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STOPPING BY WOODS

(curs practic de limba englez pentru nvmntul la distan)



Anul II











Autor: Asist. univ. drd. Daniela LINGURARU

















C U P R I N S



Introducere. Obiective


Lecia 1. Grammar focus questions
Lecia 2. Questionable
Lecia 3. Metaphor time is money
Lecia 4. The butterfly
Lecia 5. Grammar section the noun phrase
Lecia 6. Metaphor: human = plant
Lecia 7. Coniferous versus deciduous
Lecia 8. Grammar section (concepts expressed by modal and related
verbs)
Lecia 9. Other concepts expressed by modal verbs
Lecia 10. Actions and reactions
Lecia 11. Deforestation
Lecia 12. Grammar focus it & there
Lecia 13. Weather metaphor
Lecia 14. Stopping by woods on a snowy evening (Robert Frost)



Anexa 1 Irregular verbs
Anexa 2 A Days Wait (Ernest Hemingway)
Anexa 3 Verbal tenses
Anexa 4 Spelling



Bibliografie






INTRODUCERE



SCOPUL
CURSULUI:
Prezentul curs este destinat studenilor de anul
II de la Facultatea de Silvicultur,
Specializarea Silvicultur, regim la distan.
Att partea de teorie ct i cea aplicativ au
fost concepute n aa fel nct s faciliteze
familiarizarea studenilor cu structuri
elementare ale limbii engleze sau
reactualizarea cunotinelor fundamentale deja
dobndite. O atenie special s-a acordat acelor
registre lingvistice care permit comunicarea n
limba englez, ct i termenilor specifici
specializrii.
OBIECTIVELE
PRINCIPALE:

1. familiarizarea studenilor cu diferitele
aspecte ale limbii engleze
2. dezvoltarea abilitii studenilor de a
comunica n limba englez
3. nsuirea de ctre studeni a termenilor
specifici specializrii
4. nsuirea i folosirea limbajului adecvat
pentru a descrie activiti, situaii etc.

MODUL DE
EVALUARE:
La sfritul fiecrui semestru, studenii vor fi
examinai n cadrul unui
colocviu; stabilirea notei finale se va face i n
funcie de verificrile pariale de la cursurile de
pe parcursul
semestrului.







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Lecia 1. GRAMMAR FOCUS QUESTIONS


= Is it true love?
= From the heart?
= Love that pines?
= Cold love?
= None at all?
= Whats the matter, Schatz?
= Do you want me to read to you?
= How do you feel, Schatz?
= Why dont you try to sleep?
= What kind of timepiece is this?
= How do you do?
= May I come in?
= How about Thursday at 6?
= Whose side are you on?
= What is it for?
= What is it like?
= What do you like?
= What does it look like?
= Is there anyone else?
= Can you hear me?
= Whom do you think I just ran into?
= You dont speak French, do you?


A WHITE BEAR! Very well. Have I ever seen one? Might I ever have seen one?
Am I ever to see one? Ought I ever to have seen one? ()
If I should see a white bear, what should I say? ()
If I never have, can, must or shall see a white bear alive, have I ever seen the skin of
one before? Did I ever see one painted? Have I ever dreamt of one?
Did my father, mother, uncle, aunt, brothers or sisters, ever see a white bear? () How
would they behave? How would the white bear have behaved? Is she wild? Tame?
Terrible? Rough? Smooth?
Is the white bear worth seeing?
Is there no sin in it?
Is it better than a BLACK ONE?
(The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Laurence Sterne, p. 324,
Ch. XLIII, vol. V)

n gramatica tradiional a unei limbi, enunurile sunt de obicei clasificate n:
a) enunuri declarative
b) enunuri interogative
c) enunuri imperative
d) enunuri exclamative (Reichenbach, ntrebarea, teorie i practic, 1947), unii
lingviti prefernd taxonomii simplificate: enunuri declarative / interrogative / imperative
(Benveniste, 1966) sau declarative / interrogative (Quirk and Greenbaum, 1985: 24).

ntrebrile (enunuri interrogative) sunt, la rndul lor, clasificate dup diverse
criterii, n: ntrebri totale / pariale / alternative, directe / indirecte, propriu-zise /
retorice, monologale / dialogale etc. n ceea ce privete ntrebrile n limba englez,
dincolo de orice clasificare prevaleaz modul lor de alctuire. Astfel, ntrebarea prin
inversiunea subiectului cu verbul (sau prima form verbal) sau cu ajutorul auxiliarului
DO.

Inversiune: BE (ca verb noional) la prezent: He is a forest engineer.
Is he a forest engineer?
la trecut: He was asleep, really.
Was he really asleep?
(ca verb auxiliar) He was reprimanded for what he had done.
Was he reprimanded for what he had done?


HAVE (ca verb noional) He has quite a fortune, you know.
Has he?
(ca verb auxiliar) He has / had overcome the agonies of
adolescence.
Has / had he overcome the agonies of
adolescence?

HAVE GOT Hes got one foot in the grave.
Has he really?


WILL + inf. He will get better soon enough.
Will he get better soon enough?
WILL + HAVE + 3
rd
form He will have finished his studies by the
age of 25.
Will he have finished his studies by the
age of 25?


MODAL + inf. You may come in.
May I come in?
MODAL + HAVE + 3
rd
form He could have done it.
Could he have done it?


Auxiliarul DO: DO Do you know the people who live over the road?
DOES Does anyone have any questions?
DID Did you answer all the questions in the test?

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n funcie de rspunsul pe care l solicit, ntrebrile se impart n: YES / NO
questions (ntrebri fr cuvnt interogativ i care cer o confirmare sau infirmare aa cum
sunt toate exemplele de mai sus) i WH-questions (ntrebri cu cuvnt interogativ, care
solicit un rspuns mai complex; modul de formare a ntrebrii se pstreaz, cu excepia
verbului BE i uneori a lui HAVE: DO sau DOES la prezentul simplu i DID la trecutul
simplu). Cuvintele interogative (question words / phrases) sunt: WHO (+ WHOM,
WHOSE), WHAT, WHICH, WHEN, WHERE, WHY, HOW (HOW MUCH, HOW
MANY, HOW OFTEN, HOW LONG, HOW FAR etc.).

WHO Who is she to order me around?
WHOM Whom did you send the parcel to? (formal)
WHOSE Whose gloves are those on the kitchen counter?

WHAT What languages can you speak?
What did you say to him?
What time are you arriving?
What kind of timepiece is this?

WHICH Which of the two do you like better: the red or the mauve one?

WHEN When do you usually leave work?

WHERE Where were you living at the time?

WHY Why on earth didnt you ask any of us for help?

HOW How do you do?
How on earth did he find out about it?
HOW MUCH How much are the tickets? but: Can you tell me how much the tickets
cost?
HOW MANY How many of you are willing to take the shortcut through the woods?
HOW OFTEN How often do you trim these shrubs?
HOW LONG How long have you been learning English?
HOW FAR How far is it to the railway station?

Spoken phrases:
How about Thursday at 6?
How come Jude is home?
Hows your back this morning?

Atunci cnd ntr-o ntrebare, pe lng cuvintele interrogative apar i prepoziii,
acestea se aaz de obicei la sfritul enunului:
= Whom are you waiting for?
= What are you looking at?
= Where does he come from?
= What were they talking about?
= Whose side are you on?

E Atenie!!! A nu se confunda WHAT IS IT FOR? cu WHAT IS IT LIKE?
WHAT IS IT FOR? = scopul (why)
WHAT IS IT LIKE? = felul (how)
- What is your boss like?
- What do dogs like?
- What does he look like?


E Atenie la transformarea lui NO i SOME ( +compuii acestora) n ANY (+compui)
la interogativ!
= Standing dead trees are of no value whatsoever.
Are standing dead trees of any value?
= There are some more questions, I believe.
Are there any more questions?
= There is someone else who wants a ticket.
Is there anyone else?

E Atenie la ordinea cuvintelor n vorbirea indirect (indirect speech)!
= I asked: Where are you going?
I asked her where she was going.
sau n exemplele de genul:
= I dont care where she is.


ntrebrile mai sunt clasificate n:
formule de salut sau cu funcie de contact How do you do?
How are you?
How are you doing?

formule cu funcie metalingvistic I beg your pardon?
Excuse me?
What does it mean?
What do you mean by that?
Whats that?

formule cu funcie fatic Hello?
Can you hear me?
OK?
Clear enough?

formule modalizate How should I know?
Youre telling me?
Why should they come?

formule rezultate din elips So what?
How so?
Well?
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ntrebarea este un act de vorbire:
asertiv (What else is new? = Your news is no news.)

directiv (Will you pass the salt? = Give me the salt(-cellar). SAU:
Can you reach the top shelf? = Give me the book on the top shelf.)

comisiv (Isnt my word of honour enough? = My word of honour should be enough.
Why shouldnt I help him, of all people? = Of all people, its him I should
help).

expresiv (Will you ever forgive me? SAU: How can I make you forget that?)

performativ (Do you, X, take Y, to be your lawful wedded wife / husband, to have and
to hold, to love and to cherish from this day forward, for better or for worse, for richer or
for poorer, in sickness and in health, as long as you both shall live ?
SAU:
Do you swear to tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God?)


Din punct de vedere al modalizrii, ntrebrile sunt [+/- modalizate]:
= He must be on his way. He might be on his way.
(certitudine) (incertitudine)

= What do I have to do? What can I do?
(necesitate) (posibilitate)

= Need / must I write everything down? Can I write everything down?
(obligaie) (non-obligaie)


ntrebrile pot declana o discuie, pot reprezenta liantul acestuia sau pot lungi o
convorbire, relund unele informaii (aa-numitele ntrebri-ecou John has just come.
Who? SAU: Hes a little bit careless. He (who)? I mean John.)

ntrebrile sunt simple / nucleare sau complexe, adic:
multiple Who said what?

successive Who was at the door and what did they want?

dezvoltate If it rained, would you take that huge umbrella?

subordonate When did he say he was coming?
Whom do you think I just ran into?
Do you think you can afford locking yourself in your room day in day
out, not eating anything and crying all the time, when you have two
children youre supposed to take care of?
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indirecte You are asked where you were that night.

E Exemplul de mai sus ine de vorbirea indirect. Un alt gen de ntrebare indirect
este aceea prin care vorbitorul ncearc s fie foarte politicos sau doar tatoneaz un
teren pe care l consider nc nesigur:
= Do you think the chairman would see me?
= Could you tell me whether
= I was wondering if
= Id like to know if

E Dup cum se poate observa, ordinea cuvintelor n aceste ntrebri indirecte este
aceeai ca la afirmativ.

Direct :
Could you call me a cab?
Direct:
How old are you?
Indirect:
Do you think you could call me a cab?
Indirect:
Could I ask you how old you are?

E n general, ntrebrile directe (sau de rangul I) vizeaz explicit un element din
universul comun celor doi vorbitori (When is John coming?), n timp ce ntrebrile
indirecte (sau de rangul II) vizeaz implicit un element din universul comun (Are you
leaving or not? = Leave, for Gods sake!).

eliptice I came with Maria.
Maria who?
I went to the bookshop and bought it on the spot.
You did?
Who, me?
What?
Sorry?

dislocate As forMary, what did she say?

scindate Is this what youre offering me?
Who was the one who took the floor first?

apozitive What do you recognize him by? Colour?
What is it that you dont like about me? My relatives?




Negative Questions

ntrebrile negative sunt n general folosite atunci cnd se ateapt un rspuns
negative ori pentru a exprima dezacordul sau surpriza.
= But dont you think they should be treated first?
= Dont you like taking hot baths?
No, not really.
ntrebrile negative pot avea i form exclamativ:
= Isnt she beautiful? = Shes so beautiful!
= Doesnt she look terrific?


Question Tags

Question tag = partea final a unui enun care l transform n ntrebare (invitnd
interlocutorul la un rspuns)

se formeaz cu ajutorul auxiliarelor (DO, BE, HAVE sau un modal)

E Dac enunul este afirmativ, tag-ul este obligatoriu la negativ, i invers.

= You speak French, dont you?
= You dont speak French, do you?

= He left the country, didnt he?
= He didnt leave the country, did he?

= You can swim, cant you?
= You cant swim, can you?

= Hes here, isnt he?
= Hes not here, is he?

E Un enun negativ cu un tag afirmativ arat, de obicei, c cel care adreseaz
ntrebarea se ateapt s primeasc un rspuns negativ, vrea s fie politicos sau
adreseaz un repro interlocutorului:
= You dont speak French, do you?
No, sorry, I dont.
= You couldnt give me a hand, could you?


E Dac verbul din principal este HAVE, tag-ul va fi alctuit cu ajutorul lui DO, dar
dac HAVE este auxiliary, tag-ul va fi alctuit cu HAVE, prin inversiune.
= You had measles, didnt you?
= Youve just been sacked, havent you?
E Dac n principal apare I AM / IM, acestea sunt reluate n tag prin ARENT I:
= Im doomed, arent I?

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E Dac principala este de fapt un imperativ, n tag se vor folosi WILL sau WONT.
Dac principala ncepe cu LETS, n tag apare SHALL.
= Have a seat, will you?
= Call me later, wont you?
= Lets take the train instead, shall we?

E Sensuri posibile ale tag-ului:
= You havent got the report yet, have you? (request for confirmation)
= I dont have to pay cash, do I? (confirmation)
= Well, they didnt give me any chance, did they? (defence)
= So it was not you getting into the house late last night, was it? (sarcasm)
= Youre not going to fail that exam again, are you? (threat, attack)

E Reply questions sunt asemntoare tag-urilor, dar nu are loc schimbarea de la
afirmativ la negativ i invers; n plus, ele sunt folosite de interlocutor pentru a-i arta
interesul, uimirea sau ndoiala cu privire la ceea ce spune locutorul.
= A: I broke up with her yesterday.
B: Did you? (interes)
= A: I cant sew anymore.
B: Cant you? (uimire)
= A: I think theyre drug-dealers.
B: Are they? (ndoiala)


1. Unscramble the following questions:
a) you, to, are, where, going
b) yesterday, like, in, the, was, weather, Bucharest, what
c) a, you, me, please, get, would, towel
d) he, he, has, hasnt, the, yet, country, left
e) it, is, cannot, needles, but, that, what, sew, many, has

2. Ask questions to be answered by the given sentences:
a) At 5.30 in the hallway.
b) For about two weeks now.
c) She leaned against one of the stems, under the lacery of twig and bud.
d) 76% of the land area under forest cover.
f) No, never.
e) Since yesterday.
f) Not bad.
g) $ 25.
h) By train.
i) On Friday(s).
k) Yes, you are.
l) No, thanks.
m) On the top shelf.
n) Trimming.

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3. Give the interrogative form of the following statements:
a) There is some milk left in the fridge.
b) He said something unpleasant.
c) There is no one at the door.

4. Transform the following sentences into:
a) a negative statement
b) a question
c) a negative question
You can add tags.
It looks brand new.
He lost the key to the front door.
They shall be traveling all night.
He won the first prize that night.

5. Fill in with the missing forms:

I II III meaning
bear


beat


begun


bent

bind


blown


a aduce

a cumpra

come


drew


drunk


feel


a zbura
forget


a auzi

hid

hold


kept


led


meant

meet


paid


a vedea
speak


spent


won

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6. In what situations might you say the following:
C Whats on?
C Whos in it?
C Whats it about?
C What time does it start?
C Where shall we sit?
What did you think of it?
C Would you care to dance with me?
Will you pass me the salt?
Whos who?
1 Where to?

7. Make up questions that could occur:
a) in a classroom
b) in a hall where somebody is interviewed
c) in conference
d) during police interrogation
e) in a court-room
f) in a GPs office
g) in the street (conducting a survey)
h) in an office (job interview)
i) in a church (religious confession)
j) in an application / entry form

8. Find questions which ask for:
a) an explanation
b) confirmation
c) justification
d) rectification
f) reproach
g) checking or repeating previous information

Why not? confirmation
He is one of our best master sawyers. What am I saying? Our
bestmaster sawyer.
rectification
What do you mean by DED? (Dutch Elm Disease) explanation
Youre not going to leave, are you? objection
Have I been there? Yes, of course I have. repetition
Dont I know these foresters? justfication
What else do you want from me? reproach

9. (NO) FURTHER QUESTIONS

C you have to leave suddenly?
C you wearing a blue pullover?
C it Bruce who introduced us?
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C you ever ridden a horse?

10. a) Get the necessary information from your partner to complete the table:

Question You Your partner
O like dancing

O speak French

O be a night bird

O do physical exercises

O would like to move to a foreign country

O like cats

O have got a dog

O read newspapers on a regular basis

O smoke

G own a car


b) Fill in the following table:

activity never sometimes always
stay up late My parents never let
me stay up late.

bring my friends
home

cook

.........



11. a)Complete the sentences using the words from the box:

What, Why, Where, When, Who, How

1. ... are you from?
2. ... are you doing?
3. ... is your birthday?
4. ... are you so sad?
5. ... are you ?

b) About you and your partner:
a) . Physiopathology?
b) What exactly ?
c) ..in ten years time?
d) Botany?
e) Why ?
f) ..before?
g) ..Dendrology?
h) How often ?
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i) .your job?
j) How long .?
k)..abroad?
l)English?

c) Riddles. Find the right answers.

What keys do you find in trees? I have problems.
What do kangaroos wear in winter? Hissssssssssssssssssssssssssssssstory.
What do you call a scared cow? The Horsepital.
What do whales eat? From the footprints in the butter.
What is a snakes favourite lesson? Jumpers.
Whats the difference between a lion with a
broken leg and a wet day?
Because its too far to walk.
What did one Maths book say to the other
Maths book?
Monkeys.
Where do sick horses go? A coward.
Why do birds fly south in winter? Fish and ships.
How can you tell when an elephant has
been in the fridge?
One roars with pain and the other pours
with rain.


12. Mr. Smith ordered the servants to pack his bags at once.
Who(m) ?
What ?
He tells me he works at Harrods for the time being.
Who ..?
What ?
Where ?
Their son takes piano lessons.
Who .....................?
What ....................?

13. Add a question tag to each question, paying attention to the tense:
1. Its a lovely day, ?
2. Your handwriting isnt very good, ?
3. I dont know her, ?
4. You dont mind if I smoke, ?
5. Theres no hair on your head, ?
6. It arrives at 9. 20, ?
7. Im late, ?
8. We arent being rude, ?
9. You arent wearing a watch, ?
10. Im speaking slowly enough for you, ?
11. You came in a flying saucer, ?
12. He was 89 when he died, ?
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13. You did lock it, ?
14. It rained all night, ?
15. We had a good meal last night, ?
16. They havent paid the bill, ?
17. Weve met somewhere before, ?
18. Hes never been to Brazil, ?
19. They hadnt been there for years, ?
20. You will come in, ?
21. Youll come and have some tea with me, ?
22. You can understand what I say, ?
23. You cant open the can, ?
24. Lets meet again, ?
25. Have a cucumber sandwich, ?

14. Translate:
1. Unde pot nchiria o main?
2. Unde putem gsi o cabin telefonic?
3. Cum a fost spectacolul?
4. De unde vii?
5. Cnd pot s fixez o ntlnire?
6. Cnd vrei s telefonez?
7. De ce e att de suprat?
8. De ce s ateptm att de mult?
9. Ce-ar fi s mai bem un pahar?
10. Cine sunt oamenii tia?
11. Cine vrea s vin cu noi?
12. Ce main vei alege?
13. La ce te gndeti?
14. Al cui este acest stilou?
15. Cine urmeaz?
16. Ce se ntmpl cu ei? / Ce i-a apucat?
17. Ct de departe este gara?
18. Ce vrst are mama ta?
19. Ct de scump poate fi o cma?
20. Ce nlime are fratele tu?
21. Ci bani vrei?
22. Cu ct timp n urm s-a ntmplat?
23. De cte ori l-ai vzut?
24. Ct de des plou n regiunea asta?
25. Ci puiei sunt n pepinier?





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Lecia 2. QUESTIONABLE































Ask your partner:
What was the most difficult question you had to ask /answer?
What do you usually do to avoid a question?
When was the last time somebody bombarded you with questions?
What does pop the question mean?

15. Match exercise. Other ways of saying ASK:
a) to appeal
b) to apply
c) to claim
d) to cross-examine
e) to demand
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f) to interrogate
g) to interview
h) to nag / pester
i) to order
j) to poll / survey
k) to question
l) to request

to claim to ask for something very firmly and emphatically, especially
because you think you have a right to do this
to order to ask repeatedly and authoritatively
to poll / survey to ask someone (usually a witness or a prisoner) a lot of
questions systematically or for a long time in order to get
information (sometimes using threats)
to demand to ask for something that is legally yours
to interview to ask the court or someone in authority for help or a decision to
be changed (formal, written)
to apply to annoy someone, especially by asking them many times to do
something
to request to ask someone questions in a court of law (by a lawyer)
to nag / pester to ask for a job, a place in a university, or permission to do
something (formal, written)
to cross-examine to ask for something in a polite or formal way
to question to ask for goods (e. g. food, drink etc.) you are going to pay for
to interrogate to ask a large number of people the same set of questions in
order to find out their attitudes or opinions
to appeal to ask someone questions during an interview (by a reporter)

= He that nothing questions nothing gains.
= Im tired of him questioning me on this and that.





18
E ASK ANSWER
REPLY
RETORT
GET BACK TO
RESPONSE

16. Replace ASK with one of the synonyms:
C He where they lived.
C He that nothing nothing gains.
C I an explanation for your behaviour.
C What are you my ... for?
Fresh gossip!

17. Identify types of questions (total / partial, direct / indirect etc.) in the following
extracts. The full text is to be found in appendix 2.
Whats the matter, Schatz?
Ive got a headache.

Do you want me to read to you?
All right, if you want to.

How do you feel, Schatz?
Just the same, so far.

Why dont you try to sleep? Ill wake you up for the medicine.
Id rather stay awake.

What is it?
Something like a hundred.
It was a hundred and two.
Who said so?
The doctor.

Do you think it will do any good?
Of course it will.

About what time do you think Im going to die?
What?
About how long will it be before I die?
You arent going to die. Whats the matter with you?
(Ernest Hemingway A Days Wait)

18. Compare:
= The girl looks / is looking at the picture.
= (The) horses graze / are grazing in the field.
= The girl looked / was looking at the picture.
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= I wrote / was writing / had written a story in my book.


19. Make up questions using the word between parentheses:
Forests were much bigger in the dim and distant past (When ?)
- in the mid-eighties. (What ?)
- when I was little. (Who ?)

20. a) Read the following and identify the verbal tenses:
Timberwood has been expensive - for as long as I can remember.
- ever since the Revolution ended.
- lately.
- over the past 15 years.
b) Complete the following sentences. Pay attention to the verbal tenses.
- nowadays.
- these days.
- at present.
- at this point in history.
- at this moment in time.
Forests are getting thinner and thinner - .
- ..
- ..

Forests are going to continue to get thinner - ..
- ..
- ...
Afforestation will have doubled -
-
- .
c) Consider the changes in your home town.
Ex. The supermarket used to be a garage.
The post-office used to be a museum.

21. Tell your partner to think about an object (s)he would choose for a TIME-CAPSULE
and keep it in mind. Try to find out what that object is. Use some of the following
questions:
What is it?
Whats it made of?
What colour is it?
How old is it?
How much is it worth?
Where do you keep it?
What special significance does it have for you / mankind?

22. a) Complete the following questions and then have a dialogue with your partner:
1. Whats your favourite ?
2. Can you tell me ?
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3. Id like to know ?
4. How often do you ?
5. Do you remember ?
6. Do you think youll ?
7. Whats your opinion of ?
8. Do you know ?
9. Have you got ?
10. Whats the best thing about ?
11. When did you ?
12. How many ?

b) Ask the guru / the fortune-teller questions about your future and / or past:
Student A asks questions (Yes / NO questions) about a particular aspect of his / her life in
the future (ex. Will I be rich?)
Student B answers the questions by drawing randomly a ticket from a hat (s/he is supposed
to prepare in advance a hat full of tickets with answers such as:
Ah, the age-old question!
I cannot predict now.
You wouldnt like to know.
You wish!
It is decidedly so.
Mind your language, young man!
As I see it, yes...
But of course!
It is for certain.
The odds are in your favour.
Wouldnt you like to know!
My sources say no.
Are you serious?
Let me get back to you.
Outlook not so good.
Ummm, aahh, weelll, sure...
Ask me no questions, Ill tell you no lies.
Were you asking me?
How should I know?
If I say yes, will you stop asking?
The possibilities are endless.
When pigs fly.
Ill need to think about that.
Reply hazy, try again.
You may rely on it.
No way!
Signs point to... yes.
Absolutely..... not.
Absolutely..... but Ive been wrong before.
Two thumbs up!
The outlook is grim.
Youve got to be kidding!)
21



Lecia 3. METAPHOR TIME IS MONEY


22


= Did he really waste - nine hours before he made a decision?
- his entire fortune on that trifle?

= Will he really spend - an entire day to repair his old car?
- a months salary to repair his old car?

= You really need to budget your time.

= Ive invested a lot of time in her.

= Paying the fees cost me five hours.

Complete the following Chinese proverb:
TIME = MONEY
TO SPEND

TO WASTE

TO BUY

TO RUN
OUT OF

TO SPARE
With money you can buy a CLOCK, but not TIME
With money you can buy a HOUSE, but not a HOME
With money you can buy a BED, but not SLEEP
With money you can buy a BOOK, but not .....
With money you can buy a ..., but not RESPECT
With money you can buy ......., but not .......
With money you can buy ......, but not ........
With money you can buy ........., but not ..........










23. Say the time!

a) Write the following times as numbers. Use the 24-hour clock.

Its nine p.m. 21. 00
Its a quarter past five in the morning.

Its a quarter to two in the afternoon.

Its twenty-five to eight in the evening.

Its half past ten in the morning.


b) Whats the time in .?


LONDON NY MELBOURNE MIAMI BANGKOK MOSKOW

c) Represent graphically:
half past eight
eight thirty
a quarter to seven
six forty-five

Around the Clock

12 clockwise



in no time time off

just in time time limit


well-timed dull time

take your in due
time time












23


counterclockwise (BE) 6
anticlockwise (AE)


This shop is open around the clock.
He arrived at twelve oclock sharp. Just in time for lunch.
Its five minutes to ten. He ran out of time.
Its twenty minutes to 6. Its high time that he left.
- he should leave.
- for him to leave.
Its only a quarter past ten. Take your time! The time limit is half past two.
Already eight thirty? Amazing how time flies!
Have you got the time?
What time is it?
Whats the time?
Dont tell me the time. Ive got my own timepiece.
Im afraid my alarm clock doesnt keep good time.
Does it gain / lose time?
Is it fast or slow?
It just stopped.
I set my watch by the radio.
Wind it up and set it to 6.30.
Set the watch back. Its two minutes fast.
Men dont wear pocket watches anymore.
What kind of strap does your wrist watch have?
This old grandfather clock lost its hands.
What you should do know is make up for lost time.
The long hand points to the minutes.
The short hand points to the hour.
The second hand moves faster.
Midnight is 12 oclock at night.
Noon is 12 oclock in the daytime.
Is it 7 a. m. or p. m.?
We should get there at around three.
They arranged to meet at 9 oclock precisely.
At 11 oclock sharp he rang the front door bell.
Timewise they were not doing too badly.
Motherwise she was not doing too badly either.
Beware! Waves at one oclock!

24. Translate:
C Dup ceasul meu e 3 fix.
C Avionul decoleaz la 6.15.
C Aceast curs contra timpului din ultimele zile m-a epuizat.
C n trecut, oamenii foloseau clepsidre sau ceasuri solare pentru a msura timpul.
24
C Oraul ei se afl la doar o or deprtare de al meu.
i plac foarte mult filmele de epoc.


Read the following text. What s YOUR twisted concept of time / your secret time-related
wish?


What a funny watch ! Alice remarked. It tells the
day of the month but it doesnt tell what oclock it is.
Why should it ? muttered the Hatter. Does your
watch tell you what year it is ?
Of course not, Alice replied, but thats because it
stays the same for such a long time together.
Which is just the same with mine, said the Hatter... I
dare say you never even talked to Time... If you only keep in
good terms with him, hed do almost anything with the clock.
For instance, suppose it were nine oclock in the morning, just
time to begin lessons: you just have to whisper a hint to Time
and round goes the clock in a twinkling! Half past one, time for
dinner!
That would be grand, certainly, said Alice, but then
I shouldnt be hungry for it, you know.
Not at first, perhaps, said the Hatter, but you could
keep it to half past one for as long as you liked.

(Lewis Carroll Alice in Wonderland)



25

25. Quality Time
% What do you do all day?
Draw a flipchart and represent graphically what percentage of your time you allot to:
work / school
sleep
family / friends
travel
others.
See the following example: Rowan Woods, Christmas tree-grower.

ME (3 hours) I get a lot of personal time to watch TV or play the piano. I also
play all sorts of games on the computer. I like the learning
process and think of it as leisure time.
WORK (11 hours) I grow Christmas trees and farm sheep and cow in mid-Wales.
Its been a mad five weeks but it is nearly over now. I spend a
lot of time on the phone coordinating things.
SLEEP (8 hours) I need sleep. If I dont get enough sleep I am prone to getting ill.
FAMILY (1 hours
30 mins)
Because I work from home I see my family throughout the day.
I take a lot of breaks and have lunch and dinner with my wife
and children.
TRAVEL (30
mins)
I dont get off the farm very often. When I do, it usually takes
about half an hour.
26

% What I used to do
Draw a flipchart for you and one for Fox Glove, a 65-year-old pensioner, whose story you
are supposed to complete.

ACTIVITY
(allotted time)
YOU FOX GLOVE

I used to work as a part-time art
history teacher, three days a week. I
also wrote for German newspapers as
an art critic. Once I had the kids, I
kind of lost control of my life.

.........

I used to ride a bicycle to work, so it
took me about 45 minutes or so.

.........

I used to sit for hours on end in
front of the computer, where I
usually combined light work with
doing something for me. Time for
myself was any time without the
children.


% What do you do all day ?
Draw a flipchart for Reed Forrester.

ME (3 hours) In the evening, I cant just go to bed, like other people: I have
to wait for sleep to come a-knocking, so I practise the guitar,
read tool catalogues, watch TV...
SLEEP (5 hours) I dont like sleeping. I think Sandy-Man is creepy...
TRAVEL (5 hours) On a commuting day I have to take the car, train and tube.
WORK (8 hours) Definitely my favourite part of the day. I get to chase
poachers all day long.
PARTNER (3 hours) I spend less time with Jules than I used to, but I try to make
up for it at the weekends.
27

26. Al l i n Good Ti me
Complete the table:

YEAR STATE ACTION
Ex. In 1978, I was a new-
born baby and I used to cry a
lot.











Ex. By 2040 I will have
retired.
a new-born baby
a toddler
in kindergarten
of school-age
a teenager
coming of age
aged 22
in my prime
in my mid-twenties
36 years of age
approaching middle age
on the wrong side of 40
ageing
pushing 50s
in my late fifties
heading for retirement
coming up to 70
a bit long in the tooth
with one foot in the grave
pushing up the daisies
Use: would, used to, will, will
have etc.

27. Answer the following questions:
C What is time is money to you?
C Are you good at time management?
C What time do you begin / end work / school every day?
C What will you be doing this time tomorrow? What will you have done in in 10 years
time?
C Do you usually arrive in good time for meetings and appointments with people?
Are you normally aware of roughly what time it is? Do you have a sense of time?
C Do you know the meaning of to do time?
How many hours do you usually sleep at night?
In what circumstances can you say: its a cracker of a day?

Would you rather be a plant?

Match the tree with the age:

Walnut tree +500 years
Fir tree,
juniper,
pine
13,000 years
Linden tree,
chestnut (esculent)
+200 years
Mammouth -400 years
28
Sagu 4000 years
Life-cycle of a Plant

28. Arrange the following stages in the right order, using the following time adverbs and
expressions:

first,
next,
soon,
at this stage,
subsequently,
meanwhile,
later,
then,
afterwards,
eventually etc.


present
current
archaic contemporary expectations
obsolete for the time being prospects
THE DAY BEFORE YESTERDAY YESTERDAY TODAY TOMORROW THE DAY AFTER TOMORROW
old-fashioned nowadays anticipation
out-of-date up-to-date in the near / distant future
29
formerly fashionable in the long / short run

29. Make up as many sentences as you can with the following time-markers:

Adj.: earlier,
former,
preceding,
previous
Adj.:
contemporary,
simultaneous
Adj.: following,
later, next


BEFORE Adv.:
already, first,
formerly,
previously,
until now/
then, so far,
ago, in the
beginning




DURING Adv.: at
present, at this
point, now,
today, for the
time being, at
the moment, in
the meantime,
meanwhile, at
the same time




AFTER Adv.: next, soon, by
the time, by the end,
eventually,
afterwards



Arrange the following time markers under the right headings:

a four-hour (trip), afterwards, all the time, at the same time, every ten minutes, for a while,
from (7) to (9), meanwhile, now and again, once a year, on the hour, overnight, previously,
repeatedly, straight away, subsequently, till, until.

DURATION SEQUENCE FREQUENCY







Complete the sentences with prepositions from the box.

at, for, from, in, on, to

1. Im afraid the shop is closed ... Mondays.
2. I expect hell be back ... September.
3. What time is the reservation ...?
4. The library is open ... nine oclock ... seven oclock.
5. What do you do ... the weekends?
6. She gets up ... 11 oclock every day.
7. ... the afternoon they watch TV.
8. ... weekends, they go on short trips.

30. Explain the difference between:
to spend / waste / lose / kill / do time.
30

31. Read and translate:

Truth is the daughter of time.
In times of yore, people were gore.
Make haste slowly.
Elms were nine times out of ten cut in the area.
Close time is a period when fishing and hunting are forbidden.
Other times, other manners.
Now seems the right time to make changes.
Seize the day!
Under age is no age for one to smoke.
Manners change with time.
It was worth waiting for.
Never put off tomorrow what you can do today.
Georgia finds it difficult to husband her time.
32. timeconsuming timesaving
Work with a partner.
Give examples of timeconsuming (Student A) / timesaving (Student B) activities.

33. Time to Talk:
a) Comment on / illustrate:
C Time works wonders.
C Time heals the strongest grief.
C Time flies when youre having fun.
C Time lost can never be recalled.
C Time waits for no one.
Tomorrow never comes.
C You cannot save time; you can only spend it.
Things may happen in an hour that dont happen in a year.
There is an appointment time for anything. And there is a time for every event under
heaven a time to give birth, and a time to die; a time to plant and a time to unroot what is
planted. (Ecclesiastes; 3:1-2)
b) C What do you usually do to fill a dead half hour (for instance between the Nine
OClock news and the News at Ten)? List ten top-activities.
C Give an account of a period of your life you jnow consider to be your halcyon days.
C Speak for about 3 minutes using the following prompts: timepoor, free time / leisure
time / pastime.

34. Group the following phrases denoting TIME into synonymic clusters:

free time, idle time, just in time (for), in next to no time, in no time at all, in the nick of
time, in time, in times gone by, in time of need, in times immemorial, lapse of time, leisure
time, on time pastime, period of time, spare time, time span, to kick the bucket, to pass
away, troublesome times, vacant time.

31
1.


perioad de timp
2..





timp liber
3.



(tocmai) la timp
4.

n timpuri strvechi
5.

vremuri grele
6.

ntr-o clip
7.

a muri


35.
Once upon a Time
Put the following words and expressions in the correct groups:

frequency
(adverbs)
verbs expressions other
twice a year




to time



Only Time will Tell...
Choose five of the following time expressions and write a short text.


twice / thrice
a year
biannual
year by year
all the year
round
throughout
the year


New Years
Day / Eve
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!





32



















Time:

belt
bomb
book
expired
honoured
keeping
machine
sheet
span
stained
stricken
travel
worker
worn
zone.
every two
years
fortnight
seedling age


**********

exploitable
age
twelvemonth
leap year
light year
yearly
once in a
blue
moon
biological
clock
????????
to be
ahead of
ones
time
perfect
timing
harvest
time
sooner or
later
in due course
at the crack of dawn
the time of my life


33
deadline
**********
to be behind
time
*************
to be up to date
*************
to do time
*************
one at a time
*************

hourglass
:
from Day One
for ever and a
day
Whats in
store?
what the
future
holds
in time
on time
at times
most of the time
on Wednesday
fortnight
********
a fortnight
tomorrow

untimely
in the
course of
time / in
the
meantime
by the hour
at the eleventh hour
smbds
finest/darkest
hour
strike/chime the
hour
for hours on end
in the early/small
hours of the day
the hero of the hour
rush hour
1
st
/2
nd
year
student
to
time
race
against
time
in
early
/ late
spring
local/mean/
Greenwich
time
the night is still young
day in day out


Lets call it a
day!









34
in the long
/ short run
under age / be of age
/ come of age / turn
18
pushing
40s
part-time
full-time
flexitime
to date
to update




c) Find equivalent expressions to complete the table:

very rarely

on a daily basis

at the correct time

to be modern / fashionable

nine times out of ten

in the near future

premature(ly)

sometimes

eventually

almost too late

very early in the morning


d) Rephrase the time expressions in bold:
Tom and Jenny hadnt seen each other for donkeys years.
I do my exercises first thing in the morning.
Why dont you make a night of it?
He arrived in the nick of time.
You cant just do everything on the dot.
A lot of water has flowed under the bridge since then.
Lets go out tonight, for old times sake!
I had a whale of time last night.
Lets call it a day!
35
Just name the day!
Its one of those days...
Eh, those were the days...
We should try and make up for lost time. We could have a whale of a time.
That phone call really made my day!

e) Go back and forth in time, marking important events in your life on the time line
below.

Past Present Future
-------------------------------------------------------/------------------------------------------------------

36.
Pressed with Time
Complete the beginnings and endings:

this time last year.....................................................
........................................................this time next year....................................................
............................................to have the time of your life.................................................
...........................................................as time goes by.......................................................
......................................................from time to time........................................................



A Right Time for Everything

They say:
1 oclock at night is the time when our body is the most tense
between 2 4 oclock (a. m.) our vigilance reaches the lowest level therefore we are
prone to accidents
3 oclock (a. m.) - the lowest temperature
at 4 oclock (a. m.) our sleep is very unstable
8 oclock in the morning the heart beats faster
between 9 11 we are intellectually at our best
at 10 oclock (a. m.) we should not drink alcohol
around midday our brain works best
between 12 13 we can eat enough without the risk of getting fat
at 2 p.m. we dont feel pain so badly; now is the right time to make an appointment with
the dentist
between 13 15 time to relax
between 15 19 the best time for sports
in the early evening (about 5 p.m.) food tastes better
between 19 20 loneliness is hard to take
24 time for beauty sleep

What have you noticed about your own circadian rhythm? Make your own timetable.

36
8-10 a.m. morning
10-12 a.m.
noon 12.00
12-02 p.m.
2-3 p.m.
3-4 p.m.
afternoon
4-5 p.m.
early evening 5-6 p.m.
evening 6-9 p.m.
night 9-...































37
38

Lecia 4. THE BUTTERFLY


THE BUTTERFLY
(Hans Christian Andersen)



+ Motto: Though nothing can bring back the hour
Of splendour in the grass and glory in the flower.
(William Wordsworth Ode: Intimations of Immortality from
Recollections of EarlyChildhood)


Fallen flower I see
Returning to its branch
Ah! a butterfly.
(A. Moritake; Transl. G. Bownas and A. Thwaite)


37. Comment on the idea of TIME as suggested by the following story.























The butterfly was looking out for a bride, and
naturally he wished to select a nice one among the
flowers.

He looked at them, sitting so quietly and discreetly
upon their stems, as a damsel generally sits when she is
not engaged; but there were so many to choose among,
that it became quite a difficult matter.

The butterfly did not relish encountering difficulties,
so in his perplexity he flew to the daisy. She is called in
France Marguerite. He knew that she could see into the
future and that she did so often; for lovers plucked leaf
after leaf from her, and with each a question was asked
respecting the beloved: Is it true love?, From the
heart?, Love that pines?, Cold love?, None at
all? or some such questions. Everyone asks in his
own language.

The butterfly came too to put his questions; he did
not, however, pluck off the leaves but kissed them all
one by one, with the hope of getting a good answer.

Sweet Marguerite Daisy, said he, you are the
wisest wife among all the flowers; you know how to
predict events. Tell me, shall I get this one or that? Or
whom shall I get? When I know, I can fly straight to the
fair one, and commence wooing her.

But Marguerite would scarcely answer him; she was
vexed at his calling her wife. He asked a second time,
and he asked a third time, but he could not get a word
out of her; so he would not take the trouble to ask any
more, but flew away without further ado on his
matrimonial errand.
discreet discrete

to encounter = to meet
(with), face

to relish = to enjoy, to
like, to delight in

to pluck = a rupe, a
smulge, a trage, a scoate, a
arunca, a jumuli o pasre, a
ciupi coardele, a culege
fucte, a trnti la un examen

to pine = a se ofili
= a tnji
= Riddle: Why did the pine
tree pine?
Because it saw the weeping
willow weep.

to woo (and coo) = a face
curte, a pei

ado = agitation, tumult,
excitement, fuss






+ Make up questions to be
answered by the underlined
words and expressions.


` Time markers: - when
- a second time
-

` Time expressions: - without further ado

` Plants: - daisy

39
`Time markers: - in the early spring
It was in the early spring, and there were plenty of
snowdrops and crocuses. They are very nice-looking,
said the butterfly, charming little things, but somewhat
too juvenile. He, like most very young men, preferred
elder girls.

Thereupon he flew to the anemones, but there were
rather too bashful for him; the violets were too
enthusiastic; the tulips were too fond of show; the
jonquils were too plebeian; the linden tree blossoms
were too small and they had too large a family
connection; the apple blossoms were certainly as lovely
as roses to look at, but they stood today and fell off
tomorrow, as the wind blew. It would not be worth
while to enter into wedlock for so short a time, he
thought.

The sweet-pea was the one that pleased him most;
she was pink and white, she was pure and delicate, and
belonged to the class of notable girls who always look
well, yet can make themselves useful in the kitchen. He
was on the point of making an offer to her when at that
moment he observed a pea-pod hanging close by, with
a withered flower at the end of it. Who is that? he
asked. My sister, replied the sweet-pea. Indeed! then
you will probably come to look like her, by-and-by,
screamed the butterfly as he flew on.

The honeysuckles hung over the hedge; they were
extremely ladylike, but they had long faces and yellow
complexions. They were not to his taste. But who was
to his taste? Aye! ask him that.
snowdrop = ghiocel
crocus = ofran
thereupon = dup care
bashful = shy, timid
jonquil =
narcissus jonquilla
plebeian= common, vulgar
linden tree = tei
wedlock = marriage
sweet-pea = indruaim,
sngele voinicului
pea = mazre
= Riddle: What letter grows
in the garden? Pea.
pod = pstaie
withered = ofilit
honeysuckle = caprifoi
hedge = arbust; gard viu
complexion =
ten; nfiare, aspect
= Read carefully the
expressions in bold. Give
other examples built on the
pattern: too large (a family
connection), fond of (show),
for so (short) a (time).
Provide synonyms and
antonyms for the adjectives:
bashful, enthusiastic, small,
large.

+ Make up questions to be
answered by the underlined
words and expressions.
-
-

` Time expressions: -

` Plants: - snowdrops -
- -
- -
- -
-

40

The spring had passed, the summer had passed, and
autumn was passing too. The flowers were still clad in
brilliant robes but, alas! the fresh fragrance of youth
was gone. Fragrance was a great attraction to him,
though no longer young himself, and there was none to
be found among the dahlias and hollyhocks.

So the butterfly stooped down to the wild thyme.
She has scarcely any blossom, but she is altogether a
flower herself, and all fragrance every leaflet is full of
it. I will take her.
So he began to woo forthwith.

But the wild thyme stood stiff and still, and at length
she said, Friendship, but nothing more! I am old, and
you are old. We may very well live for each other, but
marry no! Let us not make fools of ourselves in our
old age!

So the butterfly got no one. He had been too long on
the lookout, and that one should not be. The butterfly
became an old bachelor, as it is called.
clad = dressed

hollyhocks = nalb

thyme = cimbru; lmi














+ Make up questions to be
answered by the underlined
words and expressions.


` Time markers: - the spring
-
-
-
-
-

` Time expressions: -
-

` Plants: - dahlias
-
-








41


It was late in the autumn, and there was nothing but
drizzling rain and pouring rain; the wind blew coldly on
the old willow trees till the leaves shivered and the
branches cracked. It was not pleasant to fly about in
summer clothing; this is the time, it is said, when
domestic love is most needed.

But the butterfly flew about no more. He had
accidentally gone within doors, where there was fire in
the stove - yes, real summer heat. He could live, but to
live is not enough, said he; sunshine, freedom, and a
little flower, one must have.

And he flew against the window pane, was observed,
admired, and stuck upon a needle in a case of
curiosities. ()
Now I am sitting on a stem, like the flowers, said the
butterfly; very pleasant it is not, however. It is almost
like being married, one is tied so fast. And he tried to
comfort himself with this reflection.

That is poor comfort! exclaimed the plants in the
flowerpots in the room.
But one can hardly believe a plant in a flowerpot,
thought the butterfly; they are too much among human
beings.
drizzle = burni; ploaie
mocneasc

window pane = ochi de
geam

to stick, stuck, stuck = a
infige















+ Make up questions to be
answered by the underlined
words and expressions.


` Time markers & expressions: - late in the autumn
-
-
-
- ....











42


8 The honeysuckles hung over the edge.


verb regulat: hang, hanged, hanged (a spnzura)
= He was hanged for first-degree murder.

TO HANG
verb neregulat: hang, hung, hung (a atrna)
= Grandma hung her grandsons picture on the wall.







43


8 the apple blossoms were certainly as lovely as roses to look at, but they stood
today and fell off tomorrow, as the wind blew.
But the wild thyme stood stiff and still.






.............................. .the president stands high in the public opinion polls.............................
................................my offer still stands.................................................................................
....................................................I stand corrected / rebuked.................................................
.........................you dont have to stand in line (AE) / a queue (BE)
..................................................to stand in somebodys way..................................................
.............to make somebodys hair stand on end......................................................................
.................................................he stands last on the list..........................................................
..................................................to stand treat..........................................................................
........................its not unusual to stand somebody a glass of wine.........................................
.....................but Im not going to stand by and see her hurt...................................................
................................................Ill stand by you no matter what..............................................
.........................What does this M stand for?...........................................................................
44






Translate:
C De la ce vine RP?
C Detest oamenii care nu stau niciodat la rnd.
C Nu mai suport ateptarea.
C Cnd am auzit vetile, mi s-a fcut pur i simplu prul mciuc.
C Dup cum stau lucrurile, situaia nu se va mbunti prea curnd.
Degeaba te ridici n vrful picioarelor; n-ai cum s ajungi la tavan.
C ntr-o asemenea situaie trebuie neaprat s iei atitudine.









8 The butterfly was looking out for a bride
He looked at them, sitting so quietly and discreetly upon their stems
They are very nice-looking, said the butterfly
The apple blossoms were certainly as lovely as roses to look at
Indeed! then you will probably come to look like her, by-and-by, screamed the
butterfly as he flew on.

45



LOOK a privi, a se uita la; privire, uittur
etc. (termen general, neutru)
= He gave me an astonished look.
= Let me have a look at your eye!
= The new look is a fashion of the
50s.
PEEP a trage cu ochiul; privire rapid,
viclean
= His favourite occupation? Peeping
through the keyhole.
PEEK + in, out, at peep -
SCAN to look at smth. intently and quickly -
SPOT to notice, to catch sight of = All of a sudden I spotted John in
the crowd.
GLARE to frown; to give a dirty look -
GLANCE privire rapid = I saw at a glance that something
was wrong.
= to cast a glance at
= to take a glance at
= to glance at smbd.s face
= to be worth a second glance
= a quick glance
GLIMPSE a zri ceva; a prinde din zbor; a vedea
ceva foarte repede, neintenionat
= to catch / get a glimpse
GAZE a privi ndelung, cu interes sau cu
admiraie
= a dreamy, long gaze
= to gaze into the far distance
= to gaze at
STARE o privire fix, insistent, de cele mai
multe ori neplcut pentru cel privit;
o impolitee din partea privitorului
=to stare at

46

38. Complete the following sentences inserting a suitable term of the above group of
synonyms:

C what Ive got!
C He could at the sea for hours.
C They just him as he flashed past.
C They in open astonishment at the bloody scene.
C A quick was all I needed to reassure myself.
What are you at?
C Well have to take a good hard at the problem.
Im not interested. I wouldnt give it a second .
through the key-hole was his favourite occupation.
1 Mother says shes forward to meeting you.

8 The butterfly did not relish encountering difficulties, so in his perplexity he flew
to the daisy.
When I know, I can fly straight to the fair one, and commence wooing her.
so he would not take the trouble to ask any more, but flew away without
further ado on his matrimonial errand.
Thereupon he flew to the anemones.
Indeed! then you will probably come to look like her, by-and-by, screamed the
butterfly as he flew on.
But the butterfly flew about no more.
And he flew against the window pane




47

8 But Marguerite would scarcely answer him
She has scarcely any blossom, but she is altogether a flower herself ...

HARDLY / BARELY / SCARCELY
= He can hardly / barely speak. Heso overcome by emotion.
= Hardly anyone writes to me those days.
= She lives in Spain, so we hardly ever see her.
= This is hardly the time or the place to discuss the matter.
= barely audible / visible / discernible / perceptible etc.

HARDLY / BARELY / SCARCELY had he entered WHEN he heard the phone ringing.
NO SOONER had he entered THAN he heard the phone ringing.

8 The apple blossoms were certainly as lovely as roses to look at, but they stood
today and fell off tomorrow, as the wind blew.
She has scarcely any blossom, but she is altogether a flower herself, and all
fragrance every leaflet is full of it.

Bloom, blossom, flower = floare
To bloom, to blossom, to flower, to flourish = a nflori DAR:

(to) bloom: =What kind of flowers bloom in early spring?
=The roses in my garden are in full bloom at this time of the year.

bloom: orice fel de floare, dar mai ales cele ornamentale, plantate pentru frumuseea sau
exotismul lor.

(to) blossom: = My cherry-tree is in full blossom at present.
= The dog-roses are blossoming , have you noticed?

blossom: se folosete mai ales n legtur cu florile pomilor fructiferi;
uneori se folosete cu sens figurat;
spre deosebire de bloom, blossom sugereaz o etap incipient de dezvoltare a florii
mbobocirea mai mult dect floarea deschis, ajuns la maturitate.

(to) flower: These shrubs / chrysanthemum / apple trees flower in late summer.

flower: termen neutru, care le poate nlocui ns fr probleme att pe bloom, ct i pe
blossom.

(to) flourish: = His business is flourishing.
= Drama flourished in ONeills time in America.

(to) flourish: a nflori (mai mult figurativ);
a prospera,a se dezvolta, a-i merge bine, a avea succes.
48
49
39. Complete the following sentences inserting a suitable term of the above group of
synonyms:
C Cacti ............... despite the damp climate.
C The ............... of Romanias youth has emigrated in the West.
C The dog rose early.
C Hows your family? .
C These need careful watering.
When do you expect these buds to ?
C When he found her, Rose was in her full .

40. Fill in the table:

Latin English Romanian
Galanthus Nivalis


zad

crabapple

Lonicera Periclymenum



41. 3 at the Price of 1
Think of one word which can be used to complete the following three sentences:
O in queue would be commonsensical in this situation, dont you think?
O What does MDF for?
O His works will definitely the test of time.


42. ONCE UPON A TIME

What day is today? Devise a calendar: This Day in History.


YEAR EVENT













43. Write A HISTORY OF THE WOODS IN 10 LINES.

. .


Its closing time!!!


50


bark 2 n. [U] the outer covering of a tree (inner
bark outer bark)
batten n. [C] a long narrow piece of wood that is
attached to other pieces of wood or another building
material to strengthen them and keep them in place
beaver n. [C] a North American animal that has
thick fur and a wide flat tail, and cuts down trees
with its teeth
beech n. [C/U] a large tree with smooth grey
BARK, or the wood from this tree
beetle n. [C] a round hard-backed black insect
beetroot n. [C/U] BrE a plant with a round dark
red rootthat you cook and eat as a vegetable
birch n. [C/U] a tree with smooth BARK and thin
branches, or the wood from this tree (the birch =
the practice of hitting people with birch sticks as an
official punishment) (silver birch)
black walnut n. [C] Juglans nigra
branch 1 n. [C] a part of a tree that grows out
from the TRUNK and that has leaves, fruit, or
smaller branches growing from it
























51
Lecia 5. GRAMMAR SECTION THE NOUN
PHRASE













L Verb in the singular

news: = No news is good news.

52
information: = Unfortunately, he was unable to provide much information.

politics: = Politics is talk.

gymnastics: = Gymnastics is one of the few fields in which the Romanians outshine
many others.
(BUT: The gymnastics are being held in the open.)

measles: = Measles is an infectious disease common in children.

mumps: = Mumps usually affects the neck.


E Unele substantive pot deveni numrabile, dar cu sensuri diferite
pentru forma de plural. Altele sunt numrabile, dar forma de plural
este polisemantic. Ex.
AIR AIRS
= His speech was really like a breath of fresh air.
= Dont put on airs with me.
BEAUTY BEAUTIES
= Beauty lies in the eye of the beholder.
= A thing of beauty is a joy for ever.
= Your sister looks like shell grow up to be a beauty.
CHEESE CHEESES
= Really now, you know I cant stand cheese.
= French cheeses are really appreciated around here.
the same with WINES
COFFEE COFFEES
= They consider coffee a drug.
= Two coffees (cups of coffee), please!
COLOUR COLOURS
= What kind of colour is crimson?
= Australias national colours
to call to the colours = a chema sub drapel
COMPASS COMPASSES
= A magnetic compass and a map are invaluable assets to a sailor.
= Where are the compasses?
CUSTOM CUSTOMS
= He might be able to offer further information on local custom.
= Immigrants are usually stopped at customs and questioned.
DAMAGE DAMAGES
= The damage is done. Theres nothing you can do about it.
= They got two million dollars in damages.
EFFECT EFFECTS
= If he wants to impress people at the party, Im afraid his outfit
will be of little or no effect.
= His personal effects were taken by the widow.
EXPERIENCE EXPERIENCES
53
= Applicants for the job should have experience of working with
computers.
= This is an experience I wont forget for as long as I live.
FISH FISHES
= They never eat fish, unless there is an important holiday.
= The fishes felt more at ease in a larger bowl and swam happily to
and fro.
FORCE FORCES
= I didnt mean to hurt you, it was through force of habit.
= the Forces = (BE) the army / navy / air forces of a country
GLASS GLASSES
= People who live in glass houses shouldnt throw stones.
=A:My grandfather lived to be ninety and never used glasses.
B:Well, lots of people prefer to drink from the bottle.
GOOD GOODS
= Going to AA would be for your own good.
= Hes trying to get rid of those stolen goods.
HAIR HAIRS
= Most mens ideal of beauty is a woman with long, fair hair.
= If I hate grandmas cat is because it leaves hairs all over the sofa.
LOOK LOOKS
= Why dont we have a look around the village after lunch?
= She got her good looks from her mother.
MANNER MANNERS
= By his manner of speaking, one could tell he was a Southerner.
= Its about time one taught you the good manners.
OAK OAKS
= In the centre there was an old table made of oak.
= The oaks, pines and hemlocks sighed as they moved their
branches.
PAIN PAINS
= to be in pain; to relieve / ease the pain
= No gains without pains.
Im at pains to explain what really happened.
QUARTER QUARTERS
= Its a quarter past ten. He must be in front of the cathedral.
= At half past seven Ill pass by the servants quarters.
SPECTACLE SPECTACLES
= You should wear your spectacles to enjoy better this exciting
spectacle.
WATER WATERS
= They prefer soda to mineral water.
= Still waters run deep.
WOOD WOODS
= There was no wood left by the stove.
= Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening is a famous poem
written by Robert Frost.
WORK WORKS
54
= If he's not at home, then he must be at work..
Looking after children can be hard work, you know.
= the works = the factory


L Verb in the plural







Pluralia tantum proper:
ashes: oseminte, rmie pmnteti, ruine;
to burn to ashes = a preface n cenu, a arde din temelii
to rise from ones ashes = a renate din cenu
ATENIE!
ash = frasin; scrum
ash-tray = scrumier
Ash Wednesday = Miercurea Mare (a Patelui)
means: means of transport; a means to an end; by means of; by all means; by no means
oats: fields of oats; horses eat oats.
odds: the odds are in favour of / against smth. / smbd.
The odds are that it will rain tomorrow.
outskirts: on the outskirts of the town
remains: They left the remains of the supper on the table.
His remains are buried in Westminster.

E Substantivele collective au neles de plural dar form de plural. Acordul cu verbul se
face la singular sau la plural n funcie de sens. Ex.
the clergy = clerul
the infantry = infanteria
55
family
= My family has / have always been close.
poultry: The poultry have been fed.
public: Give the public what they want / it wants.
cattle: cattle rancher; 20/10 head of cattle
people: one person many people; one people many peoples
police: The police were severely injured during the rioting.
vermin: Beggars are considered vermin by some people.
To a farmer, foxes are vermin because they cause damage.



E Personal adjective heads sunt adjective substantivizate care, ca i substantivele
collective propriu-zise, au form de singular dar se refer la un grup (de oameni).


E Unele substantive pot fi cuantificate cu ajutorul unor expresii partitive generale. Cele
mai frecvente sunt: A PIECE OF (news, advice, information), AN ITEM OF (furniture) , A
BIT OF.


56

Ali cuantificatori (expresii partitive specializate):


B
a bag of time (o groaz de timp / timp berechet)
= a ball of wool (un ghem de ln)
a bar of chocolate (o tablet de ciocolat)
= a barrel of wine / beer (un butoi cu vin)
a basket of fruit (un co cu fructe)
= a blade of grass (un fir de iarb)
a bottle of milk (o sticl de lapte)
= a bowl of soup (un castron cu sup)
a box of chocolates (o cutie cu bomboane de ciocolat)
= a box of matches (o cutie de chibrituri)
a breath of air (o pal / gur de aer)
= a bunch of keys (o legtur de chei)
a bunch / bouquet of flowers (un buchet de flori)

C
a can of beer / fish (o cutie de bere / o conserv de pete)
= a cloud of dust (un nor de praf)
a clump of trees (un plc de copaci)
= a collection of coins / stamps (o colecie de monede / timbre)
a colony of ants (o colonie de furnici)
= a crew of sailors / pilots (un echipaj: marinari, piloi etc.)
a crop of fruit / apples / grapes (recolt de fructe / mere / struguri etc.)
= a crowd / mass / multitude of people (o mulime de oameni)
a crumb of bread (o firimitur de pine)
= a cup of coffee (o ceac de cafea)

D
a drop of water / rain (un strop de ap / ploaie)

F
a flock of sheep / birds (o turm de oi / un stol de psri)

G
a gaggle of geese (un card de gte)
= a grain of rice (un bob de orez)
a group of friends (un grup de prieteni)

H
a head of cabbage / lettuce (o cpn de varz / salat)
= a herd of cattle (o ciread de vaci)
a host of daffodils (un camp / o grmad / spuzenie de narcise)

57
58
J
a jar of jam (un borcan de gem)

L
a loaf of bread (o franzel)
= a lock of hair (o uvi de pr)
a lump of sugar (un bulgre de zahr)

N
a nest of wasps (un cuib de viespi)

P
a pack of cards (un pachet de cri)
= a pack of wolves (o hait de lupi)
a pint of beer (pint = 0.57 (GB) / 0.47 (USA))
= a pot of milk (o oal cu lapte)

S
a series of incidents (o serie de incidente)
= a set of cutlery (un set de tacmuri)
a slice of cake / lemon (o felie de tort / lmie)
= a string of pearls / beads / islands (un irag de perle / mrgele; un ir de insule)
a stud of horses (o herghelie de cai)
= a suit of clothes (un costum de haine)
a swarm of insects (un roi de insecte)

T
a team of researchers (o echip de cercettori)
= a tube of toothpaste (un tub de past de dini)

W
a wink of sleep (un pui de somn)
= a word of abuse (o insult)








Genitivul sintetic

De cele mai multe ori, marca genitivul sintetic este S; uneori ns, apostroful
singur (sau chiar lipsa acestuia) semnaleaz o relaie genitival ntre cuvinte.
n general, se adaug:

apostrophe + S [s] substantivelor comune care desemneaz persoane, fiine (forma
de singular)
= my daughters car
= the students book
= the engineers tools
substantivelor proprii (forma de singular)
= Johns car
= Dr. Johnsons prescription
substantivelor cu plural neregulat (forma de plural)
= the childrens toys
= the womens hats

apostrophe [] substantivelor comune care formeaz pluralul regulat (forma de
plural)
= my daughters car
substantivelor proprii (forma de plural)
= the Johnsons apartment
substantivelor proprii care se termin n S, -X, -Z etc. (forma de
singular)
= Dickens (dar i: Dickenss)
= Burns (dar i: Burnss)
= Brutus, Moses etc.
unor substantive comune care se termin n [S] i sunt urmate de
cuvntul sake
= for goodness sake (dar i: for goodness sake)
59
DAR: for Marys sake; art for arts sake; for Gods sake

no apostrophe [] n cazul numelor de strzi, restaurante, magazine, fabrici, edituri,
companii etc.
= St. James Road ( St. James(s) Road)
= Longmans ( Longmans)
= Harrods ( Harrods)





= the boys car [animat uman comun]
= Shakespeares plays [animat uman propriu]
= the governments policy; the peoples complaints [animat uman colectiv]

= the dogs food;
the cats fur;
the spiders web;
a birds egg;
cows milk;
the wolfs fangs [animat non-uman]
DAR: chicken soup; calf skin (animalele sunt sacrificate i folosite).

= my hearts desire
a birds eye view
at arms length
Hawks will not pick hawks eyes.
by a hairs breadth [inanimat expresii, idiomuri, proverbe]

= a days wait
a months delay
a years leave
60
a fortnights vacation
a moments thought
the hundred years war
in a minute or sos time
todays / yesterdays newspaper
in two years time
last years edition
a 10 minutes walk [inanimat diviziuni cronologice]
= a 3 tons lorry [inanimat pondere, greutate]
= a 5 dollarsbook [inanimat valoare, pre, cost]
= at a stones throw [inanimat diviziuni spaiale]

= Europes countries
Romanias economy
Bucharests streets
Moldavias monasteries
The Danubes Delta [inanimat nume geografice]
= COUNTRY, TOWN, CITY, RIVER the towns inhabitants; the rivers banks
= the films defenders
lifes joys
libertys voice [inanimat personificri]

= the Suns rays / heat
the Moons surface
the earths water
the oceans roar [inanimat fenomene sau elemente naturale]


E Genitivul sintetic poate fi i eliptic (sau independent). Este prezent marca S i
posesorul, dar nu i obiectul posedat.
= Dont take my book. Take somebody elses.
= Whose coat is this? Hellens? No, my sister-in-laws.
= Toms is the fastest car.
= His memory is like an elephants.
= St. Pauls (St. Pauls Cathedral)
= Breakfast at Tiffanys.
= They met at Uncle Toms.
= the hairdressers
= the dressmakers
= the greengrocers
= the bakers
= the chemists
= Marks and Spencers

E n unele titluri, nume de companii, nume de organizaii (ex. the Students
Association, the United Nations Organisation, sau n unele cuvinte compuse (ex.
shepherd dog, sheepskin, student hostel, horse / pig tail), avem de a face cu genitivul
sintetic implicit sau juxtapus.
61

Cazuri speciale:

the group genitive (n cuvintele compuse, S se adaug ultimului cuvnt, chiar dac nu
acesta este nucleul semantic)
= the father-in-laws
= an hour and a halfs negotiation
= the day befores newspaper
= in a minute or sos time
= Elisabeth IIs jewels
= the Editor-in-chiefs decision

2 posesori 1 obiect / 2 posesori 2 sau mai multe obiecte
Comparai:
= Jim and Sarahs parents (Jim i Sarah sunt frai, sau Jim i prinii lui Sarah)
= Jims and Sarahs parents (prinii lui Jim i prinii lui Sarah Jim i Sarah nu sunt
frai)


Genitivul analitic / prepoziional

Genitivul analitic exprim:
posesia (= the picture of my mother)
apartenena (= the cover of the book
= the lid of the pot
= the trees of the forest)


E Atenie!
Comparai:
= a picture of my mother (o fotografie sau un tablou n care apare mama)
= a picture of my mothers (o fotografie sau un tablou care aparin mamei sau care au
fost realizate de aceasta)


E Un substantiv introdus printr-o relaie genitival analitica (-OF) poate fi:
subiect logic: = the love of her mother (her mothers love)
obiect logic: = the love of her mother (love FOR her mother)

Genitivul analitic este preferat de urmtoarele cazuri:
the streets of the town [substantive comune inanimate]
the mother of Anne and Sarah [substantive proprii aflate n relaie de coordonare]
the fears of the poor [adjective substantivizate]
the teachings of the wise
the reign of Queen Elisabeth the First
62
the coat of the old man in the doorway
the papers of the guests present
the murder of Caesar
the month of February
Historical Plays of William Shakespeare
The first of December is the Romanian National Holiday.
He was a great supporter of Blairs.

Genitivul dublu

= a picture of my mother (o fotografie sau un tablou n care apare mama)
[genitivul simplu]
= a picture of my mothers (o fotografie sau un tablou care aparin mamei sau care au fost
realizate de aceasta) [genitivul dublu]

= a description of Sadoveanu (Sadoveanu este cel descris) [genitivul simplu]
= a description of Sadoveanus (descrierea aparine lui Sadoveanu) [genitivul dublu]

= the sister-in-law of my mothers cousin [genitivul dublu]


Funcii sintactice ale genitivului
(dup A. Chiriacescu, p. 76-78)

Attributive genitive C possessive genitive
= Michael Sturdzas coat of arms
= my cats fur
C subjunctive genitive
= the managers approval (to approve)
= the passage of years (to pass)
C objective genitive
= a carriers goods (to carry)
= the understanding of a text (to understand)
C expressive of dependence
= the door of my house
C expressing family relationship
= Marys daughter
= the father of that man
expressing authorship
= Byrons poems
= my partners letters / paintings
C descriptive genitive
= a winters day
= a feeling of happiness
partitive genitive
= five of the students
= the best of my students
genitive of gradation
= the dream of my dreams
Subject of a gerund = Annys coming
Predicative = Its my brothers.
Adverbial of place = at his aunts
Direct object = to visit Mme Tussauds
Apposition = the city of London
= the month of July


































63
44. Form nouns by means of the following suffixes:
a) gender suffixes: -ess; -ette; -ina; -ine; -a; -ix.
b) diminutival suffixes: -ling; -let.
c) adjectival suffixes: -age; -al; .ence; -ant; -ee; -er; -or; -dom; -hood; -ship; -ment; -ness; -
ation; -ty; -ity.

45. Give nouns corresponding to the following:
a) verbs (to appraise, to assist, to behave, to develop, to dine, to gossip, to inform, to
know, to recognize, to solve)
b) adjectives (childish, difficult, high, long, mossy, nation, northern, scientific, strong,
superior, warm)

46. Before or After?
Combine words in order to get compound nouns.

1 HORSE man
- race
- shoe

2 LAND father
- lord
- mark

3 MASTER card
- head
- piece
- school

4 PAPER bag
- money
- news

5 SHOP book
- window
- work

6 TABLE cloth
- tennis
- time

7 WOOD fire
- pecker
- pile



64
47. Complete the table so as to form compound nouns:


assistant ball bell berry cone lifting storm tree
blue

fir

shop

snow


48. What colour is suitable to form compounds with the following words: BELT, BIRD,
BOARD, CURRANT, THORN?

49. Give more examples of compound nouns following the pattern:
MAN-EATER
GOAL-KEEPER
SLEEP-WALKER
STAMP-COLLECTOR


50. Complete the triangles:



common



masculine feminine


??? sheep




??? mare ??? ???



spouse ???




??? ??? ??? granddaughter



65
66
??? ???



father ??? brother ???




??? deer



??? hen ??? ???

51. Give the plural of the following nouns:
box, cliff, fish, foot, forget-me-not, goose, half, house, larva, ladybird, leaf, louse, monkey,
ox, phenomenon, photo, piano, pine, potato, series, sister-in-law, spruce, story, swine,
thief, tooth, tree, wife, wolf.

52. Turn the following sentences into plural.
a) Where is the knife?
b) Theres no child in their family.
c) Whos that person?

53. Fill in the boxes with either C (COUNTABLE) or U (UNCOUNTABLE):
I simply cant live without chocolate! E
Taking part in this contest proved to be a wonderful experience. E
The information you gave me is wrong. E
The luggage is to heavy for me to lift. E
Hes supposed to take the rubbish out. E
Will you put more wood on the fire? E

54. Explain the difference between:

ash ashes
brother brothers / brethren
custom customs
effect effects
glass glasses
pain pains
part parts
penny pennies / pence
respect respects
spirit spirits

55. Match the nouns with the appropriate quantifier:

a breath of banknotes
a clump of bacon
a crumb of bees
a cube of bread
a dollop / jar of cattle / elephants / deer
a drop of celery
a flock of cheese
a hunk of dust
a pinch of jam
a rasher of lemon
a roll of pearls
a squeeze of salt
a (few) sticks of sheep
a string of sugar
a swarm of toilet paper
a wad of air

56. Fill in with the appropriate nouns:

amateurs, bananas, books, cards, cement, cereal, chocolates, cigarettes, coal, dogs, firewood,
grapes, laundry, laundry, matches, matches, nerves, potatoes, rogues, sticks, wood









67





















68
57. Complete the following table:



cards chocolate cigarettes cloth flats information lies snow soap truth wolves wool
a ball
of

a bar
of

a
block
of

X

a
brand
of

a
grain
of

a pack
of

a
piece
of

a
strand
of



58. Make up sentences with the following:

a crumb of
a crust of
a loaf of
a morsel of
a piece of
a slice of BREAD

a ball of
a cut of
a joint of
a loaf of
a roast of
a slice of
a stone of MEAT

a grain of COMFORT
- CORN
- HUMOUR
- LOGIC
- PEPPER
- RICE
- SAND
- TRUTH

69
59. Match:
an armful of coffee
a bucketful of flowers / hay
two cupfuls of flowers / people / occasions
a glassful of people / furniture
a handful of soup
a plateful of sand / water / bricks
a roomful of milk
a spoonful of sugar / salt

60. Translate into English:

un fir de bumbac
- iarb
- ln
- nisip
- pr
- praf

o gur de aer curat / proaspt
- crem

un pui de - leu
- somn

61. Transform following the model:
the banks of the river the river-banks
the coast of the sea ....................
a disease of the heart ....................
the level of the water ....................
the peak of the mountain ...................
a singer of opera ....................
the staff of the company ....................
a teacher of English ....................
a writer of prose ....................


62. Translate into English:
a) prin urechile acului; notari publici; buni de nimic; fier; fiare de clcat; dantel; ireturi
de la pantofi; cauciuc; galoi; aplauze; gnsac; roi; vrjitor; vrjitoare; trntor; comis-
voiajori; a arunca zarurile; oaze; odrasle; psri de curte; dou perechi de pantaloni; o stiv
de lemne; un banc de peti; o band de hoi; un lan de muni; un ir de trepte; un ciorchine
de struguri; o flot de vase; o echip de muncitori; un mnunchi de nuiele; trectori;
adulii; n anii 60; poemele lui Eminescu i ale lui Stnescu; ogarul lui John i al lui Peter;
plcerile verii; patru perechi de boi; 60 de capete de vite; surdo-muii; trei viei; trei
spiridui; o mulime de pstrvi; un ho de buzunare.
70

b) 1. Afacerile sunt afaceri.
2. n zilele noastre fructele proaspete i netratate sunt adevrate trufandale.
3. Anul acesta a fost mult vnat.
4. Prul tu are nevoie de un tuns. i mai sunt i firele albe...
5. Banii n-aduc fericirea.
6. Fructele nu sunt coapte nc.
7. Trifoiul este simbolul Irlandei.
8. Cte cafele ai comandat?
9. Nu-i dau un sfat, ci chiar dou.
10. n zilele noastre, copiii au prea multe teme acas.
11. Un arbust sete o plant lemnoas de dimensiuni mai mici dect un arbore.
12. Am dou veti pentru tine: una bun i una rea.
13. Pojarul poate fi o boal primejdioas, dar oreionul e chiar mai ru.
14. O busol nu e la fel de bun ca un compas, dar e mai bun dect nimic.
15. Cte specii de brad cresc prin prile astea?
16. M-a ntrebat unde sunt bagajele mele.
17. Pentru asta am nevoie de un clete, un foarfece, un ciocan i nite cuie.
18. nainte brbaii fceau trei ani armata.
Trei ani e o grmad de timp.
19. Am nevoie de nite informaii n legtur cu acest ocol silvic.
20. n aceast camer este un singur articol de mobil din lemn de stejar.
21. Mrfurile ar putea foarte bine s fie transportate cu trenul.
22. n afar de un plc de copaci, la periferia oraului nu era pic de vegetaie.
23. Brbatul voia despgubiri.
24. Ia-o pe-a lui Mary.
25. Acestea sunt rezultatele examenului de ieri.
26. Dup o odihn de zece minute, urma a doua sesiune.
27. Casa prietenei surorii lui Nick este foarte spaioas.
28. Voi renate din cenu ca pasrea Phoenix.
29. Eti amabil s ne aduci o scrumier?
30. Cum ai putut s confunzi un frasin cu un tei?
Era ntuneric bezn.
31. Cei buni mor repede.
32. Locuitorii oraului sunt foarte ngrijorai de sistarea energiei electrice.
33. Puiul de elephant cntrete peste 100 kg la natere.
34. Economia Romniei e nc la pmnt.
35. n trei ani de zile voi fi terminat facultatea.
36. Lng frasin e scrum sau cenu?
37. Cte specii de foioase cunoti?





71

Lecia 6. METAPHOR: HUMAN = PLANT


(dup A. Goatly, p. 43)

D Kinds of humans = kinds of plants

63. Read the following text and pay attention to the underlined words. Fill in the dotted
lines to make up a story.
72















My roots run deep in the region.
..................................................................................................................................................................................
Violet (my fathers sister, a real gooseberry) succeeded in planting the seeds of doubt in my mothers mind about
my fathers hidden agenda.
..................................................................................................................................................................................
Of course, when marrying my mother, my father actually had to marry her entire family which consisted of:
1. one piece grumpy old father-in-law (a real lemon who used to drive my father nuts)
2. one piece queer brother-in-law (as I found out later on, he was the pansy of the family)
3. one piece sisterin-law (dedicated wallflower)
..................................................................................................................................................................................
You should meet my sister Fleur sometimes: shes a real peach.
...................................................................................................................................................................................
As for me, Im not planting cucumbers but trying (couch) potatoes.
Family Tree

Read the following entries. Student A explains to Student B what a CABBAGE is; also a
WALLFLOWER, a LEMON and a GOOSEBERRY. Student B mimes for Student A a
COUCH POTATO and a PANSY.

CABBAGE = a large round vegetable with thick green or purple leaves: varz
= someone who cannot think, move or speak as a result of a brain
injury (also VEGETABLE): [ legum ]
= someone who is stupid / careless / indifferent

COUCH POTATO = someone who spends a lot of time sitting and watching TV

GOOSEBERRY = a small round green fruit that grows in a bush and has a sour
taste: agri
= someone who hinders two people who are having a romantic
relationship and who want to be alone together

LEMON = a fruit with hard yellow skin and sour juice: lmie
= something useless: eec / lucru nefolositor
=a silly / obnoxious person: nesuferit
=something that does not function properly (ex. a car: hrb)

PANSY = a small garden plant with brightly coloured flowers: panselu
= an offensive word for a man who seems weak and too much like a
woman: tnr efeminat

PEACH = a round juicy fruit that has a soft yellow or red skin and a large, hard
seed in the centre: piersic
= someone that you think is very good in a way or another: frumusee,
odor, bomboan

WALLFLOWER = a sweet-smelling garden plant with yellow and red flowers:
mixandr, plant agtoare
73
= someone at a party, dance etc. who is not asked to dance or
take part in the activities

WEED = a wild plant growing where it is not wanted that prevents crops or
garden flowers from growing properly: buruian
= someone who is weak or lean

WILLOWY = like a willow (salcie): cu slcii, umbrit de slcii
= tall, thin, graceful: zvelt, mldios, subire ca o trestie


D Parts of humans = parts of plants

the flower of smth. = They were killed in the flower of their youth.

root = rdcin (plants / hair / tooth)

tendril = a thin leafless curling stem by which a climbing plant fastens itself to a
Support: crcel, lujer
= a thin curling piece of hair: crlion, zuluf

tuft = a bunch of hair / grass / feathers held closely together at their base

D Qualities of humans = qualities of plants

BARREN = a tree or plant that is barren produces no fruit or seeds
= a barren woman is unable to have babies
= also: barren soil / land

BUSHY = plants with a lot of branches and leaves are bushy
= .... hair

DEAD WOOD = branches of a tree that are no longer alive
= people within an organisation / group who are no longer useful or
needed

GNARLED = a gnarled tree or branch is rough and twisted with hard lumps
= gnarled fingers / hands are twisted, rough, difficult to move
(especially because they are old)

GREEN = young plant, not ripe: crud, tnr, necopt, verde
= young, immature, inexperienced person
= greens: (noun) vegetables with large green leaves
= Eat your greens!
= to have green fingers (BE) / to have a green thumb (AE) = to be good
at making plants grow; to be a good gardener

LUXURIANT = vegetation
74
= hair

RIPE = ripe fruit or crops are fully grown and ready to eat: copt
= mature: n vrst, copt la minte, cu scaun la cap
= also MELLOW: copt, potolit, cuminit, moale, tandru, simpatic, binevoitor
(mellowness = prg)

SEASONED = timber; also: seasoned food
= a seasoned performer / campaigner / traveller / observer is an
experienced one

D Realising human potential = flowering / flourishing

bloom
- blossom
efflorescence
- to flourish
budding = nmugurire
= a budding artist / actor / writer = un artist / actor / scriitor la nceput de carier
= a budding romance = a romance beginning to develop

D Acting on humans = acting on plants

l to fell
= More than 100 trees were felled this week.
=The goalkeeper was felled by the ball thrown from the other side of the field.

l a) to plant
= Theres an entire hillside planted with fir-trees down here.
= The Police planted undercover detectives everywhere.
b) to transplant
= Perhaps transplanting the sapling would save it.
= Transplanting bone marrow might save his life.

l to trim (grass / trees / hedge / hair)
= The lawn / hegde needs trimming.
= He has his hair trimmed every month or so.

l to uproot
= Uprooting can be a very damaging operation for a young tree.
= The idea of uprooting himself and moving to another country was quite upsetting.

HUMANS AND PLANTS

to be the apple of somebodys eye = a fi lumina ochilor cuiva

to beat about / around the bush = a bate apa n piu
75

to be at the top of the tree = a fi n vrful piramidei / ierarhiei sociale

deep-rooted beliefs = convingeri bine nrdcinate

family tree = arbore genealogic

to go to the root of the matter = a merge pn n miezul problemei

to nettle somebody = a urzica pe cineva (propriu + figurat)

to nip in the bud = a nbui n fa

nursery = pepinier (also: cre, maternitate, camera copiilor)

plant = plant / fabric, uzin [propriu]
= a person secretly put somewhere to find information
= an idea is also like a plant
= a fruitful / fertile idea
= A new idea grew in her mind. Where does thid idea stem from?
= He planted the idea in their minds. And the idea germinated.

the primrose path / way = calea plcerilor / a desftrii

root and branch = din rdcin = a root and branch reform of the system

rooted to the spot = mort de fric

to sow the seeds of doubt = a semna ndoial

to be a thorn in ones side / flesh = a fi un ghimpe n imima cuiva

a thorny problem = o problem spinoas

to be up a tree = a fi n pom

to win / gain laurels = a fi ncununat cu lauri

a plum job = sinecur; slujb dorit de muli

to be full of beans = a fi foarte energic sau nerbdtor

not to have a bean = a nu avea deloc bani; a fi falit

to be as like as two peas / like two peas in a pod = a semna foarte bine

A new crop of students entered the classroom.

76
Match the two columns:

look alike deadwood
be broke beat about / around the bush
tireless like two peas in a pod
dry branches plum job
waffle full of beans
feathered nest not have a bean

64. 3 at the Price of 1
Think of one word which can be used to complete the following three sentences:
O Last night, the ............... of the hospital filled with new-born babies.
O Her grandchildren usually play in the .................
O A ............... is a place where plants and trees are grown and sold.

Lecia 7. CONIFEROUS VERSUS DECIDUOUS

65. a) Study the following table.
b) Find other comparisons of your own.
c) Transform the particular characteristics (chs) into generalities (ex. coniferous vs.
deciduous).
d) Give other examples of coniferous and deciduous trees.

HORNBEAM (Carpinus Betulus) PINE (Pinus Sylvestris)
Leaf chs Fruit
chs
Bark
chs
Other
chs
Leaf
chs
Fruit
chs
Bark
chs
Others
chs
broad

flat

simple

not lobed

fine

doubly
toothed

base
symmetrical

oval

narrows
toward tip

3 x or 2 x
as long as
wide
winged

elongated

nutlet at
base of 3-
lobed wing-
like sac
blue-gray

smooth
TRUNK
(deeply
rippled, like
sinewy
muscles)
WOOD
(hard, tough,
used in
making tool
handles and
small
wooden
articles,
decays
rapidly when
in contact
with soil)
BUDS
(imbricate,
with many
scales,
angled)
FLOWERS
(monoecious,
borne in
catkins)
needle-
like

needles in
clusters of
2 less than
3 inches
long
blue-
green
cone or
cone-like

cone
greater than
one inch
long less
than 4
inches long

cone dry
and hard

thick
scales

scales
without
spines
scaly

bright
orange-
red


becomes
darker
and very
rough on
the
lower
trunk of
older
trees
very
tolerant of
soil
conditions,
moisture
and
extremes of
weather
HEIGHT
(40m)
AGE (150
- 300 years)
WOOD
(used for
outdoors,
fencing,
joinery,
buliding,
flooring,
box and
packing
case)

77
66. PINE, SPRUCE OR FIR? Which is which?


Long needles in groups of 2, 3 (hard species) or
5 (soft species). At a certain age, the tree ceases to
increase in height.





Long, often cone-shaped crowns. Straight trunks.
Thin, scaly bark. Slender, often drooping lower
branches. Shallow root system. Short, stiff, sharp-
pointed needle-like leaves.


Tall, straight trunks. Thin, scaly bark. Slender,
regularly whorled branches. Needle-like leaves
flattened in cross-section and spirally arranged on
the twigs. After the leaves are shed, the smooth
twigs are marked with tiny, circular, leaf scars.
a) Make a list of terms related to sylviculture (written above in italics) and arrange them
according to your own criteria.
b) Arrange the adjectives written in bold in synonymic and antonymic couples.

67.

Latin English Romanian

shepherds purse

Carpinus Betulus


hemlock


ferig

78
larch n. [C/U] a tree that looks like a pine tree
but drops its leaves in winter
lath n. [C] a long flat narrow piece of wood used
in buliding to support plaster
lily n. [C] one of several tzpes of plant with large
bell-shaped flowers of various colours, especially
white limb 4 n. [C] a large branch of a tree
lime n. [C] a tree with pleasant smelling yellow
flowers, which produces small juicy green fruits
(white lime)
linden n. [C] LIME
log n. [C] a thick piece of wood from a tree
logcabin n. [C] a small house made of logs
logger n. [C] someone whose job is to cut down
trees (logger = lumberjack)
lumber n. [U] pieces of wood used for building
(lumber = timber)
lychee, litchi n. [C] a small round fruit with a
rough pink-brown shell outside and sweet white
flesh inside


























79
Lecia 8. GRAMMAR SECTION (CONCEPTS EXPRESSED BY
MODAL AND RELATED VERBS)

Verbe modale: CAN & COULD, WILL & WOULD, MAY & MIGHT, SHALL &
SHOULD, MUST.

Verbele modale sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (se folosesc fr particula TO).

CAN: = I bet he can fell that huge oak all by himself.
COULD: = He couldnt have committed the murder as he was in Connecticut at the
time.

Verbele modale au o singur form, ceea ce nseamn c nu sunt niciodat urmate de
terminaii precum: -S (care se adaug la persoana a treia singular la prezentul simplu), -ED
(care se adaug verbelor regulate la timpul trecut past tense simple), sau ING (desinen
de participiu prezent).

MAY: = Take your raincoat; it may rain.
MIGHT: = Grandpa might come by the night train.

Negativul i interogativul se formeaz, n cazul modalelor, prin inversiune (la fel ca n
cazul verbului BE)

WILL: = Will you close the door, please?
WOULD: = I would not do that, if I were you.
= The engine wouldnt start.
= Wont you stay a little longer? (neg+interog.)

Verbele modale exprim atitudinea sau sentimentele vorbitorului vizavi de o anumit
situaie, artnd: necesitatea, probabilitatea, posibilitatea, interdicia, concesia, hotrrea,
insistena, refuzul, sfatul, indiferena etc.

SHALL: = Thou shall not kill. Thou shall not steal.
SHOULD: = Rainforests should be preserved at all costs.

Unul i acelai verb modal poate fi folosit cu sensuri diferite care se deduc numai din
context:

MUST: = You must not look a gift horse in the mouth.
= She must have got home by now.

Aria tematic a verbelor modale fiind att de larg, vom reconstrui traseul invers
nu pornind de la verb ctre posibilele sale ntrebuinri i semnificaii, ci de la un concept
anume (ex. probabilitate, necesitate, ofert etc.) ctre rdcinile sale modale.

E Comparai:
= He cant do that.
80
= He cant have done that.

= You shouldnt do that.
= You shouldnt have done that.

= He may do that.
= He may have done that.

Modal Present: Modal + Vb. (infinitive)
Modal Perfect: Modal + HAVE + 3rd form

O. ABILITY (abilitate, capacitate)

CAN / CANNOT (CANT)
= He can speak English fluently. (mental ability)
= He can swim very well. (physical ability)
= I cant see anything because of this thick fog. (ability depending
on circumstances)
a) la timpul
prezent
COULD / COULD NOT (COULDNT) (n vorbirea indirect
sau n condiionale de tipul II)
= He says he can fell the oak all by himself.
= He said he could fell the oak all by himself.
= I would build myself a chalet if I could.
COULD / COULD NOT (COULDNT) (atunci cnd se face
referire la o abilitate general, permanent, n trecut)
= My uncle could speak Russian very fluently when in the flower
of youth.
= I could swim very well when I was a teen-ager.
WAS / WERE ABLE TO
MANAGED TO (atunci cnd se face referire la o anumit
aciune sau situaie din trecut)
= I managed to understand everything he tried to tell me, in spite
of the bad line.
= No matter how hard I tried, I wasnt able to uncork the bottle of
champagne all by myself.
COULD / COULD NOT (COULDNT) + verbs of the senses
(chiar atunci cnd se face referire la o anumit aciune din trecut)
= I could smell something burning.
= I could hear someone was playing the piano downstairs.
b) la timpul trecut
COULD + HAVE + 3rd form (n condiionale de tipul III)
= We could have got there in time if we hadnt missed the train.

E Celelalte forme ale lui CAN (de exemplu viitorul sau prezentul perfect) pot fi suplinite
de formele corespunztoare ale lui BE ABLE TO:
= I havent been able to get in touch with him.
= I wont be able to read the entire course by tomorrow.
= He said he had been able to fix the engine.
81


68. Fill in the blanks with CAN / CANT, using the following prompts:

drive a car; to do the split; climb up a tree; knit; cook; swim.

C My brother can................................, but I cant.................................
C Grandma can................................, but I cant.................................
CHes such a strong young lad; he can..................................., but I
cant....................................
C I can ............................................ I bet you cant.
C Judging by the way that omelette looks, its obvious she cant.......................
Only I have a licence, so Im the only one who can....................................


69. Choose CAN, CANT, COULD, COULDNT or BE ABLE TO:
C As far as I ......... remember, he came back later than usual.
C Watch this; I ......... do a wheelie.
C Im afraid I ......... help you at the moment.
C Having recovered from his injury, he ......... to drive again.
C If the snow carries on like that, no one ......... to get to the Towns Hall in time.
I ......... hear his footsteps downstairs but dared not move.
C He told me he ......... see anything through the keyhole.


O POSSIBILITY (posibilitatea)


CAN (neg+interr.)
= It cant be true.
= Can it be true?
CAN / COULD
= What can / could she mean by that?
= Could the news be true?
MAY
= Take your umbrella; it may rain.
= The guests may arrive by the morning train.
a) present / future
time
MIGHT (un grad de probabilitate mai redus dect cel
sugerat de MAY; nesiguran)
= The guests might arrive by the morning train.
COULD / COULDNT + HAVE + 3rd form
= I couldve booked an earlier flight, had I realized the haste.
CANNOT + HAVE + 3rd form
= He cannot have said such a terrible thing to his own mother.
b) past time
MAY / MIGHT + HAVE + 3rd form
= She may / might have been ill.

82
70. Rephrase:
C I dont believe they extorted your aunt.
They cant ............... .
C Is it possible that he escape from prison?
Can ............... ?
C He is too nice a guy to have said such a thing.
He cant ............... .
C They say grandma will arrive tomorrow morning, but theyre not very sure.
Grandma might ............... .
C I wonder if they brought the blue suit.
Could ............... ?

O PROBABILITY, LIKELIHOOD (probabilitatea)

\ 100% sure / probable = certainty; something evident
WILL / WONT
= That will be the postman!
\ 90-100% sure / probable = logical deduction; almost
certain
MUST / CANT
= He must be retired by now.
= He must be studying for his exams.
= Her car is in front. She cant be in a meeting.
\ 70-80% sure / probable = expectation
SHOULD / OUGHT TO
SHOULDNT / OUGHTNT TO
BE LIKELY TO / BE UNLIKELY TO
= The doctor says you should be fine by tomorrow.
a) present / future time
\ 0-70% sure / probable = uncertainty
MAY / MIGHT
= The weather might change by tonight.
= Its lunch break / time. He may not be in his office.
WILL / WONT + HAVE + 3rd form
= Youll have heard the bad news. (presupunerea vorbitorului)
SHOULD / OUGHT TO + HAVE + 3rd form
= He should have arrived by now.
b) past time
MUST / MAY / MIGHT / CAN / COULD + 3rd form
= He must / may / might have arrived by now.
= He cant / couldnt have heard the news.
71. Provide some contexts that could be answered by:



There must
be some
mistake.




83


























72. Match each sentence (1-6) with its meaning (a-f).


C He must have graduated by now. a)100% sure (probability of him having
graduated)
C He will have graduated by now. b) 90-100% sure
C He should have graduated by now. c) 70-80% sure
C He cant have graduated yet. d) 40-60% sure
C He might have graduated by now. e) 0% sure



O PERMISSION vs. PROHIBITION (permisiune vs. interdicie)

PERMISSION PROHIBITION
CAN; COULD; MAY; MIGHT (scala
politeii n aceast ordine)
= May I borrow your umbrella? Yes, you
may.
MUST NOT
= You mustnt talk about politics if they
invite you to dinner.
= You must not walk on the grass.




You must
be kidding.
They must
have got
married.
They mustve
missed the
train.
She must
be very
worried.
84
MAY NOT
= One may not travel abroad more than
five times a year.
CANNOT
= You cannot play football in my
courtyard.
SHOULD NOT / OUGHT NOT TO
= One should not tell lies.
= If you want to lose some weight, you
ought not to eat between meals.
SHALL NOT
= You shall not get out of the house
without my permission.
= Might I use your phone? Yes, if you
must.
= Can I speak to you for a moment? In
private, if possible.
= He asked if he might open the window.
AM / IS / ARE NOT TO
= You are not to make physical effort.
\ Alte modaliti de a cere permisiunea:
l prin ntrebri indirecte:
= Is it all right if I change the sheets?
= I wonder if I could get my money back.
l prin condiionale:
= Do you mind if I smoke?
Actually, Id rather you didnt.
= Would you mind if I close the door?
Not at all.
l prin BE ALLOWED TO, BE
PERMITTED TO:
= No dogs are allowed to enter this
exhibition.
= Will you be permitted to enter the exam,
given the circumstances?
\ Alte modaliti de a exprima
prohibiia:
l DO NOT: = Dont go anywhere!
l NO+ing: = No smoking! No parking!
l NOT TO BE ALLOWED /
PERMITTED TO:
= You are not allowed / permitted to leave
the country.


73. One may:
smoke (in smoking areas)





One must not:
smoke in the street





85
1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy
2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
3. No animal shall wear clothes.
4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
5. No animal shall drink alcohol.
6. No animal shall kill another animal.
7. All animals are equal.
(The 7 Commandments Animal farm, George Orwell)


O NECESSITY (OBLIGATION) vs. NO NECESSITY

MUST
= I must work on weekends, too.
= Must I wash the dishes?
HAVE TO / HAVE GOT TO
= I had to check on the kids.
= I had to prune those apple-trees in the backyard.
= I will have to change the ticket.
= The project has got to be done by tomorrow.
NEED
= Need you always drive so fast?
Do you always need to drive so fast?
= You neednt wash the dishes this time.
= I neednt buy apples / I dont need to buy apples; I can
see there is a bowl full of fruit.
= I neednt have brought apples / I didnt need to have
bought apples; if only I had seen that bowl full of fruit!
SHOULD / OUGHT TO
= You ought to be more careful when you drive.
= You should help him; after all, hes your friend!
\ Alte modaliti de exprimare a necesitii:
l AM / ARE / IS TO
= We are to meet at six in front of the University.
l SHALL (persoana a doua sau a treia: ordine sau documente
legale)
= All shall perish.
= Th defendant shall pay damages to Mr. White.


74. Rephrase:
C Its not necessary to lock the door just now.
You neednt ............... .
C Dont cut the sprouts unless they are damaged by frost.
You neednt ............... .
C You dont have to return the book till next week.
You neednt ............... .
86
C It was not necessary for me to hurry.
I neednt ............... .
C I took more money than I really needed when I went shopping at the Mall.
I neednt ............... .


O OFFERS AND INVITATIONS

= Shall I fetch you a glass of wine?
= Ill bring you a cup of sparkling water instead.
= Would you like me to wait for you at the airport?
= Wont you stay a little longer?
+ = Let me help you.


75. Match the following:

making a request Would you like to come with me for a glass of sparkling
water?
giving an order Do you mind if I help myself to some fresh water?
offering help Get me some water!
offering smth. Could you get me some water?
making an invitation Shall I get you a glass of water?
asking for permission Would you like me to help you uncork a bottle of
sparkling water?


O ADVICE AND SUGGESTIONS

SHOULD: = I think you should prove to him youre a
real friend.
SHALL: = Shall we have a break now?
\ Alte modaliti:
l Lets go to cinema this afternoon!
l What / how about going to the cinema this afternoon?
l Couldnt we go to the cinema instead?
l Why dont we go to the cinema instead?
l Why not leave earlier and go to the cinema?
l Youd better go see a doctor at once.

76. Complete the following sentences with SHOULD / OUGHT TO + infinitive or
SHOULD / OUGHT TO + HAVE + 3rd form, using one of these verbs: DOUBLE-
CHECK, LISTEN, PRUNE, REFRIGERATE, SWEEP.
C According to the label, this peanut butter ......... after opening.
C You ......... to my advice and you would now be completely over it.
C These apple-trees ......... by now.
C Somebody ......... the floor before the guests arrival.
87
C A good spy ......... the information before he makes it public.

77.
W
Imagine conversation over the phone to:
l make an appointment
l leave a message
l buy an aeroplane ticket
l book a hotel room
l order a catalogue
l .........
Use the following prompts:


Ill put you
through. The phone
is ringing.
dial the
(international
code) number
lift / pick
up the
receiver
look the no.
up in the
directory
answer the
phone / come
to the phone
long
distance call
/ local call
The phone has
gone dead.
Hold the
line,
please!
The line /
no. is busy
/ engaged.
The phone
is out of
order.
Do you have
a private line
telephone?
Ill ring /
call back.
















88

extension
telephone
telephone
exchange
phone / call
box (BE) /
booth (AE)
Shall I give /
convey him
a message?
Mary
speaking.
I probably
got the
wrong no.
The line is
free /
clear.
Who is
(that)
speaking?
You are
wanted on
the phone.
on / off the
phone
cell / cellular phone /AE)
mobile phone (BE)



Hello? Anybody
there?
Maintenance
Department
call services


89

























Hes on
another
line.
Whos speaking, please? /
May I tell him whos calling?
to dial the no.
##############
%%%%%%%%%
This is she.
%%%%%%%%%%%
Im calling on behalf of....
the line was
disconnected
by / over
the phone
hang up the
receiver
Enquiries
drop / press / put the
coin in the slot
He wont be back until tomorrow,
Im afraid.
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
You can reach him on his mobile.
Could you tell him Susan Bryant
rang?
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
Ill make sure he gets the message. /
Yes, certainly, Ill pass on your
messa
What time can I call her back?
Can I take a message? ge.
90
78.
When you should make a phone call (mobile)
Tick permitted or recommended or forbidden and then use an appropriate modal to
describe the situation.

location / situation permitted not recommended forbidden modal
street

market

hotelroom

office
X
One may use his
mobile when in an
office.
park

mountains

beach

restaurant

bar

reception

business reunion
X
One should avoid
speaking during a
business reunion.
at home, with guests

audience

visit

car

plane

theatre / concert /
cinema

conference

lecture hall

during courses

church

job interview



O WILLINGNESS AND DETERMINATION (voin i hotrre)


WILL
= I will do as I like.
= Ill have the roast chicken and a salad.
= I will never speak to him again.
WOULD
= He would practise for hours on end
only to get that prize.
= Would you care to dance with me?

91

79. Write a list of things your friend / colleague / partner / spouse does and you hate.
Ex. He / she will leave the door open / unlocked when he / she goes out.
She will speak on the phone for hours on end.


O HABIT (obicei(uri))

WILL (obicei nc actual)
= He will gaze at the stars for hours.
= She will take about her children for hours on end.
WOULD (tendin sau obicei din trecut)
= He would wake up early, feed the poultry and then walk all the way to his office.
=Grandpa would take him in his lap and start telling stories with ducklings and
storklings.
USED TO (nu se folosete cu indicatori temporali foarte precii; se deduce cu
aproximaie perioada din context)
= He used to work in a nursery.
= My colleagues used to smoke 20 cigarettes a day. (obinuiau s fumeze; fumau)
Comparai:
= In 1980 / in the 1990s / between 1975-1997, I worked in forestry.
= When I was young, I used to work in a ranger-district.


80. Fill in with WILL, WOULD or USED TO:
C The region known as Bammas ......... be called Protteo.
C As a child, I ......... wander through the woods for hours.
C When the weather was good, we ......... go on a trip in the mountains just about every
other weekend.
C Our great-grandfather ......... work in the fields.
C He ......... play games on the computer for hours.

G COURAGE, IMPUDENCE (curaj, ndrzneal)


DARE
= How dare you lie to me about such an important matter!
= I darent (dont dare) disturb the Professor during the lecture.
= You are tired, I daresay. (probabil; se pare; ndrznesc s spun)


81. Translate into English:
C Nu ndrznesc s-i spun adevrul pentru c m tem de reacia ei.
C Cum ndrzneti s-mi ascunzi un lucru aa de important?
C Te provoc s-mi spui adevrul gol-golu.

92
Lecia 9. OTHER CONCEPTS EXPRESSED BY MODAL VERBS

WILL / WOULD
= Men will be men.
= Accidents will happen.
= He will have his own way.
= Now, thats something she would say.
1. INSISTENCY,
REFUSAL
WONT / WOULDNT
= I wont accept that.
= This door simply wouldnt open.
= The wound wouldnt heal.
= Hard as I tried, he wouldnt listen to what I had to say.
= The neighbours dog wont stop barking.
2. PAST CRITICISM SHOULD / SHOULDNT / OUGHT TO+HAVE+3rd form
=You shouldnt have spent all the money he gave you on trifles.
= You ought to have mentioned that to him.
MIGHT (present)
= You might pay attention to what Im trying to say here.
3. REPROACH
MIGHT + HAVE + 3rd form (past)
= You might have helped me to mend the car.
WILL (1st person)
= Ill pay you back as soon as I can.
= Ill sue you if you ever do that again.
4. PROMISES
& THREATS
SHALL (2nd & 3rd person)
= You shall be informed in due time.
= They shall be severely punished for what they did.
MAY / MIGHT
= It may be May, but its terribly cold in this part of the country.
= Try as I may / might, I could not open the can.
5. CONCESSION
WILL / WOULD
= Try / say what you will, you wont make it.
6.SURPRISE, JOY,
INDIGNATION,
DISAPPOINTMENT
SHOULD
= How should I know? (indignation)
= I wonder why he should be so angry with me. (surprise)
MAY / MIGHT as well
= We might as well start working now.
7. INDIFFERENCE
MAY / MIGHT as well + HAVE + 3rd form
= He might as well have quit smoking.
WOULD RATHER / SOONER
= Id rather be a forest than a street.
= I would rather have left the country.
8. PREFERENCE
HAD BETTER / BEST
= Youd better come quickly.
= Youd better have resigned.
9. PURPOSE so that + WILL / WOULD / CAN / COULD / MAY / MIGHT /
SHALL / SHOULD
= Im lighting the fire so that the room will be warm.
10. HOPE hope / trust + MAY / MIGHT / WILL / WOULD
= I hope you may / will soon recover from your illness.
= He trusted I might / would soon recover.

93

82.
BUT I DIDNT (Frank Flynn)

When I got out of bed this morning
I might have tripped and fallen down
The stairs, breaking my neck as I did so
But I didnt.
Going to school
The bus might have crashed
In the morning rain
But it didnt.
There might have bee an earthquake
Causing the school to collapse
But there wasnt.

Make your own with SHOULD.

83. Replace BE SUPPOSED TO with other modal verbs you consider suitable:
C The oak is supposed to blossom in May.
C Nettles are supposed to cure a great many ailments.
C Foxglove is supposed to contain a cardiovascular drug.
C Drinking hot milk before you go to bed is supposed to help you sleep well.
C A black cat walking in front of you is supposed to bring you bad luck.
Walking under a ladder is supposed to be unlucky.
C 13 is supposed to be a major source of bad luck.
Touching wood is supposed to protect you from evil spirits.

84. Translate the following sentences:
1. When the trees on the alley are all cut down, something of great value will have been
lost.
2. A cup of coffee will do.
3. Could I have your attention, please?
4. All the citizens of Romania must comply with the laws as derived from the ratified
Constitution.
5. You cant be serious!
6. Must you always quarrel with each other?
7. Can you blame her?
8. May you live long!
9. You must visit us soon. It would be so nice to see you again!
10. I cant help laughing when I hear him singing.
11. It cant be easy living your life in a wheel-chair.

85. SHOULD or MUST?
C You ......... be mad if you imagine Im going to lend you any more money.
C If you smell gas, you ......... call the emergency number.
94
C I ......... visit my parents more often.
C I ......... read the entire report in order to make an accurate analysis.
86. MUST or HAVE TO?

Dozing Off Next to Sleeping Beauty

C I always sleep through the alarm clock. My mum ......... wake me up every morning.
C What do I ......... do in order to combat oversleeping?
C You walk up and down the hall almost every night; you ......... be a sleep-walker or
something!
C She ......... take sleeping pills from time to time; its the doctors orders!
C I cant come right now; I ......... put the baby to sleep.
You ......... do something about her nervous breakdown; she does nothing but cry herself
to sleep.
C I keep talking in my sleep. I ......... under a lot of stress.
Treating sleeping disorders ......... be difficult.


87. Underline the correct modal:
C Theres someone at the door. It might / could / must be the postman.
C Take a look at the skies! I think it can / might / must rain.
C That can / may / might not be Robert. Hes away at a conference.
C You must / should / have to call the doctor as soon as another fit of cough appears.


88. Speculate on what might have happened to you by the end of next year.
Use: may / might / could possibly + have + 3rd form


89. Match 1-13 with their uses of CAN (a-m):


1. She can speak several foreign languages. a) chance
2. I can change my car anytime. b) competence
3. The President doesnt seem like a man who can manipulate
the media.
c) doubt
4. My boss can be very boring, but he can behave with the
ladies.
d) freedom of will
5. We can beard the lion in his den. e) mental ability
6. It can be a bacterial infection. f) permission
7. I can remember almost every detail of our encounter. g) possibility
8. All our dreams can come true. h) power
9. You can blow the candles on your birthday cake now. i) presupposition
10. The doctor can see you now. j) skill
11. Can it be true?
k)strong
recommendation
95
12. Do not worry. You can always make it up to them. l) suggestion
13. You can forget about me. m) talents
90. Use WONT / WOULDNT for the following things which refuse to work properly:

knife cut
nuts crack
window open
door close
computer print
tape-recorder play


91. Make up senences with modal verbs expressing:
@ ability (past time): to climb a mountain
@ advice (past time): to change the school
@ necessity (past time): to dig a hole
@ permision (future time): to ride a poney
@ probability (present time): to get broken / worn out
@ prohibition (present time): to use smbd.s toothbrush
@ reproach (past time): to warn smbd. about smth.

92. Rephrase:
1. Its possible that Ill see you tomorrow, but Im not sure.
I ...............
2. I suppose you are the new forest ranger. How do you do?
You ...............
3. They didnt do it. It is simply impossible.
They ...............
4. Perhaps she suffers from amnesia.
She ...............
5. I advise you to reconsider your hasty decision.
You ................
6. It would have been better for you not to resign.
You ...............
7. I doubt he bought the entire building.
He ...............
8. There is a slight chance that the snow will stop soon.
The snow ...............
9. Paying cash isnt necessary in this supermarket.
One ...............
10. I dont think she really forgot about it.
She ...............
11. It was not necessary for you to say that.
You ...............
12. If you ask me, its highly probable he did it on purpose.
He ...............
96
13. Im quite sure they forgot to buy bread.
They ...............
14. There is a chance for you to find her in the attic, but I rather doubt it.
You ...............
15. It is forbidden to use cribs during the exam.
Cribs ..............
16. My parents worried too much about me when I was a young girl.
My parents ...............
17. Im sure it wasnt John you saw in the park.
You ...............
18. Id prefer you to leave earlier.
Id rather ...............
19. Its time she told him the truth.
Shed ...............
20. May I borrow your umbrella?
Am I allowed ...............
21. He prefers playing football to watching TV.
Hed ...............
22. I prefer going on a trip in the mountains instead.
Id ...............
23. His leaving earlier would please me more.
Id ...............
24. Maybe he has had an accident.
He may well ...............
25. Why didnt you make this decision earlier?
You ...............

93. Translate into English:
1 S scriu lucrarea pe curat?
2 N-a fi n stare s mint ntr-o asemenea situaie.
3 Nu vom putea veni sptmna viitoare.
4 Poi s iei cartea mea.
5 Au spus c nu putei intra n aceast cldire.
6 S nu furi!
7 Trebuie s plec.
8 Nu era nevoie s ne ateptai.
9 Ce spunei dumneavoastr nu poate fi adevrat.
10 S-ar putea ca ei s fi plecat.
11 Aceast piersic nu se decojete.
12 Cu siguran c doarme.
13 Voi face cum am eu chef.
14 Vrei s nciu ua, te rog?
15 De unde s tiu eu?
16 Orict de mult a ncerca, nu reuesc s i neleg decizia.
17 N-o s accept s-mi vorbeti aa.
18 Mai degrab a muri dect s cedez.
97
19 Va trebui s te lai de fumat dac vrei s apuci vrsta bunicului tu.
20 Chiar trebuie s ne ntlnim la 5 dimineaa?

Lecia 10. ACTIONS AND REACTIONS

ACTION REACTION
deed
operation
business
motion
work
activity
lawsuit
achievement
act

response
backlash
answer
reply
feedback
behaviour
opposition


TO ACT - ACTION TO REACT REACTION
= Pip acted as if he was better than the
rest.
= caught in the act
= to act as a catalyst
= an act of violence / generosity
=The government must take action to stop
poaching affairs.
= The sooner you put your ideas into
action, the better.
= All military actions are supposed to be
top secret.
= There are all the necessary conditions
for him to take legal action against you.
= New York is where the action is!
= Actions speak louder than words!
= ACTION!
= There were mixed reactions to the
mayors resignation.
= People reacted to the speech in different
ways.
=The calcium reacts with sulphur in the
atmosphere.
= The child reacts badly to antibiotics.
= My first reaction was to deny everything.
= Smith is a skilled driver with quick
reactions.
= A chain reaction is a nuclear reaction or
a chemical reaction which causes more
reactions of the same kind.
= She had a severe allergic reaction to the
drug.
= the forces of reaction

ACTION:
= TO DO / MAKE = TO PUT (A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF) EFFORT INTO
DOING SMTH.


METAPHOR:

PUTTING A LOT OF
EFFORT INTO DOING
SMTH.

IS LIKE
USING A PART OF
BODY
= Our duty as citizens is to put our shoulders to rebuild this country.
= The question is: is he willing to get involved? Will he ever get his hands dirty?
98
= Maura is the only one of us who would have the backbone to stand up to the boss.
= Youll have to keep your nose to the grindstone if you want to pass this exam.

E Remember: DO MAKE!
Use DO with:
work / homework / housework
cooking / gardening / ironing / shopping / washing
a course / an exam / a test
Use MAKE with:
decisions / effort
(a fresh new) start
the bed
a speech / a suggestion / a remark / plans / profit
an apology / a difference / a list / a goal / the score
E Do is used to describe an action without saying exactly
what the action is:
= I'm going to do something that you won't believe!
= Before I do press button 3, I think its worth pointing out
that in so doing, Im opening up a new era of technology.
(Notice the difference between do and in so doing!!!)
E Do is used to talk about work and jobs:
= My sister usually does the housework during the week, and
I do most of the chores on the weekend, laundry too.
= Have you done your homework?
E Make is used to speak about building, constructing,
producing, creating etc.
= Andy made a tree house for his children.
= We make our own yoghurt.

DO or MAKE?
1. Hes getting better at Maths. He even started ............... his homework.
2. They are ............... a research on why the weather is changing.
3. Im afraid hes not very good at ............... decisions.
4. I hear your company ............... a lot of business in Turkey.
5. If he wants to pass the exam this time he should ............... an effort.
6. Sarahs .............. her nails and hair now; shell call you back later.
7. Who ............... the laundry at your place?

Whats the difference between:
O to do time & to make time

O to do ones best & to make the best (of ...)

O to do it & to make it


99
E Remember the following BODY verbs:
FROWN, KNEEL, NOD, NUDGE, SCRATCH, SIGH, SNEEZE, WAVE,
WEEP, YAWN.
What parts of the body are involved in these gestures?

METAPHOR:

REACTION COLOUR
Now that you found out the result, youve got a bit of colour in your cheeks.
He stared at her, the colour draining from his face.
The more he complimented her, the more colour flooded her cheeks.
He just found out his grandpa cut him off the allowance and as a result hes a little bit off
colour.

94.
a) Choose actions from A / reactions from B and work on the model:
= Painting the house red is a wonderful idea.
= Panicking is out of the question; ty to keep it cool.
b) Choose actions from A and / or likely reactions from B. Use modals. Work on the
model:
= What use is a man who cannot even change a plug?
=I mustnt speak on the phone more than hour a day.
= Im so happy I could cry!
= As a lad, I could swim like a fish.
= Dont tell her anything yet, she might panic.
= He will chuckle and giggle until he drives you up the wall.
= He couldnt have burst into tears. I simply wont believe it!
= He used to roar with laughter at any of my jokes.
= How dare you yawn in the middle of my speech


A. ACTIONS B. REACTIONS
100
take a photo
speak on the phone
swim drive a car
paint typewrite
play chess
cook knit saw poach
pick flowers / cherries / mushrooms
make war
split the wood
ride a horse / bike
change a plug
print a Word document
make a cup of coffee
climb a mountain
put up a tent
mend a puncture
fell an oak
to do the split
break off and cry
sigh sob weep cry
jump with joy
hit the roof applause
mumble
laugh out loud
frown blush
yawn duck smile
grin howl shriek
scream
burst into tears
go mad
shrug nod
shudder
panic
chuckle giggle
burst out laughing
roar with laughter




Ask your partner:
Can you:
- swim
- knit
- drive a car
- typewrite
- mend a puncture
- change a plug?
Have you ever:
- felled an oak
- put up a tent
- played chess?
When was the last time you:
- jumped with joy
- blushed
- cried
- panicked?
How would you react if:
- you were accused of something you did not do?
- you were arrested for speeding right before Christmas?
- one of your colleagues won the lottery?
- you saw a pickpocket stealing from and/or attacking an elderly woman in the street?


101




95. Fill in with one of the LAUGH words:

Morgan sat reading a magazine, ............... to himself.
C He sat there ............... as if he had been the only one in possession of a dark secret.
C The twins kept ............... broadly at me, as if we were old friends.

96. Translate:
102
1 S rzi nu este numai firesc, cum spunea Rabelais, e i un semn de sntate.
2 Oricine rde n hohote, zgomotos, mpungndu-i vecinul n coaste, face o impresie
proast.
3 Ca orice manifestare comportamental, rsul i gsete expresia ideal n moderaie.
4 Orice om este mai simpatic cnd surde.
5 Nu confunda sursul cu un rnjet!
(din Codul bunelor maniere)




97. Cr y w or ds
She ............... with pride when her daughter was born.
C If this kid keeps ............... this way, the neighbours might call the police.
C Whats the matter with your eyes? You look as if youve been crying.

98.
RIDDLING (dup www.onestopenglish.com)

your computer, lunch, excuses, a phone call, your colleagues, ideas,

O You can make it /
take it /
receive it /
return it. What might it be ?
O You can crash it /
shut it down /
play on it /
103
reboot it. What might it be?
O You can skip it /
grap it /
go for it /
pick up the bill for it. What might it be?
O You can develop them /
share them /
come up with them /
brainstorm them. What might they be?
O You can support them /
attack them /
back them up /
chat with them. What are they?
O You can make them /
look for them /
invent them /
refuse to accept them. What are they?

99. ACTIONS

I II III meaning
a construi
broke
catch
drove
fought
gave
lay
lay
a fura
struck

100. REACTIONS

a) Read the following examples:
When they heard I planned to have the country, my parents got the shock of their lives.
C Her presence literally takes my breath away.
C When they saw him, my aunts fainted and my uncle Bill kept blinking, as if he had seen
a ghost.
No matter how mad you get, you must never call your wife names.
C Do you call that blushing? He was as red as beetroot, I tell you that much.

b) Fill in with a suitable idiom the following responses:

How did you find out that they broke up? No such luck!
Can I borrow your umbrella? Youre pulling my leg!
Ive just been fired! You should be so lucky!
104
Im sure Steaua will qualify for the next
European Cup!
A little bird told me.
Did you get the job you wanted? No way! Over my dead body!
I dreamt Angelina Jolie invited me to a
party.
Yes, and pigs might fly! They havent got a
chance! Have you seen whos in their group?

101. Place the following reaction idioms under the right heading:

be at sea, be like a cat on hot bricks, be rooted to the spot, be on top of he world, be
hopping mad, be in seventh heaven, be at sixes and sevens, have a long face


Feeling HAPPY

Feeling SAD

Feeling
FRIGHTENED /
SHOCKED
Feeling ANGRY

Feeling
NERVOUS /
WORRIED /
ANXIOUS
Feeling
CONFUSED /
UNCERTAIN








102. Choose one of the verbs:

REACT, RESPOND, GREET, MEET WITH, OVERREACT

C How did your parents ............... when they heard you eloped?
C The patient ............... well to the treatment.
C The proposals were ............... with skepticism.
C Any further attacks will be .............. even more violence.
C She neednt worry so much. But what can you do about it? Its in her nature to
overreact.

103. Time to Talk:
O What sports do you play, if any?
O What embarrasses you most often?
O Do you read newspapers? Which part do you read first? (leader, horoscope, home news,
overseas news, sport, TV, obituaries, gossip)
O What childhood activity do you miss doing?
O What activity do you like / hate most at work / school?
O What are 3 things you cant stand other people doing?
O What have you always dreamt of doing?
O When did you first fly (in) a plane / drink alcohol / swim?
O When did you last: tell a lie / stay up all night / wear a suit / send an email / cook a meal
/ eat icecream / travel by boat / dance to a slow song?
G Do you know the meaning of to go down the tree?

105
104.

vote at elections
iron your shirts
take public transport
bungee-jumping
surf the internet
trim the trees


Always 100%
Almost always
Very often
Often
Sometimes
Rarely / seldom
Very rarely
Almost never
Never 0%

105. Complete with activities:
O Im good at .........
O Im keen on .........
O Sometimes I get fed up with .........
O I sometimes regret not .........
a) BB started .........
b) Shes quite proud of .........
c) Cal loves .........
d) He cant help .........
e) My deskmate enjoys .........
g) Jay is good at .........
h) Thomas is addicted to .........
i) He doesnt mind .........
j) Clara wont stop .........

106. Think of things / habits you are not going to give up.
Model:
I definitely wont give up smoking.
Im not going to give up .........
I couldnt live without .........
Id die if I gave up .........
I wouldnt give up ......... for anything (in the world).

107.Whats it for?
sieve ......... pin to fasten
106
corkscrew ......... camera .........
brush ......... whistle .........
ruler to measure brick .........

108. Why bother?

Think of 3 good reasons to do these:
` drink coffee ` learn English
` plant trees ` go to the gym
` play the lottery ` have children


Lecia 11. DEFORESTATION

109. Wordbuilding
D_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ N

The large-scale (...............) process that
was started in the late 70s, (...............)
in the rain forest zones, is having
(...............) consequences on the earths
balance:
(...............) destruction of trees
(...............) leads to soil erosion, and
further to
(...............) (as is the case in sub-
Saharan Africa). Such
(...............) forests as the Amazon are
often called the planets lungs because
they are huge oxygen (...............);
they also contain (...............) vegetal
and animal species.
Thus (...............) claim that they should
be preserved for those two major
reasons. However, it has not been
proven yet whether deforestation has a
real impact on global warming or not.
FOREST
NOTE
DISASTER
MASS
AVOID
DESERT
PRIME
RESERVE
NUMBER
ENVIRONMENT





















` Give synonyms to:
DISASTROUS
TO AVOID
MAJOR
CLAIM

` Give antonyms to:
DEFORESTATION
PRESERVE
107
EROSION
WARMING

TO PRUNE OR NOT TO PRUNE?

TO PRUNE = to cut off some of the branches of a tree or bush to make it grow better

WHY PRUNE?
to improve survival chances at planting time
to control size and shape
to remove dead, diseased, weak or broken branches
to maintain natural beauty
to control flowering, fruiting or coloured twig effect in certain plants

WHAT TOOLS DO YOU USE FOR PRUNING?
hand shears are probably the most important tool for pruning; they are used to cut out
branches up to inches in diametre
scissors are sometimes needed
pruning saws
a hedge shears

WHEN DO YOU PRUNE?
the best time for pruning most plants is in the early spring while the plants are still
dormant

HOW TO PRUNE?
2 techniques are used for pruning shrubs:
heading (branches are cut back to healthy buds)
thinning (a shoot or branch is completely removed; no prominent stub
remains)
- some plants require more of one method than another, but good pruning is usually a
combination of both procedures.

110.
Latin English Romanian
horse-chestnut
wormwood
dogwood
birdcherry

108
mahogany n. [C/U] a type of hard reddish brown wood used for
making furniture, or the tree that produces that wood
maple n. [C] a tree which grows mainly in northern countries
such as Canada (curly maple, plain maple, silver maple)
MDF medium density fibreboard
MOE modulus of elasticity
moisture n. [U] small amounts of water that are present in the air,
in a substance, or on a surface
mortice, mortise n. [C] a hole cut in a piece of wood so that the
shaped end of another piece will fit there firmly
moss n. [C/U] a very small green plant that grows in a thick soft
furry mass on wet soil, trees, or rocks
mushroom n. [C] one of several kinds of fungus with stems and
round tops, some of which can be eaten
mushroom v. to grow and develop quickly





















109

Lecia 12. GRAMMAR FOCUS IT & THERE

Read and organise the following examples according to the pattern they contain:
E Theres fog.
E There were dark clouds overhead.
E There was a heavy rain.
E Theres wind.
E There was something strange about the way he smiled.
E There is a woman downstairs to see you.
E Is there anybody home?
E There must be something wrong with their phone.
E Theres no denying the fact that shes very clever.
E There is a very good reason for my decision.
E There are two apples on the table.
E There isnt anything at all I could do to help, is there?
E There being no evidence against her, the woman was released.
E Theres no hope of getting the money to pay the rent.
E Theres no need to read the entire book.
E Theres no point in spending so much money on a computer.
E There is no reason to be pessimistic.
E There is no chance of recovery, Im afraid.
E Theres no doubt about her saying the truth.
E There comes a time when you have to let go.


E Its raining.
E It snows a lot in this part of the country, doesnt it?
E It drizzles.
E It dewed haevily last night.
E It was a very rimy morning, and very damp.
E Its a breeze to travel to Italy.
E Its half past three.
E Its past midnight.
E Its my birthday.
E Its years since I last saw him.
E It took the men a whole year to renovate the museum.
E It was nice of you to come.
E It shocked me to hear you swearing.
E It doesnt seem much good staying here.
E Its no wonder he had a heart attack after such news.
E Its no use crying over spilt milk.
E Its no secret that they want to leave the country.
E It takes 2 hours to Iai (by train).
E Its no longer necessary to scrub the floor.
E It occurred to me that he might be wrong.
E Its not worth it.
110
E Its a long way to the station.
E It is 10 miles to the village.
E It is an honour for me to introduce Professor Smith.
E It is clear he will never recover.
E It tastes really good, this custard.
E It helps to have a good macintosh in London.
E It didnt surprise me when Paul left the country.
E Its an absolute cinch that he will win reelections.
E It was agreed that he should be fired.
E It as a godsend to hear your words.
E It would be better to go home now.
E It takes a lot of effort to learn a foreign language.
E It was nice to talk to you.
E Its his arrogance that I find irritating.
E Its her name that I cant remember.
E Its a natural thing to shake hands with someone youve just met.
E Its always possible to get colder, so take a sweater with you.
E Its very possible that they should arrive tonight.
E It is impossible that he didnt know the truth when he was talking to me.
E It is important to him that they should acknowledge his success.
E It is customary that a man should greet first when he meets a woman.
E It is absolutely necessary that you should get information in time.
E It is vital that he should reach her in time.
E It is unthinkable that our soldiers should fire upon their own people.
E It is imperative that the child should arrive at the scene of the crime.

E We always like it when you stay with us.
E Let it be!
E I thought it a waste of time to read and organise this exercise.
E Just leave it with me.
E She owed it to her parents to win the prize.
E I take it youre saying the truth.
E I see it as an insult to get no answer from you.
E I hate it when my parents quarrel over nothing.

THERE + BE /
SEEM /
APPEAR /
HAPPEN /
TEND /
EXIST /
REMAIN /
FOLLOW /
OCCUR /
ARISE /
COME.

111



E ITS (HIGH) TIME poate fi urmat de:
infinitiv: = Its time to go to bed.
FOR + infinitiv: = Its time for the childen to go to bed.
past tense: = Its time the children went to bed.
subjonctiv (SHOULD): = Its time they should go to bed.

111. Rephrase with THERE or IT:
a) Nothing was on his desktop but a computer.
b) A big orange sign was on the door.
c) Something must be wrong with his barometre.
d) A storm is coming, I think.
e) England is a foggy country, isnt it?
f) The local cinema has a very good film on at the moment.
g) I left because I suddenly felt sick.
h) They say the Bermuda Triangle is a dangerous area.
i) To drive a car without a licence is illegal.
j) That she didnt die in the car crash is a miracle.
k) They hope the project will be carried out by the end of September.
l) Climbing a mountain takes a lot of stamina.
m) This book consists of four chapters.
n) Living in the city is more expensive than living in the country.

112. Translate into English:
1 Plou. 2 A nceput s plou. 3 Plou de cnd ai plecat la servici.
4 Nu mai plou. 5 Ploua cnd a venit bunicul.
6 Conform prognozei meteo, mine pe vremea asta va ploua.
7 Dac va mai ploua mult vom avea inundaii. 8 Plou cu gleata.
9 Te uit cum ninge Decembre... 10 E cea.
11 E timpul s plec. 12 E timpul s pleci.

112
Lecia 13. WEATHER METAPHOR

Motto: If you cant be a sun, dont be a cloud!




Weather between HOT and COLD

HEAT
unsettled
COLD
scorching hot
boiling hot
dry
warm
the cool of the
evening
getting chilly
a freezing cold
day in December


GOOD BAD to blow hot and cold BAD
enthusiasm anger lack of
excitement - excitement
- to burn with indignation -
burning interest a fiery temper She poured cold water
the hottest show hot-tempered on all my suggestions.
a heated argument / debate
burning with anger
113

Weather Conditions





113. Write a very short composition using the following:
O It never rains but it pours.
O The match / game was rained off.
O Lets take a raincheck on that!

114. RAIN _ _ _ _ _

Each of the following definitions refer to a word which begins with RAIN.

O RAIN _ _ _ a large curve of different colours that can appear in the sky
when there is both sun and rain
O RAIN _ _ _ _ a coat that you wear in order to protect yourself from rain
O RAIN _ _ _ _ a single drop of rain
O RAIN _ _ _ _ the amount of rain that falls on an area in a particular period
of time
O RAIN _ _ _ _ _ _ a tropical forest with tall trees that are very close together,
growing in an area where it rains a lot
O RAIN _ _ _ _ _ someone who uses magic powers in order to make rain fall /
someone who makes a lot of money
O RAIN _ _ _ _ _ able to keep the rain out
O RAIN _ _ _ _ _ a sudden heavy fall of rain
O RAIN _ _ _ _ _ water that has fallen as rain
114

115. RAINFORESTS

Put the following sentences in order:
1 When rainforests are cleared and burned, millions of tons of carbon dioxide are released
into the atmosphere, affecting climactic conditions and threatening us all with severe
flooding, drought and crop failure.
2 The rainforests contain at least half of the Earths species.
3 One in four purchases from the chemist is derived from the rainforests.
4 Man has lived in the rainforest for about 10,000 years.
5 The canopy is made up of tall trees.
6 Every time you drive a car, read a book, take a pill or use a deodorant, you are probably
using something from one of the worlds rainforests.
7 The Chappa tribe, for example, have a system of farming which mirrors the structure of
the rainforest and which is extremely successful.
8 Below them are coffee bushes.
9 They have a 3-layered system of using land which works in the same way as the
rainforest: at canopy, sub-canopy and ground level.
10 They have, in fact, created a food forest.
11 Below grow 15 types of banana trees used for food, drink and animal feed, and other
fruit trees.
12 The ground is used for growing vegetables.
13 The rainforest is a rich source of plants and natural substances used in pharmacy.
14 40% of American drugs come from rainforest plants.
15 Over 200 plants are being researched there as possible cancer treatments or cures.
16 Quinine, an antimalarial drug, comes from the bark, or outer skin, of a tree.
17 Land has been cleared for road-building.
18 The snakeroot plant is used to treat hypertension and high blood pressure.
19 Over the past 40 years, about half the worlds rainforest has been destroyed.
20 Rainforests also protect us from the greenhouse effect, by absorbing carbon dioxide.
21 Trees have been cut down for the wood itself and for wood pulp, which is used in
paper-making.
22 The greenhouse effect could change weather patterns and the atmosphere could warm
up to such an extent that eventually the polar ice-caps would melt, flooding huge areas.


The rain began with gusty showers, pauses and downpours; and then
gradually it settled to a single tempo, small drops and a steady beat, rain
that was gray to see through, rain that cut midday light to evening. And at
first the dry earth sucked the moisture down and blackened. For two days
the earth drank the rain, until the earth was full. Then puddles formed,
and in the low places little places lakes formed in the fields.
(John Steinbeck - The Grapes of Wrath)

115


- And the rain poured on down. Not in one incessant sheet
it varied, nearly stopped and then with a different rhythm
began again. I remember the hours of staring at it. How
many different ways it can rain! One felt on that afternoon
that it tried every variation of its wet repertoire. With the
violence of the first cloud, it had broken into deluge.
- A bloom of wetness had then moistened the inside of the
boathouse.
- The trees no longer rustled to the lively drops; no tree
could breath in such dense moisture.
- But at 6 oclock the clouds grew bright.
- The rain dithered away to nothing.
- The sun came through.
- Windows everywhere must have been open.
(William Sansom The Body)



Fill in with the missing letter and find compound nouns.

SNOW- b_ll / b_ard / boun_ / f_ll / fla_e / m_n / mo_ile / stor_ / _hite





116





Fill in the dotted lines:
...............................................seasons in the sun......................................................................
..........................................................that his sun is set............................................................
.......................................................................sunray...............................................................
.......................................................................sunbeam............................................................
................................................... you are the sunshine of my life..........................................
.......................................................................sunbath..............................................................
.......................................................................sunburn(t)..........................................................
.......................................................................sunbaked...........................................................
.......................................................under the sun....................................................................
.............................................to rise with the sun......................................................................



117







Whats the weather like today?

Its a fine day today.
It turned bitterly cold.
Weather permitting, well go on a trip today.

Whats up? You look a bit under the weather.
The log had been weathered to a lovely shape.
When you have plenty of money, fair-weather friends knock at your door.
Grandma smiled at them tenderly, with her weather-beaten face...

118
E WEATHER CLIMATE
weather = current atmospheric / meteorological conditions
climate = the usual weather conditions in a particular country / area
= Whats the weather like in Suceava?
= These flowers only grow in a cold climate.
= the climate of Romania

116. Complete:

NOUN ADJECTIVE VERBAL EXPRESSION
rain Its rainy. Its raining.
snow
sun Its sunny. The sun is shining.
cloud The clouds are hanging.
wind The wind is blowing.
mist

fog = denser than mist
haze = light mist

WEATHER REPORT
Student A tells Student B and viceversa.
Student A

A Hollywood director was filming an important film in the
desert when an old Native American man went up to him and said:
Tomorrow rain.
The next day it rained.
A few days later, the director was talking with the cameraman about the
next days filming. The Native American went up to him and said:
Tomorrow storm.
He was right again, and he saved the director thousands of dollars.
The director was very impressed and gave the old man a job.
The old man continued to predict the weather correctly, but then he
didnt come for three weeks.
The director was planning to film an important scene and he needed
good weather. So he went to look for the Native American.
When he found the old man, he said:
Listen, I have to film an important scene tomorrow. What will
the weather be like?
The old man shook his head and said:
Radio broken.


Use the following key words:
shoot, Indian, forecast, radio.
119
Student B: make up a story using the following prompts and tell your partner.
autumn Indians ask new Chief predict weather forthcoming winter
Chief doesnt have a clue
just in case - Chief sends Indians valley gather firewood
meanwhile Chief calls The National Weather Service answer: cold
winter
- Chief sends Indians valley gather firewood
- a week later Chief calls the Institute again - answer: cold weather
- Chief sends Indians valley gather firewood
- Chief calls the Institute asks: How can you be so sure? answer:
saw Indians valley gather firewood.


Donkey Barometer
*
= ?

Describe the effects of a sudden warm front and cold front respectively on the forests in
northern Bukowina.

Rain before seven, fine before eleven; Red sky at morning, shepherds warning / Red
sky at night / shepherds delight etc. These are a couple of weather-related lyrics; give
some examples in Romanian. Discuss Lottery in June, corn be heavy soon.


weather report / forecast = prognoza meteo
= The weather forecast predicted blizzard for upper Moldavia.
= What is the weather girl saying?

Radio / TV: The weather tonight will be fine in most places east, but this fine weather
will gradually deteriorate during the course of the night; by 6 a. m. Clouds will have
reached most places, with rain spreading from the west during the course of the morning.
The outlook for the rest of the day: quite warm. Minimum temperatures should be
about average in most parts of the country, though people in upper Moldavia can expect a
rather cold north-easterly wind from the Continental area of high pressure about 15-20
miles per hour. Frost is also likely, except in Bukowina.

Newspaper: The weather is unsettled to fair.
Showers with bright intervals.
Local morning mist.
Occasional rain in most parts, and a risk of thunder.
Minimum temperatures slightly below zero.

*
a small china donkey with a tail of string, which one was supposed to put out on ones
windowsill; on it were written various directions: ex. if tail is dry fine; if tail is wet rain; if tail
falls out earthquake (dup Gleanu-Frnoag i Sachelarie-Lecca, p. 291)
120

Translate the following weather forecast paying attention to the phrasal verbs:
The day will start off wet in most areas but it should clear up in the afternoon.
In the early evening it will brighten up, especially in the east.
The wind should die down in the course of the afternoon.

Make your own weather diary for a week. This Weeks Weather
ex. Monday - November 3rd Its pouring with rain!
Tuesday November 4th Its a bit chilly!
Wednesday November 5th Its freezing cold! Snow on the ground etc.

To Trust or not to Trust the Weatherman?

It will definitely be cold throughout the country tomorrow. 100% sure
Snow is also likely in the northern part of the country.
On Friday there will probably be rain in most of the south-east.
There is a chance of storms and strong winds across the whole of the south.
More rain is possible at the weekend.



E Fahrenheit Celsius
F = 9/5 C + 32
sau
F = (C X 1.8) + 32

E Celsius Fahrenheit
C = 5/9 (F-32)
sau
C = (F-32) : 1.8

117. What weather conditions are necessary for deciduous / fruit trees to:
- put forth buds
- be in bloom
- burst into leaf
- turn yellow?

118. Match:

C torrential a) cold
C scorching b) flooding
C thick c) heat
C widespread d) rain
C galeforce e) snow
freezing f) winds


121
119. Whats the weather like if:
a) youre shivering
b) your teeth are chattering
c) youre soaking wet
d) youre sweating
e) youve got frostbite
f) youve got suntanned
g) youve got sunburnt
h) you cant breath properly



Write the right word from the wet series of synonyms:
1. You should clean the counter with a ......... cloth.
2. Living in that ......... old house cant be healthy.
3. When they came in from the storm, they were ......... to the skin.

120. Time to Talk

C Discuss the following idioms:
l to be as right as rain l to have cold feet l to have ones head in the skies
l to look on the bright side of things l to weather the stores
C Whats a weatherboard? What about a weathervane?
C Kinds of extreme weather you have experienced.
C The way weather affects peoples mood / health?
C The kind of weather you like best.
What happens when each of the following natural disasters occurs:
AVALANCHE, CYCLONE, DROUGHT, EARTHQUAKE, FLOOD, FOREST FIRE,
HURRICANE, TIDAL WAVE, TSUNAMI, VOLCANIC ERUPTION.
122

121. Translate into Romanian:
l Conifers slender profile minimises snow damage, while their small evergreen leaves
withstand drying winds.
l Tiles were blown off roofs by high winds.
l In the morning it was windy and cloudy, but now its sunny.
l The English weather is the subject of innumerable jokes and provides an inexhaustible
topic of conversation.
l If the weather breaks, it suddenly changes and becomes cold and wet.
l Power lines were brought down by falling trees.
l Jack Frost is an imaginary person who brings the frost and represents winter.
l Even the trees seemed wet through.
l the winds / seasons of change
l smog
l snowdrift / snowbank
l stuffy atmosphere
l to keep a weather eye on
l in all weathers
l dog-days
l drought
l nippy
l to fend off the environmental cranks
l the winds of change
l the dawn of civilisation
l And then the boss thundered in to the room!
l My memory is a little foggy.
l You are the sunshine of my life.
l She was practically showered with gifts.
l This homework is a breeze.
l Her face had been weathered by a long and troubled life.

FUNCTIONS
= What an awful day, isnt it?
= Looks a bit like rain, doesnt it?
= Its been a rather cold / mild winter, hasnt it?
= I expect itll clear up later in the afternoon / itll brighten up soon.











123
Lecia 14. STOPPING BY WOODS ON A SNOWY EVENING
(Robert Frost)

Whose woods these are I think I know
His house is in the village though
He will not see me stopping here
To watch his woods fill up with snow.

My little horse must think its queer
To stop without a farmhouse near
Between the woods and frozen lake
The darkest evening of the year.

He gives his harness bells a shake
To ask if there is some mistake.
The only other sounds the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.

The woods are lovely, dark, and deep,
But I have promises to keep
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep.



UNSTOPPABLE!

He will not see me stopping here...
To stop without a farmhouse near...





124


122. Translate into English:
- Stop by if you like!
- He stopped short on seeing me.
- I must have this tooth stopped by all means.

123.
THESE WOODS...

Explain the difference between:
l WOOD(S)
A PIECE OF WOOD
DEAD WOOD
FIREWOOD
HARDWOOD
SOFTWOOD
WOODLANDS
l WOODS / THICKET / COPSE / FOREST / STAND / UNDERGROWTH

124. Match:

wooded smell
wooden plant
woodsy spoon
woody surface
125
Wood:
block
craft
cutter
pecker
pile
pulp
(s)man
wind
work
worm

125. Illustrate the following:
TOUCH WOOD (BE) / KNOCK ON WOOD (AE)
NOT BE OUT OF THE WOODS YET
NOT SEE THE WOOD FOR THE TREES
IN THE NECK OF THE WOODS


ITSY-BITSY

My little horse must think its queer...



126



E SMALL (size) general, objective term
LITTLE (positive / negative emotional element) your opinion of something small


126. LITTLE or SMALL?
C Would you do me a ......... favour?
C She smiled a ......... smile.
C A tiny ......... boy stepped forward and took the floor.
C How can I live on such a ......... income?
C His father is a ......... shopkeeper.
......... change
C ......... fortune
......... woman


QUEER

My little horse must think its queer...

Queer (old-fashioned) strange
- (taboo) gay / homosexual

Synonyms:
BIZARRE, FUNNY, ODD, OUTLANDISH, STRANGE, SURPRISING, UNUSUAL.



127
128
TAKING IT EASY

The only other sounds the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake...


EASY LIGHT
= The exam was a cinch / easy.
= All things are difficult before they are easy.
= Its the easiest problem of all.
= light box / package
= light food
= light music / comedy
= light conduct

EASY or LIGHT?
2. She had blue eyes and ......... brown hair.
3. She used to wear ........., comfortable shoes.
4. If you get this job, youll be living on the ......... street.
5. She was as ......... as a feather.
6. Just take the ......... way out and let it be.
7. I can live the baby with you with an ......... mind.
8. Now youre an ......... target for their attacks.

LIGHT or HEAVY or LIGHT / HEAVY?

light heavy light / heavy
X aircraft
breathing
casualties
cold
day
drinker
eater
entertainment
fighting
X going
heart
industry
lunch
X meal
rain
reading
scent
schedule
silence
sleeper
smoker
snack
127.

Latin English Romanian
arin
silver birch
populus alba
taxus baccata

128. Write a very short story that has the following beginning:

It was a rimy morning, and very damp. I had seen the damp lying on the outside
of my little window, as if some goblin had been crying there all night, and using the
window for a pocket handkerchief. (Chares Dickens, Great Expectations)
..................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................
129
..................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................
phloem n. the living tissue (in vascular plants) that carries
organic nutrients, particularly sucrose, to all parts of the plant
where needed. In trees, the phloem is underneath and difficult to
distinguish from bark.
pine n. [C] a tall tree with long hard sharp leaves that do not fall
off in winter
pineapple n. [C] a large yellow-brown tropical fruit or its sweet
juicy yellow flesh
pinecone n. [C] the hard dry rounded seed case which grows on
apine tree
pineneedle n. [C] a leaf of the PINE tree, which is thin and
sharp like a needle
pinenut n. [C] a small seed that grows on some pine trees and is
eaten as food
poplar n. [C] a very tall straight thin tree that grows very fast
(black poplar, Canadian poplar)
pulp n. [U] a very soft substance that is almost




















APPENDIX # 1

130
Irregular Verbs

be was/were been
bear bore born
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
bet bet bet/betted
bite bit bitten/bit
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
build built built
burn burnt/burned burnt/burned
buy bought bought
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
come came come
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
dig dug dug
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fly flew flown
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
freeze froze frozen
get got got
give gave given
go went gone
grow grew grown
hang hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
kneel knelt knelt
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
lean leant/leaned leant/leaned
131
learn learnt/learned learnt/learned
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
light lit/lighted lit/lighted
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
pay paid paid
put put put
read read read
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
shake shook shaken
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
smell smelt/smelled smelt/smelled
speak spoke spoken
spend spent spent
spread spread spread
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
swear swore sworn
swim swam swum
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore tore
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
understand understood understood
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
weep wept wept
win won won




132
APPENDIX # 2

A DAYS WAIT
(Ernest Hemingway)

He came into the room to shut the windows while we were still in bed and I saw he
looked ill. He was shivering, his face was white, and he walked slowly as though it ached
to move.
Whats the matter, Schatz?
Ive got a headache.
You better go back to bed.
No. Im all right.
You go to bed. Ill see you when Im dressed.
But when I came downstairs he was dressed, sitting by the fire, looking a very sick
and miserable boy of nine years. When I put my hand on his forehead I knew he had a
fever.
You go up to bed, I said, youre sick.
Im all right, he said.
When the doctor came he took the boys temperature.
What is it? I asked him.
One hundred and two.
Downstairs, the doctor left three different medicines in different colored capsules
with instructions for giving them. One was to bring down the fever, another a purgative,
the third to overcome and acid coondition. The germs of influenza can only exist in an acid
condition, he explained. He seemed to know all about influenza and said there was nothing
to worry about if the fever did not go above one hundred and four degrees. This was a light
epidemic of flu and there was no danger if you avoided pneumonia. Back in the room I
wrote the boys temperature down and made a note of the time to give the various
capsules.
Do you want me to read to you?
All right. If you want to, said the boy. His face was very white and there were
dark areas under his eyes. He lay still in the bed and seemed very detached from what was
going on.
I read aloud from Howard Pyles Book of Pirates, but I could see he was not
following what I was reading.
How do you feel, Schatz? I asked him.
Just the same , so far, he said.
I sat at the foot of the bed and read to myself while I waited for it to be time to
give another capsule. It would have been natural for him to go sleep, but when I looked up
he was looking at the foot of the bed, looking very strangely.
Why dont you try to sleep? Ill wake you up for the medicine.
Id rather stay awake.
After a while he said to me: You dont have to stay in here with me, Papa, if it
bothers you.
It doesnt bother me.
No, I mean you dont have to stay if its going to bother you.
133
I thought perhaps he was a little lightheaded and after giving him the prescribed
capsules at eleven oclock I went out for a while. It was a bright, cold day, the ground
covered with a sleet that had frozen so that it seemed as if all the bare trees, the bushes, the
cut brush and all the grass and the bare ground had been varnished with ice. I took the
young Irish setter for awalkup the road and along a frozen creek, but it was difficult to
stand or walk on the glassy surface and the red dog slipped and slithered and I fell twice,
hard, once dropping my gun and having it slide away over the ice. (...)
At the house they said the boy had refused to let anyone come into the room.
You cant come in, he said. You mustnt get what I have.
I went up to him and found him in exactly the position I had left him, white-faced,
but with the tops of his cheeks flushed by the fever, staring still, as he has stared, at the
foot of the bed.
I took his temperature.
What is it?
Something like a hundred, I said. It was one hundred and two and four tenths.
It was a hundred and two, he said.
Who said so?
The doctor.
Your temperature is all right, I said. Its nothing to worry about.
I dont worry, he said, but I cant keep from thinking.
Dont think, I said. Just take it easy.
Im taking it easy, he said and looked straight ahead. He was evidently holding
tight onto himself about something.
Take this with water.
Do you think it will do any good?
Of course it will.
I sat down and opened the Pirate book and commenced to read, but I could see he
was not following, so I stopped.
About what time do you think Im going to die? he asked.
What?
About how long will it be before I die?
You arent going to die. Whats the matter with you?
Oh, yes, I am. I heard him say one hundred and two.
People dont die with a fever of one hundred and two. Thats a silly way to talk.
I know they do. At school in France the boy told me you cant live with forty-four
degrees. Ive got a hundred and two.
He had been waiting to die all day, ever since nine oclock in the morning.
You poor Schatz, I said. Poor old Schatz. Its like miles and kilometers. You
arent going to die. Thats a different thermometer. On that thermometer thirty-seven is
normal. On this kind its ninety-eight.
Are you sure?
Absolutely, I said. Its like miles and kilometers. You know, like how many
kilometers we make when we do seventy miles in the car?
Oh, he said.
But his gaze at the foot of the bed relaxed slowly. The hold over himself relaxed
too, finally, and the next day it was very slack and he cried very easily at little things that
were of no importance.


134





APPENDIX # 3

VERBAL TENSES




Present Tense Simple Present Tense Continuous
Present Tense Simple
Inf.+S pers. a III-a sg.
Present Tense Continuous
TO BE (present) + vb.ing
1. activiti dintr-un prezent general, care
include momentul vorbirii
Ex. He works in a car factory.
1. aciuni dintr-un prezent care include momentele
vorbirii
Ex. Shes studying to get her driving licence.
2. activiti obinuite, repetate
Ex. I travel by train when I go to Bucharest.
2. aciuni temporare; comportament nespecific
Ex. This time, Im travelling by plane.
3. adevruri general valabile
Ex. Water freezes at 0 C.
3. aciuni n schimbare n momentul vorbirii.
Ex.These children of yours are growing fast.
4. explicaii, demonstraii, indicaii
Ex. I add water and stir.
4. activiti care au loc n momentul vorbirii
Ex. Its raining.
5. exclamaii introduse prin HERE, THERE
Ex. There it is!
5. activiti specifice repetate, care provoac
Ex. You are always interrupting me.
6. n subordonate, n locul viitorului
Ex.: If/when he comes, Ill give you a call.
6. aciuni viitoare cu caracter personal
Ex. Theyre going to the cinema tonight.

dup Ways with Words (D. Linguraru, 2004, p. 59-73)


135


136

Past Tense Simple Past Tense Continuous
1. aciune finalizat n trecut (momentul aciunii
putnd fi menionat sau nu)
Ex. Christopher Columbus discovered America
by accident, in1492.
He finally killed the kidnapped.
1. aciune n desfurare la un moment dat n
trecut
Ex. When I arrived, she was cleaning the closet..

2. o aciune repetat, obinuit n trecut (sau
lipsa acesteia)
Ex. She always wore black.
I met him every day on my way to the office.

2. cu referire la planuri care nu s-au materializat
sau nu se vor materializa
Ex. I was coming to see you but unfortunately
something came up.
3. aciuni desfurate pe o anumit perioad de
timp n trecut
Ex. He worked as a forest ranger for twenty
years.



3. ca echivalent la trecut al timpului prezent
continuu
Ex. He said he was working as a clerk.
(temporar)
She was busy packing because she was
taking off that night. (aciune viitoare)
He was always teasing me. (aciune repetat
care provoac iritare)

4. o aciune n trecut (succesiune de aciuni
narate)
Ex. He picked up his hat, said good by and left.
4.pentru descrieri n trecut
Ex. The flowers were blooming, the birds were
singing and the breeze was blowing softly.

Present Perfect Tense Simple Present Perfect Tense Continuous
1. aciuni trecute, ncheiate, dar care au o
legtur strns cu prezentul (aciunea din trecut
are consecine n prezent)
Ex. He has cleaned his car.
I have made a mistake.

2. aciuni recente, fr ns a se meniona exact
momentul efecturii lor (adverbe: ALWAYS,
RECENTLY, NEVER, LATELY, JUST, SO
FAR, EVER, YET)
Ex. I have always preferred peaches to
oranges.
We have never been to England.
He has just come home.

3. activiti ncepute undeva n trecut dar care
continu pn n prezent sau ntr-o perioad de
timp n care este inclus i momentul comunicrii
Ex. I have been married for 2 years.
Ive known him for 10 years.
I havent spoken to her since 1998.









Elementele temporale cel mai des utilizate cu
Present Perfect Tense Continuous sunt FOR i
SINCE.
Ex. Ive been waiting for you over an hour!
Ive been waiting for you since one oclock!
NOT: - FOR arat perioada;
- SINCE arat momentul incipient al
activitii.






Past Perfect Simple & Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect Simple (mai mult ca
perfectul) exprim o aciune care a avut loc n trecut,
naintea altui moment sau a altei aciuni din trecut.
Ex. She showed me the bat she had bought.
Past Perfect Simple este folosit cu
adverbele JUST, ALREADY, HARDLY,
SCARCELY, WHEN, BEFORE, pentru a sugera
anterioritatea, i cu FOR pentru a exprima o perioad
de timp ce precede un moment din trecut.
Ex. By the time we got there they had already left.
She had had a poor image for about 20 years
before a fortunate turn made her emerge from
obscurity.
Past Perfect Continuous exprim o
aciune n desfurare sau n curs de desfurare n
trecut i terminat naintea altei aciuni trecute i
terminate. Ca i Past Perfect Simple, se folosete cu
conjunciile FOR sau SINCE.
Ex.: They had been working on that project for a
year when the company went bankrupt.

137


Future Form Meaning Example
1. Future Simple SHALL / WILL +
inf
- aciuni viitoare
- prognoze.
They say it will
snow.
2. Future
Continuous

SHALL / WILL +
BE + vb.ING
- aciuni desfurate
ntr-un moment din
viitor
Ill be studying for
my final exam this
time next month.
3. Future in the
Past

SHOULD / WOULD
+ inf.
- viitorul
propoziiilor
subordonate a crei
principal conine un
verb la timp trecut.

They said it would
rain.
4. Future Perfect
Simple

SHALL / WILL +
HAVE + BEEN +
3rd. form
- aciune viitoare
anterioar altui
moment specificat
din viitor.
By the end of the
semester we shall
have studied all the
English tenses.
4. Future Perfect
Simple

SHALL / WILL +
HAVE + BEEN +
3rd. form
- aciune viitoare
anterioar altui
moment specificat
din viitor.
By the end of the
semester we shall
have studied all the
English tenses.
5. Future Perfect
Continuous

SHALL / WILL
+ HAVE BEEN +
vb. ING
- aciune viitoare n
plin desfurare
anterioar unui
moment / unei
aciuni din viitor.
Until lunch time
we shall have been
working for this
project for 3 hours.
6. GOING TO
Future
BE + GOING TO +
inf.
- intenie
- aciune viitoare,
iminent
Im going to buy
myself a new car.
Be careful! Its
going to fall!
7. BE TO Future
BE (present) + TO +
inf.

- planuri (oficiale),
ordine
The Prime
Minister is to visit
our town soon.
8. ABOUT TO
Future
BE (present) +
ABOUT + TO + inf.
- aciune iminent, n
viitorul apropiat.
He is about to
leave the country.
9. Present Simple - planuri oficiale
- propoziii
temporale sau
condiionale.
The meeting starts
at 10 tomorrow
morning.
10. Present
Continuous
- aciuni viitoare
planificate de
vorbitor.
Im visiting my
grandparents this
weekend.








138













APPENDIX # 4

PREZENTUL SIMPLU
La persoana a treia singular, verbul la prezentul simplu se termin n S. n cazul verbelor care se termin
n O, SS, CH, SH, SS, X se adaug ES.
Ex. He goes/misses/watches/wishes/relaxes.

PREZENTUL CONTINUU (sau adugarea terminaiei ING n general)
Se elimin E final atunci cnd se adaug terminaia ING unui verb (dar se pstreaz dublu E).
Ex. decide deciding, write writing DAR see seeing, agree agreeing
Cnd verbul se termin n grupul IE, prin adugarea lui -ING acesta devine
-YING.
Ex. die dying, lie lying DAR hurry hurrying
Uneori consoana final se dubleaz. Acest lucru se ntmpl atunci cnd verbul se termin n consoan-
vocal-consoan.
Ex. plan planning, stop stopping DAR meet meeting, work working

TRECUTUL SIMPLU (sau adugarea treminaiei ED n general)
Cnd un verb se termin n CONSOAN + Y, Y-ul se transform n IE.
Ex. try tried, deny denied, hurry hurried, copy copied
Uneori se dubleaz consoana final. Aceasta se ntmpl cnd verbul se termin n consoan-vocal-
consoan.
Ex. plan planned, regret regretted, stop stopped

PLURALUL SUBSTANTIVELOR
Pentru forma de plural a substantivelor se adaug de obicei S. Dup grupurile finale CH, -SH, -SS, -X se
adaug ES.
Ex. match matches, wish wishes, glass glasses, box boxes
Majoritatea substantivelor care se termin n O formeaz pluralul cu ajutorul lui S, unele ns au ES.
Ex. kilos, photos, pianos, studios DAR heroes, potatoes, tomatoes
Cnd un substantiv se termin n CONSOAN + Y, Y-ul se transform n IES.
Ex. party parties, story stories DAR day days, journey journeys

ADVERBE
Majoritatea adverbelor se formeaz prin adugarea terminaiei -LY unui adjectiv. Uneori se omite E final.
Ex. safe safely, strange strangely DAR true truly, whole wholly
Cnd un adjectiv se termin n CONSOAN + Y, Y-ul se transform n I + LY.
Ex. easy easily, angry angrily
Cnd un adjectiv se termin n CONSOAN + LE, E se transform n Y.
Ex. probable probably, sensible sensibly
Cnd un adjectiv se termin n IC, se adaug ALLY, cu o singur excepie.
Ex. automatic automatically, romantic romantically DAR public publicly
Sufixul FUL are un singur L. Cnd se adaug LY pentru formarea adverbelor, vom avea dublu L.
Ex. successful successfully
139

IE SAU EI?
Regula este urmtoarea: I nainte de E, cu excepia cazului n care dup C urmeaz sunetul /i:/.
Ex. field, believe, science DAR receive

LITERE CARE NU SE PRONUN
n urmtoarele cuvinte, literele subliniate nu se pronun:
BT doubt
LF calf, half
MB plumber, thumb
GN sign, foreign
KN know, knife
PS psychology, psychiatrist
SC science, descend
WH who
WR wrong, write

SUBSTANTIVE I VERBE CU C I S
Ex. advice, practice (substantive); advise, practise (verbe)

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