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“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati

Faculty of Naval Arhitecture

Computational fluid
dynamics
-Project-

Student: Dima Stefanel Nicolaie


Master, 1st year

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“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati
Faculty of Naval Arhitecture

1. Introduction

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis
and algorithms to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows. Computers are used to
perform the calculations required to simulate the interaction of fluid with surfaces defined by
boundary conditions.
This project studies the fluid flow around an oil tanker. To get results as close to reality was used
CFD analysis using the program SHIPFLOW.
SHIPFLOW is a software that studies ship motions in waves and provides information about
pressures and speeds of fluid on ship’s hull.
Before using SHIPFLOW must be obtained the data about the ship. It was used for this stage
LINES module from TRIBON for fairing and exporting sections in EXCEL format.
TRIBON is actually a family of programs that create and refer to a common set of databases
containing the design details of the ship. Together, these databases are used to depict a 3D model of
the ship, with embedded information for all of the parts of the design, from ship structural elements
to pipe segments to equipment.

2. Ship description. Main Particulars

Ship used in analysis is a chemical tanker with the following parameters:


 Length between perpendiculars : 100.7 m
 Beam : 18.2 m
 Depth : 8.7 m
 Draft : 6.4 m
 Deadweight : 7500 TDW
 Block Coefficient : 0.79

3. Hull Geometry Definition

SHIPFLOW uses sets of points in order to define the geometry of the hull. These points build
ship’s sections and can be extracted from LINES module.
Before getting the sets of points, ship’s sections must go through fairing process. This step
corrects sections form and reduce the number of points on each section.

Fig. 1.1 Ship’s Sections in LINES – TRIBON

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“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati
Faculty of Naval Arhitecture

Fig. 1.2 Section before fairing process

Fig. 1.3 Section after fairing process

Second step to do is to export the sets of point that build ship’s section in a format accepted by
SHIPFLOW. For this process hull ship must be divided in 4 parts: Bulb, Hull, Stern and BulbStern.

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“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati
Faculty of Naval Arhitecture

Stern

SternBulb Bulb
Hull

Fig. 1.4 Ship divided in groups

After separating sections for each group, there are several conditions to achieve before running
the analysis in SHIPFLOW:
 Sections must be built from z min to z max, respectively from bow to stern.
 Next to each starting point of each section must be added number 1, while next to other
points must be added number 0. This step will separate each section.
 At the end of each group, the last point of the las section must have next to it number 9,
in order to make the separation between groups.
Using Microsoft Excel I managed to divide each group, then I copied all sets of points in a
Notepad document, which I deleted .txt extension. At this point presets for data to be run are done.

4. Computational Strategy

Sequence code used to run the analysis in SHIPFLOW is:

xflow
titl( titl="Stefanel" )
prog( xmesh,xpan )
hull( mono, h1gr="HULL", ogrp="STERN", fbgr="BULB", abgr="BULBSTERN", fsflow )
offs( file="Offset_Stefanel", zori=6.5, lpp=100.7 )
vshi(number=1, vknot= [11], reflen= 100.7)
end
xpan
cont( free, nonlin )
iter( maxit = 100 )
para( nthr = 4 )
end

XMESH is a panel generator for the potential flow module XPAN. XMESH can be executed as a
separate program to check the panelization of the body and free-surface before the potential flow
computation is executed.
XPAN is the flow solver for the potential flow around three dimensional bodies based on a
surface singularity panel method.
Using the XPAN program, the following features of the flow around the hull may be computed:
●Wave resistance from pressure integration and from transverse wave cuts
●Wave pattern
●Wave profile along the waterline
●Wave profile along longitudinal and transverse wave cuts
●Far-field waves in deep water
●Potential streamlines (traced in XBOUND)
●Pressure contours
●Velocity vectors
●Sinkage and trim
●Lift and induced drag

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“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati
Faculty of Naval Arhitecture

5. Results and Discussion

Flow solver was used for 12 speeds. Unfortunately only five cases had fair results, while the
remaining cases were erroneous results.
v[kn] Convergence
11 Convergence achieved after 9 iterations
11.25 Convergence achieved after 7 iterations
11.5 Convergence achieved after 7 iterations
13.5 Convergence achieved after 19 iterations
13.75 Convergence achieved after 17 iterations
Table 1.1 Convergence

v[kn] v[m/s] RE CF CW CT SW[m2] RW [KN] RT[KN]


11 5.6584 4.82E+08 0.001679024 1.12E-05 0.00169025 2748.86832 5.06E-01 76.24053192
11.25 5.787 4.93E+08 0.001674131 2.39E-05 0.00169808 2748.86832 1.129908134 80.11482031
11.5 5.9156 5.04E+08 0.001669366 4.40043E-05 0.00171337 2748.86832 2.169404216 84.46885753
13.5 6.9444 5.92E+08 0.001635213 9.92E-05 0.001734424 2748.86832 6.740300336 117.8345269
13.75 7.073 6.03E+08 0.001631371 3.53E-04 0.001984325 2748.86832 24.87559544 139.8517828
Table 1.2 Results

Friction resistance coefficient was calculated using ITTC 1957 method.

Fig. 2.1 Wave resistance depending on speed Fig. 2.2 Total resistance depending on speed

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“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati
Faculty of Naval Arhitecture

The following figures represent free surface contour for each case of speed.

Fig. 2.3 Free surface contour at speed v=11 knot

Fig 2.4 Free surface contour at speed v=11.25 knot

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“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati
Faculty of Naval Arhitecture

Fig. 2.5 Free surface contour at speed v=11.5 knot

Fig. 2.6 Free surface contour at speed v=13.5 knot

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“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati
Faculty of Naval Arhitecture

Fig. 2.7 Free surface contour at speed v=13.75 knot

For each speed case was obtained a wave profile, represented into following graphics:

Fig 2.8 Wave Profile at speed v=11 knot

Fig. 2.9 Wave profile at speed v=11.25 knot

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“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati
Faculty of Naval Arhitecture

Fig. 2.10 Wave profile at speed v=11.5 knot

Fig. 2.11 Wave profile at speed v=13.5 knot

Fig. 2.12 Wave profile at speed v=13.75 knot

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“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati
Faculty of Naval Arhitecture

Pressures on the hull varies from bow to stern. This can be seen in these images.

Fig. 2.13 Pressures on the hull at speed v=11 knot (left side bow view, right side stern view)

Fig. 2.14 Pressures on hull at speed v=11 knot (Side view)

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“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati
Faculty of Naval Arhitecture

Fig. 2.15 Pressures on the hull at speed v=11.25 knot (left side bow view, right side stern view)

Fig. 2.16 Pressures on hull at speed v=11.25 knot (Side view)

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“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati
Faculty of Naval Arhitecture

Fig. 2.17 Pressures on the hull at speed v=11.5 knot (left side bow view, right side stern view)

Fig. 2.18 Pressures on hull at speed v=11.5 knot (Side view)

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“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati
Faculty of Naval Arhitecture

Fig. 2.19 Pressures on the hull at speed v=13.5 knot (left side bow view, right side stern view)

Fig. 2.20 Pressures on hull at speed v=13.5 knot (Side view)

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“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati
Faculty of Naval Arhitecture

Fig. 2.21 Pressures on the hull at speed v=13.75 knot (left side bow view, right side stern view)

Fig. 2.22 Pressures on hull at speed v=13.75 knot (Side view)

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“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati
Faculty of Naval Arhitecture

6. Concluding Remarks

7. References

 SHIPFLOW ®4.2 USERSMANUAL


 Obreja, C.D., Manolache L., Popescu G., Bazele proiectării preliminare a navei, Editura
Academica, Galați, 2003;
 Computational fluid dynamics (Wikipedia article)
 Tribon (Wikipedia article)

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