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Tehnologii informatice i de comunicaie n domeniul muzical

Procedee de dezvoltare a auzului muzical


prin exerciii mediate de TIC /
Methods of Developing Musical Hearing
through ICT-mediated Exercises
[

Nelida NEDELCU
Constantin RP
Lucian GHIA

Departamentul de Educaie Continu i nvmnt la Distan, /


Department of Distance Learning
Academia de Muzic Gheorghe Dima /
Academy of Music Gheorghe DimaCluj-Napoca,
Cluj-Napoca, Romnia
ripacos@yahoo.com
nedelcutn@yahoo.com
lucianghisa@yahoo.com

REZUMAT

n interesul prezentrii introducerii mijloacelor TIC n


procesul didactic al formrii i dezvoltrii auzului
muzical specializat cultura auzului necesitate
fundamental pentru orice muzician, s-a elaborat
lucrarea de fa, care reprezint o experien ale crei
rezultate sunt o garanie pentru continuarea implicrii
acestor mijloace n didactica muzical. Exerciiile
prezentate n articol, folosite n programele de studii,
alturi de materiale didactice pe suport scris syllabusuri materiale media casete, CD-uri precum i
apariiile pe platforma electronic www.amgd.ro/did
sunt o dovad a condiiilor succesului instructiv.

Cuvinte cheie
auz muzical, educaie auditiv, TIC, software, syllabus

1. INTRODUCERE CONCEPTUL DE
AUZ MUZICAL

Auzul muzical reprezint capacitatea senzorial,


emoional i raional de considerare a fenomenului
sonor, condiionat social i istoric.[1] Aceeai surs
citat explic cele trei niveluri de receptare: auzul
senzorial se refer la capacitatea obiectiv de receptare
sonor, auzul emoional reprezint componenta
subiectiv, ce implic aprecierea calitativ, iar auzul
raional exprim cumulativ sinteza celor dou.
De asemenea, auzul muzical poate fi defalcat n dou
categorii care prevd, pe de o parte, modalitatea de
recepie, iar pe de alt parte calitatea i cantitatea
percepiei. Modalitatea de recepie se divide, la rndul ei
n dou tipologii de auz binecunoscute i anume auzul
relativ i auzul absolut. n acelai mod, calitatea i
cantitatea percepiei surprinde tipologiile auzului melodic
versus auzul armonic.

ABSTRACT

We have written the present paper in order to present the


ICT methods used in the educational process to form and
develop specialized musical hearing the audio culture
a fundamental necessity for every musician. The paper is
the result of experience and its results are a warrant for
continuing to involve these methods in musical education.
The exercises presented in the present article, used in the
study programs together with written educational
material syllabuses media material tapes, CDs as
well as uploads on the electronic platform
www.amgd.ro/did are living proof of the conditions of
achieving educational success.

Keywords

Musical hearing, ear training, ICT, software, syllabus

1. INTRODUCTION THE CONCEPT OF


MUSICAL HEARING

Musical hearing is the sensorial, emotional and rational


ability to consider the sonorous phenomenon, socially
and historically conditioned. [1] The same source
explains the three levels of perception: sensorial hearing
refers to the objective ability to perceive sounds,
emotional hearing represents the subjective component,
involving qualitative judgment, while rational hearing
expresses their synthesis.
Moreover, musical hearing can be divided into two
categories involving, on the one hand, the way of
perception and on the other, the quality and quantity of
perception. The way of perception is also divided into
two well-known hearing typologies, that is, relative and
absolute hearing. Similarly, the quality and quantity of
perception includes the typology of melodic versus
harmonic hearing.

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Fig. Musical hearing

Fig. Auzul muzical


Auzul muzical

Musical Hearing

capacitatea senzorial, emoional i raional de


percepie a fenomenului sonor

Sensorial, emotional and rational ability


to perceive the sonorous phenomenon

Auz relativ

Auz absolut

- relaionare -

- memorizare, limbaj -

Auz
melodic

Auz
armonic

Relative hearing
- relating -

Absolute hearing
-memory, language
-

MELODIC
HEARING

HARMONIC
HEARING

Auzul muzical

Musical Hearing

Cele dou concepte de auz melodic i auz armonic se


refer la cantitatea i calitatea percepiei auditive,
delimitare care se refer exclusiv la capacitatea de
recunoatere i reproducere a unei singure linii melodice,
n opoziie cu posibilitatea integrativ de receptare
unitar a dou sau mai multe elemente sonore intervale
sau acorduri emise concomitent. Aici ne referim
exclusiv la practica i la asimilarea unuia versus a mai
multor elemente sonore, pentru c cele dou tipologii nu
se exclud reciproc, din contr, conceptul de auz armonic
l nglobeaz pe primul, tiut fiind faptul c nu exist
muzic n afara armoniei, pentru c orice linie melodic
include intrinsec ntreaga palet de concepii armonice. n
acest mod, putem extinde i unifica cele dou concepte
care converg i definesc, practic, auzul muzical.

The two concepts of melodic and harmonic hearing refer


to the quantity and quality of ear perception, their
delimitation referring only to the ability to recognize and
reproduce a single melodic line, as opposed to the
integrative ability of unitary perception of two or more
sonorous elements intervals or chords emitted at the
same time. We refer here exclusively to the practice and
assimilation of one versus several sonorous elements, as
the two typologies do not exclude one another; on the
contrary, the concept of harmonic hearing encompasses
the first one, as it is well known that there is no music
without harmony, every melodic line including the entire
pallet of harmonic conceptions. We can therefore extend
and unify the two converging concepts which practically
define musical hearing.

Auzul relativ se bazeaz pe relaionare i pe posibilitatea


de a realiza raporturi ntre principalele concepte
muzicale, pornind de la simultaneitatea a dou sau mai
multe sunete intervale sau acorduri mergnd spre
capacitatea de a identifica i a pune n relaie raporturi
armonice, funcii etc. Comun celor mai muli dintre noi,
auzul relativ se identific cu auzul educat, auzul
perfectibil, care necesit o lung perioad de timp pentru
specializare, dar care ofer o percepie subiectiv asupra
muzicii i se plaseaz n sfera conceptului de netemperaj.
n opoziie cu acesta, auzul absolut reprezint capacitatea
de a recunoate i de a interpreta sunetele fr un reper
dat. Aceast capacitate este dat n special de memoria
muzical perfect temperat. Avantajele se regsesc n
sfera virtuozitii cu care persoana n cauz determin
sau poate intona un sunet, acesteia nefiindu-i necesar
relaionarea cu un sunet dat. Am putea spune c avem dea face cu auzul nnscut, care nu necesit educare, cu
urechea perfect spre care tinde oricare muzician. Este
adevrat c persoana nzestrat cu aceast abilitate are
reale avantaje fa de auzul relativ, n schimb trebuie
avute n vedere o serie de dezavantaje: interpretarea
eronat
a
sunetelor
enarmonice;
incapacitatea
interpretului de a face fa distonrii fapt regsit n
muzica pentru cor sau n cazul unui acordaj imperfect
realizat; frecvent, urechea absolut este n strns relaie
cu timbrul anumitor instrumente.
Urechea absolut se refer la posibilitatea de percepie i
de a nelege sunetul muzical n aceeai msur ca i un

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Relative hearing is based on relating and on the


possibility to relate the main musical concepts starting
from the simultaneity of two or more sounds intervals
or chords progressing towards the ability to identify and
relate harmonic relations, functions etc. Common for
most of us, relative hearing is the same with educated,
perfectible hearing, which needs a longer time, but offers
a subjective perception on music, placing it outside the
area of the non temperate.
In opposition, absolute hearing is the ability to recognize
and interpret sounds without a reference point. This
ability is the result of perfectly tempered musical
memory. Advantages are to be found in the virtuoso
area, as the person can sing or play a sound without
relating to a given sound. We could say that we are
dealing with innate hearing, which needs no education,
the perfect ear, every musicians goal. Though it is true
that such a person has numerous advantages, there are
also disadvantages to be taken into account:
misinterpretation of enharmonic sounds; incapacity to
cope with singing or playing out of tune in choral
music or in imperfect tunings; absolute ear is frequently
in relation with the timbre of certain instruments.
Absolute ear refers to the possibility of perception and
understanding of a musical sound as language, with the

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limbaj, avnd ca principal efect numirea notelor.


Totui, urechea absolut nu este o abilitate exclusiv
muzical, ci mai degrab o abilitate hiper-lingvistic. n
aceeai msur n care fenomenul lingvistic este o
combinare de frecvene ale sunetului care sunt nzestrate
cu sensuri i concepii, urechea absolut atribuie sensuri
fiecrei frecvene a sunetului, asociate de aceast dat cu
sunetele muzicale. Aceast corelare ofer posibilitatea
omului nzestrat cu acest tip de auz s identifice i s
coreleze orice tip de zgomot, orice lucru care produce o
anumit frecven, cu un sunet muzical de exemplu,
sunetul produs de picturile de ploaie poate fi pus pe
note. [2]
Dezvoltarea auzului muzical este un deziderat pentru
muzicianul profesionist, abilitate care guverneaz
ntreaga palet de discipline care teoretizeaz muzica.
Dac armonia vizeaz aspectul vertical i relaiile care se
stabilesc ntre fiecare unitate acordic, contrapunctul
surprinde traiectele liniare, formele teoretizeaz
arhitectonica muzical, teoria muzicii analizeaz ntregul
spectru al elementelor generative ale muzicii, toate
acestea sunt strict dependente de conceptul auzului
muzical, acesta fiind cel cruia i se adreseaz i fr de
care muzica, n cel mai intrinsec mod al su, nu poate
exista. Muzica este printre puinele arte care se adreseaz
plurisenzorialului: fr ndoial c auzul este principala
modalitate de receptare, acesta fiind ntregit de ctre
aspectele vizuale, multidisiciplinaritate regsit n special
n sfera muzicii de scen.
Astfel, dezvoltarea auzului muzical reprezint o cerin
imperativ, fapt impus de scopul principal al artei
sunetelor receptarea prin auz. Disciplinele muzicale se
pot mpri n dou categorii: cele pur teoretice i cele
care creeaz i dezvolt aptitudini, componente care sunt
n relaie de interdependen, condiionndu-se reciproc.
Datorit acestui fapt, segmentele teoretice trebuie s se
dezvolte n paralel cu practicul, fr discrepan, chiar
dac timpul necesar implementrii corecte este diferit.
nelegerea categoriilor teoretice trebuie s fie n
concordan cu dezvoltarea abilitilor auditive,
coinciden n care nelegerea conceptelor muzicale
orizontale, verticale, arhitectonice etc. i auzirea
acestora trebuie s mearg mn n mn. [3]

2. PROPUNERI DE DEZVOLTARE A
AUZULUI MUZICAL PRIN EXERCIII
MEDIATE DE TIC

Dezvoltarea auzului muzical a constituit o cerin de baz


n educaia
studenilor nscrii n programul de
nvmnt la distan din Academia de Muzic
Gheorghe Dima, soluiile preconizate de colectivul de
profesori coordonatori ai disciplinei de teoria muziciisolfegiu-dictat fiind gndite pentru a asigura un
antrenament constant al cursanilor.
S-au conceput exerciii sonore ce au fost postate pe
platforma e-learning a programului, practic ce a fost
conceput a fi executat individual de ctre studeni, ntrun ritm personalizat, dup nivelul propriu de dezvoltare
auditiv, sub forma a trei activiti:

interpretarea cu vocea a
muzicale,

unor fragmente

notarea cu sunete a unor exerciii muzicale,

main effect: naming the notes. Nevertheless, absolute


ear is not exclusively a musical ability, but more like a
hyper-linguistic ability. The same way the linguistic
phenomenon is a combination of sound frequencies
endowed with meanings and conceptions, absolute ear
gives meanings to every sound frequency, this time
associated with musical sounds. This correlation enables
the person with absolute ear to identify and correlate any
type of noise, any sound producing a certain frequency,
with a musical sound for example, the sound made by
the rain drops can be put on notes. [2]
Developing musical hearing is a goal for professional
musicians, as the ability governs the entire pallet of
musical theoretical subjects. If harmony refers to the
vertical aspect and the relations between chordic units,
counterpoint follows linear trajectories, forms theorize
musical patterns, musical theory analyzes the entire range
of musical generative elements and they are all strictly
dependent upon the concept of musical hearing, without
which music cannot exist. Music is among the few arts
addressing the pluri-sensorial: hearing is, clearly, the
main way of perception, completed by visual aspects
pluridisciplinarity to be found especially in opera and
theatre music.
Therefore, developing musical hearing is an imperative
requirement imposed by the main purpose of music
hearing. Musical subjects can be divided into two
categories: the purely theoretical ones and the ones
developing skills, interdependent components which
condition each other. Due to this fact, the theoretical
segments must develop in parallel with the practical ones,
even if the time necessary for correct implementation is
different. Theoretical categories must be understood
according to the development of ear training, a
coincidence where the understanding of musical concepts
horizontal, vertical, architectonic etc. and their
hearing must go hand in hand. [3]

2. PROPOSITIONS FOR DEVELOPING


MUSICAL HEARING THROUGH ICTMEDIATED EXERCISES

The development of musical hearing was a basic


requirement in the education of students enrolled in the
distance education program at the Gheorghe Dima Music
Academy, the solutions envisioned by the coordinating
teachers for the music theory-solfge-dictation subject
being conceived to ensure the constant training of
students.
Sonorous exercises have been conceived and uploaded on
the e-learning platform of the program, meant to be
executed individually by the students, customized
according to their level of hearing development, in the
form of three activities:

singing certain musical fragments,

noting with sounds certain musical exercises,

writing down observations regarding pitch,


range, register, number of voices etc.
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scrierea cu text a unor observaii legate de


nlime, ambitus, registru, numr de voci etc.

Pentru dezvoltarea acestor


urmtoarele etape:

proceduri s-au parcurs

alegerea textelor muzicale,

problematizarea lor n relaie cu obiectivele


urmrite prin aplicaie,

nregistrarea n studio a exerciiilor muzicale,

crearea materialelor scrise (syllabus-uri)

realizarea de CD-uri i casete audio cu


exerciiile propuse

plasarea aplicaiilor pe platforma educaional a


programului.

n detaliu, prezentm cteva din soluiile propuse:


a. Cu scopul dezvoltrii auzului polifonic, s-a preconizat
intonarea unor solfegii la dou voci constituite imitativ,
ce erau prezentate n forma audio doar prin interpretarea
unei singure voci. Intonarea cu vocea a liniei melodice ce
realizeaz imitaia la octav va nlesni att parcurgerea
contient a unui text n relaie cu vocea precedent ct
i, mai ales, o evoluie a performanei auditive nspre
gndirea sunetelor n relaie cu contextul armonicopolifonic.

The development of these procedures went through the


following stages:

the choice of musical texts,

their problematization in relation


objectives of the application,

the recording of the exercises in the studio,

the creation of the written material (syllabuses)

the making of CDs and audio tapes with the


exercises

the uploading of the exercises on the educational


platform of the program.

to

the

We present in detail some of the solutions proposed:


a. In order to develop polyphonic hearing, we envisaged
the intonation of solfges on two voices, built on
imitation, presented in an audio form by a single voice.
Singing the melodic line while realizing the imitation at
the octave will ease both the awareness in reading a text
in relation with the previous voice and the evolution of
the hearing towards thinking of sounds in relation with
the harmonic-polyphonic context.
Ex. O. Lassus, Motet no.14

Ex. O. Lassus, Motet nr.14

Acelai exemplu muzical poate fi utilizat pentru scrierea


dup dictat a fragmentului, respectiv n syllabuss-ul
destinat dezvoltrii auditive prin dictee armonice i
polifonice, cursantului i este fixat notaional (n cazul
acestui exerciiu) doar linia vocii de bas, el urmnd s
completeze n scris cealalt voce: [4]

The same musical example can be used for writing the


fragment according to dictation, that is, in the syllabus
aiming at developing hearing through harmonic and
polyphonic dictations: in this exercise, only the bass line
is noted, leaving the student to write the second voice: [4]
Ex. +only the bass line

Ex. numai linia de bas

b. Cu scopul formrii auzului armonic, utilizarea unor


exerciii de scriere/ recunoatere a unor structuri
simultane poate fi mediat de TIC. Considerate exerciii
pregtitoare pentru dezvoltarea reflexului intervalistic i
acordic, notarea cu sunete a unor grupri de sunete, ce
sunt redate electronic, este facilitat de precizarea unor
sunete reper ce sunt fixate notaional de la nceput:

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b. In order to form harmonic hearing, the use of certain


writing/recognition exercises for certain simultaneous
structures can be mediated by ICT. Considered to be
preparatory exercises for the development of the interval
and chord reflex, the notation with sounds of groups of
sounds rendered electronically is facilitated by certain
reference sounds fixed by notation from the beginning:

Tehnologii informatice i de comunicaie n domeniul muzical


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c. Avnd ca obiectiv progresul n educarea auzului


armonic, studierea unui fragment la patru voci, din
creaia de corale a lui J. S. Bach, prin activitile de
solfegiere/notare dup dictare a textului muzical, folosind
nregistrri prealabile ale fragmentelor, poate reprezenta
o form accesibil de dezvoltare a auzului muzical.
Variantele acestui tip de exerciiu sunt inepuizabile, spre
exemplu notarea vocilor de mijloc (alto i tenor) dintr-un
coral este mult facilitat dac sunt precizate vocile de
sopran i bas, n syllabus studentul primind urmtoarea
configurare a fragmentului ce trebuie completat:

c. Meaning to develop the training of harmonic hearing,


the study of a fragment for four voices from J. S. Bachs
choral work, through solfge/notation according to
dictation of the musical text, by using previous
recordings of the fragments, can be very helpful. The
versions of this type of exercise are endless, for example
the notation of the middle voices (alto and tenor) in a
choral is much facilitated if the voices of soprano and
bass are noted, while the syllabus offers the student the
following configuration of the fragment to be completed:

Ex.

Ex.

n relaie cu nivelul de educaie auditiv a subiecilor,


este posibil formularea unor cerine de notare doar a
unei voci din scriitura coralului, forma scris a dicteului
avnd iniial urmtorul aspect:

According to the students level of ear training it is


possible to ask for the notation of a single voice in the
choral, the initial form of the dictation looking like this:
Ex.

Ex.

3. SOFTWARE DEDICAT EDUCRII


AUZULUI MUZICAL AURALIA

Pachetul de programe Sibelius conine o serie ntreag de


software-uri muzicale, fiecare n parte fiind centrate pe o
anumit categorie, dup cum urmeaz:
programe de notaie muzical Sibelius;
programe de scanare muzical i de transcriere
audio PhotoScore, AudioScore;
programe de educaie muzical Auralia i
Musition;
programe dedicate partiturilor digitale
Schorch.
Seciunea consacrat educaiei muzicale conine dou
software-uri: Auralia pentru dezvoltarea auzului
muzical; Musition pentru nvarea teoriei muzicale.

Auralia este un software utilizat pentru dezvoltarea i


exersarea auzului muzical, fiind unul dintre cele mai
cuprinztoare i mai complexe programe de acest gen.
Programul are 41 de tipuri de exerciii, gradate ca
dificultate, care ofer un feedback imediat, utilizatorul
primind evaluarea exerciiilor parcurse. Rspunsurile pot
fi oferite prin utilizarea unui microfon sau a unei tastaturi
MIDI, soft-ul fiind recomandat unei palete largi de
utilizatori, att pentru nceptori, ct i pentru avansai.
Programul este structurat n cinci mari seciuni dup cum
urmeaz:
Intervale i scri
Acorduri
Ritm
Armonie i forme
nlime i melodie

3. SOFTWARE FOR EAR TRAINING


AURALIA

The Sibelius pack contains a series of musical software,


each of them centered on a certain focus, as follows:

software for musical notation Sibelius;

software for musical scanning and audio


transcription PhotoScore, AudioScore;

software for musical education Auralia and


Musition;

software for digital scores Schorch.

The musical education section contains two programs:


Auralia for developing musical hearing; Musition for
learning musical theory.
Auralia is a software used for the development and
training of musical hearing, being one of the most
comprising and complex programs in its category. It
contains 41 types of exercises, with increasing levels of
difficulty, offering instant feedback. Answers can be
given with the help of a microphone or a MIDI keyboard,
the software being recommended to a large pallet of
users, beginners, as well as advanced ones.
The program is structured into five large sections, as
follows:
Intervals and scales
Chords
Rhythm
Harmony and forms
Pitch and melody

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La rndul lor, fiecare categorie este divizat ntr-o serie


cuprinztoare de exerciii specifice, care sunt nsoite de
instruciuni de realizare i exemple, aa dup cum se
poate observa din imaginea de mai jos, care reprezint
pagina de pornire a programului.
Fig. Pagina de iniiere a programului Auralia

Interval
comparison
Interval
imitation
Interval
recognition
Jazz
singing
Jazz scale
singing
Jazz scales
Scale
singing
Scales

Chord
comparison
Chord
imitation
Chord
recognition
Chord singing
Cluster chords
Jazz chord
imitation
Jazz chord
singing
Jazz chords

Meter
recognition
Pulse
tapping
Rhythm
comparison
Rhythm
dictation
Rhythm
element
dictation
Rhythm
elements
Rhythm
imitation
Rhythm
styles

Advanced
progressions
Cadences
Chord
progressions
Forms
Jazz forms
Jazz
progressions
Modulation

Absolute pitch
Counterpoint
singing
Melodic
comparison
Melodic
dictation
Note
recognition
Pitch
comparison
Pitch dictation
Pitch imitation
Sight singing
Tuning

Each category is divided into a comprising series of


specific exercises, accompanied by instructions and
examples, as can be seen in the image below, which is the
starting page of the program.
Fig. The starting page of Auralia

Interval
comparison
Interval
imitation
Interval
recognition
Jazz
singing
Jazz scale
singing
Jazz scales
Scale
singing
Scales

Chord
comparison
Chord
imitation
Chord
recognition
Chord singing
Cluster chords
Jazz chord
imitation
Jazz chord
singing
Jazz chords

Meter
recognition
Pulse
tapping
Rhythm
comparison
Rhythm
dictation
Rhythm
element
dictation
Rhythm
elements
Rhythm
imitation
Rhythm
styles

Advanced
progressions
Cadences
Chord
progressions
Forms
Jazz forms
Jazz
progressions
Modulation

Absolute pitch
Counterpoint
singing
Melodic
comparison
Melodic
dictation
Note
recognition
Pitch
comparison
Pitch dictation
Pitch imitation
Sight singing
Tuning

Unul dintre marile avantaje ale programului este acela c


poate fi personalizat, n oricare dintre cele 41 de subiecte,
n funcie de necesitile fiecrui utilizator n parte. De
exemplu, n cadrul exerciiilor de recunoatere a
intervalelor, se poate opta ca programul s furnizeze doar
anumite intervale, n funcie de nivelul sau nevoile
fiecrui beneficiar.

One of the main advantages of the program is that it can


be customized for every one of the 41 subjects, according
to the needs of each user. For example, at the exercises
for intervals recognition, one can opt for the program to
show only certain intervals, according to the level or
needs of every beneficiary.

Fig. Pagina de personalizare pentru exerciiile de


recunoatere a intervalelor

Fig. The customization page in the interval recognition


exercises

Exist o serie de lecii pentru fiecare categorie n parte


care conin texte i exemple, care pot fi audiate prin
simpla intervenie a mouse-ului crora le sunt adugate
teste de verificare care trebuie completate pentru a putea
avansa la nivelul urmtor.

There are lessons for each category containing texts and


examples which can be heard by a simple mouse click
together with verification tests to be filled in before
advancing to the next level.

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Fig. Pagina de lecie

Fig. The lesson page

Auralia conine o serie de 24 de cursuri care vizeaz toate


subiectele prezente n program i care conin exerciii,
lecii i teste. Datorit faptului c fiecare student care
folosete acest program are un cont propriu, Auralia ofer
rezultate, rapoarte care ofer o perspectiv clar asupra
evoluiei, o modalitate important oferit profesorului de
a monitoriza progresul elevilor si.

Auralia contains a series of 24 courses on all subjects


present in the program, containing exercises, lessons and
tests. As every user has their own account, Auralia gives
results and reports, offering a clear perspective on the
students evolution, an important tool for teachers who
can monitor the students evolution.

Auralia este unul dintre cele mai complexe i mai


complete programe interactive dedicate exersrii auzului
muzical, cu o adresabilitate larg i cu multiple
posibiliti de personalizare n funcie de necesitile
fiecrui utilizator. Educarea urechii muzicale intervale,
acorduri, scri, ritm, dicteu are nevoie de interaciunea
elev-profesor. Soft-ul nu dorete s nlocuiasc relaia
uman, dar vine n ntmpinarea autoeducrii elevilor i
studenilor, ajutnd i completnd ntregul set de exerciii
pentru dezvoltarea unei competene att de necesare
muzicianului profesionist urechea muzical.

Auralia is one of the most complex and complete


interactive programs for ear training, with vast target
audiences and multiple customization possibilities,
according to the needs of each user. Nevertheless, ear
training intervals, chords, scales, rhythm, dictation
also requires the teacher-student training. The software
does not intend to replace human interaction, but it helps
self-education, completing the entire set of exercises for
the development of an ability so needed in the musical
professions musical ear.

4. CONCLUZII: AVANTAJE I LIMITE

4. CONCLUSIONS: ADVANTAGES AND


LIMITATIONS

Formarea auzului muzical profesionist, mai simplu


cultura auzului, este condiia sine qua non a oricrui
subiect care vizeaz dobndirea condiiei de muzician,
pentru orice carier: pedagog, compozitor, interpret,
muzicolog.
Procesul culturii auzului are o parte intuitiv care se
bazeaz pe dotaia muzical a fiecrei persoane talentul
muzical prin care, cvasi-automat se nva, se deprind
elementele de relaionare a sunetelor n cadrul melodiei i
mai apoi n cel polifonic i armonic.
Educaia propriu-zis a aprut istoric n momentul n care
s-a organizat procesul instructiv, adic coli de nvare a
muzicii. n cadrul acestor coli, secole de-a rndul, pianul
a fost instrumentul (aproape exclusiv) folosit pentru toate
exerciiile de formare a auzului muzical, ndeosebi prin
ceea ce s-a chemat dicteu muzical. Dar limitele lui erau
multe legate n primul rnd de srcia timbrului, de
atacul i durata sunetului.
De aceea, apariia mijloacelor electronice i ndeosebi a
computerului care poate fi considerat instrumentul
tuturor instrumentelor a deschis un cmp imens
posibilitilor de concepere a oricrui exerciiu pentru
dezvoltarea auzului muzical n toat complexitatea lui.
Experimentele realizate n acest domeniu de
antrenament auditiv n cadrul formei de nvmnt la
distan din Academia de Muzic Gheorghe Dima
reprezint o premier n lansarea instruirii prin mijloace
TIC.

The development of professional musical hearing is the


sine qua non requirement of every person who wants to
become a musician, in any line of work: teacher,
performer, composer or musicologist.
The process of ear training has an intuitive side, based on
every persons musical endowment musical talent
which leads to the quasi automatic learning of the
relations between sounds in the melody and then in the
polyphonic and harmonic context.
Ear training developed historically, when the educational
process was organized in music schools. In these schools,
piano was (almost exclusively) the instrument used for
ear training exercises, especially through what was called
musical dictation. But it had many limitations
connected especially to the poor timbre, the attack and
the duration of the sounds.
Therefore, the appearance of the electronic devices and
especially of the computer which can be considered the
instrument of all instruments opened the way for vast
possibilities of conceiving any exercise for ear training in
all its complexity.
Experiments in this area of ear training in the
Distance Learning Department of the Gheorghe Dima

39

Tehnologii informatice i de comunicaie n domeniul muzical


[

Procesul a decurs astfel: n etape de experimentare a


soluiilor preconizate de autorii cursurilor s-a urmrit
evoluia a dou grupe de cursani: [5] o prim grup ce se
antrena prin metodele tradiionale, prin apelul la
instrumente de sprijin, de regul pian, i o grup de
studeni ce au utilizat tehnologiile electronice. Acetia
din urm au fost obligai s completeze n scris (pe baza
fragmentelor imprimate) exerciiile de intervale, acorduri,
dictee armonice i polifonice. Rezultatele obinute la
evalurile periodice au demonstrat o evoluie crescut n
rndul studenilor care au avut acces la o pregtire
constant, mediat de TIC. Se poate afirma c avantajele
oferite de noile tehnologii sunt inestimabile i ilimitate.

Music Academy are the first ones of this type to launch


ICT training.
The steps of the process were: in stages of experimenting
solutions presented by the course authors, we followed
the evolution of two groups of students: [5] the first
group, training through traditional methods, with support
instruments, usually the piano, and a second one, using
electronic technologies. The latter group was made to
complete in writing (on printed forms) exercises of
intervals and chords as well as polyphonic and harmonic
dictations. The results of the periodic evaluations have
shown an increased evolution for the students who had
access to constant, ICT- mediated training. We can
therefore state that the advantages of the new
technologies are inestimable and unlimited.

BIBLIOGRAFIE / REFERENCES
[1] ***, Dicionar de termeni muzicali (Dictionary of musical terms), 2nd edition, revised and expanded,
Bucureti, Editura Enciclopedic, 2008, p. 57
[2] Aruffo,Chris, Theory of Absolute Pitch, http://www.aruffo.com/eartraining/theories.htm
[3] Telesco, Paula, Contextual Ear Training, Journal of Music Theory Pedagogy, vol. V, No. 2, 1991.
[4] Rp, C., Nedelcu. N., Dictee armonice i polifonice (Harmonic and polyphonic dictations), Editura
MediaMusica Gheorghe Dima Music Academy, 2005, Cluj-Napoca.
[5] Rp, C., Nedelcu. N., Teste de dictat i teoria muzicii (Dictation and music theory tests), of the
Gheorghe Dima Music Academy, Cluj-Napoca Editura MediaMusica, 2002.

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