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Universitatea Petrol-Gaze din Ploieti Departamentul de nvmnt la Distan i cu Frecven Redus TPP-IPM I Cadru didactic: Loredana Netedu

LIMBA ENGLEZ. CURS PRACTIC PENTRU NCEPTORI

UNIT 1

ALFABETUL LIMBII ENGLEZE. TRANSCRIEREA FONETIC THE ALPHABET. PRONUNCIATION TABLE

Alfabetul limbii engleze Limba englez folosete literele alfabetului latin, ns acestea au valori i pronunii diferite fa de limba romn. Redm n continuare cele 26 de litere ale alfabetului englez i, ntre paranteze drepte, denumirea acestora. A, a [ei] B, b [bi:] C, c [si:] D, d [di:] E, e [i:] F, f [ef] G, g [di:] H, h [eit] I, i [ai] J, j [dei] K, k [kei] L, l [el] M, m [em] Transcrierea fonetic Din cauza diferenelor mari ntre scriere i pronunie, a devenit necesar crearea unui alfabet fonetic ale crui semne redau sunetele specifice limbii engleze. Dicionarele ofer att forma scris ct i, ntre paranteze drepte sau linii oblice, transcrierea fonetic, i anume cuvntul n form rostit. Semnele fonetice nu se leag ntre ele i folosesc exclusiv caractere mici. n cazul vocalelor lungi, simbolul corespunztor este urmat de dou puncte. Iat, n continuare, semnele fonetice 2 N, n [en] O, o [u], [ou] P, p [pi:] Q, q [kju:] R, r [a:], [a:(r)] S, s [es] T, t [ti:] U, u [ju:] V, v [vi:] W, w [dblju:] X, x [eks] Y, y [wai] Z, z [zed]

nsoite de un cuvnt care conine sunetul respectiv, pentru o mai uoar nelegere i memorare a acestora. Vocale /a:/ park // (a scurt) bus /e/ bed // (sunet ntre e i a) man /i/ sit /i:/ leave // shot /:/ sort /u/ cook /u:/ two / / ( scurt) reader /:/ ( lung) bird Diftongi /ai/ nine /au/ how /ei/ late /e/ there /i/ boy /i / dear /u / poor /u/ low

Consoane /b/ back /d/ desk // they /d / jump /f/ flower /m/ some /n/ son //song Not: Sunetul nu se pronun n poziie final (teacher) i nainte de consoan (worm) /s/ soon // wash /t/ tower /t / chair // thought /v/ interview /w/ wet /x/ loch /z/ business // pleasure /g/ glamour /h/ hit /j/ yet /k/ king /l/ live /p/ pencil /r/ red

Noiuni de vocabular:
Formule uzuale de salut: How do you do!/ Bun ziua! Not: Se rspunde cu aceeai formul. Expresia este folosit la prima ntlnire cu o persoan. Hello / Bun! Good morning ! Bun dimineaa! Good day ! / Bun ziua! Good afternoon ! Bun ziua! Not: Folosit dup miezul zilei. Good evening ! / Bun seara! Good night ! / Noapte bun! Good bye ! / La revedere! Bye ! / Pa! See you ! / Ne mai vedem! So long ! / Pe curnd! Exercises: 1. Transcriei fonetic urmtoarele cuvinte: name, address, job, work, engineer, student, they, English, Romanian, like, (to) do, (to) be, (to) have 2. Notai i pronunai pe litere propriul nume i adresa curent, ca i cum le-ai dicta unui interlocutor telefonic din strintate.

UNIT 2

REGULI DE SCRIERE SPELLING RULES


-s/ -es form
Aceast form apare la: indicativ, timpul prezent simplu (Present Tense Simple), persoana a III-a, singular: to play (a juca, a cnta la un instrument) he/she/it plays (el/ea joac/interpreteaz), precum i la pluralul regulat al substantivelor (acestea adaug s/-es la forma de singular): book (carte) books (cri). Se ataeaz es la verbele/ substantivele care se termin n urmtoarele litere sau grupuri de litere: -ch: to reach (a ajunge la o destinaie) he/she/it reaches (el/ ea ajunge) church (biseric) churches (biserici) -tch: to watch (a privi) he/she/it watches match (chibrit) matches -sh: to finish (a termina) he/she/it finishes brush (perie) brushes -ss: to express he/she/it expresses kiss (srut) kisses -x: to fix (a repara) he/she/it fixes box (cutie) boxes -z: to quiz (a chestiona) he/she/it quizes buzz (rit) buzzes -o: to do (a face) he/she/it does potato (cartof) potatoes -y precedat de consoan se transform n i i adaug es: to cry (a plnge) he/she/it cries fly (musc) flies Not: Celelalte verbe sau substantive ataeaz doar terminaia s: to work (a lucra) he/she/it works), play (pies) plays, house (cas) houses, friend (prieten) friends.

-ed form
Terminaia ed, ataat primei forme a unui verb regulat, ajut la formarea timpului trecut simplu (Past Tense Simple forma a II-a a verbelor n englez) i a participiului trecut (Past Participle forma a III-a). Verbele neregulate nu adaug ed, formele de baz ale acestora putnd fi gsite n tabele separate aflate n dicionare. Iat regulile de scriere a formelor de trecut i participiu trecut ale verbelor regulate: a. La verbele terminate n litera e se adaug doar d: to live (a locui) lived (am/ai/a/am/ai/au locuit) lived (locuit) b. Y final, precedat de consoan, se transform n i i adaug ed: to try (a ncerca) tried tried Y final, precedat de vocal, se pstreaz i adaug ed: to annoy (a irita) annoyed annoyed c.Grupul ic se transform n ick i adaug ed: to panic panicked panicked. d.Consoana final se dubleaz n cazul verbelor monosilabice cu o singur vocal scris (to plan planned planned) i al verbelor care au a doua silab accentuat (to admit admitted admitted) Not: n engleza britanic l final se dubleaz, indiferent de silaba pe care cade accentul: to quarrel (a se certa) quarrelled quarrelled.

-ing form
Aceast form are n limba englez dou valori: de gerunziu (Gerund), echivalent omonimului din limba romn sau folosit cu valoare substantival i de participiu prezent (Present Participle), form ntlnit n structura aspectului continuu sau ca adjectiv. a. E final dispare cnd se adaug terminaia ing: to smoke (a fuma, a afuma) smoking (fumnd, fumatul Gerund/ sau am/are/is smoking, smoking smell Present Participle) Not: Se pstreaz e final n verbul to be being, atunci cnd verbul se termin n -ee (to agree/ a fi de acord - agreeing) sau cnd exist riscul ca forma obinut s fie confundat cu cea a altui verb, ca n cazul to singe (a prli) singeing vs singing, form a verbului to sing (a cnta). b.Y final este ntotdeauna pstrat, indiferent dac este precedat de vocal sau consoan: to study studying, to play playing. c.Grupul final ie se transform n -y la care se adaug terminaia ing: to die (a muri) dying. d. Grupul ic devine ick, cnd se adaug ing: to mimic mimicking. e. Consoana final se dubleaz n aceleai situaii prezentate la -ed form: to hit (a lovi) hitting, respectiv to refer referring. 6

Not: n engleza britanic l final se dubleaz, indiferent de poziia accentului: to travel (a cltori) travelling.

Noiuni de vocabular:
Modaliti de prezentare: Hello, let me introduce myself./ Bun ziua, dai-mi voie s m prezint. My name is / Numele meu este I am/ Sunt (se precizeaz numele n ordinea prenume, nume) I am from / Sunt din I live in . / Triesc n I am a/an / Eu sunt (se indic profesia, a crei denumire este precedat de articolul nehotrt a/an) I work at/ for/ Lucrez la (se menioneaz numele companiei la care lucrai) Im in charge of/ responsible for.../ M ocup de... Exercises: 1. Give the s/-es and the ing form of the following verbs: to bite (a muca) to choose (a alege) to cry to do to draw (a desena) to drive (a conduce) to feel (a simi) to hit to lay (a ntinde) to lie (a mini) to miss (a duce dorul) to open (a deschide) to play to refine (a rafina) to ride (a clri, a merge cu bicicleta) to search (a cuta) to touch (a atinge, a emoiona) to travel (a cltori) to undo (a reface) to write (a scrie)

2. Notai formele de plural ale urmtoarelor substantive, adugnd terminaiile s/-es: boy (biat), job (slujb), company, box (cutie), watch (ceas), subsidiary (sucursal). 3. Scriei o scurt prezentare, menionnd numele, adresa, profesia i locul de munc.

UNIT 3

VERBUL
Prezentare general Verbul este partea de vorbire care exprim aciuni, stri sufleteti sau existena. n limba englez verbul cunoate urmtoarele categorii gramaticale, dup care i modific forma n timpul comunicrii: mod, timp, aspect i diatez. Persoana i numrul nu sunt de obicei marcate, excepie fcnd persoana a III-a, nr. singular, de la timpul prezent simplu, marcat, dup cum s-a vzut, de terminaiile s/-es i persoana I, singular i plural, marcat la viitor de auxiliarul specific shall. n engleza vorbit exist ns tendina de a folosi will ca unic auxiliar de viitor. Singurul verb care are forme distincte de persoan i numr este to be. nainte de prezentarea modurilor i a timpurilor, sunt necesare cteva observaii preliminare referitoare la clasificarea i construcia acestora. n limba englez, verbul are trei forme de baz, de la care se formeaz toate celelalte timpuri. Prima form (V-I: to work) este infinitivul, de la care se formeaz timpurile prezent i viitor, precum i aspectul continuu, cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar to be. Aceast prim form se regsete i la condiional optativ, prezent (Present Conditional), ca i n forma nvechit a modului subjonctiv (Archaic Present Subjunctive). Prin nlturarea particulei to se obine infinitivul scurt (work), numit short/bare infinitive, pe care l vom regsi n timpurile mai sus-amintite, ca i la imperativ: Work!/ Lucreaz!. Cea de a doua form red timpul trecut (V-II: worked = Past Tense Simple), care are form unic pentru toate persoanele (am/ai/a/am/ai/au lucrat). Forma a treia (V-III: worked = lucrat), numit Past Participle, nu poate ndeplini singur funcia de predicat i, alturi de verbul auxiliar to have, intr n componena timpurilor perfecte. Ca i n limba romn, forma de participiu poate avea valoare adjectival, caz n care preced un substantiv (the finished race/ cursa ncheiat), sau poate intra n structura diatezei pasive (Passive Voice: The garden is watered./ Grdina este udat.) Dup formele de trecut simplu (V-II) i participiu trecut (V-III), verbele limbii engleze se clasific n verbe regulate i verbe neregulate. a. Verbele regulate adaug terminaia ed la prima form a verbului (short infinitive), respectnd regulile nvate n unitatea a doua. 8

to play played (am/ai/a/am/ai/au jucat) played (jucat) to live (a locui) lived (am/ai/a/ai/au locuit) lived (locuit) to cry (a plnge) cried cried b. Verbele neregulate nu ataeaz ed la infinitivul scurt i au forme care trebuie memorate ca atare. Acestea pot avea o form unic (to hit/ a lovi hit hit, to cut/ a tia cut cut), dou forme (to buy/ a cumpra bought bought) sau trei forme distincte (to eat/ a mnca ate eaten, to drive/ a conduce drove driven). Verbele neregulate sunt de obicei marcate prin semnul *. Not: Exist verbe care au att forme regulate (to smell/ a mirosi smelled smelled), ct i forme neregulate (to smell smelt smelt).

Verbele auxiliare sunt acele verbe care ajut la marcarea unor categorii gramaticale cum
ar fi aspectul, timpul, persoana sau diateza, precum i la formarea propoziiilor interogative i negative, acolo unde nu exist deja un auxiliar. Verbele auxiliare din limba englez sunt: to be*, to have*, to do*. To be/ a fi are forme distincte de timp, persoan i numr, dup cum urmeaz: Timpul prezent: I am You are He/She/It is We are You are They are Timpul trecut: I was You were He/She/It was We were You were They were Timpul viitor: I shall be You will be He/She/It will be We shall be You will be They will be

Aceste forme pot avea valoare predicativ ( I am here/ Sunt/ M aflu aici), copulativ, atunci cnd intr n componena predicatului nominal ( I am an engineer/ Sunt inginer) sau de auxiliar, ajutnd alte verbe s formeze aspectul continuu i diateza pasiv ( I am writing/ Scriu n acest moment i, respectiv, He was congratulated/ A fost felicitat.) Have poate avea valoare predicativ, caz n care exprim posesia ( I have three books./ Am trei cri.) sau de auxiliar pentru timpurile perfecte, pe care le formeaz mpreun cu Past Participle (V-III) al verbului de conjugat (I have just bought a car./ Tocmai am cumprat o cas.) Timpul prezent: I have You have He/She/It has We have You have Timpul trecut: I had You had He/She/It had We had You had 9 Timpul viitor: I shall have You will have He/She/It will have We shall have You will have

They have

They had

They will have

To do este folosit ca verb auxiliar n ntrebri i n propoziii negative, acolo unde nu exist deja un auxiliar, i anume la Present Tense Simple i Past Tense Simple. I live in Ploieti. (Locuiesc n Ploieti) I do not/ dont live in Braov. (Nu locuiesc n Braov.) Where do you live? (Unde locuieti?) Not: Cu anumite excepii (be, verbe modale), verbele din limba englez nu ataeaz direct negaia, avnd nevoie de un auxiliar. Propoziiile interogative fac de asemenea necesar prezena unui auxiliar care trece n poziie iniial. I lived in Bucharest 20 years ago. (Am locuit n Bucureti acum 20 de ani.) I did not/ didnt live in Arad. Where did you live as a child? Exercises: 1. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of to be: I . in Greece last summer. He right now, he left to work. (negative) When . you. home tonight? It 11 oclock sharp. They . extremely tired last night, so their boss let them leave earlier. How old you? I .. 32 years old. 2. Give the negative and the interrogative form of the following sentences: e.g.: He works at a refinery. He doesnt work at/for a school. Where does he work? You like chocolate very much. We study at Petroleum-Gas University of Ploieti. They participate in the English class every week-end. I have a new car.

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UNIT 4

MODUL INDICATIV. TIMPUL PREZENT SIMPLU THE INDICATIVE MOOD. PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE

Modul este o categorie gramatical care exprim felul n care este perceput o aciune de ctre vorbitor (Scriu/ indicativ, prezent aciune real, sigur vs A scrie/condiional-optativ, prezent-aciune dorit). Modul indicativ este un mod predicativ care exprim aciuni reale. Este singurul mod care prezint toate axele temporale (prezent, trecut i viitor), totaliznd n limba englez dousprezece timpuri: Present Tense Simple and Continuous, Past Tense Simple and Continuous, Future Tense Simple and Continuous i timpurile perfecte corespunztoare, exprimnd anterioritatea fa de timpul cruia i poart numele: Present Perfect, Past Perfect i Future Perfect, fiecare cu form de aspect simplu i respectiv continuu.

Present Tense Simple


Structures: a. Affirmative: Subject + V-I (short infinitive)+ -s/es (p.a III-a, sg.) I go to work every day. b. Negative: Subject + do/does + not + V-I. I do not/ dont go to work on Sundays. c. Interrogative: Do/ Does + subject + V-I? Does he go to the theatre? Not: Aa cum am vzut n unitatea anterioar, formele negativ i interogativ se formeaz n limba englez cu ajutorul verbelor auxiliare, care preiau terminaiile s/-es specifice persoanei a IIIa singular. Astfel, spunem He doesnt like. i nu He doesnt likes, persoana a III-a fiind deja marcat de auxiliar. Present Tense Simple se traduce prin indicativ, timpul prezent (merg, mnnc, lucrez). Uses: Folosim Present Tense Simple pentru a exprima: 11

* adevruri generale, legi fizice, teoreme etc. ; Water boils at 100 C. (Apa fierbe la 100 de grade Celsius.) * stri permanente; My name is . I am a Romanian and I live in Ploieti. * aciuni care se desfoar cu regularitate; She visits her relatives every day. * alte valori: plan oficial din viitor (Romania becomes a EU member in 2007./ Romnia va deveni membr a Uniunii Europene n 2007), comentarii sportive, indicaii regizorale sau demonstraii practice, n locul lui Present Tense Continuous, pentru o mai mare concizie. (Chivu takes the ball, runs and he scores!!!!/ Chivu preia (acum), alearg i nscrie!!!) Time expressions: usually/ de obicei, always/ ntotdeauna, every / n fiecare , often/ adesea, on Tuesdays/ marea/ n fiecare mari, frequently/ frecvent

Vocabulary: Zilele saptmnii (the days of the week): Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday. Zilele sptmnii, ca i lunile anului, sunt substantive proprii n limba englez i se scriu ntotdeauna cu majuscule, indiferent de poziia cuvntului n propoziie. Lunile anului (the months of the year): January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December. Anotimpurile (the seasons): spring/ primvar, summer/ var, autumn/ fall n engleza american, winter/ iarn. Uniti de timp: second, minute, hour (h nu se pronun), day, week, month, year, decade/ deceniu, century/ secol. Hobbies: reading/ lectura, sports, listening to music, watching TV, gardening/ grdinritul, pets/ animale de companie, travelling/ cltoriile; Not: Pentru a exprima activitile din timpul liber folosim verbul to like = a-i plcea, urmat de un substantiv (flowers, pets, books), pronume sau verb la gerunziu (-ing form). I like skiing and travelling very much./ mi place foarte mult s schiez i s cltoresc. Exercises: 1.Translate into English (Traducei n limba englez): La fiecare sfrit de sptmn merg la facultate. (to go went gone) 12

Studiez Chimie, Fizic, Matematic, Limba Englez i altele. (to study vb. regulat) Vinerea m ntlnesc cu prietenii. (to meet met met) n fiecare var merg la mare. Iarna mi place s schiez. Primvara mi place s grdinresc. Nu am concediu n fiecare an. ntotdeauna m ajui. (to help vb. regulat) Soarele rsare la est. (to rise rose risen) Zilele sptmnii sunt: luni, mari, . 2. Give the negative and the interrogative forms of the sentences in exercise 1 (Dai formele negativ i interogativ ale propoziiilor de la exerciiul 1. 3. Write a short composition (5 10 lines) presenting your habits (obiceiuri/ activiti zilnice) and hobbies.

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UNIT 5

PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS

Present Tense Continuous se traduce, de asemenea prin indicativ, timpul prezent, ca i echivalentul su simplu. ntruct limba romn nu cunoate categoria aspectului, sunt necesare cteva observaii. Aspectul este o categorie specific verbului care se refer la perceperea aciunii ca durativ/non-durativ, cu sau fr consecine i nu la plasarea efectiv a acesteia n timp. n limba englez,verbul poate cunoate trei aspecte: * simplu/ Simple Aspect aciunea se desfoar cu regularitate, este un obicei sau o stare/ situaie permanent: I go to school every day. I teach Romanian and English./ n fiecare zi m duc la coal. Predau limbile romn i englez. (Present Tense Simple) * continuu/ Progressive/ Continuous Aspect aciunea este surprins n desfurare, fiind limitat la un anumit moment: I am going to school right now./ M duc la coal acum. (Present Tense Continuous) Not: Aspectul continuu se construiete dup structura: Subject + to be (conjugat la timpul cerut) + V-ing (Present Participle). * perfect/ Perfect(ive) Aspect aciunea este anterioar unui anumit moment i are de obicei consecine; I have just gone to school./ Tocmai am fost la coal. (Present Perfect Simple) Not: Aspectul perfect are urmtoarea structur: Subject + to have (conjugat la timpul cerut) + VIII/ V-ed pentru verbele regulate. (Past Participle) Structures: a. Affirmative: Subject + to be (am/are/is/are) + V-I (short infinitive) + ing I am going to work right now. b. Negative: Subject + to be + not + V-I + ing. I am not sleeping./ Nu dorm (n acest moment). c. Interrogative: Tobe + subject + V-I + ing? Is he going to the theatre? (Se duce la teatru?) 14

Uses: * aciune n desfurare n momentul vorbirii (now, right now, at present, at the moment); I am reading at the moment./ Citesc n acest moment. * aciune n desfurare ntr-o perioad limitat (these days/zilele acestea, this week/month, etc., today/astzi); Today I am going to school by bus, because my car is damaged./ Astzi merg la coal cu autobuzul, deoarece maina este stricat. * alte valori: aciune repetat care enerveaz vorbitorul caz n care se folosete cu adverbe specifice lui Present Tense Simple: (You are always smoking in the kitchen./ Tot timpul fumezi n buctrie.), plan personal de viitor (I am moving next week./ M mut sptmna viitoare.) Time expressions: now, right now, at the moment, nowadays, these days, this ...., Look!/ Privete!, Listen!/ Ascult!, Pay attention!/ Fii atent()!

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Vocabulary: Relatives:/ Rude: * parents/prini: mother/mam, father/tat * grandparents/bunici: grandmother/bunic, grandfather/bunic * great-grandparents/strbunici: great-grandmother, great-grandfather * children/copii: daughter/fiic, son/fiu * grandchildren/nepoi: granddaughter/nepoat, grandson/nepot * great-grandchildren/strnepoi: great-granddaughter, great-grandson Not: foster/adoptiv, step/vitreg Relatives in law/ Rude prin alian: * wife/soie, husband/so * mother-in-law/soacr, father-in-law/socru * daughter-in-law/nor, son-in-law/ginere Not: bride/mireas, groom/mire * aunt/mtu, uncle/unchi * niece/nepoat (de unchi/mtu), nephew/nepot * cousin/vr, verioar * sister-in-law/cumnat, brother-in-law/cumnat * godparents/nai: godmother/na, godfather/na * godchildren/fini: goddaughter/fin, godson/fin Not: n limba englez, substantivele formeaz pluralul prin ataarea desinenelor s/-es, respectnd regulile nvate n Unit 2. Exceptnd substantivul child pl.children, care are plural neregulat, ca i cuvintele compuse cu acesta, toate substantivele enumerate mai sus i formeaz pluralul n mod regulat. Exercises: 1. Answer the following questions, using Present Tense Continuous: What are you doing right now? Are you paying attention to me? Look! Is he driving that car? Where are they leaving?(to leave/a pleca)

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2. Translate into English: Ce faci? M ntlnesc cu sora i vrul meu. Sptmn aceasta locuiesc la mtua mea. Eu nu lucrez n acest moment. M uit la televizor mpreun cu naii mei. Ascult! Fratele meu cnt la pian. De obicei merg la serviciu cu unchiul meu, dar astzi merg cu Sorina, cumnata mea.

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UNIT 6

PAST TENSE SIMPLE

Past Tense Simple se traduce ca indicativ, perfect compus (am scris, am lucrat, etc.), artnd o aciune trecut ncheiat. Acest timp se poate confunda cu Present Perfect Simple (have gone), tradus de asemenea ca perfect compus (am mers). Diferena major este c Past Tense Simple se nscrie pe axa trecutului, n timp ce Present Perfect Simple pstreaz ntr-un fel sau altul legtura cu prezentul (aciunea are consecine n prezent, este recent, are loc ntr-o perioad neterminat sptmna aceasta, today sau nedeterminat). Structures: a. Affirmative: Subject + V-II (vb. neregulate)/ V-ed (vb.regulate) She drove all night./ He played football yesterday. b. Negative: Subject + did + not + V-I She did not/ didnt drive last night./ He did not play football yesterday. Not: Verbul de conjugat se folosete la prima form, ntruct la formele negativ i interogativ auxiliarul did preia marca de trecut, fiind a II-a form a lui do. c. Interrogative: Did + subject + V-I? Did he play football last Monday? Uses: * aciune trecut ncheiat; After graduation, I worked as a lab-assistant./ Dup absolvire am lucrat ca laborant. * aciune trecut dintr-o perioad ncheiat, de obicei precizat n text (last .../...trecut, yesterday/ieri, in 2003, in January, ...ago/ cu....n urm); I saw a film last night./ Am vzut un film asear. * aciune repetat din trecut, situaie n care poate fi nlocuit cu used to sau would, urmate de V-I; As a child, I often went/ used to go/ would go to my grandparents./ Copil fiind, mergeam adesea la bunici. * aciuni consecutive;

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He entered the room, shook hands and drank a cup of coffee./ A intrat, a dat mna i a but o ceac de cafea. Time expressions: last week/month/year, 2 weeks ago, in chilhood, in1998, in highschool, etc. Vocabulary: Questions: * where?/ unde? * when?/ cnd? * how?/ cum? * who?/ cine? * whom?/ pe cine? * whose?/ a,al,ai,ale cui? Exercises: 1. Make questions from the following sentences: I have two daughters and one son. (How many?) I live in a house/flat. (Where?) He works at a refinery in Ploieti. (What?) I am wearing jeans and a T-shirt./ Port jeans i un tricou. (What?) I went to the seaside last summer. (When?) I speak English fluently. (How?) He left out of anger./ A plecat de suprare. (Why?) Not: Dup ntrebrile mai sus-menionate, numite generic wh- words, folosim structurile de la forma interogativ a timpurilor nvate, respectnd timpul din propoziia afirmativ. e.g.: She played cards with her cousin last night. (What?) What did she play? 2. Translate into English: Am absolvit liceul n 2003. (to graduate from vb.regulat) ntre 2003 i 2005 am lucrat ca laborant. n prezent lucrez ca inginer. Lucrez. Las-m n pace! Nu am fost la bunicii mei iarna trecut. Ce ai mncat asear? (to eat* ate eaten) 19 * what?/ ce? * how much?/ ct? * how many?/ ci,cte? * how long?/ ct timp? * why?/ de ce? * which?/ care?

Ce faci acum? Mnnc o ngheat cu verioara mea. Not: Reamintim faptul c How do you do! este o formul de salut la care se rspunde identic atunci cnd facem cunotin cu cineva. How are you? se traduce Ce faci?/ Cum o mai duci? What are you doing? se refer la aciunea n desfurare n momentul vorbirii. Att n ntrebare ct i n rspuns, folosim Present Tense Continuous. 3. Match a question in column A with an answer from column B: A How is your mother? What sort of literature do you like? What time is it? How do you spell your name? (a scrie pe litere) Whose file is this? Where do you live? Whom are you waiting for? (to wait/ a atepta) What is your aunt like? B. P-A-R-A-S-C-H-I-V She is generous and caring Science-Fiction She is fine, thank you. It is 4 oclock sharp. (fix) I am waiting for my godmother. It is mine. I live in Ploieti, 152, Republicii Blvd.

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UNIT 7

PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS

Past Tense Continuous se traduce prin imperfect (lucram, mncam), artnd o aciune n desfurare din trecut. Structures: a.Affirmative: Subject + to be la trecut (was, were) + V-I + ing We were working outside when the rain started./ Lucram afar cnd a nceput ploaia. b.Negative: Subject + was/were + not + V-I + ing They were not travelling yesterday at noon. c.Interrogative: Was/Were + subject + V-I + ing? Was he sleeping when you called? Uses: * aciune n desfurare ntr-un moment din trecut sau cnd intervine o alt aciune; I was reading a magazine when you came/ yesterday at 7 p.m./ Citeam o revist cnd ai venit/ ieri la 7 seara. * aciuni trecute n desfurare simultan; My mother was cooking while my father was fixing the car./ Mama gtea n timp ce tata repara maina. Not: while/ n timp ce to fix = to repair = to mend* = a repara * aciuni care se desfurau cu regularitate n trecut, enervante pentru vorbitor; He was always complainig about his boss./ Tot timpul se plngea n legtur cu eful lui. * alte valori: timp folosit frecvent n descrieri literare (The sun was shining and the treetops were trembling in the wind.), plan personal din trecut (He was moving the following week./ Se muta sptmna viitoare.) Time expressions: while, when, as, all morning/day/week, at 3 oclock 21

Vocabulary: The organization of a company/ Structura unei companii: Production: Production, Packaging, Distribution/ Dispatch, Quality Human Resources: Training, Personnel, Wages and Salaries Marketing: Marketing, After-Sales, Research and Development, Advertising Finance: Buying/ Purchasing, Customer Account, Financial Services, Maintenance. Exercises: 1. Using a dictionary, specify which department: a. puts the products in boxes; b. pays the employees/ angajai; c. places ads in shops, magazines; d. purchases supplies; e. sells the products to the customers; f. invoices customers; g. plans how to sell new products; h. services the machines and equipment; i. recruits new employees; j. arranges courses for the staff; k. manufactures the products; l. looks after customers problems and complaints/ plngeri; m. organises control systems to prevent mistakes; n. dispatches the products; o. deals with taxation; 2. Translate into English: M splam pe dini, n timp ce soul meu se brbierea. (to wash, to shave) Tot timpul fuma n buctrie! (to smoke) Transportau combustibil, cnd a avut loc o explozie puternic. (to transport, to take* place took taken) Plou.Ia-i umbrela! n septembrie i octombrie plou foarte mult. Nu dormeam cnd m-ai sunat. Unde mergeai cnd ne-am ntlnit?

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3. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate past form: I .......................highshool in 2005. (to graduate from/ a absolvi) The doctor ....................the patient while his nurse was preparing the injection. (to examine/ a examina) Where........you ........last summer? (to go* - went - gone) What ........you............when your brother came in? (to do* - did - done) He ......................the classes and, because of that, he .............the exam. (to attend/ a participa la ore, a urma un curs, to fail/ a pica la examen) She .......always.............. too much, although she knew I hate that. (to talk/ a vorbi) Not: Dup cum ai remarcat, pronumele I / eu se scrie ntotdeauna cu majuscul, indiferent de poziia cuvntului n propoziie.

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UNIT 8

FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE

Future Tense Simple se traduce ca viitor I sau viitor propriu-zis (voi veni, voi lucra). Arat o aciune sau stare din viitor (plan, predicie, dorin, prognoz). Structures: a. Affirmative: Subject + shall/will + V-I He will visit me tomorrow./ M va vizita mine. Not: Shall se folosete ca auxiliar pentru persoana I, singular i plural, iar will pentru celelate persoane. Exist ns n engleza vorbit tendina de a folosi will ca unic auxiliar, shall pstrndu-se n engleza scris formal. n varianta contras, ambele auxiliare apar sub forma ll. Ill move next week. b. Negative: Subject + shall/will + not/ shant/ wont + V-I They wont play basketball on Sunday./ Nu vor juca baschet duminic. c. Interrogative: Shall/Will + subject + V-I? Will she arrive in time?/ Va ajunge la timp? Not: n afar valorii sale de auxiliar pentru timpul viitor, will poate fi utilizat i pentru a exprima o rugminte politicoas (Will you help me with this luggage? Vrei s m ajutai cu aceste bagaje?) sau dorina, voina de a face un lucru (Will you marry me?/ Vrei s te cstoreti cu mine?). O utilizare mai puin ntlnit este He will wait for me every day. = He waits for me every day, pentru a exprima o aciune care se desfoar cu regularutate n prezent (M ateapt n fiecare zi.). Uses: * aciuni din viitor (predicii, promisiuni, oferte, cereri, sugestii, sperane); It will rain tonight./ Disear va ploua. I will visit you when I have the time./ Te voi vizita cnd voi avea timp. * decizii de moment; We have run out of sugar. Ill go and buy some./ Am rmas fr zahr. O s m duc s cumpr.

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Not: Folosirea viitorului nu este permis n propoziiile circumstaniale de timp. Se folosete fie Present Tense, pentru aciuni simultane din viitor, fie Present Perfect, pentru aciune anterioar celei din principal. e.g.: After I have graduated from university, I shall/ will get a better salary./ Dup ce voi absolvi universitatea, voi avea un salariu mai mare. Time expressions: tomorrow/mine, the day after tomorrow/ poimine, next...../ sptmna,luna, etc.viitoare, in 2010, tonight/ disear, soon/ n curnd, in a week, month, year/ peste o sptmn, lun, un an;

Other Ways of Expressing Future/ Alte modaliti de exprimare a viitorului


Present Tense Simple: pentru planuri, programe oficiale; e.g.: The exhibition opens on (the) 3-rd (of) August, 2007./ Expoziia se deschide/se va deschide..... Present Tense Continuous: pentru planuri personale; e.g.: He is visiting his relatives next Friday./ El i viziteaz/i va vizita rudele..... Be going to + infinitive: exprim intenia (Am de gnd s....) sau o aciune viitoare cu o cauz evident n prezent. e.g.. Elizabeth is going to marry next September./ Elizabeth are de gnd s se mrite n septembrie. Be about to: aciuni iminente dintr-un viitor imediat; e.g.: Pay attention! That pot is about to fall./ Fii atent()! Vasul acela st s cad. Be on the point/verge of + gerund: echivalente formale ale expresiei de mai sus, traduse prin a fi pe punctul/pe cale s... . e.g..The conflict is on the point/ verge of ending./ Conflictul e pe care s nceteze. Be to + infinitive: planuri, instruciuni sau ordine; e.g.: The meeting is to take place on Wednesday. You are to be here at 8 sharp./ S fii aici la ora 8 fix.

Future Tense Continuous


Structures: a. Affirmative: Subject + shall/will be (forme de viitor ale vb. to be) +V-I + ing He will be working this time tomorrow./ Mine pe vremea asta va lucra. b. Negative: Subject + shall/will be + not + V-I + ing

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I shall not be taking part in the meeting tomorrow at noon./ Nu voi lua parte la edin mine la prnz. c. Interrogative: Shall/Will + subject + be + V-ing? Will she be cleaning the house this time tomorrow? Uses: * aciune n desfurare ntr-un moment din viitor; They will be flying to Paris this time next week./ Sptmna viitoare pe vremea asta vor zbura spre Paris. * deducii logice cu privire la o aciune din prezent; He will be sleeping now. It is 3 a.m../ Doarme probabil. Este ora 3 noaptea. * planuri personale (aceeai utilizare ca a lui Present Tense Continuous, cu valoare de viitor); Ill be seeing my friends tonight./M ntlnesc disear cu prietenii mei. Time expressions: this time tomorrow/next week....., between10 and 12, when my mother comes etc.; Exercises: 1. Put the verb in brackets into an appropriate present or future form: If I am re-elected, I .......(give) you my word that the first issues I ......(tackle/ a aborda o problem, un subiect) are those from the environment and education. She is so pale! She ..............(to faint/ a leina). You are looking gorgeous in that dress! Really? I ...........(to buy*/ a cumpra) it then. Margaret .......................(to have*/ to throw* a party/ a da o petrecere) tonight. The plane....................(to land/ a ateriza) in 30 minutes. 2. Translate into English: Ce ai de gnd s faci dup ce termini facultatea? St s plou. Nu vom juca fotbal pe stadion. n dou luni mi voi cumpra o cas nou. Vrei s vii cu mine la film? Inginerii din sucursala (subsidiary) noastr sunt pe punctul de a descoperi o nou metod de purificare (purifying/ purification) a apei.

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UNIT 9

ASPECTUL PERFECT. PERFECTIVE ASPECT

Aspectul este o categorie gramatical specific verbului, inexistent n limba romn, care exprim felul de receptare a aciunii (n desfurare ntr-un anumit moment/ limitat sau la modul general/ desfurat cu regularitate, cu sau fr consecine, etc.) Dup cum am vzut n Unit 5, verbul poate avea trei aspecte: simplu/simple (aciuni generale, permanente, desfurate cu regularitate), continuu/continuous (aciuni surprinse n desfurare ntr-un anumit moment/ limitate ca perioad de desfurare sau regulate, repetate, dar enervante) i perfect/perfect(ive), avnd ca trstur definitorie anterioritatea fa de timpul cruia i poart numele i fa de care rmne legat fie prin consecine, fie printr-o perioad care le include pe amndou. Pentru a v reaminti structura celorlalte aspecte, revedei unitatea mai sus-amintit. Aspectul perfect/Perfective Aspect se construiete cu ajutorul auxiliarului to have*, conjugat la timpul cerut, urmat de Past Participle (V-III/ V-ed) al verbului de conjugat. La forma negativ se adaug negaia not dup auxiliar, n timp ce forma interogativ se obine prin aducerea auxiliarului n poziie iniial (Have/ Had/ Will,shall you.....?) Present Perfect Simple/ Perfect compus I have just met him./ Tomai l-am ntlnit. I havent seen him this week/ Nu l-am vzut sptmna aceasta.vs I didnt see him last week. (Past Tense Simple) Have you seen her lately?/ Ai vzut-o n ultima vreme? Uses: * aciune dintr-un trecut recent care are adesea consecine n prezent; * aciune dintr-un trecut neprecizat sau vag, spre deosebire de Past Tense Simple al crui moment este de obicei specificat; * aciune dintr-o perioad neterminat, spre deosebire de Past Tense Simple exprimnd o aciune dintr-o perioad ncheiat; Time expressions: just/ tocmai, lately/ n ultima vreme, recently, yet/ nc (n propoziii negative), still/ nc (n propoziii afirmative), already/ deja, before/ nainte, today, this......, ever/ vreodat (prezent cu 27

precdere n propoziii interogative), for/ de..., since/din..../de la ora....(ultimele dou specifice timpurilor perfecte i continue). Past Perfect Simple/ Mai mult ca perfectul He had already cleaned the house when I got home./ Fcuse deja curat cnd am ajuns eu acas. I hadnt been in Europe before./ Nu mai fusesem n Europa. Had they finished the project by the time their boss came?/ Terminaser proiectul pn s vin eful lor? Uses: * aciune trecut terminat naintea altei aciuni trecute; Time expressions: aceleai de la Present Perfect. Future Tense Simple/ Viitor anterior sau Viitor II By the end of July he will have worked at this power plant for 25 years./ La sfritul lunii iulie va fi lucrat de 25 de ani n aceast central. She wont have travelled for 2 months by the time you meet her./ Nu va fi cltorit de 2 luni pn s-o ntlneti. Will you have done your homework before we go out?/ O s-i termini tema pn s ieim? Uses: * aciune sau stare viitoare anterioar altei aciuni din viitor sau unui moment viitor; * presupunere, deducie logic; He will have gone to bed by now./ S-o fi dus s se culce. Time expressions: Celor de la timpurile deja nvate, li se altur till, until/ pn..., by then/ pn atunci. Not: Timpurile de mai sus formeaz aspectul continuu dup urmtoarea structur: Subject + have (la timpul cerut) + been + V-I + ing i exprim aciuni anterioare unui anumit moment din trecut, prezent sau viitor, dar care continu pn la acel moment i uneori i dup aceea. Prepoziiile specifice acestora sunt for (urmat de perioada de desfurare a aciunii) i since (urmat de momentul n care a debutat aciunea). e.g.: I have been studying French since I was 11./ Studiez franceza de la 11 ani. He had been driving for 10 years when he had his first accident./ Conducea de 10 ani cnd a avut primul su accident. 28

By next February they will have been living here for 5 years./ Anul viitor, n februarie se vor mplini 5 ani de cnd locuiesc aici./ Vor fi locuind aici de 5 ani... . Vocabulary: Colours/ Colors Am. English * red/rou * yellow/ galben * blue/ albastru * green/ verde * brown/maro * white/ alb * black/ negru * grey/ gri * cream/crem * beige/ bej urmate de culoarea respectiv. e.g.: light blue/ albastru deschis vs dark blue/ albastru nchis, numit i navy blue/ bleumarin. Exercises: 1. Translate into English: L-ai vzut recent? Da, l-am vzut sptmna trecut. Conducea o main roie. Nu mai vzuse pn atunci o main roz. O s vopseti peretele acela portocaliu deschis pn s ajung eu acas. Scrie de 5 minute ntr-o agend verde. Angajaii tocmai au primit noi uniforme: albastru nchis, pentru efii de departamente, i portocalii, pentru mecanici. 2. Name your favourite three colours and three colours you dont like. Give a reason for your choice. * orange/portocaliu * pink/ roz * lemon/ galben aprins * lime/ verde-glbui * olive/ oliv * khaki/ kaki * purple/ purpuriu * violet/mauve/lilac nuane de mov * scarlet/ stacojiu, crmiziu * turquoise/ turcoaz

Not: Pentru delimitarea nuanelor deschis/ nchis ale unei culori folosim adjectivel light/dark,

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REVISION

I. Give the forms (Present Tense Simple and Continuous, Past Tense Simple and Continuous, Future Tense Simple and Continuous) of the following verbs: to go (irregular) and to play (regular)

II. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the verbs given: 1. Where you after you had left university? (to go) 2. I pork because this meat too fat and disagrees with me. (to eat-neg., to be) 3. He in a conference, in 1991, when he his wife to be. (to participate, to meet) 4. Michael .. at a refinery as an engineer and he really ..his job. (to work, to like) 5. They .. football yesterday, but, because it .. right now, they . again tomorrow. (to play, to rain, to play) III. Match sentences A G to the constructions 1 7: A. I am working for a new project these days. B. He didnt participate in that competition. C. My husband works at an important subsidiary of a multinational company. D. They were transporting crude oil when the tank exploded. E. Will you wait for me if I ask you to? F. They played football all morning. G. He will be sleeping when I get home. 1. Past Tense Simple 2. Present Tense Continuous 3. Present Tense Simple 4. Future Tense Simple 5. Past Tense Simple (negative) 6. Past Tense Continuous 7. Future Tense Continuous IV. Introduce yourself in a short composition (5 10 lines) 30

UNIT 10

NOUN. SUBSTANTIVUL
Substantivul este partea de vorbire care denumete fiine, lucruri, fenomene ale naturii, concepte, stri sufleteti. n limba englez, substantivul are urmtoarele categorii gramaticale: numr/ number, gen/ gender, caz/ case. Sufixe specifice: -er/-or: -ism: -ist: -ment: -tion: teacher/profesor, actor, painter/pictor, plumber/instalator, writer/scriitor; criticism/atitudine critic, magnetism, vandalism, comunism; artist, capitalist, journalist, scientist; arrangement, development/dezvoltare, government; foundation, organisation, recognition/recunoatere, supposition.

Number
Din punct de vedere al numrului, substantivele limbii engleze se mpart n dou mari categorii: numrabile/countable i nenumrabile/uncountable.

Countable nouns:
a. cu plural regulat: book books, wife wives, girl girls, church churches etc.; Not: Dup cum s-a vzut i n unitile anterioare, substantivele cu plural regulat adaug terminaiile -s/-es la forma de singular. n aceast categorie intr i substantive precum knife-knives (ho-hoi) n care se remarc alternana consonantic f/v. b. cu plural neregulat: Substantive cu plural neregulat:/Irregular plural: child/copil children/copii man/brbat men woman/femeie women goose/gsc geese tooth/dinte teeth foot/picior -feet mouse/oarece mice titmouse/piigoi titmice louse/pduche lice 31

ox/bou, bovin oxen brother/frate dintr-o grupare religioas brethren c. cu plural zero/zero plural (sg=pl). species species (specie specii) deer deer (cprioar cprioare) sheep sheep (oaie oi) d. cu plural strin (pstrat ca atare din limbile de origine, de obicei greaca sau latina) criterion criteria (crteriu criterii) phenomenon phenomena larva larvae datum data (cu sensul de informaie) analysis analises

Uncontable nouns / Substantive defective


a. singularia tantum: au doar forme de singular, fiind nlocuite prin pronumele it i folosite cu verbe la numrul singular. money, knowledge/cunoatere, information, news/tire, tiri, luggage/bagaj(e), honesty, intelligence, chalk/cret, bread/pine; b. pluralia tantum: au doar forme de plural, fiind nlocuite prin pronumele they i folosite cu verbe la numrul plural trosers/pantaloni, overalls/salopete, pyjamas/pijamale, jeans, scissors/foarfece, glasses/ochelari, tweezers/penset, tongs/clete, outskirts/periferie Not: unele substantive pot fi att numrabile ct i pluralia tantum, cu modificrea sensului. e.g.: custom customs (obicei obiceiuri) customs/vam

Gender
Animate: a. mobile: au forme distincte de masculin i feminin. a.1 marcate lexical (cu forme total diferite) cook/coco hen/gin boy girl drake/roi duck/ra dog/cine bitch/cea a.2 marcate morfologic, prin terminaii ataate formelor de masculin sau feminin. m + -ess: actor actress, duke duchess, lion lioness 32

-ine: hero heroine f + -er: widow/vduv widower/vduv groom: bride/mireas bridegroom/mire b. common gender/substantive epicene: au aceeai form la masculin i feminin. victim, personality, student, child, elephant, person Inanimate: Obiectele, fenomenele naturii, conceptele sunt considerate n mod obinuit substantive de gen neutru care pot fi nlocuite prin pronumele it. table, chair, rain, window, respect

Case
1. Nominative: The student studies at Petroleum Gas University of Ploieti. 2. Accusative: I have just seen the student. 3. Genitive: s Genitive: The students marks are really good. of Genitive: The colour of the new car is brighter than the old one. 4. Dative: The professor explained the new lesson to/for his students. 5. Vocative: Hey, students, come here! Not: Substantivele n cazul vocativ nu ndeplinesc nicio funcie sintactic, fiind separate de restul comunicrii prin virgul sau semnul exclamrii. Exercises: 1. Put the verb in brackets into the correct Present Tense form: The scissors ..in the drawer/sertar. (to be) This ..the news. (to be) His wages ..very hight. (to be) I think your glasses..on the table. (to lie/a sta) The scale ..a housewife in the kitchen. (to help) Electronics .a very interesting subject. (to be) 2. Give the feminine correspondents of the following nouns: son, husband, nephew, uncle, king, lord, cock, stag/cerb, Tom-cat/ motan, brother, monk/ clugr.

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UNIT 11

PRONOUN. PRONUMELE

Pronumele este partea de vorbire care poate ine locul unui substantiv, motiv pentru care este considerat n unele lucrri subclas a acestuia.

Pronumele personal/ Personal Pronouns sunt acele pronume care nlocuiesc


substantive nume de persoan. Redm n continuare formele acestuia. Case Nominative/ Subjective case Accusative/Dative/Objective case 1-st person sg. pl. I we Me/pe us/pe mine, Vocative m,mie nou 2-nd person 3-rd person sg. pl. singular plural you you he/el, she/ea they/ei, ele you/pe you/pe him/pe el, them/ pe ei, lor lui You! vou You! ea, ei -

noi,ne, tine,te, voi,v, lui,her/pe

Pronumele posesiv/ Possessive Pronouns exprim ideea de posesie, implicnd att


posesorul ct i obiectul posedat. Dac n limba romn acest pronume are forme diferite n funcie de numrul posesorilor i al obiectelor posedate, n englez pronumele posesiv are o singur form pentru fiecare persoan i numr, indiferent de numrul i genul obiectelor posedate, dup cum urmeaz: mine a, al, ai, ale mele your a, al, ai, ale tale his a, al, ai, ale lui hers a, al, ai, ale ei ours a, al, ai, ale noastre yours a, al, ai, ale voastre theirs a, al, ai, ale lor Not: n cazul n care pronumele determin un substantiv, ele au valoare adjectival i urmtoarele forme: my (house), your (friend), his (job), her (cousins), our (company), your (manager), their (responsability).

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Pronumele reflexiv/ Reflexive Pronoun ine locul obiectului gramatical care face i
suport aciunea. Se poate traduce prin pronume reflexiv (m/ m-, te, se/s-/i/ i, ne, v/v-) sau prin pronumele de ntrire (nsmi, nsi, nsi, etc.) myself, yourself, himself, herself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves e.g.: She injured herself while ironing./ S-a rnit n timp ce clca.

Pronumele demonstrativ/ Demonstrative Pronoun ine locul numelui unui


obiect: * aflat n apropierea vorbitorului: this/ acesta, aceasta, these/ acestea, acetia; * aflat la deprtare de vorbitor: that/ acela, aceea, those/ aceia, acelea;

Pronumele relativ/ Relative Pronoun ndeplinete un dublu rol: pe de o parte ine


locul numelui unui obiect, iar pe de alt parte funcioneaz ca element de legtur ntre dou propoziii. * that care (folosit att pentru obiecte ct i pentru persoane) * which care (folosit doar pentru obiecte, fenomene) * who care (folosit exclusiv pentru persoane) * whose ale crui/crei * whom pe care

Pronumele interogativ/ Interrogative pronoun ine locul numelui unui obiect


ateptat ca rspuns. * Who?/ Cine? * Whose?/ A, al, ai, ale cui? *Whom?/ Pe cine? * What?/ Ce? * Why?/ De ce?

Pronumele nehotrt/ Indefinite pronoun nlocuiete numele unui obiect fr a-l


indica precis. * some-: someone/ cineva, somebody/ cineva, something/ ceva, etc.; Not: folosite n propoziiile afirmative; * any-: anybody/ cineva, anyone/ cineva, anything/ ceva; Not: folosite n propoziiile negative i interogative; * every-: everyone/ toi, toate, everybody/ toat lumea, everything/ tot; 35

Alte tipuri:/Others:
* negative: nobody/ nimeni, noone/ nimeni, nothing/ nimic; * reciprocal: each other/ unul pe altul, one another/ unul pe cellalt; Exercises: 1. Insert the missing possessives: This doesnt look like notebook; it must be . He has lost .. pencil; perhaps you can lend him . We have taken .. breakfast. Has she taken ? John came to see me yesterday. .father and were coleagues. Tell them not to forget ..tickets. 2. Translate into English: Acestea sunt surorile mele vitrege, iar acela mi este cumnat. Eu nu am rude bogate pe care s le rog s m ajute. Nu m-am ntlnit cu nimeni ieri, dar astzi toat lumea m-a felicitat pentru proiectul meu. Aceia sunt verii mei, nepoii mamei i strnepoii bunicii. A cui este aceast proprietate? 3. Choose the right pronoun: We are stronger than they/them at chess. Help my/me carry her/she, she/hers has just fainted. Let we/us all go for a walk except him/his; him/he is tired. Their/theirs jobs are better paid than us/ours. Why are you/your crying?

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UNIT 12

NUMERAL/ NUMERALUL

Numeralul este partea de vorbire, substitut al substantivului, care exprim numrul sau ordinea prin numrare a obiectelor. Exist lucrri care consider numeralul subclas a substantivului. Aceast parte de vorbire poate fi divizat n dou mari categorii: numerale cardinale i numerale ordinale. Numerale cardinale/Cardinal Numerals exprim numrul obiectelor (prin obiect

gramatical nelegem fiine, lucruri, fenomene, stri, etc.). zero/0, one/1, two/2, three/3, ......ten/10, eleven/11, twelve/12; Not: Numeralele de la 13 la 19 se formeaz cu ajutorul terminaiei teen; Numeralele 20, 30, 40, etc. se formeaz cu terminaia ty; n cazul n care numeralul preced un substantiv, nu se mai adaug desinena s/-es la acesta din urm, numeralul fiind considerat marc de plural (corect: 2 million, 3 hundred, 5 thousand). Numerale ordinale/Ordinal Numerals exprim ordinea prin numrare a obiectelor. Spre deosebire de limba romn, numeralul ordinal din limba englez are o form unic pentru ambele genuri. the first/1-st primul, prima the second/2-nd al doilea, a doua the third/3-rd al treilea, a treia ncepnd cu numeralul 4 se ataeaz terminaia th (cu excepia numeralelor compuse de la 1: 21, 31, 41 la care se adaug st i de la 2: 22, 32, 42 la care se adaug nd) Vocabulary: Exprimarea datei se face cu ajutorul numeralelor ordinale aezate nainte sau dup denumirea lunii, dup cum urmeaz: March, 3-rd, 2007 3-rd March, 2007 3 March, 2007 March 3, 2007 37

Not: n documente sunt indicate formulele de mai sus, n care numele lunii este scris n litere pentru a evita confuziile provocate de sistemele diferite de notare a datei n engleza britanic (zi, lun, an) i n varianta sa american (lun, zi, an). Sunt admise i forme scurte cum ar fi 4.05.2010 sau 4/05/2010, dar acestea redau n Br.E. ziua de 4 mai 2010, n timp ce n Am.E. se citesc ca 5 aprilie 2010. Exprimarea orei se realizeaz cu ajutorul prepoziiilor past/ i, respectiv to/ fr, utilizate dup minute i naintea orei. 14 i 10 minute/ ten minutes past two p.m 14 fr 10 minute/ ten minutes to two p.m Ora fix se exprim cu ajutorul adjectivului sharp adugat dup or. 5 fix/ five a.m. sharp Quarter/ sfert (de or), half/ jumtate (de or) se pot folosi cu prepoziiile past i to: 16 i 15 minute/ a quarter past four p.m. sau four, fifteen 16 i jumtate/ half past four p.m sau four thirty Exercises: 1. Notai n litere urmtoarele numerale: 24, 15, 65, 79, 83, 100, 105, 573, 2435, 1 434 500; 2. Notai urmtoarele date: 1 Mai 2006, 21 august 1978, 4 aprilie 1600, 23 septembrie 1999 i propria dat de natere. 3. Scriei echivalentele ordinale ale numeralelor cardinale date: 11, 24, 31, 62, 173, 555. 4. Notai pe cifre numrul dumneavoastr de telefon, fix i mobil, ca i cum le-ai dicta unui interlocutor telefonic.

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