Solurile din zonele subumed i deertic variaz din punctul
de vedere al caracteristicilor n funcie de cantitatea de precipitaii.
Solurile cu precipitaii moderate fac parte din solurile cele mai natural
fertile din lume. Acestea au un orizont A gros i negru bogat n
humus i materie organic dedescompus i sunt neuter sau uor
bazice. Acolo unde plou puin, covorul vegetal este subire iar
orizontul A conine mai puin materie organic. Solul are o culoare
mai deschis i, pentru c se spal mai greu, este mai alcalin.
Aceste zone semiaride sunt foarte bune pentru puni. Solurile din
zonele deertice tind s fie foarte alcaline. Dei conin foarte puine
materii organice, ele au niveluri moderate pn la foarte mari de
elemente nutritive necesare plantelor, mai puin azot.
6. What can you say about the soil in your region?
GRAMMAR: REPORTED SPEECH (I)
When we turn direct speech (the original speaker's exact words)
into indirect speech (the exact meaning of a remark or speech,
without necessarily using the speaker's exact words), some
changes are usually necessary.
a. Statements. When the introductory verb is in the past tense, the
following changes are necessary:
- the future, future continuous, simple present, present
continuous, present perfect and present perfect continuous
tenses change as follows:
Direct Speech
future
future continuous
simple present
present continuous
present perfect

Indirect Speech
conditional
conditional continuous
simple past
past continuous
past perfect
56

present perfect continuous past perfect continuous


past tense past perfect
past continuous tense past perfect continuous
- the conjunction that can be placed immediately after the
introductory verb, but it is not essential and is often omitted
- pronouns and possessive adjectives normally change from first
or second person to third person except when the speaker is
reporting his own words
- this used in time expressions usually becomes that, otherwise
this and that used as adjectives usually change to the, and
this and these used as either adjectives or pronouns to
indicate choice or to distinguish some things from others
usually become the one near him, the one(s) that she had
chosen or some such phrase
- adverbs and adverbial phrases of time change as follows:
Direct Speech
today
yesterday
the day before yesterday
tomorrow
the day after tomorrow
next week/year etc.
last week/year etc.
a year etc. ago

Indirect Speech
that day
the day before
two days before
the next/following day
in two day's time
the following week/year etc.
the previous week/year etc.
a year etc. before, the previous year

- here can become there but only when it is clear what place is
meant
b. Questions
- tenses, pronouns and possessive adjectives, and adverbs of
time and place change as in statements
- the interrogative form of the verb changes to the affirmative
form
- if the introductory verb is say, it must be changed to a verb of
inquiry, e.g. ask, inquire, want to know, wonder etc.
- question words how, when, where, who, why etc. are
57

repeated in indirect questions


- if there is no question word if or whether is placed after the
introductory verb
- questions beginning shall I/we can be:
speculations, or requests for information about a future event:
When shall I know the result of the test?
She asked when she would know the result of the test.
requests for instructions or advice:
What shall I do with the book?
She asked the teacher what she should do with the book.
offers:
Shall I bring you the report? She offered to bring the
report.
suggestions:
Shall we meet at the faculty? She suggested meeting
at the faculty.
- questions beginning will/would/could you can be:
ordinary questions:
She said, 'Can you come here tomorrow?'
She asked if he could be there the next day.
requests:
He said, 'Will you help me, please?' He asked me to
help him.
invitations:
She said, 'Will you have some coffee?' She offered me
a coffee.
1. Put into Romanian the clauses under Grammar. Give as
many versions as possible.
2. Group the clauses under Grammar according to the model
paying attention to both English and Romanian versions.
Similar Structures

Different Structures

3. Put into Indirect Speech.

58

Ann said, I shall see her in the mountains. - Father said, I


wrote the letter you need so badly. - He said, I have sent my mother
a letter two days ago. - He said to her, I have seen them today. Helen said, I don't write my parents every week. - John pleaded, I
have been playing football all afternoon. - Mary said, I shall be here
tomorrow. - She answered, I am learning English. - She said, I write
home every week. - The girl answered, I can't understand this rule. They claimed, If we had pens, we could write the answers.
4. Same exercise.
'Nothing ever happens in the village,' she said. 'It's like a dead
village. All the young people have gone away.' - 'Are these free-range
eggs?' said the customer. - 'The lake will probably freeze tonight,'
said Charles. 'It's much colder than last night.' - 'I'll go out and look
early in the morning,' said Mary.'- 'I've had gypsies on my land for two
years,' said the farmer, 'and they've given nobody any trouble; but
now the Council have asked me to tell them to move on. I don't see
why they should be asked to move and I'm writing to my M.P. about
it.'
5. Same exercise.
A certain judge, famous for his love of good living, said to a
friend one day:
We have just been dining on a superb turkey! It was
excellent, stuffed with truffles to the throat, tender, delicate, filled with
perfume! We left nothing but the bones!
How many were there of you? asked the friend.
Two, replied the judge.
Two! repeated the other in astonishment.
Yes, two! answered the judge, the turkey and myself.
6. Put into Direct Speech.
Harris said he didn't think George ought to do anything that
would have a tendency to make him sleepier than he always was, as
it might be dangerous. He said he didn't very well understand how
George was going to sleep any more than he did now, seeing that
59

there were only twenty-four hours in each day, summer and winter
alike; bit thought that if he did sleep any more, he might just as well
be dead, and so save his board and lodging.
SPEECH ACTS: APPROVING
Use the following to approve the latest initiatives of the
ecologists to restore soils in your district.
At last!
I approve of their decision of
I welcome
I would support any campaign for
I'm glad
It's a nice change to have
It's the best thing
Thank goodness!
This is the best
Well, this is really
UNIT 10
AGRICULTURAL REGIONS
Topic: Agriculture
Grammar: Reported Speech (II)
Social Skills: Expressing Wish
Farming varies greatly from one part of the world to another.
Four factors influence the kind of farming found in any given area:
Natural conditions such as soil, climate, and amount of
water determine what crops can be grown and what
animals can be raised. Humans can alter natural
conditions to a certain extent through such techniques as
irrigation.

60

The number and the cultural and technological state of the


people in any given area affect the agricultural activities of
that area.
Economic conditions are important, for they determine
how much money farmers will receive for their products
and how easily they can market these products.
In most technologically advanced nations, government
activities have a decided effect on agriculture.
Though different combinations of the four factors described
produce different types of farming, almost all of the worlds
agricultural areas can be included in the following list of 10 types of
farming regions:
Irrigation agriculture
Lowland rice agriculture
Tropical subsistence agriculture
Commercial tropical agriculture
Mediterranean agriculture
Diversified commercial agriculture
Commercial feed grain and livestock agriculture
Dairying
Commercial wheat farming
Commercial grazing.
(After New Standard Encyclopedia)
GLOSSARY
greatly = in or to a great degree, much; in a great manner (Roum.
foarte mult)
to alter = to modify
to a certain extent = (Roum.) ntr-o anumit / oarecare msur
through = by the means or agency of (Roum. prin (intermediul), cu
ajutorul)
to receive = to get
to market = to sell in a market
lowland = land that is low or level, with respect to the adiacent
country
feed grain = (Roum.) nutre boabe
dairying = the business of a dairy (Roum. industria laptelui)
61

wheat farming = (Roum.) cultivarea grului


grazing = nutre verde
1. Answer the following.

What factors influence the kind of farming found in any


given area?
What determines what crops can be grown and what
animals can be raised?
What can humans alter?
What are the agricultural activities in any given area
affected by?
Why are economic conditions important?
What effect can have government activities on agriculture
in most technically advanced nations?
How many types of farming regions are there in the world?
Where could you locate them?
What are they characterised by?

2. Make sentences with ten of the words and phrases below.


Vegetable - vegetable colours - vegetable diet - vegetable
garden - vegetable gum - vegetable kingdom - vegetable
physiology - vegetable sulphur - vegetable tar - vegetables.
3. Fill in with the following.
Agricultural - imported - levied - lower - major - reciprocal.
The United States exports surplus wheat, cotton, tobacco,
soybeans, and other ... goods. ... farm products include coffee, tea,
rubber, and jute. ... trade agreements between the United States and
other nations, begun in 1934, control the tariffs (import taxes) ... by
these nations. Since World War II these agreements have generally
favoured ... tariffs to encourage trade. Of particular importance to
the ... trade of the United States are trade relations with the
European Union, a ... consumer of United States agricultural exports.
4. Put into Romanian.
62

Commercial Grazing. The prairies and plains of the western


United States and northern Mexico, the Argentine Pampas and
neighbouring areas in Uruguay and southern Brazil, and Australia
support great numbers of cattle, sheep, and goats. Though many
beef cattle are finished (prepared for market by being fattened) in
areas similar to the Corn Belt, a large proportion are bred and
partially raised in short-grass regions. Sheep and goats are raised
mostly on drier natural grazing areas, except in Great Britain and
New Zealand.
5. Put into English.
Biologia Pennsylvaniei este un capitol interesant al studiului
asupra acestei regiuni. - Biomasa pmntului scade din ce n ce mai
mult. - Biosfera este acea parte a pmntului care cuprinde scoara
terestr, apele i atmosfera. - El adun date biografice pentru cartea
despre Emil Racovi. - Multe animale sunt caracterizate de
biomagnetism. - Petii abisali sunt n totalitate bioluminisceni. Puine substane chimice sunt biodegradabile. - Studenii se folosesc
de preparate biologice n laboratoare.
6. In what agricultural region could you range Romania? Great
Britain? The United States of America? Australia? Give
arguments.
GRAMMAR: REPORTED SPEECH (II)
c. Commands
- the introductory verb say, etc. changes to a verb of command
or request as ask, command, order, tell etc.
- the introductory verb must be followed immediately by the
person addressed and the infinitive:
She said, 'Get your coat, John.' She told John to take his
coat.
- negative commands are expressed by not + infinitive:
She said, 'Don't get your coat, John.'
She told John not to take his coat.
- the verbs advise, beg, invite, recommend, remind, urge, and
warn are often useful in indirect commands/requests:
63

He said, 'Please, please give me some more money.'


He begged his father to give him some more money.
- commands/requests introduced by will/would/could you are
expressed in indirect speech by ask + object + infinitive:
He said, 'Will you give me that book, please?'
He asked me to give him the book.
while commands/requests with will you either at the beginning
or end of a sentence are expressed in indirect speech by tell:
'Will you stop talking in class' the teacher said.
The teacher told him to stop talking in class.
d. Exclamations
- exclamations with what a and how are expressed in
indirect speech by he/she etc. said it was:
'How awful!' He said (that) it was awful.
- exclamations such as 'heavens!', 'oh!', 'ugh!' are usually
expressed by 'He gave an exclamation of '
- other exclamations are rendered as follows:
Direct Speech
He said, 'Liar!'
He said, 'Congratulations!'
He said, Curse this wind.
He said, Good morning!
He said, 'Damn!'
He said, Thank you.
He said, 'Happy Christmas!'

Indirect Speech
He called me a liar.
He congratulated me.
He cursed the wind.
He greeted/wished me a good morning.
He swore.
He thanked me.
He wished me a happy Christmas.

1. Put into Indirect Speech.


a) Husband (opening the street-door): Kate, here is the girl
with the vegetables and fruits.
Wife: Don't be silly. It is my new hat.
b) One day a very nice-looking lady went into a shop to make
some purchases. It was about the luncheon hour, and the only
person in attendance at the time was the proprietor's son.
Please, show me some art silk, she said, and the young man
hurried to oblige. How much is this? she asked, pointing to a piece
that took her fancy.
You can have a yard of that for a kiss, said the youth.
64

All right, she replied, I'll take ten yards: just send it to this
address, and my grandmother will pay the bill.
2. Same exercise.
He asked his neighbour, Where is my dog? - Father asked,
Has she spent all the money? - He asked the girl, Have you
received my letter? - He said to me, Were you here yesterday? - I
asked her, Why have you come so late? - I asked my students, Did
you all do the exercise correctly? - John asked his friend, Will you
help me? - Mary asked, Did you see Peter at the rugby match? She asked, Can our teacher speak Japanese, too? - The tourist
inquired, Can you tell me the way to the closest pizza place?
3. Same exercise.
Grandpa used to tell him, Be happy now that you are still
young! - I always tell my students, Do your job well! - I told my elder
son yesterday, Don't smoke so much! - I told my sons, In life, you
must never play dirty! - I told my husband, 'Take the dog out!' - I told
the tourist, Go straight on! - Mother said to her son, Be in time for
dinner, please. - She said to the boy, Close the window. - The
assistant said, Bring your projects tomorrow! - The naughty boy
said, Mother, don't be angry with me. - The teacher told Bobby, 'Stop
prompting!' - The professor said to us, Show me your translations.
4. Same exercise.
Bob told him, Sucker! - He said, Good morning, everybody! I said, No, thank you! - John said, Hi, stupid! - Mary answered, Hi,
there! - Mother said, God bless you! - She said, Swine! - The judge
said, I agree! - The lawyer said, This is a lie!
5. Same exercise.
'The soup's cold again,' complained Mr Jones. 'Why do I never
have hot soup?'
'Because the kitchen's so far from the dining room,' explained
his wife. 'If you insist on living in a castle you must put up with its
disadvantages.'
65

'What about getting an au pair girl, an ex-Olympic runner?'


'She wouldn't stay,' sighed his wife.
6. Same exercise.
'Press button A to start the engine,' he said.
'But last time you told me to press button B!' I said.
'That was on a slightly different type of machine,' he
explained.
SPEECH ACTS: EXPRESSING WISH
Use the following to express your wishes concerning the
decrease of Romanian agriculture in the last years.
I dream of
I wish I could
I wish that it were
I wish the problem settled
I'd like to
If I had known, I'd
If I had one wish, I'd
If only
My biggest wish it to
, that's my wish.
UNIT 11
AGRICULTURE IN THE WORLD
Topic: Agriculture
Grammar: Numerals, Dates, and Weights and Measures
Social Skills: Expressing Regret
Europe. The most economically advanced countries of
Europe lie in the western part of the continent. About 40 per cent of
the land in these countries is used for agricultural purposes. The
percentage of workers in agriculture ranges from less than 2 per cent
in Great Britain to nearly 15 per cent in Portugal. In general,
countries lying in the southern part of Western Europe have a higher
66

percentage of the workforce engaged in agriculture than countries


lying in the northern part. Farm sizes vary, but are generally small,
usually less than 30 acres (12 hectares). A variety of crops are grown
throughout Western Europe. The region is a major producer of
wheat, barley, sugar beets, dairy products, and wine. Especially
productive areas include the lowlands of Belgium and the
Netherlands, the plains of northern Germany, and the river valleys of
France and northern Italy. The European Union provides for free
trade in farm products among member nations, most of which are
countries in Western Europe.
Japan, New Zealand, and South Africa. These nations,
though comparatively small, have developed outstandingly
productive agriculture industries. Japan's productivity per acre is
among the highest in the world. New Zealand is one of the world's
leading exporters of dairy products and wool. South Africa is a major
producer of citrus fruits and wool.
The United States of America. There are many ways of
viewing agriculture in the United States. To the farmer it is a
business. To the economist it is one of the major sectors of the
nation's economy. To many persons, both farmers and non-farmers,
agriculture has a moral and spiritual value as a way of life and an
important part of the nation's heritage. The agriculture industry of the
United States leads the world in production. With its surpluses it
helps feed millions of persons around the world that would otherwise
go hungry or starve. (After New Standard Encyclopedia)
GLOSSARY
to lie = to be found or located in a particular area or space
purpose = an intended or desired result; end, aim, goal (Roum.
scop)
to range = (Roum.) a se situa
throughout = everywhere in (Roum. pretutindeni, peste tot)
barley = a cereal plant of the genus Hordeum (Roum. ovz)
sugar beet = a beet, Beta vulgaris, having a white root, cultivated
for the sugar it yields
free trade = trade between different countries, free from
governmental restrictions or duties
outstandingly = prominently
wool = the fine, soft, curly hair that forms the fleece of sheep and
67

certain other animals


heritage = something that comes or belongs to a person by reason
of birth (Roum. motenire)
to lead = to take the directing or principal part (Roum. a conduce)
to feed = to give food to, to supply with nourishment (Roum. a
hrni)
to go hungry = to become hungry (Roum. a face foame)
to starve = to die or perish from lack of food or nourishment
1. Answer the following.

Where do the most economically countries of Europe lie?


How many workers in agriculture are there in Europe?
How big are farms in Europe?
What do Western European countries produce?
What does the European Union provide for?
What can you say about agriculture in countries such as
Japan, New Zealand and South Africa?
What is agriculture to the American farmer? And to the
American economist? To other persons?
What does the United States do with its agricultural
surpluses?
Where do you think starving people live?
How do things happen in Romania?
2. Fill in with the following.
Animals - cereals - humans - meat - people- seed.
Early obtained food by hunting and gathering that is, by
killing wild and collecting wild (grain from seed-bearing
grasses), fruits, nuts, and edible roots. By 9000 B. C. some primitive
of south-western Asia were herding sheep to assure a steady
supply of. At the same time or a little later they began planting and
harvesting cereal in locations convenient to their pastures.
3. Match the following.
1. feed

a. coarse food for livestock


68

2. fodder
3. forage
4. provender

b. dry food for livestock or other domestic animals


c. food, especially for farm animals
d. food for horses or cattle

4. Put into Romanian.


Colonial rule by European powers, which extended throughout
Africa until after World War II, led to efficient development of export
crop production on plantations but did little to improve the indigenous
farmer's output of food and other products. The northern edge and
southern tip of the continent have a Mediterranean climate and were
developed by European colonists, using African labour, for the
production of citrus fruits, wine grapes, other fruits, and vegetables.
Central Africa produces coffee on the eastern highlands and peanuts,
cacao, and palm nuts (for oil) in the western bulge. Nigeria and
Senegal, leading peanut producers, have entered world trade
through marketing co-operatives.
5. Put into English.
Produsele agricolele exportate din America Latin n
principal cafea, banane i zahr i ceva cereale din Argentina i
Uruguay sunt obinute pe ferme bine administrate i finanate de
tipul plantaiei. Culturile necesare hranei de fiecare zi sunt cultivate
pe suprafee mici de pmnt lucrat cu spliga.
GRAMMAR: NUMERALS, DATES, AND WEIGHTS AND
MEASURES
1. CARDINAL NUMBERS
- when writing in words or reading a compound figure, and is
placed before the last word:
365 three hundred and sixty-five
- the words dozen (12), gross (144), hundred, score (20),
thousand, and million, when used as a definite number, are
never made plural:
three hundred days, ten thousand people, two million ROL
- a is more usual than one before hundred, thousand, etc., when
these numbers stand alone:
100 a hundred, 12 a dozen (of), 1,000 a thousand
69

but when other numbers are added one is more usual:


101 one/a hundred and one
2. ORDINAL NUMBERS
- eighth, fifth, ninth, and twelfth differ in spelling from eight, five,
nine, and twelve
- when ordinal numbers are expressed in figures the last two
letters of the written word must be added:
first = 1st, second = 2nd, third = 3rd, fourth = 4th, eightieth =
80th
- in compound ordinal numbers the rule about and is the same
as for compound cardinal numbers:
101th a hundred and first
- the article the normally precedes ordinal numbers:
the seventh sky
- titles of kings, queens, etc., are written in Roman figures:
Charles V, Elizabeth II
but in spoken English we use the ordinal numbers preceded by
the:
Charles the Fifth, Elizabeth the Second
3. DATES
- days and months are always written with capital letters:
Friday, January
- dates are expressed by ordinal numbers: July the ninth or the
ninth of July
but they can, however, be written in a variety of ways
July 9, July 9th, 9 July, 9th July, 9th of July
- when reading or speaking of years we use the term hundred
but no thousand:
1952 nineteen hundred and fifty-two or nineteen fifty-two
- years before the Christian era are followed by the letters B.C.
(= before Christ) and they are read:
1500 B.C. one thousand five hundred B.C. or fifteen hundred
B.C.
4. WEIGHTS
- the English weights table is as follows:
16 ounces (oz.)
14 pounds
8 stone
20 cwt.

1 pound (lb.)
1 stone (st.)
1 hundredweight (cwt.)
1 ton
70

1 pound
2.2 pounds

0.454 kilo.
1 kilo.

- ounce, pound, and ton can take s in the plural when they are
used as nouns
- when used in compound adjectives these terms never take s:
a ten-ton lorry
- the metric system of weights based on the kilo(gram) is
gradually replacing the English system
- kilo(gram) usually take s in the plural when used as a noun
- in the metric system 1000 kilograms = 1 metric tonne which is
the equivalent of 2204.6 lbs in the English system
5. MEASURES
- the English table of length is as follows:
12 inches (in.)
3 feet
1,760 yards
1 inch
1 yard
1 mile

1 foot (ft.)
1 yard (yd.)
1 mile
2.54 centimetres
0.914 metre
1.609 kilometres

- when there is more than one foot we can use either foot or feet
(more usual when measuring heights)
- when used in compound adjectives these terms never take the
plural form
1. Read the content of the following dog food.

CSJ Chicken, Rice with Herbs 20 contains min 20% real


chicken
Protein 20% Oil 12 % Fibre 1.4% Ash 8.5%
CSJ Chicken, Rice with Herbs (Rings) 24 contains min
28% real chicken
Protein 24% Oil 12% Fibre 1.4% Ash 8.5%
CSJ Chicken with Rice 30 contains min 36% real chicken
Protein 30% Oil 12% Fibre 1.4% Ash 10.5%
CSJ 'That'll Do!'
Protein 21% Oil 12% Fibre 1.4% Ash 8.5%
CSJ Puppy 31
71

Protein 31% Oil 12% Fibre 1.4% Ash 10.5%


2. Put into Romanian.
The train conductor came round, saying: Tickets, please. A
sleepy passenger opened an eye, looked up at the conductor, and
closed it again. Where's your ticket? asked the conductor, giving him
a vigorous shake. Haven't you got one? The passenger yawned,
opened the other eye, and shook his head. Then you'll have to pay,
went on the conductor. Five and six, please. I say, wake up! Can't
you hear me? Five and six. The weary eyes opened again, and a
suspicion of enlightenment dawned on the passenger's face.
Eleven, he answered.
SPEECH ACTS: EXPRESSING REGRET
Use the following to express regret toward the latest famine
cases in some African countries.
I regret
I'm sorry to
If only
What a pity
Why did ?
Why didn't ?
UNIT 12
AGRICULTURE AFTER WORLD WAR II
Topic: Agriculture
Grammar: Spelling Rules
Social Skills: Giving Opinions
Though the period before World War II was one of depression
for world agriculture, discoveries and advances continued. Several
World War II developments spurred agricultural production. These
included DDT, the most effective insecticide found until that time; and
mechanical improvements such as self-propelled mechanical cotton
72

pickers and corn pickers, specially designed aircraft for spraying, and
special agricultural machines for crops never before handled
mechanically, such as tree fruits. After 1950 agriculture in Europe
began to regain pre-war productivity. Farmers, afraid of another postwar depression, called for government protection. As a result, there
was no return to more freely competitive economic policies as there
had been after World War I. In nations dependent on plantation crops
such as coffee and cacao, there was economic instability as these
crops fluctuated in price on the World market. The Common Market
(a forerunner of the European Union) was formed to unite the
economies of France, West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands,
Luxembourg, and Italy, and it had a significant effect on the
agricultural policies of these nations. For example, in 1962 these
nations established common price levels for agricultural products,
and in 1968 they agreed to eliminate customs duties on goods traded
among members. During the early and mid-1960`s agricultural
productivity and efficiency increased in nations that were already
agriculturally and economically advanced. These were principally
countries of North America and northwestern Europe, and Australia,
New Zealand, Japan, and a few others. In general, the Communist
nations made slow advances marked by many setbacks. Each year
saw a new agricultural reform or policy designed to increase
production. This was especially true in the Soviet Union and China.
The underdeveloped nations, with few exceptions, struggled to feed
their people while concentrating on industrialisation. (After New
Standard Encyclopedia)
GLOSSARY
though = in spite of the fact that (Roum. dei, n ciuda faptului c)
to spur = (Roum.) a da pinteni
DDT = a water-insoluble solid (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane)
used as an insecticide and as a scabicide and pediculicide
self-propelled = (Roum.) autopropulsat
cotton picker = a machine for picking cotton
corn picker = a machine for picking maize
aircraft for spraying = (Roum.) aviaie utilitar
to handle = (Roum.) a mnui
to regain = to get back to
forerunner = precursor
73

customs duties = (Roum.) taxe vamale


to trade = to exchange
setback = (Roum.) recul
to struggle = to make great efforts
1. Answer the following.

What discoveries / advances marked agriculture after


World War II?
What were the economic policies in agriculture?
What can you say about agriculture in Communist
countries?

2. Fill in with the following.


Abandoned - became - benefited - encouraged - established
- struck - suffered - was.
European agriculture hard hit by World War I and by the
economic depression of the 1930`s. Farmers had greatly during
the war, and in the 1920`s had little from the general prosperity.
After the depression in the 1930`s, government control of
agriculture firmly established. Great Britain free trade. All
countries, even Denmark, controls over farm production and
marketing. Governments and assisted farmers in adopting
mechanisation and in the use of fertilisers.
3. Make sentences with the words and phrases below.
Food - food allowance - food card - food fish - food market food material - food plant - food products - food stuff - food
value - foodless.
4. Put into Romanian.
Although the use of insecticides and herbicides has greatly
improved farmers` ability to cope with pests, the benefits of using
these chemicals have been accompanied by groundwater
contamination and potential health risks for humans, domestic
animals, and wildlife. These problems have helped stimulate the
74

passage of strict laws on pesticide use. Many farmers have turned to


non-conventional, or alternative, agricultural practices. These farmers
use practices that conserve soil, water, and other resources and they
use integrated pest management, which has been developed as an
ecological approach to pest control.
GRAMMAR: SPELLING RULES
1. DOUBLING THE CONSONANT
- words of one syllable having one vowel and ending in a single
consonant double the consonant before a suffix beginning with
a vowel:
hit + ing = hitting, knit + ed = knitted, run + er = runner
- two- or three-syllable words ending in a single consonant
following a single vowel double the final consonant when the
stress falls on the last syllable:
begin + er = beginner, deter + ed = deterred, recur + ing =
recurring
- the final consonant of bias, dial, fuel, handicap, kidnap, worship
is also doubled
- words ending in an l following a single vowel usually double the
l:
appal - appalled, distil - distiller, model - modelling, quarrel quarrelling, repel - repelling, signal - signalling
2. OMISSION OF A FINAL E
- words ending in e following a consonant drop the e before a
suffix beginning with a vowel:
believe + er = believer, love + ing = loving, move + able =
movable
- a final e is retained before a suffix beginning with a consonant:
engage - engagement, fortunate - fortunately, hope - hopeful,
immediate - immediately, sincere - sincerely
but is dropped in:
argue - argument, comfortable - comfortably, due - duly,
incredible - incredibly, judge - judg(e)ment, true - truly, whole
wholly
- words ending in ee do not drop an e before a suffix:
agree - agreed, foresee - foreseeing
3. WORDS ENDING IN CE AND GE
75

- words ending in ce or ge retain the e before a suffix beginning


with a, o, or u:
courage - courageous, manage - manageable, outrage outrageous, peace - peaceable, replace - replaceable, trace
traceable
- words ending in ce change the e to i before ous:
grace - gracious, malice - malicious, space - spacious
4. THE SUFFIX FUL
- when full is added to a word the second l is dropped:
beauty + full = beautiful, use + full = useful
- if the word to which the suffix is added ends in ll the second l is
dropped here also:
skill + full = skilful
5. WORDS ENDING IN Y
- words ending in y following a consonant change the y to i
before any suffix except ing:
carry + ed = carried, happy + ly = happily, sunny + er =
sunnier
- y following a vowel does not change:
obey + ed = obeyed, play + er = player
6. Ie and ei
- the normal rule is that i comes before e except after c:
believe, sieve
but:
deceive, eight, either, foreign, height, leisure, neither, receipt,
their, weigh
1. Find examples of double consonants, omissions of a final e,
words ending in ce or ge and derived with a suffix, and words
ending in y in the text .
2. Add the given element, doubling or not doubling the final
consonant.
Bed-ing - begin-ing - benefit-ing - compel-ed - control-ed cup-ed - equip-ed - hot-er - neat-ly - object-ed - omit-ed - part-ed prefer-ed - prefer-ence - put-ing - refer-ing - regard-ed - regret-ed root-ed - short-er - tan-ing - win-ing.
76

3. Combine each word below with the element indicated,


dropping or retaining the final e.
Acknowledge-ment - advise-able - agitate-ion - agree-ment arrange-ment - canoe-ing - circulate-ion - courage-ous - desire-able due-ly - excuse-able - give-ing - guide-ance - like-able - notice-able receive-able - smoke-y - trifle-ing - voice-less.
4. Add to each word its ending, retaining y or changing it to i.
Alley-s - alloy-s - busy-est - crazy-ly - dry-s - delay-ed employ-ed - empty-ed - energy-s - fury-ous - heavy-er - lively-hood outlay-s - ray-s - try-ed - university-s - verify-er.
5. Add the ending ing to the following words.
Bury - capture - die - dig - drive - dry - eat - fan - fly - fry gleam - hurry - jelly - lie - loop - multiply - owe - pay - pour - prefer sky - tidy - tie - verify.
6. Insert ei or ie in the following words.
Anc-nt - aud-nce - bel-ve - br-f - ch-f - conc-ve - effic-nt exper-nce - f-ld - for-gn - fr-nd - h-ght - hyg-ne - med-val - p-ce - patnt - propr-ty - r-nforce - rec-ve - s-ze - ser-s - sl-gh.
7. Read the text 'Agriculture after World War II' aloud.
8. Practice spelling the following words by reference to the
rules under 'Grammar'.
Adorable - armies - begging - beginning - benefited cancelled - centuries - chief - conceivable - conceive controlled - daisies - deceive - dries - employs - equipment equipped - excitable - famous - feeling - financier - forgetting
- forties - hopeful - incurable - leisure - lovable - loveless monkeys - neither - noticeable - occurrence - occurring offered - offering - omitted - outrageous - permitting - piece preferred - priest - receive - relieve - seize - shield - shriek singeing - traceable - trapped - turkeys - usable - useful 77

worshipping.
SPEECH ACTS: GIVING OPINIONS
Use the following to give your opinion about Romanian
agriculture nowadays.
As far as I'm concerned
Contrary to what is (generally) believed, I would say that
I'm totally opposed to
It strikes me that
People often claim that , but what they don't realize is
that
Speaking personally,

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Benson, Morton; Benson, Evelyn & Ilson, Robert, 1990, The BBI
Combinatory Dictionary of English, John Benjamins Publishing
House, Amsterdam / Philadelphia
2. Chioran, D.; Panovf, I. & Poenaru, I., 1972, English Grammar
Exercises, Editura tiinific, Bucureti
3. Dixson, Robert J., 1969, Graded Exercises in English, Regents
Publishing Company, New York
4. Gleanu, Georgiana & Comiel, Ecaterina, 1982, Gramatica
limbii engleze pentru uz colar, Editura Didactic i Pedagogic,
Bucureti
5. Hulban, Horia; Lctuu, Tamara & Goglniceanu, Galina, 1982,
78

Competen i performan. Exerciii i teste de limba englez,


Ed. tiinific i Enciclopedic, Bucureti
6. Ilovici, Edith, 1972, ndreptar de ortografie i punctuaie a limbii
engleze, Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti
7. Ra, Georgeta, 1984, Tehnici de simulare n predarea-nvarea
limbilor moderne, n Buletin de informare i documentare a
cadrelor didactice. Seria Limbi moderne, nr. 2 (22), Inspectoratul
colar Judeean & Casa Personalului Didactic, Suceava, 53-59
8. Ra, G., 1986, Conversaia introductiv ca mijloc de predarenvare difereniat a lexicului, n Tradiie i modernitate n
predarea
limbilor
i
literaturilor
strine.
Lucrrile
Simpozionului metodico-tiinific din 9-10 aprilie 1985,
Universitatea Al. I. Cuza, Iai, 261-268
9. Ra, G., 1999, Curs practic de limba englez profilul agricol
(anul al II-lea de studiu), Editura Mirton, Timioara
10. Ra, G., 2000, English for Freshers, Editura Mirton, Timioara
11. Sndulescu, Constantin, 1964, Exerciii de gramatic englez,
Editura tiinific, Bucureti
12. Thomson, A. J. & Martinet, A. V., 1969, A Practical English
Grammar, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press
13. Vince, Michael, 1989, Excel at First Certificate. Students Book,
Heinemann, Oxford
14. *** New Standard Encyclopaedia, 1995, 20 volumes, Standard
Educational Corporation, Chicago

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