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GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI

TRANSILVANIA UNIVERSITY OF BRAOV


FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING
GRADUATE PROJECT
Contextual Interaction Between Driver and Vehicle
Project coordinator Grad!ate
Pro"# $r# In%# ISPAS Nico&ae ACATRINEI Ga'rie&
BRAOV
()*(
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
Contextual Interaction Between Driver
and Vehicle
Grad!ate Acatrinei Gabriel
Study program: Automotive Engineering
group 1!1 AE
Project coordinator: Prof. Dr. Ing. Ispas Nicolae
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
Sc!rta +re,entare a contin!t!&!i &!crarii de &icenta#
Lucrarea este alcatuita din cinci capitole.
Primul capitol este bazat pe argumentarea necesitatii aparitiei de noi tehnologii in ceea
ce priveste autovehiculele tinand cond de fle!ibilitatea si cererea acestora.
"l doilea capitol prezinta structurat interfata unui vehicul pasii ce trebuie urmati
pentru a creea o interfata completa care in final sa asigure siguranta pasagerilor sa fie intuitiv
usor de utilizat respectand mai multe principii. Desigur ca prototipurile vehiculele
inteligente vor include noi sisteme si senzori pentru a accentua siguranta vehiculului si a
pasagerilor usurand sarcinile soferului. "ceste elemente si functiile lor sunt prezentate in
ultima parte a acestui capitol.
#el de$al treilea capitol prezinta notiunea de interfata ca punte de comunicare
principal %ntre conduc&torul auto 'i vehicul. (oda este de a proiecta vehicule inteligente care
integreaza tehnologii de inalt nivel mai multe sisteme de siguranta rutiera care pot
interactiona prietenos cu soferul. " fost considerat ca o ilustrare scurta a evolutiei istorice
poate oferi o mai buna intelegere cu privire la importanta de a avea interfete inteligente. )n
studiu al unor interfete e!istente a fost facut %n scopul de a cunoaste starea si tehnologia
actuala si pentru a urmari unele masuri %n curs de dezvoltare. #apitolul se incheie cu un studiu
de caz despre modul %n care riscurile de accidente si de cat de mult ar putea imbunatatii
siguranta rutiera.
"l patrulea capitol cuprinde calculul dinamic al unui autovehicul. *ste necesar %n
scopul de a alege principalii parametri pentru a calcula performan+ele vehiculului luat %n
considerare. "vand %n vedere costurile si durata de viata vehiculul trebuie sa satisfaca nevoile
de o larga categorie de persoane.
"l cincelea capitol cuprinde o prezentare amanuntita a interfetei unui sistem de
navigare al autovehicului. "cest sistem de navigare cuprinzand computerul de bord si
navigatia ,PS.
-n sf.r'it capitolul sase con+ine unele concluzii 'i observa+ii personale.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
SHORT PRE-ENTATION OF THE GRA$UATE PRO.ECT
/he paper is structured in five chapters.
/he first chapter is an argumentation of the needs of integrating ne0 technologies on
vehicles in the conte!t of scientific evolution and considering the demands of the mar1et.
/he second chapter presents the steps 0hich must be follo0ed in order to create a ne0
interface. /he designer must respect multiple principles having in mind that the result of his
0or1 must ensure safety must be intuitive friendly easy to use. 2f course intelligent
vehicles 0ill integrate various intelligent systems and sensors 0hich must interact in order to
ensure the optimum functioning of the car at a certain moment in time. /hese elements and
their main functions are presented at the end of the chapter.
/he third chapter presents the notion of interface as main communication bridge
bet0een the driver and the vehicle. /he fashion is to design intelligent vehicles 0hich
integrate high level technologies multiple road safety systems and 0hich can friendly interact
0ith their drivers. It 0as considered that a short illustration of the historical evolution can
offer a better understanding about the importance of having smart interfaces. " study of some
e!isting interfaces 0as done in order to 1no0 the status of the present technology and to trace
some developing steps. /he chapter ends 0ith a case study about ho0 accident ris1s and ho0
intelligent cars could drastically improve road safety.
/he fourth chapter comprises the dynamic calculus of the considered vehicle. It is
needed in order to choose the main parameters and to compute the performances of the
considered vehicle. #onsidering costs and lifetime the vehicle must satisfy the needs of a
large category of persons.
/he fifth chapter contains instructions for using the #ar Navigation System 0ith
advance e!plications. /he presentation contains the board computer and the ,PS navigation.
3inally the si!th chapter contains some conclusions final considerations and personal
remar1s.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
CONTENT
C/a+ter *. Ne0 Te/no&o%1 I2+&e2entation
4.4 "rgument5555555...55555555555555.........
4.6 Development paths in automotive industry ..........................................
4.7 3uture cars goals ...................................................................................
C/a+ter (# $e3e&o+2ent o" an Inte%rated HMI4conce+t "or
Acti3e Sa"et1 S15te25
6.4. Introduction 5555.5555555555555....................
6.6 "dvanced Driver "ssistance Systems ..................................................
6.7 Problem and goal of 8(I .....................................................................
6.7.4 /he #ontrol #oncept ..................................................................
6.7.6 Distraction ...................................................................................
6.3.7 3eelings and (ood ......................................................................
6.9 Designing for safety ...........................................................................
6.9.4 8uman$(achine Interaction safety .............................................
6.9.6 Safe in$vehicle design ...................................................................
6.9.7 Interaction Design ..........................................................................
6.: 8mi Designing Principles ........................................................................
6.:.4 /he Driver ......................................................................................
6.:.6 /he ;ehicle ....................................................................................
6.:.7 /he *nvironment ..........................................................................
C/a+ter 6# St!d1 O" T/e H2i U5ed In C!rrent Contr!ction5
7.4 Integrating Ne0 /echnology ...................................................................
7.6 "ide Program < Principles .......................................................................
7.7 (odern Intefaces In Intellingent ;ehicles ...............................................
7.9 #ase Study: *stimation "bout "ccident =is1 Probability ......................
7.9.4 (ethod ..........................................................................................
7.9.6 =esults ............................................................................................
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GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
C/a+ter 7# $1na2ic Ca&c!&!5 O" T/e Inte&&i%ent Ve/ic&e
9.4 Input Data .................................................................................................
9.4.4 #hoosing the initial parameters ................................................................
9.4.6 #hoosing the main dimensions of the vehicle ...............................
9.4.7 #hoosing the distribution of 0eight on the a!les and on the 0heels ......
9.4.9 #hoosing the values for the 0heels and the tyres ..........................
9.6 *!ternal characteristic of the engine ...................................................................
9.7 /he ma!imum speed and the gearbo! ratios ............................................
9.9 Dynamic calculus diagrams .....................................................................
9.: Po0er characteristic ............................................................................................
9.? Bra1ing and stability diagrams ................................................................
C/a+ter 8# Na3i%ation S15te2
:.4 Introduction into navigation system menu ...............................................
:.4.4 #ontrol #oncept ............................................................................
:.4.6 *!planation 2f 3unction Selection ................................................
:.6 ,PS Navigation .......................................................................................
:.6.4 (ap #DCD;D ................................................................................
:.6.6 #reating "n "ddress Boo1 ............................................................
:.7 /he computer ...........................................................................................
:.7.4 /raveling /ime ..............................................................................
:.7.6 3uel #onsumption ..........................................................................
:.7.7 Speed Limit ....................................................................................
:.7.9 "bbreviations 2f Display ..............................................................
C/a+ter 9. Fina& Con5ideration5
Bi'&io%ra+/1 ######################################################################################################
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GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
1. Ne0 Te/no&o%1 I2+&e2entation
*#* Ar%!2ent
Ro&and G:rard Bart/e5 E46 November 4D4: < 6: (arch 4D@AF 0as a 3rench literary
theorist philosopher critic and semiotician. BarthesG ideas e!plored a diverse range of fields
and he influenced the development of schools of theory
including structuralismsemiotics social theory anthropology and post$structuralism.
8e sad: HI thin" that car# toda$ are almo#t the exact e%uivalent o& the great Gothic
cathedral#' I mean the #u(reme creation o& an era) conceived with (a##ion b$ un"nown
arti#t#) and con#umed in image i& not in u#age b$ a whole (o(ulation which a((ro(riate#
them a# a (urel$ magical ob*ect.I
*#( $e3e&o+2ent +at/5 in a!to2oti3e ind!5tr1
"n a!to2o'i&e a!tocar 2otor car or car is a 0heeled motor vehicle used
for transporting passengers 0hich also carries its o0n engine or motor. (ost definitions of
the term specify that automobiles are designed to run primarily on roads to have seating for
one to eight people to typically have four 0heels and to be constructed principally for
the transport of people rather than goods.
/here are appro!imately ?AA million passenger cars 0orld0ide Eroughly one car per
eleven peopleF. "round the 0orld there 0ere about @A? million cars and light truc1s on the
road in 6AA>J the engines of these burn over a billion cubic meters E6?A billion )S gallonsF of
petrolCgasoline and diesel fuel yearly. /he numbers are increasing rapidly especially
in #hina and India.
+The$ ma$ not be good &or the environment) but the$ #ure are &un,-
EBrian La'an;
#ar bodies are generally made from steel over the years the process has become more
demanding though as companies try to adapt to ne0 styles and demand for performance and
economy. Steel is the favourite but no0 days companies li1e B(K and ali1e use recycled
steel among other materials.
"nother materials that car bodies are also made of are "luminium 3ibre glass #arbon
Levlar plastic and sometimes a mi!ture of all of those.
If the driver thin1s about the interior then there are many other materials included
most of 0hich are similar to household furnishings 0ood plastic foam leather metals glass
etc.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/he 0ord a!to2o'i&e comes via the 3rench automobile from the "ncient ,ree1 0ord
M NOP E aut.# QselfQF and the Latin mobili#EQmovableQFJ meaning a vehicle that moves itself.
/he alternative name car is believed to originate from the Latin
0ord carru# or carrumEQ0heeled vehicleQF or the (iddle *nglish 0ord carre EQcartQF
Efrom 2ld North 3renchF in turn these are said to have originated from the
,aulish 0ord "arro# Ea ,allic #hariotF.
/he large$scale production$line manufacturing of affordable automobiles 0as debuted
by =ansom 2lds in 4DA6 at his 2ldsmobile factory located in Lansing (ichigan and based
upon the assembly line techniRues pioneered by (arc Isambard Brunel at the Portsmouth
Bloc1 (ills *ngland in 4@A6. /he assembly line style of mass production and
interchangeable parts had been pioneered in the ).S. by /homas Blanchard in 4@64 at
the Springfield "rmory in Springfield (assachusetts. /his concept 0as greatly e!panded
by 8enry 3ord beginning in 4D49.
"s a result 3ordGs cars came off the line in fifteen minute intervals much faster than
previous methods increasing productivity eightfold EreRuiring 46.: man$hours before 4 hour
77 minutes afterF 0hile using less manpo0er. It 0as so successful paint became a bottlenec1.
2nly Sapan blac1 0ould dry fast enough forcing the company to drop the variety of colors
available before 4D49 until fast$drying Duco lacRuer 0as developed in 4D6?. /his is the
source of 3ordGs apocryphal remar1 Qany color as long as itGs blac1Q. In 4D49 an assembly
line 0or1er could buy a (odel / 0ith four monthsG pay.
/ig,1,1 0ortrait o& 1enr$ /ord 2ca, 13134
3ordGs comple! safety proceduresTespecially assigning each 0or1er to a specific
location instead of allo0ing them to roam aboutTdramatically reduced the rate of injury. /he
combination of high 0ages and high efficiency is called Q3ordismQ and 0as copied by most
major industries. /he efficiency gains from the assembly line also coincided 0ith the
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
economic rise of the )nited States. /he assembly line forced 0or1ers to 0or1 at a certain
pace 0ith very repetitive motions 0hich led to more output per 0or1er 0hile other countries
0ere using less productive methods.
Since the 4D6As nearly all cars have been mass$produced to meet mar1et needs so
mar1eting plans often have heavily influenced automobile design.
/o ma1e cars even more attractive different elements are added in order to increase
comfort to protect the passengers to aid the driver. Kith their electronic heart E/he
*lectronic #ontrol )nitF todayUs cars are able to offer interactive maps Ethan1s to the ,PSF
that help the driver arrive to its destination to get information about the e!ternal conditions
and to perform certain actions Efor e!ample the sensors 0hich inform *#) 0hen it rains in
order to actuate the 0ipersF and even to entertain the passengers by means of the sound
system television and 0ireless Internet access.
/he general trend of the automotive industry is to introduce electric propulsion
systems 0hich are much more efficient and less pollutant than the classic internal combustion
engines. /he real challenge is find alternative energy sources 0hich are easy to construct
have a light 0eight occupy small amount of space and have a reduced cost. Leeping in mind
this assumption it is obvious that having this strong electric platform more and more gadgets
and systems 0ill be added.
/here are some spectacular concepts of cars that 0e might see on the roads in future.
#ars 0hich obtain the needed electricity via nuclear reactors and 0hich must be refueled once
every 4AA years are concepts ta1en into consideration by todayUs designers. /he nuclear
po0er 0ill be probably the ans0er to the human demands of energy and mobility.
/ig, 1,5 Audi 6 Conce(t Car b$ 6ndre* 7irec
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
Kinner of the unseen technology a0ard at the Interior motives design a0ard 6AA> the
(", magnetic vehicle concept from Slova1 designer (atVW ProchXcz1a sho0cases t0o
special technologies in one vehicle. )sing magnetic po0er the vehicle uses an electric engine
that has a polarity 0hich is the same as in road. 2f course this 0ill also reRuire the roads to be
made of huge concrete panels 0ith magnets formed in them.

/ig, 1,5 Renault Conce(t b$ (atVW ProchXcz1a
H!2an E&ectric H1'rid Ve/ic&e 4 T/e "!t!re o" +er5ona& tran5+ortation
In the 64st century humanity 0ill have to evolve through a more efficient 0ay of life
as our resources are beginning to be insufficient for our needs. /his 8uman *lectric 8ybrid
;ehicle uses the po0er of his muscles as 0ell electricity stored in the batteries. It allo0s
smooth and constant velocity both uphill E0ith the help of the electric motorF as 0ell as
do0nhill E0hen the 0heel acts as a generator and charges the batteriesF. /he vehicle can turn
7?A degrees maintaining stability all the time. "dditional po0er is acRuired from photovoltaic
placed on top of the vehicle as 0ell as during de$acceleration from regenerative bra1ing.
*lderly and handicapped people that are unable to provide enough 1inetic energy can also
charge the batteries directly from the grid. " vehicle such as this ma1es e!tensive use of
rene0able energy possible and lead to a more sustainable fossil fuel future.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/ig, 1,8 1uman Electric 1$brid Vehicle
/he main development issue 0hen designing a car 0ill be ho0 to integrate ne0
technologies. Intelligent vehicles 0ith friendly interfaces 0ill guide the driver to his
destination.
/ig, 1,9 RENA:;T <EGANE C6:0E C6NCE0T
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
*#6 F!t!re car5 %oa&5
$ Define the conte!ts that the driver can deal 0ith and choose the ones that can be
modified in order to improve the driverUs comfort and safety
$ (odify the e!istent systems in order to get information 0hich helps to adjust some
functions of the car
$ Introduce ne0 systems 0hich can provide the needed information to *#)
$ #reate a friendly interface easy to use intuitive 0hich can offer the driver the
possibility to s0itch many drive modes in order to adapt to the e!ternal driving conditions
$ Study the possibilities to implement the chosen solutions
$ Study materials and the technologies needed to develop these systems
$ #reate the models of the systems and e!plain their 0or1ing principles
$ Identify the failure circumstances and try to avoid problems from the design stage
$ #onsider the amount of money 0hich must be spentJ try to decrease the production
cost 0ithout influencing the Ruality
$ ,ive considerations about Ruality improvement
$ Study the ergonomics and the safety use of the products
$ /a1e into account that the products must be friendly to the environment. Study all the
types of pollution that they can produce. /ry to reduce 0aste by creating products that are
easy to recycle. ,ive consideration about ho0 the materials 0ill be recycled.
$ #ompare 0ith similar products
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
(# $e3e&o+2ent o" an Inte%rated HMI4conce+t "or Acti3e Sa"et1 S15te25
6.4 INTRO$UCTION
/oday consumers are more sophisticated than in the past e!pecting more content
in their vehicle 0ith higher levels of Ruality and design. /hey are demanding features that
are smarter better crafted and easier to use. Yuality is no0 an aspect the consumers e!pect
0hen they purchase a vehicle as their e!pectation that a vehicle 0ill be safe.
6.6 Ad3anced $ri3er A55i5tance S15te25
"dvanced Driver "ssistance Systems E"D"SF are systems 0ith the purpose to
increase safety andCor comfort to help the driver focus on the driving.
/here are three issues concerning 8uman$(achine Interaction E8(IF design for these
"D"S consideringJ ho0 to assure that the driver ma1es the correct response to the specific
system 0arning ho0 to understand the behavioural adaptation effects there might be 0hen
"D"S is implemented and ho0 to get user acceptance for these systems.
6.7 PROBLEM AN$ GOAL o" HMI
/he problem addressed in this thesis is therefore ho0 to find a holistic 8uman
(achine Interface E8(IF 0hich gives the driver a clear overvie0 and good understanding
of the active safety systems. /o satisfy more demanding customers system personalization
also needs to be considered as 0ell as its interactivity and fle!ibility.
/he Ruestions at issue are :
8o0 can 0e create a 8(I solution to ma1e the driver more a0are of the carUs
active safety systemsZ
8o0 can the driver in an intuitive 0ay interact 0ith the 8(I solution and ma1e
personal adjustments to the carUs active safety systemsZ
8o0 can 0e design a fle!ible 8(I solution that achieves the scalability demands
Ei.e. to ma1e the solution suited for different car models and varied numbers of active
safety systems implementedFZ
Design concept:
/he ans0ers to the Ruestions above 0ill be used to create t0o concepts for an
integrated 8(I solution for active safety systems. /he concept 0ill involve t0o different
driver types based on their 0illingness to personally adjust the systems: low willingne##)
meaning that the driver is not that 0illing to adjust the systems and middle willingne##)
meaning that the driver is 0illing to adjust the systems to himCher personally.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
6.7.4 T/e Contro& Conce+t
Driving can be seen as a controlled process 0here the individual the vehicle and the
environment interacts. Driving behaviour can be described as 0ays to achieve a series of
different goals. #ontrol theory is a frame0or1 to represent goal directed processes 0ith
human and machine.
/ig 5,1 The Driver in Control 2DiC4 model 21ollnagel et al,) 5==84
The trac"ing level concerns activities such as 1eeping speed and distance to other
cars on the road. The regulation level supplies the trac1ing level 0ith goals and criteriaJ
this could be a ne0 speed or a different placement on the road. The monitoring level
includes the status of the vehicle in condition to the traffic environment. Dangerous
situations or changes in the traffic environment are discovered in this level and actions are
sent do0n to the underlying levels so changes can be done. The targeting level decides
criteria for the destination and driving and changes in these criteriaUs.
/he coupling bet0een the four loops illustrates ho0 they are functionally
connected. /he levels are generally lin1ed by goals or objectives Ehigher levels set target
values for lo0er levelsF and feedbac1 Efrom lo0er to higher levelsF. /he Di# model
describes ho0 disturbances can propagate bet0een control levels. " change in goals on the
targeting level such as an altered destination or a ne0 arrival time 0ill affect plans and
actions possibly leading to.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
6.7.6 $i5traction
+Di#traction occur# when a driver i# dela$ed in the recognition o& in&ormation
needed to #a&el$ accom(li#h the driving ta#" becau#e #ome event) activit$) ob*ect) or
(er#on within or out#ide the vehicle com(el# or induce# the driver# > #hi&ting attention
awa$ &rom the driving ta#", - 2ea!et"#u$$ort% &'(()**
*ven though the driving tas1 Ethe primary tas1F is comple! it is usual for drivers to
engage in various other activities 0hile driving so called secondary tas1s. "ny activity that
distracts the driver or competes for the attention 0hile driving has the potential to degrade
driving performance and have serious conseRuences for road safety according to [oung et
al. E6AA7F.
3our different 1inds of distractions are mentioned by the National 8igh0ay /raffic
Safety "dministration EN8/S"FJ vi#ual) auditor$) biomechanical and cognitive, /or exam(le?
biomechanical distraction caused by dialing a phone number or pressing buttons to receive a
callJ vi#ual distraction caused by loo1ing at the phone to dial a number or receive a callJ
auditor$ distraction caused by holding a conversation 0ith a personJ and cognitive distraction
caused by focusing on the topic of conversation rather than monitoring any hazards or
changes in the road environment.
IN$IVI$UAL $IFFERENCES
=oad users vary greatly along a number of psychological dimensionsJ personality
emotion motivation and social behaviour. /hese factors as they relate to driving often
become intert0ined and impossible to separate.
Characteri#tic# o& the high
#corer
@cale# G;6BA; D6<AIN@ Characteri#tic# o& the low
#corer
#urious broad interests
creative original
imaginative untraditional
e!lopre the unfamiliar.
6(enne## 264
"ssesses proactive see1ing
and appreciation of
e!perience for its o0n sa1eJ
toleration for and
#onventional do0n$to$
earth narro0 interests
unartistic unanalytical.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
2rganized reliable hard$
0or1ing self$disciplined
punctual scrupulous neat
ambitious persevering.
Con#cientiou#ne## 2C4
"ssesses the individualUs
degree of organization
persistence and motivation
in goal$directed behaviour.
#ontrasts dependable
fastidious people 0ith those
"imless unreliable lazy
careless la! negligent
0ea1$0illed hedonistic.
Sociable active tal1ative
person$oriented optimistic
need for stimulation active
fun$loving affectionate.
Extraver#ion 2E4
"ssesses Ruantity and
intensity of interpersonal
interactionJ activity levelJ
need for stimulationJ and
=eserved sober
une!uberant aloof tas1$
orientes retiring Ruiet.
Soft$hearted good$natures
trusting helpful forgiving
gullible straightfor0ard.
Agreeablene## 2A4
"ssesses the Ruality of
oneUs interpersonal
orientation along a
continuum from compassion
to antagonism in thoughts
#ynical rude suspicious
uncooperative vengeful
ruthless irritable
manipulative.
Korrying nervous
emotional insecure
inadeRuate
hypochondriacal.
Neurotici#m 2N4
"ssesses adjustment versus
emotional instability.
Identifies individuals prone
to psychological distress
unrealistic ideas e!cessive
cravings or urges and
#alm rela!ed unemotional
hardy secure self$satisfied.
Table 5,1? The Big /ive (er#onalit$ &actor# 2Co#ta and <cCrae 213354
Personalities vary in traffic situations in terms of driving s1ills attitudes and
behaviour on the road. *motional impairment stress se! physical limitations and certain
social and lifestyle characteristics can play a role 0hen it comes to traffic safety.
6.7.7 FEELINGS AN$ MOO$
/he system design must not be too simple but not complicated: too simple < lac1 of
attention to complicated < e!cessive attention
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
4. =ISL
*!travert persons sensation see1ing 0ant to e!periment special situations 0hich gives
them certain feelings \] they ta1e ris1s violate the rules change lanes more drive at great
high0ay speeds use less the seat belts. (en are more li1ely to have this behavior.
8igh ris1 drivers are emotionally unstable hostile emotionally immature and an!ious.

6. *(2/I2NS
Khen projecting such a system it is important to remar1 that people 0ith very different
personalities 0ill use it. Strong positive$pleasure or negative$anger emotions can influence the
driving manner.
7. /=)S/
/emperamental behavior is also dangerous. #ertain drivers trust too much in themselves
or in the system and
6.9 $ESIGNING FOR SAFETY
+Car# are driven b$ (eo(le, The guiding (rinci(le behind ever$ thing we ma"e at
Volvo) there&ore) i# A and mu#t remain A #a&et$, -
<Vo&3o Car Cor+oration;
Khen a ne0 item or system is integrated into a vehicle it 0ill often change the
relationship bet0een the driver the vehicle other road users and the road environment.
/he ne0 item or system 0ill also affect the safety 0hether the item or system is design to.
6.9.4 H!2an4Mac/ine Interaction 5a"et1
" 0ell designed 8uman$#omputer Interface E8#IF is very essential in vehicle
interior since the user only can spare short burst of attention to be able to operate the
vehicle in a safe manner. Interface design for in$car systems is clearly becoming more
difficult as more information sources are made available to the driver.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
)ser interfaces in the car must serve the usersU needs and not cause unnecessary
safety ris1s. Since it is impossible to guarantee a completely safe interface interface
designers must 0or1 to0ard at least not 0orsening the safety situation and leave the tas1 of
improving vehicle safety to others. It is the responsibility of the driver to judge his o0n
level of safe attention to the primary tas1 $ to control the vehicle.
6.9.6 Sa"e in43e/ic&e de5i%n
Some guidelines for safe in$vehicle design:
The (lacement o& di#(la$# should be such as to allo0 them to be easily seen by all
drivers. /hey should not be hidden by the steering 0heel or stal1s. It is preferable to locate
comple! displays high on the instrument panel in order to minimize the amount of time a
drivers eyes must be off the road to read the display. ;isual clutter 0ithin the vehicle
increases the number of glances made by drivers suggesting that panels should be
designed 0ith displays that are easy to see and unnecessary information should be avoided.
/ig, 5,5 B,CD Double DIN VGAETouch @creen <onitor
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
The (lacement o& control# should as 0ell as the placement of displays be easily seen
and reached. /here are three main features of vehicle controlsJ t$(e) location and o(eration,
/he coding Ee.g. color shape and consistent placementF of the control can assist the driver
in identifying and using controls.
/he e!pectancies that the drivers have for the placement and operation of vehicle
controls are an important factor in their ability to use them efficiently. /he perceived
function influences ho0 the control 0ill be e!pected to operate therefore one important
consideration is control$display compatibility. /hat is the control movement should
correspond to its display.
/he design of controls for future cars 0ill probably have greater embedded
functionality and a balance bet0een single$function and multiple$function controls should
according to Burnett and Porter E6AA4F be sought out. It is far from clear 0hat this balance
might be and 0hether novel control types Esuch as joystic1sF may assist the driver.
"s technology advances more use 0ill be made of the auditory mode $ voice
control# and auditor$ di#(la$#) some of 0hich may relieve the visual sense of input to be
processed. "utomatic speech recognition E"S=F is today a reality 0ithin cars 0hich has
clear benefits since it provides a Hhands$free eyes$freeI 0ay to interact. /here are t0o
recommendations considering the 0ay to interact 0ithin the vehicleJ "S= should only be
used 0hen operating a limited number of non$safety$related functions and manual controls
0ill al0ays be necessary.
Kithin the 8#I field the interest to ma1e use of ha(tic Etactile and 1inaetheticF
information is increasing. Burnett and Porter E6AA4F give three proposals 0hy haptic
information should be used 0ithin cars.
Since the human body is capable of sensing a 0ide variety of haptic features it
enables traditional manual controls to provide e!tensive information concerning their
function mode of operation and current status 0ithout using the visual system. Edesign in
terms of size shape te!ture orientation and tactileCforce feedbac1F
2lder people 0ith decreased visual and auditory capabilities 0ill gain a lot from
haptic information.
/he sense of touch can only be used in direct physical contact 0ith an interface
0hich 0ill lead to a natural emotional HclosenessI 0ith the interaction.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
6.9.7 Interaction $e5i%n
+Good de#ign i# not onl$ a matter o& #t$ling the #ur&ace, It i# *u#t a# im(ortant to
ma"e the (roduct ea#$ to under#tand and u#e, I& the (roduct i# not &unctional) it can>t
be beauti&ul, -
<T/e Vo&3o Car Cor+oration $e5i%n P/i&o5o+/1;
Interaction design is about developing interactive products that are easy to learn
effective to use and provide an enjoyable user e!perience. It is no0 more understood by
companies ho0 customer satisfaction is greatly affected by the usability of products.
USABILITY
+Attractive thing# wor" better, -
<Nor2an= ())7;
)sability goals are central to interaction design. " 0ay of conceptualizing usability
is in terms of design principles 0hich is indended to act li1e a set of reminders to
designers. /he best 1no0n design principles are concerned 0ith ho0 to determine 0hat
users should see and do 0hen carrying out their tas1 using an interactive product.
(#8 HMI $ESIGNING PRINCIPLES
(#8#* T/e $ri3er
" fe0 principles overlap each other and are therefore combined and presented as
one belo0:
". ;isibility
Is the most important factor in designing the interface. "n interactive display E0ith
touchscreenF might be placed in such a location in order to permit the driver to see it and to
use it 1eeping the other hand on the steering 0heel.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/ig, 5,8 Car vi#ibilit$
#ommands must have ergonomic shapes and they must have eventually suggestive
labels on them. #ertain labels are mandatory Efor e!ample the button used to actuate the
hazard 0arning lamps has as label t0o concentric triangles and the color associated 0ith this
label is red < the triangles might be red or the button might be red and the triangles 0hiteF to
ensure that the driver finds the emergency lights no matter if it is the first time 0hen he drives
that car.
/ig, 5,9 1aFard light# command de#ign
B. 3eedbac1
It is used to control the proper 0or1ing of the system. /he most common feedbac1
elements are the dashboard 0arning lamps 0hich can signal e!isting problems in the system
Efor e!ample for "BS airbags oil battery coolant temperatureF.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/ig, 5,C Indicator lam(# in automotive da#hboard
#. #onstraints
#onstraints limit the number of options 0hich can be accessed at a certain moment
E3or e!ample the dipped beam and the mean beam are placed on the same command in
different positionsJ to distinguish bet0een them 6 standard colors are used for the 0arning
lamps on the dashboard: green for the dipped beam and blue for the mean beam. "nother
e!ample is that "# can be used only if the outside temperature is greater than a certain value.
During 0inter 0hen the temperatures are lo0 the "# doesnUt HstartI even if the driver has
pressed the buttonF.
/ig, 5,B Di((edAmean beam controller
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
D. #onsistency
/he number of car producers is significantly increasing. /here is a strong need to
create cars 0hich can be driven by everyone. In order to do that it is mandatory to use certain
layouts. /his 0ay the driver can familiarize 0ith the interior and can easily learn ho0 to
manage his vehicle. 3or e!ample the display in front of the driver must indicate the velocity
of the vehicle the rotational speed information about the fuel tan1 and coolant temperature
0arning lamps 0hich indicate the status of the lightning system. "dditional information can
be also placed in this area. /al1ing about models made by the same producer it is better to
put the displays and commands in HstandardI places and even to use the same interaction
language.
/ig, 5, Di#(la$ &rom driver# (o#ition
*. "ffordance
In this case affordance is similar to accessibility. /he suggestions of the button must
be intuitive simple and easy to use. Ne0 drivers should 1no0 ho0 to use the car 0ithout
reading its manual. Some good e!amples of affordance are the buttons 0hich actuate the
ventilation of the car interior and those 0hich electrically actuate the 0indo0s and the
mirrors.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/ig, 5,! Ven#ilation @$#tem
3. Simple and natural dialogue
/he visual HlanguageI is universal and everyone can understand it. Khere it is
impossible to have pictograms it is better to use simple 0ords 0hich are easy to process. /he
dialogue must be natural i.e. the driver mustnUt lose time to analyze a certain 0ord or to
search a certain command. Studies sho0 that more than 6C7 of the users prefer HvisualI
commands the other third preferring tactile audio 0ritten commands.
,. (inimize user memory load
3or humans it is easier to HrediscoverI a certain thing than recall it from the memory
and it is also Ruic1er. Because the dashboard contains plenty of commands it is probable that
the driver 0ill mista1e them at some point in time. /his is 0hy the commands must be placed
in a logic and intuitive fashion. #ommands referring to a certain system should be grouped
together and disposed according to their HintensityI Ethe command for the lightning system
uses one actuator and the same is for the 0indshield 0iper commandJ even if the driver does
not remember all the intermediary options of the 0indshield 0iper command he 1no0s 0here
to find them and he 0ill rediscover ho0 to use themF.
/ig, 5,! Gi((er lever
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
8. #learly mar1ed e!its
During driving the driverUs attention should focus on the road not on the computer.
*ven if the computer has plenty of menus and commands the driver must not lose himself in
this labyrinth. " button stating Hreturn to the main menuI should appear on every submenu
offering Ruic1 access to the main screen.
/ig, 5,3 Clearl$ mar"ed exit# to main menu
I. Shortcuts
"s 0e sho0n before e!ists a certain hierarchy regarding the available commands. 3or
the most important of them the system must allo0 using shortcuts. /he user can choose its
o0n shortcuts according to its desire 0ish and personality. Eeasy to access his favorite radio
call a relative etcF
/ig, 5,1= Car @atellite Radio
S. H,oodI error and 0arning messages
*rror messages should appear on driverUs display in order to inform him Ruic1 about
the status of unresponsive systems. /he error message must be precise and can also contain
information about ho0 to solve the problem. "n e!ample of such a situation is 0hen a light is
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
not 0or1ing or is malfunctioning. /he computer should inform the driver about the e!act
location of the lamp and should also recommend its change as Ruic1 as possible. In the same
category 0e can tal1 about the 0arning messages on the display dashboard. In certain cars for
e!ample the red lights indicate a serious problem or an important 0arning. Khen they are on
it is strongly recommended to stop the car. /he orange colors signify a temporary or a
problem 0hich doesnUt reRuire an immediate intervention. Sometimes together 0ith the
orange lamps is used a lamp 0hich reRuires the driver to bring the vehicle in service.
/ig, 5,11 Error# &rom driver># di#(la$
L. Prevent errors
*rrors due to confusions and mista1es must be avoided. " good idea is to use different
colors for different categories of commands. 3or e!ample for things regarding carUs
orientation it can be used a yello0 screen mean0hile for menus 0hich offer entertainment it
can be used a blue screen.
L. 8elp and documentation
*ven if most commands can be recognized through intuition a good inform about the
systemUs options must be al0ays available. /he driver must be informed about the HhiddenI
commands and the additional choices he can access. 2nly the informed drivers can ta1e
advantage of all the facilities offered by their car.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/ig, 5,15 Car :tiliFation <anual
6.:.6 T/e Ve/ic&e
". Blind Spot Information System EBLISF
;olvo introduced the BLIS option to help drivers notice cars in their blind spot./hese
cars are eRuipped 0ith a camera under the mirror and a light on inside the car that indicates a
car may be in drivers blind spot. /he system helps the driver to locate objects situated in the
blind spot. /his happens by using cameras located on the door mirrors. It is very useful in
changing lanes because ensures the driver that the maneuver he performs doesnUt imply the
ris1 of a collision. If there is any danger then the driver is.
/ig, 5,18 Blind @(ot In&ormation @$#tem
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/ig, 5,19 Blind @(ot In&ormation @$#tem Gor"ing (rinci(le
B. Lane Departure Karning ELDKF
In road$transport terminology a &ane de+art!re 0arnin% 515te2 is a mechanism
designed to 0arn a driver 0hen the vehicle begins to move out of its lane Eunless a turn
signal is on in that directionF on free0ays and arterial roads. /hese systems are designed to
minimize accidents by addressing the main causes of collisions: driver error distractions and
dro0siness.
/ypes:
/here are t0o main types of systems:
Systems 0hich 0arn the driver Elane departure 0arning LDKF if the vehicle is
leaving its lane Evisual audible andCor vibration 0arningsF
Systems 0hich 0arn the driver and if no action is ta1en automatically ta1e steps to
ensure the vehicle stays in its lane Elane 1eeping system LLSF
Sensor types
Lane 0arningC1eeping systems are based on:
;ideo sensors in the visual domain Emounted behind the 0indshield typically
integrated beside the rear mirrorF
Laser sensors Emounted on the front of the vehicleF
Infrared sensors Emounted either behind the 0indshield or under the vehicleF
^6_
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/ig, 5,1C ;ane De(arture Garning 2;DG4
#. 3or0ard #ollision Karning E3#KF
Is a system 0hich uses radar laser or video sensors to predict an imminent
crash. /he system can 0or1 in many phases:
"F 3irst Stage: turn on the hazard lights close the side 0indo0s and tension the seat belts
BF Second Stage: light bra1ing
#F /hird Stage: moderate bra1ing 0ith a deceleration of 7 mCs
6

DF 3ourth Stage: increase the deceleration at :$? mCs
6
I. #"(*="$B"S*D 32=K"=D #2LLISI2N K"=NIN,
/he camera$based fc0 system uses a for0ard$loo1ing monocular camera 0ith object
recognition mounted on the 0indscreen behind the rearvie0 mirror. /his is lin1ed to a
0arning device. /he camera$based system can also support lane departure 0arning
functionality.
II. ="D"=$B"S*D 32=K"=D #2LLISI2N K"=NIN,
/he radar$based 3#K system consists of a 69,8z medium$range radar sensor. /he radar
sensor is mounted at the vehicle front and lin1ed to a 0arning device. =adar technology
provides high performance 0ith direct measurement of distance and relative speed operating
under all 0eather conditions.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/ig, 5,1B /orward Colli#ion Garning 2/CG4
D. "daptive #ruise #ontrol E"##F
Some modern vehicles have ada+ti3e cr!i5e contro& <ACC; systems 0hich is a general term meaning
improved cruise control. /hese improvements can be automatic bra1ing or dynamic set$speed type controls.
I. "utomatic Bra1ing /ype: /he automatic bra1ing type use either a radar or laser setup to allo0 the
vehicle to 1eep pace 0ith the car it is follo0ing slo0 0hen closing in on the vehicle in front and accelerating
again to the preset speed 0hen traffic allo0s. Some systems also feature for0ard collision 0arning systems
0hich 0arns the driver if a vehicle in frontTgiven the speed of both vehiclesTgets too close E0ithin the preset
head0ay or bra1ing distanceF.
II. Dynamic Set Speed /ype: /he dynamic set speed uses the ,PS position of speed limit signs from a
database. Some are modifiable by the driver.
/ig, 5,1 Ada(tive Crui#e Control 2ACC4
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
*. Semi$"utomated Par1ing ES"PF
/his system is used for parallel rear0ards par1ing. Khen activated radar sensors
search for a proper par1ing place. Khen this is found the driver selects the HreverseI option
in the gearbo! and the system begins the par1ing procedure. Due to the radar sensors the
possibility to hit the car is almost A. /he system is called semi$automated because the driver
must control the car only by supplying gas or bra1ing a little if necessary.
/ig, 5,1! @emiAAutomated 0ar"ing 2@A04
3. Intelligent Speed "daption EIS"F
Inte&&i%ent S+eed Ada+tation EIS"F also 1no0n as Intelligent Speed "ssistance is
any system that constantly monitors vehicle speed and the local speed limit on a road and
implements an action 0hen the vehicle is detected to be e!ceeding the speed limit. /his can
be done through an advisory system 0here the driver is 0arned or through an intervention
system 0here the driving systems of the vehicle are controlled automatically to reduce the
vehicleUs speed.
Intelligent speed adaptation uses information about the road on 0hich the vehicle
travels to ma1e decisions about 0hat the correct speed should be. /his information can be
obtained through use of a digital maps incorporating road0ay coordinates as 0ell as data on
the speed zoning for that road0ay at that location through general speed zoning information
for a defined geographical area Ee.g. an urban area 0hich has a single defined speed limitF or
through feature recognition technology that detects and interprets speed limit signage. IS"
systems are designed to detect and alert a driver 0hen a vehicle has entered a ne0 speed zone
0hen variable speed zones are in force Ee.g. variable speed limits in school zones that apply
at certain times of the day and only on certain daysF and 0hen temporary speed zones are
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
imposed Esuch as speed limit changes in adverse 0eather or during traffic congestion at
accident scenes or near road0or1sF. (any IS" systems 0ill also provide information about
locations 0here hazards may occur Ee.g. in high pedestrian movement areas rail0ay level
crossings or railroad grade crossings schools hospitals etc.F or 0here enforcement actions is
indicated Ee.g. speed camera and red light camera locationsF. /he purpose of IS" is to assist
the driver in 1eeping to the la0ful speed limit at all times particularly as they pass through
different speed `zonesU. /his is particularly useful 0hen drivers are in unfamiliar areas or
0hen they pass through areas 0here variable speed limits are used.
T$(e# o& I@A?
/he t0o types of IS" systems passive and active differ in that passive systems simply
0arn the driver of the vehicle travelling at a speed in e!cess of the speed limit 0hile active
systems intervene and automatically correct the vehicleUs speed to conform 0ith the speed
limit. Passive systems are generally driver advisory systems: /hey alert the driver to the fact
that they are speeding provide information as to the speed limit and allo0 the driver to ma1e
a choice on 0hat action should be ta1en. /hese systems usually display visual or auditory
cues such as auditory and visual 0arnings and may include tactile cues such as a vibration of
the accelerator pedal. Some passive IS" technology trials have used vehicle modified to
provide haptic feedbac1 0herein the accelerator pedal becomes more resistant to movement
Ei.e. harder to push do0nF 0hen the vehicle travels over the speed limit. "ctive IS" systems
actually reduce or limit the vehicleUs speed automatically by manipulating the engine andCor
bra1ing systems. (ost active IS" systems provide an override system so that the driver can
disable the IS" if necessary on a temporary basis.
/ig, 5,13 Intelligent @(eed Ada(tion 2I@A4 /ig, 5,5= Intelligent @(eed Ada(tion 2I@A4
wor"ing (rinci(le

GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
,. "daptive headlight
/he "daptive 8eadlights cast their beam in the direction of the curve and ensure better
visibility and more safety during night drives on 0inding roads.
Sensors measure speed steering angle and ya0 Edegree of rotation around the vertical
a!isF. Based on this information small electric motors turn the headlights left or right so the
beam falls on the road ahead guiding the driver into the bend.
8eadlight beam thro0 control Ea model$specific functionF means the front headlights
are raised at high speeds and lo0ered at slo0er speeds 0hich results in a 0ider beam for
inner$city driving.
/he adaptive headlight range control Ea model$specific functionF ta1es into
consideration the vertical curve of the road. /he headlight beam thro0 control is lo0ered
0hen driving over a 1noll and raised 0hen the vehicle is in a dip.
/he result: every single curve is illuminated and the oncoming traffic isnUt dazzled
unnecessarily. Driving at night is even safer particularly 0hen visibility is poor.
"daptive 8eadlights are only active 0hen the vehicle is pulling a0ay. /hey stay
s0itched off 0hen the B(K is in reverse and 0hen the steering 0heel is turned to the left
0hile the vehicle is stationary Ee.g. 0hen pulling out of a parallel par1ing spaceF to avoid
dazzling oncoming traffic.
"daptive 8eadlights are complemented by cornering lights. /hese are automatically
activated at speeds of up to >A 1mCh and improve visibility in the immediate vicinity of the
vehicle 0hich is useful 0hen driving along hairpin bends turning or par1ing.
/ig, 5,51 Ada(tive headlight in corner
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
8. =oad sign recognition
Tra""ic 5i%n reco%nition is a technology by 0hich a vehicle is able to recognise
the traffic signs put on the road e.g. Qspeed limitQ or QchildrenQ or Qturn aheadQ. /his is part of
the features collectively called "D"S. /he idea is to improve road safety by assisting the
driver. It may happen that the driver is tired or misses the road sign. /his feature 0ill
recognise the road sign and accordingly inform the driver to go slo0 or ta1e a turn. /he
technology is being developed by many 2*(s such as "yoni! and #ontinental.
/hese first /S= systems 0hich recognize speed limits 0ere developed in cooperation
by (obileye and #ontinental ",. /hey first appeared in late$6AA@ on the redesigned B(K
>$Series and the follo0ing year on the (ercedes$Benz S$#lass. #urrently these systems only
detect speed limits.
Second generation systems can also detect overta1ing restrictions Eintroduced in 6AA@
in the 2pel Insignia
^4_
later follo0ed by the 2pel "stra and the Saab D$:J also available on the
6A44;ol1s0agen Phaeton
^6_
F
/ig, 5,55 Road #ign recognition
I. 8ill descend control system
8ill Descent #ontrol E8D#F allo0s a smooth and controlled hill descent in rough
terrain 0ithout the driver needing to touch the bra1e pedal. Khen on the vehicle 0ill descend
using the "BS bra1e system to control each 0heelGs speed. If the vehicle accelerates 0ithout
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
driver input the system 0ill automatically apply the bra1es to slo0 do0n to the desired
vehicle speed. #ruise control buttons can adjust the speed to a comfortable level. "pplying
pressure to the accelerator or bra1e pedal 0ill override the 8D# system 0hen the driver
reRuires.
Kith 8ill Descent #ontrol drivers can be confident that even the ride do0n hills 0ith
slippery or rough terrain 0ill be smooth and controlled and that they 0ill be able to maintain
control as long as sufficient traction e!ists. 3our$0heel$drive E9KDF and "ll Kheel
Drive E"KDF vehicles such as 3ord /erritory may have a 8ill Descent #ontrol system
installed using the "BS bra1ing to control the carGs motion do0nhill initially developed
by Bosch for Land =over. /he system can be controlled usually by the #ruise
#ontrol buttons near or on the steering 0heel.
/ig, 5,58 1ill de#cend control #$#tem (rinci(le
/ig, 5,59 1ill de#cend control #$#tem button
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
S. 3atigue detection system
It is a more complicated system because uses a comple! soft0are. /he principle is to
use a camera 0hich transmits images 0ith the driver. /he soft0are studies the driver
behavior compare it 0ith certain patterns and give an audio 0arning if the result is that the
driver is too tired /he system has options to prevent the driver to fall asleep.
/ig, 5,5C /atigue detection #$#tem wor"ing (rinci(le
/ig, 5,5B /atigue detection #$#tem mounting
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
L. ;ehicle navigation and communication systems
"n a!to2oti3e na3i%ation 515te2 is a satellite navigation system designed for use
in automobiles. It typically uses a ,PS navigation device to acRuire position data to locate the
user on a road in the unitGs map database. )sing the road database the unit can give directions
to other locations along roads also in its database. Dead rec1oning using distance data from
sensors attached to the drivetrain a gyroscope and an accelerometer can be used for greater
reliability as ,PS signal loss andCor multipath can occur due to urban canyons or tunnels.
/ig, 5,5 Vehicle navigation #$#tem
Ve/ic!&ar Co22!nication S15te25 are an emerging type of net0or1s in
0hich vehicles and roadside units are the communicating nodesJ providing each other 0ith
information such as safety 0arnings and traffic information. "s a cooperative approach
vehicular communication systems can be more effective in avoiding accidents and traffic
congestions than if each vehicle tries to solve these problems individually.
,enerally vehicular net0or1s are considered to contain t0o types of nodesJ vehicles
and roadside stations. Both are Dedicated Short =ange #ommunications EDS=#F devices.
DS=# 0or1s in :.D ,8z band 0ith band0idth of >: (8z and appro!imate range of
4AAAm. /he net0or1 should support both private data communications and public Emainly
safetyF communications but higher priority is given to public communications. ;ehicular
communications is usually developed as a part of Intelligent /ransport Systems EI/SF. I/S
see1s to achieve safety and productivity through intelligent transportation 0hich integrates
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
communication bet0een mobile and fi!ed nodes. /o this end I/S heavily relies on 0ired and
0ireless communications.
/ig, 5,5! Vehiclular communication #$#tem
6.:.7 THE ENVIRONMENT
/he environment is perceived through a series of sensors. 8ere are presented some of
the sensors 0hich provide information about the engine. 2ur interest is to observe also
sensors 0hich provide information from outside.
/ig, 5,53 Vehicle #en#or#
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
A# Ve/ic&e 5+eed 5en5or
" 0heel speed sensor or vehicle speed sensor E;SSF is a type of tachometer. It is a
sender device used for reading the speed of a vehicleGs 0heel rotation. It usually consists of a
toothed ring and pic1up.
Kheel speed sensors are used in anti$loc1 bra1ing systems.
/ig, 5,8= Vehicle #(eed #en#or mounting
B# O!t5ide te2+erat!re 5en5or and in5ide te2+erat!re 5en5or
2utside temperature sensors are used for correct 0eather estimation. In case e!treme
temperatures are identified by the computer the driver might get certain recommendations to
improve its driving style and to avoid dangers on the road.
/ig, 5,81 6ut#ide tem(erature #en#or (o#ition
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
Inside temperature sensors regulate the interior temperature of the vehicle ensuring all
the comfort the driver needs.
/ig, 5,85 In#ide Tem(erature @en#or (o#ition
C# A&tit!de 5en5or
/here are drivers 0ho during one trip descend from high altitudes Emountainous
regionF to very lo0 altitudes. /his might have a negative impact on the tires. 3or big altitude
differences it is recommended to verify cars tires pressure from time to time.
/ig, 5,88 Altitude @eon#or
$# Video ca2era <o!t5ide and in5ide;
Inside video camera identifies human presence inside a vehicle. /he camera must
focus on the head of the driver and the computer must analyze if the driver 1eeps his head in
correct position. /his is essential because in case of an accident the airbag can brea1 the
driverUs head if the driver isnUt 1eeping his head in the correct position supported by the
headrest. /he computer can calculate the volume of the airbag 0ith respect to the driverUs
head position.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/ig, 5,89 In#ide Video Camera
/here are many 0ays to mount a video camera in a car 0ith an eRually 0ide range of
costs and options. /he option the driver choose 0ill depend on 0hether he need to shoot
outside of the car inside the car at high speeds or through the 0indo0. 8e 0ill have to
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
research the possibilities to determine the best car mount for his needs.
/ig, 5,8C 6ut#ide Video Camera
E# Radar or in"rared de3ice5
=adar engineering details are technical details pertaining to the components of
a radar and their ability to detect the return energy from moving scatterers T determining an
objectGs position or obstruction in the environment.
/ig, 8,8B Radar #en#or# (lacement on automobile
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
F# Rain 5en5or5 and &i%/t 5en5or5
/he most common modern rain sensors are based on the principle of total internal
reflection: an infrared light is beamed at a 9:$degree angle into the 0indshield from the
interior T if the glass is 0et less light ma1es it bac1 to the sensor and the 0ipers turn on.
(ost vehicles 0ith this feature have an Q")/2Q position on the stal1.
/ig, 5,8 Rain #en#or common model
/he light sensor enables a robot to detect light. =obots can be programmed to have a
specific reaction if a certain amount of light is detected. /he light sensor uses a cadmium
sulfosolenide E#dSF photoconductive photocell. /he #dS photocell is a photo resistor
meaning that its resistance value changes based on the amount of incident light.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/ig, 5,8! ;ight #en#or
G# H!2idit1 5en5or5
" humidity sensor also called a hygrometer measures and regularly reports
the relative humidity in the air. /hey may be used in homes for people 0ith illnesses affected
by humidityJ as part of home heating ventilating and air conditioning E8;"#F systemsJ and
in humidors or 0ine cellars. 8umidity sensors can also be used in cars office and
industrial 8;"# systems and in meteorology stations to report and predict 0eather.
" humidity sensor senses relative humidity. /his means that it measures both air
temperature and moisture. =elative humidity e!pressed as a percent is the ratio of actual
moisture in the air to the highest amount of moisture air at that temperature can hold. /he
0armer the air is the more moisture it can hold so relative humidity changes 0ith
fluctuations in temperature.
/he most common type of humidity sensor uses 0hat is called Hcapacitive
measurement.I /his system relies on electrical capacitance or the ability of t0o nearby
electrical conductors to create an electrical field bet0een them. /he sensor itself is composed
of t0o metal plates 0ith a non$conductive polymer film bet0een them. /he film collects
moisture from the air and the moisture causes minute
changes in the voltage bet0een the t0o plates. /he
changes in voltage are converted into digital
readings sho0ing the amount of moisture in the
air.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI

/ig, 5,83 1umidit$ #en#or
H# Bod1 +o5ition detection 5en5or5
3or intelligent safety system is essential to 1no0 in every moment 0hat is the body
position of the passenger this is the best manner to protect him in case of a major accident.
Seat belts the headrest and airbags are the most common instruments implemented to protect
driverUs life but they are efficient only if they are correct used other0ise they can transform
in a danger for their user and they can even amplify the effects of accidents. /he computer
must 1no0 in every situation if the driver has a proper position and if not to give him a
0arning.
/ig, 5,9= In&rared (o#ition detection
I# Tire +re55!re 5en5or
" tire pressure monitoring system E/P(SF is an electronic system designed to monitor
the air pressure inside the pneumatic tires on various types of vehicles. /P(S report real$time
tire$pressure information to the driver of the vehicle either via a gauge a pictogram display
or a simple lo0$pressure 0arning light. /P(S can be divided into t0o different types T
direct Ed/P(SF and indirect Ei/P(SF. /P(S are provided both at an 2*( EfactoryF level as
0ell as an aftermar1et solution.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/ig, 5,91 Tire 0re##ure @en#or
.# Acce&eration +eda& +o5ition 5en5or
;ery appreciated in road safety systems this sensor can measure even the speed 0ith
0hich the driver rises his foot of the pedal. By comparing this speeds 0ith certain information
contained in data bases and 0ith the previous rises the computer can command the actuation
of the bra1e even before the driver presses the bra1e pedal. By doing this it is obtained an
important time economy and conseRuently a lo0er stopping distance.
/ig, 5,95 Acceleration (o#ition #en#or
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
6# STU$Y OF THE HMI USE$ IN CURRENT CONTRUCTIONS
HAll o& the bigge#t technological invention# created b$ man A the air(lane) the
automobile) the com(uter A #a$# little about hi# intelligence) but #(ea"# volume# about hi#
laFine##,I
Mar> ?enned1 <Po&itician;
6#* INTEGRATING NE@ TECHNOLOGY
/he biggest goal for no0days engineers is to be one step ahead the evolution of
technology. If one or t0o decades earlier the trend on the auto mar1et 0as to create ne0
models as soon as possible no0 it is preferred to 1eep the e!isting models and to develop
them to synchronize them 0ith the current technological progress. /he efforts to optimize the
e!isting systems the desire to offer the driver a higher safety level made from our cars
reference achievements of technical evolution.
/he vehicle isnUt anymore a mean of transport. /he introduction of board computers
the amplification of the electronic control in every system and segment of the car the intuitive
possibilities of control and the options of entertainment offer the driver the ability to stay in
touch 0ith people and satisfy even the strictest reRuest of the user.
Producers 1no0 that the car isnUt anymore an object 0hich ensures mobility and
nothing more so they begin to spend money on research in order to understand the behavior
the demands and the desires of their customers. 3ashion and necessity transformed cars in an
accessory or even a symbol of our days man. /o remain in front on such a dynamic mar1et the
driver must have great ac1no0ledgement of the psychology of the people 0ho 0ill buy his
products.
+;ord) wonHt $ou bu$ me a <ercede#ABenFI
<$ &riend# all drive 0or#che#)
I mu#t ma"e amend#,-
.ani5 .o+&in <Sin%er;
" prosper business means to sell as much products as he can but also to 1no0 ho0 to
attract the customers. "nd ho0 can he manage so many tastesZ /he simplest ans0er 0as: HBy
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
including technology 0hich accomplishes the driver needs in order to prove him that you are
the producer that he is loo1ing for.I "nd for things to be perfect he must 1no0 that his
product must be preferred by all categories of people. ;ivid colors and elegant interiors
increased the number of 0omen 0ho decide to buy a car. Spaced cars having plenty of
security systems became the ideal choice for the displacement needs of big families Small
cars 0ith t0o seats having lo0 fuel consumption and easy to par1 every0here are the perfect
option for the heavy traffic in cities.
/he fairytale can continue and everybody seems pleased but5.
5 in their desire to sell as much as possible producers introduced a technology
He!cessI. #ars have options gadgets and systems 0hich vary according to their producer. /he
human being is captive inside his o0n car suffocated by the multitude of commands 0ith the
attention overbusy because the large number of options and mean0hile too selfish and too
convenient to give up to the comfort offered by his eRuipment.
/o ease the driverUs interaction 0ith its car the producers decided to create a friendly
interface accessible to anyone. /his 0ay the car returned in Hpole positionI in the
Htechnological raceI position 0hich 0as surely deserved by it.
/he interface is a device 0hich converts the electronic signals in order to ensure the
communication bet0een t0o given systems. /he information e!change is done according to
determined rules. /he oldest and most common interface is the dashboard. Belo0 it is
presented a dashboard evolution in images.

/ig, 8,1 13B9 Volvo 1!==@ da#hboard
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/ig, 8,5 139 Valiant da#hboard
/ig, 8,8 B<G C5!i 13!= da#hboard /ig, 8,9 V6;V6 @9= Claret 5=== da#hboard

A:DI != A:DI @!
/igure 8,C Inter&ace# evolution
/he need to completely rebuild the interaction manner bet0een the driver and its car
comes from the huge percentage of accidents occurring due to human errors: DA$D:. =ecent
studies sho0 that 6:a of total accidents occur due to driver distraction. /he conclusion of this
studies is that although the driver is in a permanently need for control it 0ould be better if
machine intelligence 0ould interfere in the driving process in order to avoid road accidents.
6#( AI$E PROGRAM A PRINCIPLES
*fforts to improve the traffic safety are summed at *uropean level in the "ID* Project
E"daptive Integrated Driver InterfaceF 0hose major objective is to realize a 8(I E8uman
(achine InterfaceF 0hich integrates Intelligent =oad Safety Systems. "D"S E"dvanced
Driver "ssistance SystemsF helps the driver corrects its underestimations or overestimations
and optimizes the overall cooperation of the vehicle systems. "dditionally modern cars
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
incorporate also I;IS EIn$;ehicle Information SystemF 0hich refers to mobile phones PD"s
and other communication devices 0hich helps the driver stay in touch 0ith the 0orld even
0hen he is in his vehicle.
/he hypothesis of the problem as illustrated by "ID* is the follo0ing: ho0 to create
an interface 0hich corresponds to the communication and comfort needs of the driver 0hich
does not oversaturate the interior of the vehicle and 0hich actively contributes to ensure the
safety of the passengers and of the trafficZ
"ID* assessing for the 8I( interface:
". ;isibility
aF Icons
$ Proper dimensions colors style
$ "ffordance
$ "ctive selection correct highlighted
$ ,ood visibility of the screen
bF /e!t
$ ;isible dimensions and colors
$ Possibility to choose bet0een a various number of languages
cF Sematic content
$ Kell defined and easy to understand terms
dF Space organization
$ Data hierarchy 0ell defined information priorities

B. "udio
aF SN= ratio
$ /he sound to noise ratio must have limits in order to permit the driver to hear the
audio 0arnings despite of the outside traffic noise
bF #ontinuous beeping
$ (ight be very irritating for the driver
cF Directional understanding
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
$ /he driver must understand e!actly the conte!t the audio 0arning refers to
dF Information density
$ Information must be given in a short simple and precise form
eF *stimated time to ta1e an action
$ =ecommended use of shortcuts and even personalized shortcuts to obtain the
minimum time in order to perform the desired action
#. /actile interaction
aF #omple!ity
$ Number of steps to reach the desired commands
$ /oo much time to fulfill a command means distraction
bF #ommands arrangement
$ Proper menus and categories arrangement
cF Sensitivity
$ #omple! studies in order to understand the force that 0ill be used for the driver to
press the touchscreen
$ /oo high sensitivity can determine actions 0hich might surprise the driver
$ Lo0 sensitivity means
dF =etention
$ Logical information organization
$ Intuitive paths to follo0
eF 8elp
$ *asy to access the help menu
$ Display clear information follo0ing all steps and giving interactive e!amples
D. Performance
aF *fficiency
bF )ser satisfaction
cF Killingness to use the system
dF =eliability
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
*. "daptability
aF 8idden functions 0hich are considered useless at the moment
bF Provide information according to the interest of the driver
IC2 management of system much provide solutions to synchronize the driverUs
preferences and status to the 0or1ing principles of the main intelligent systems:
$ I#" EIntelligent #ommunication "ssistantF is the core of the interface the master
0hich gives commands and instructions to all the other system synchronizes and optimizes
their parameters and establishes the rules and the hierarchy to follo0 by the entire system.
$ D;* EDriver ;ehicle *nvironmentF sums up the systems 0hich collect information
about the driver all the vehicle systems and also about 0hat happens outside the care. D;*
must transmit the information to I#".
$ "pplications 0hich provide e!tended and specific functionalities to the user. /heir
functions are not essential but they offer a certain satisfaction feeling to the driver. /heir
status must be controlled and administrated also by I#".
$ " gate0ay to integrate other I;IS or nomad devices.
#ontrol the access on IC2 devices
$ DriverUs availability 0hich means a hierarchy of the tas1s the driver must e!ecute at a
certain point in time.
$ DriverUs ability depends on many variables Edro0siness physical state level of
familiarization to the interface. Parameters regarding the user of the interface can be
considered internal parameters.
$ /raffic and environment factors are the e!ternal factors 0hich provide additional
information related to the conte!t to I#".
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
6#6 MO$ERN INTEFACES IN INTELLINGENT VEHICLES
". Seat Leon
/he Seat Leon interface offers the driver different information about the vehicle and about
the environment. /he computer ma1es certain decisions by itself. " huge improvement for
road safety is the face analyzer system 0hich identifies certain particularities of the driver
observes his eyes movements and compare them 0ith predefined feelings stored in a data
base. /he purpose of the system is to establish a hierarchy of the actions that a driver can
accomplish at a certain point in time. 3or e!ample if the driver receives a phone call and
simultaneously the car is approaching an intersection the computer puts the call on 0aiting
and only after the intersection 0as crossed the computer lets the driver ta1e his call. "s
ergonomics Seat has placed many commands on the steering 0heel and has also introduced
vocal commands options.
/ig, 8,B @EAT ;eon 1,5i 5==5
B. ;olvo S?A
/he model offers the user multiple entertainment possibilities and includes even a
navigation system 0hich can assist the driver in every moment. /he commands placed also on
the steering 0heel permits the driver to focus his attention on the road. /he car comprises also
the H#ity SafetyI (odule 0hich permits collision avoidance 0hen travelling at lo0 speeds.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/he camera mounted on the roof transmits data to the Pedestrian Detection System 0hich can
inform the driver about the status of people outside the car.
/ig, 8, V6;V6 @B= da#hboard
#. ;ol1s0agen
"nnounced that all the models produced by the brand 0ill be eRuipped 0ith touchscreen
commands in order to reduce the number of buttons and the movements and operations a
driver must manage in order to set up his car according to his preferences. /he touchscreen
0ill permit the user to control multiple functions as 8;"# radio navigation.
/ig, 8,! V6;J@GAGEN 0a##at 5=11 da#hboard
D. B(K
/he technology offered by is basically a touch screen panel 0hich controls a sum of I;IS
including also a 1nob on the central console 0hich is used to modulate certain commands.
iDrive permits the driver to control climate radio or #D$player and to manage the
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
communication and navigation systems of the car. Despite of its friendly interface users claim
that the lateral position of the panel can distract their attention.

/ig, 8,3 B<G iDrive
6#7 CASE STU$Y ESTIMATION ABOUT ACCI$ENT RIS?
PROBABILITY
Speed is one of the main parameters 0hich contribute to road accidents because it
represents the cumulative effect of several factors depending on internal goals Edriver state
motives attitude to ris1 driverUs anticipations and e!pectationsF or by the status of the vehicle
Etraffic flo0 vehicle typeF and even hazards Etype of road other road users 0eather time of
dayF. Speed is one of the major factors in accidents occurrence because:
EaF it increases the li1elihood of loss of control
EbF it decreases the probability that a hazard 0ill be detected in time
EcF it increases the distance travelled before a successful avoidance maneuver can be
implemented
EdF it increases the damage on impact.
Driving speed alone is not a precise variable. "lthough it plays a major role in certain
accidents there are much more parameters 0hich must be considered for a good
appro!imation. "ccidents ta1e place even under optimum traffic and environment conditions
in non$clustered environments Erural roadsF 0ith good road surfaces Edry roadF 0ith no other
road users Esingle$driver accidentsF rather than under theoretically more dangerous
trafficCenvironmental conditions namely in clustered environments Ee.g. urban roadsF or
traffic environments 0here vehicles are travelling at higher speeds Ee.g. motor0aysF under
heavy traffic flo0 andCor bad road surfaces Ee.g. 0et roadsF.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
Drivers adjust their behavior so as to maintain the level of accident ris1 at some
subjectively acceptable target level. /hat is to say safer trafficC environmental conditions
favor driving at higher speeds that in turn increase the li1elihood of loss of control. /his
behavioral adjustment is the result of driversU attempts to maintain the same level of accident
ris1 both in theoretically safe and theoretically dangerous traffic situations. But since there is
no direct 0ay to measure the desired or target level of ris1 this theory ends up being circular.
Instead a more pragmatic vie0 for understanding a comple! tas1 li1e driving is
=asmussenUs E4D@6F three$level ta!onomy of human performance control namely: the
1no0ledge$based level the rule$based level and the s1ill$based level. "t the heart of this
model E8oedemae1er 4DDDF lies the idea that as long as discrepancies bet0een the actual and
the desired state of the system Ein this case the vehicle and the environmentF are not very
high human performance is carried out at the lo0est s1ill$based level implying that tas1
performance ta1es place in open$loop control i.e. 0ithout continuous monitoring of feedbac1.
2nly if something goes 0rong in this open$loop mode does this trigger tas1 performance to
be carried out at a higher level namely at rule$based level 0here human behavior is
controlled by a set of rules that have proven to be successful previously. /as1 performance
mostly ta1es place in close$loop control or at 1no0ledge based level reRuiring much more
attention and effort than the lo0er t0o levels. In respect to the accident statistic data
mentioned above it is interesting to note that =asmussenUs ta!onomy provides a better insight
regarding the accident distribution in the theoretically safer and theoretically more dangerous
trafficCenvironmental conditions in the sense that a single$driver accident in a non$clustered
environment is more li1ely to happen not necessarily because drivers are underestimating the
ris1s but simply because drivers do not notice Ee.g. from traffic environment cuesF in time
that something is amiss in the open$loop mode and thus they continue driving at s1ill$based
level as they do in normal circumstances. /he basic difference 0ith ris1 homeostasis is that
accident ris1 is not realized as a function of accepting a higher level of ris1 in general but as
a function of failure detection of situation demands on time E=umar 4DDAF and conseRuently
as a function of putting less attention and effort in monitoring of tas1 performance and action
conseRuences.
If this is the case then accident ris1 probability is related to the timing of hazard
detection that it is reflected through time delays in triggering adjusting activations to perform
tas1s at the higher level Ei.e. timely detection of deceleration of the lead carJ faster reactions to
une!pected decelerations in car$follo0ing situationJ faster reaction to une!pected behaviors in
cross$sectionsF. "lternatively if situational demands are very high and tas1 performance is
carried out at higher level then accident probability is related to the side$effects of increasing
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
effort and 0or1load but the accident ris1 is actually lo0er because drivers are ready to
confront une!pected events.
/o create these conditions in a driving simulator environment 0e used the paradigm
of fi!ed time schedule described in van der 8ulst =othengatter and (eijman E4DDDF.
"ccording to this paradigm t0o groups of participants are used. In the control group
participants are instructed to drive a 49$minute journey as they 0ould normally do. In the
e!perimental group participants are instructed to complete the same journey in less time in
46 minutes. /o ensure that participants in the e!perimental group are in compliance 0ith the
fi!ed time schedule feedbac1 messages are projected on the simulator screen in order to
inform them 0hether they drive on or behind schedule.
/he fi!ed time schedule is e!pected to trigger participants to perform at higher level
namely at the rule$based level Erefers to ho0 drivers attend and perceive information from the
traffic environmentF andC or at 1no0ledge$based level Erefers to driversU attention and also
effort to control the vehicle at high speedsF. 2n the other hand the free$driving condition is
e!pected to trigger participants to perform at lo0er level namely at the s1ill based level. /he
aim of the study presented in this document is to investigate:
EaF 0hether a fi!ed$time schedule paradigm can be used as an e!tended methodological
paradigm to estimate accident ris1 probabilities both in longitudinal and lateral behavior and
if so to further investigate
EbF 0hether the temporal adjustment activations in tas1 performance that according to
=asmussenUs ta!onomy are triggered from situational demands should be ta1en into account
in testing the ris1 probability related 0ith "D"S use.
7.9.4 Met/od
Participants
6A participants 4A male and 4A female 0ere allocated to t0o groups: the control group
and the e!perimental one. Participants 0ere bet0een 67 and 9: years old 0ith a mean age of
76 years. /hey held a driving license for 7 to 69 years Emean\46.6 yearsF. /heir previous
yearUs mileage ranged bet0een :AAA to ?AAAA 1m Emean\6@?@7.7F.
"pparatus
/he e!periment 0as performed on the 8I/ driving simulator 0hich is built around a
Smart cabin eRuipped 0ith sensors. /he position of all control levers 0indshield 0ipers
indicators ignition 1ey and light s0itch is recorded. "ll operational elements steering 0heel
accelerator pedal bra1e pedal gearshift lever and handbra1e lever provide natural force
reactions. /he gearshift functions li1e in the real car either as automatic or Hsoft tipI 0ith
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
incrementing and decrementing the si! gears and 0ith reverse gear. /he projection system
includes five large$screens each having a 0idth of 6 m. /here is on$screen projection 0ith
consumer video projectors 0ith 6:AA "NSI$lumen. /he sound system generates original
sounds according to the situation Estarter engine noise horn screeching of tires 0ind rain
etc.F. /he vibration device creates nature true vibrations of the car according to the revs of the
simulated engine.
/ig, 8,1= @imulator and driver># view
/he e!periment too1 place using a circular route total length ?.6 1m. /his route is mainly
a rural route one lane in each direction no central border. 3or appro!imately :AA m this route
passes through an urban area. /here are 6 signalized intersections and 4 non$signalized
intersection along the route. /he scenario implemented for this e!periment included t0o
continuous and uninterrupted drives of the circuit. /here 0ere oncoming vehicles and vehicles
in front of the driver. Some of them 0ere driving at lo0 speed. 2verta1ing in general 0as
possible in the rural part but ris1y.
During the first drive the driving behavior of the other road users 0as in compliance 0ith
traffic rules and no other une!pected traffic events too1 place. During the second drive the
follo0ing une!pected traffic eventsCscenarios occurred:
$ Sudden deceleration of the lead vehicle Et0iceFJ
$ "nimal crossingJ
$ Par1ed car suddenly entering into the lane in front of the driverJ
$ Par1ed car suddenly opened a door in front of the driver
"ll these events 0ere distributed 0ithin the second drive in such 0ay so that in the
mean0hile participants 0ere confronted 0ith correspondent traffic eventsC situations 0ithout
being at ris1. /his situation might progressively triggered adjustment activations especially in
control group so that tas1 performance 0ould be carried out at s1ill$based level. Instead in
the control group the fi!ed time schedule should minimize such possibility.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
Procedure:
)pon arrival subjects 0ere as1ed some personal data Ruestions li1e age and driving
e!perience. /hen they 0ere as1ed to drive for : minutes in the driving simulator in order to
become familiarized 0ith it. /hen the actual e!periment 0as conducted 0ith the subjects
driving the t0o drives continuously and 0ithout interruption.
(easures and analysis method
/he driving behavioral parameters that 0ere continuously recorded are:
$ /ime
$ number of accidents
$ vehicle speed
$ distance to lead car
$ time 0hen the subject started bra1ing or initiated an evasive maneuver in relation to a
critical event.
"n evasive maneuver 0as defined as a sudden change in the steering angle resulting in a
change in the simulator vehicle lateral position to0ards the right of the road.
/he follo0ing indicators 0ere calculated:
$ =esponse time to a critical event. /his 0as the time that the subject initiated a bra1ing
action or an evasive maneuver in relation to a critical event.
$ 8ead0ay to lead car at the moment 0hen the subject started bra1ing or initiated the
evasive maneuver.
$ (inimum head0ay during follo0ing defined as minimum head0ay from the moment
0hen the subject started bra1ing or initiated the evasive maneuver until the simulator vehicle
has crossed the lane border to0ards the adjacent lane. /he effect of time pressure on the
behavioral variables 0as analyzed 0ith analysis of variance.
6#7#( Re5!&t5
"F ;ehicle speed
/here 0as a significant difference in mean vehicle speed bet0een the No pressure and
/ime pressure groups for the first drive Ep].A:F and a trend for the second drive 0ith the
une!pected events Ep\.A?F.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/ig, 8,11 <ean #(eed
Drivers under time pressure drove faster by appro!imately 4A 1mCh. /here 0ere no
significant differences bet0een the t0o drives and no interaction 0as found.
BF Number of accidents
/he total number of accidents 0as found to be higher in the /ime pressure group than in
the No pressure group Eten and si! accidents respectivelyF as sho0n. 8o0ever loo1ing at the
distribution of the accidents through the entire driving route as 0ell as the type of accidents
there is a clear distinction bet0een the t0o groups in relation to driversU alertness to
une!pected traffic events. Specifically in the No pressure condition : out of ? accidents 0ere
related to driversU inability to avoid an une!pected traffic event 0hereas only one accident
0as related to loss of vehicle controlJ and this too1 place 0ithin the second drive. Instead in
the /ime pressure condition 7 out of 4A accidents 0ere related to loss of vehicle control Eboth
in the first and the second driveF 0hereas all the rest of the accidents occurred 0hen the
animal entered the driverUs path.
Table 8,1Total number o& accident#
2n the other hand considering that in the /ime pressure condition the mean speed 0as
much higher than in the No pressure condition Eabout 4A 1mChF in addition to response time
to une!pected events being generally lo0er in relation to the No pressure condition this type
of accident is more representative of driversU inability to adeRuately stop the vehicle 0hen
travelling at such speed rather than drivers being not prepared enough to react to a sudden
traffic event.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/ig, 8,15 Number o& accident in Drive 1
/ig 8,18 Number o& accident in Drive 5
/herefore it could be concluded that time pressure had a positive effect in relation to
driversU alertness to react or even to foresee an une!pected traffic event but this 0as
accompanied by a higher number of accidents mainly related to loss of vehicle control Edue
to higher speedF.
#F =esponse time to a critical event
/he response time has been calculated as the time the subject initiated a bra1ing or
evasive maneuver in response to one of the critical events minus the time that the critical
event 0as initiated. It could be the case that this maneuver 0as initiated a bit before the
critical event initiation because the subject had anticipated the possible critical event.
/herefore the response time to a critical event is generally lo0er in the /ime pressure group
and the difference is significant in the lead vehicle bra1ing and door open cases.
It is interesting to notice that
EaF the t0o bra1e events can be considered as comparable to one another in terms of time
adeRuacy for foreseeing driver behavior of the vehicle ahead in the near future
EbF the par1ed car and door open events can be considered as comparable to each other in
the sense that they both represent hidden traffic dangers 0hich could occur in an urban
environment
EcF the animal entrance event is Ruite different in the sense that it represents a stochastic
traffic danger 0hich occurs suddenly as the target vehicle approaches it.
Kith this in mind it is 0orth noting that during the first case of bra1ing participants in
the /ime pressure group had already decided to overta1e the lead vehicle even before it
bra1ed 0hereas participants in the No pressure group continued car$follo0ing and responded
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
to sudden bra1ing considerably later. /his implies that at that moment the t0o groups had a
different HstrategyI in managing traffic conflicts 0hich does possibly reflect the additive
effect of different time constraints and the normality of traffic events 0ithin the first drive.
Instead during the second case of bra1ing participantsU performance especially in the time$
pressure group 0as not as e!pected in terms of response time and time$head0ay.
/o understand this result 0e have to ta1e into account the possible side$effects of the
seRuence of the traffic events 0ithin the first drive. Specifically after the first lead vehicle
suddenly bra1ed both groups started to progressively increase time head0ays at 0hich they
started their reaction 0hich implies that the first une!pected event resulted in increased safety
margins for both groups EBro0n 4DDAF. /his 0as as a conseRuence of driversU a0areness that
traffic danger could occur rather than as a conseRuence of the normality of traffic in the first
drive. 3ollo0ing this line of reasoning the results suggest that after the first event
participants in the /ime pressure condition adjusted their driving performance by 1eeping the
minimum possible safe distances E1no0ing that they 0ere driving into a dangerous traffic
environmentF and responding to dangers as fast as possible Econsidering time adeRuacy for
responding or foreseeing each type of dangerF. 2n the other hand participants in the No
pressure condition adjusted their performance by 1eeping longer distances and responding to
dangers considerably slo0er in comparison. /hese differences bet0een the t0o groups are
difficult to be attributed to the previous e!perience of participants 0ithin the first drive. "
more plausible e!planation seems to be that the une!pected event simply HcancelledI the
effect of traffic normality in the first drive and differences in response timeEsF bet0een the
t0o groups are more representative of participantsU attempt to minimize the effort by driving
more conservatively in the No pressure condition. "ccordingly participants attempted to
minimize the possibility of having an accident by driving more HcarefullyI in the /ime
pressure group.
Table 8,5 Re#(on#e time#
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/ig, 8,1C Re#(on#e time#
DF 8ead0ays
/here 0as a difference in the head0ay at 0hich the subject initiated the evasive
maneuver or started bra1ing 0hen the lead vehicle bra1ed or the animal entered the driverUs
path. In the /ime pressure group the head0ay 0as consistently shorter but only significantly
in the case of the second lead vehicle bra1ing Ep].A:FJ see 3igure D.
/ig, 8,1B 1eadwa$ at #tart o& the eva#ive maneuver

/he minimum head0ay from the moment 0hen the subject started bra1ing or initiated
the evasive maneuver until the vehicle has crossed the lane border to0ards the adjacent lane
are sho0n belo0. /here 0ere no differences bet0een the groups.
/ig, 8,1 <inimum headwa$ while &ollowing
3inally there 0ere no significant differences bet0een the groups regarding lateral
position in the No pressure and /ime pressure groups as sho0n.
#onclusions
/he authors hypothesised that time$pressure 0ould trigger participants to carry out
their performance at a higher level and thus lo0er their accident ris1 probability compared to
a no$pressure condition. /here 0ere t0o types of analyses carried out: first 0hether the fi!ed$
time schedule paradigm had an effect on the number of accidents and second 0hether the
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
normality of traffic events 0ithin the first drive had a different effect on participantsU alertness
in reacting to une!pected events throughout the second drive.
=egarding the first issue time pressure did have a significant effect on mean vehicle
speed as e!pected but the number of accidents 0as much higher in the /ime pressure group
than in the No pressure group. In the No pressure group almost all accidents 0ere related to
the une!pected traffic eventsJ instead in the /ime pressure group nearly all accidents 0ere
related to loss of vehicle control. In other 0ords time pressure had a positive effect in relation
to driversU alertness to react or even to foresee an une!pected traffic event but this 0as offset
by a higher number of accidents either related to increasing effort or related to driversU s1ills
in maintaining vehicle control at higher speeds.
=egarding the second issue traffic normality 0ithin the first drive did have a
significant effect on participantsU response times to the sudden bra1ing of the lead vehicle but
not on animal crossing and par1ed car entrance. "s already discussed this result should be
understood as a side$effect of the seRuence order of traffic events in the sense that animal
entrance 0hich represents a more stochastic traffic danger increased participantsU a0areness
that any traffic danger could occur irrespective of their previous e!perience 0ithin the first
drive. /his is particularly evident by the increasing time head0ays in both groups as the
number of une!pected events 0as also increased.
3ollo0ing =asmussenUs terminology this finding implies that after animal entrance
both groups 0ere triggered to perform at a higher level namely at rule$based level. 8o0ever
considering response times to une!pected events the main difference bet0een the t0o groups
is that participants in the /ime pressure condition adjusted their performance by 1eeping
minimum safe distances and reacting or foreseeing to imminent or hidden dangers as fast as
possible. 2n the other hand participants in the No pressure condition adjusted their
performance by 1eeping longer distances and reacting considerably slo0er in comparison to
the other group. If this holds true then the strategy follo0ed by the No pressure group could
be interpreted as an attempt to minimise discrepancies bet0een the actual and the desired state
of the system vehicle$environment permitting them to perform at the lo0est s1ill$based
level. #onversely the strategy follo0ed by the /ime pressure group could be interpreted as an
attempt to balance the discrepancies bet0een the actual and the desired state of the system
vehicle$environment performing at rule based level but at the cost of increased effort.
"s a general conclusion the fi!ed$schedule paradigm can be considered as an
appropriate methodological paradigm for studying driving behavior under conditions of
driversU full alertness but in relation to the estimation of accident ris1 probability more issues
need to be clarified. Specifically the fact that in the /ime pressure condition the majority of
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
accidents 0ere related to loss of vehicle control and not to driversU ill preparedness in reacting
to une!pected events is difficult to be attributed on the basis of these results as a sole result
of driversU inability to maintain vehicle control at high speed or simply as a result of driversU
increasing 0or1load andCor effort. /his issue has important implications in estimating
accident ris1 probability related to "D"S use since in the former case "D"S use might have
a positive effect in relation to vehicle control 0hereas in the latter case "D"S use might
have a negative effect by increasing driversU 0or1load. /hus further research is needed in
order to clarify 0hat is the effect of increased 0or1load on driversU performance in time$
pressure and no$pressure conditions.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
7# $YNAMIC CALCULUS OF THE INTELLIGENT VEHICLE
7#* In+!t $ata
9.4.4 #hoosing the initial parameters

r(m C9== n
"G B 0

#hoosing the mass


"ssuming as 1no0n the follo0ing data:
"g 5C m ? (er#on one &or luggage the o& ma## the
"g C m ? (er#on one o& ma## the
&ront in #it# 5 N have we which o& C N ? #it# o& number the
l
(
/ #it# #it#


and considering the information presented in the tables above 0e 0ill choose:
53 , =
1==
C==
m
m
? n re(artitio o& t coe&&icien the
N 1BB !1 , 3 1== g m G ? vehicle loaded the o& weight
"g 1== C== 15== m m m ? vehicle loaded the o& ma## total
"g C== 8C 15C m m m ? cargo o& ma## total
"g 15C 5C C m N m ? luggage the o& ma## total
"g 8C C C m N m ? (a##enger# the o& ma## total
"g 15== m ? vehicle the o& weight "erb the
=
u
G
i i
u = i
0 ; u
l #it# ;
( #it# 0
=


+ +
+ +

GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI


9.4.6 #hoosing the main dimensions of the vehicle:
By ta1ing into consideration the information presented in the tables above it 0ill be
choosen the follo0ing dimensions:
1,BC ? Ratio Gheelba#e E ;ength
mm 15= g ? Clearance Ground
mm 198= 1 ? 1eight
mm 1C= G ? Gidth
mm 98== ; ? gth ;en
mm 1CC= B ? trac" rear
mm 1CC= B ? trac" &ront
mm 5B== ; ? ba#e wheel
#ol
ec#
ec&
am

9.4.7 #hoosing the distribution of 0eight on the a!les and on the 0heels:
Statical loading
By using the data presented in the tables above 0e 0ill consider the follo0ing distribution
of 0eight on the a!les:
vehicle loaded the o& weight total the o& K 9 w ? axle &ront
vehicle loaded the o& weight total the o& K C8 w ? axle &ront
r
&

N 13 , !8!
1==
1BB 9
G w G ? be will axle rear the on weight
N !1 , !!8!
1==
1BB C8
G w G ? be will axle &ront the on weight
i r r
i & &


N =3C , 8313
5
!8!,13
5
G
G ? wheel# rear the o& one on weight
N 9=C , 9913
5
!!8!,!1
5
G
G ? wheel# &ront the o& one on weight
r
rw
&
&w


9.4.9 #hoosing the values for the 0heels and the tyres
3or finding the values needed for the 0heels and the tyres it 0ill be considered the
ma!imum 0eight on the 0heels:
N 9=C , 9913 4 =3C , 8313 ) 9=C , 9913 max2 4 G ) G max2 G
rw &w max

GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/he tyres are choosen such that they are able to support the given 0eight. By comparaison
0ith the statistic data from the tables above 0e 0ill choose the tyres from the table belo0
ta1ing into account that for security reasons 0e 0ill prefer tyres 0ith greater dimensions.
/ig, 9,1 T$re#
3rom the catalogue there are choosen the tyres: 6A:C:: =4? defined by the follo0ing
parameters:

mm 5=C B
t$re

K CC Ar

mm 9 , 9=B in 1B D
*

mm C , 115
1==
CC 5=C
Ar B 1
t$re (


By using the information obtained above it can be found the free radius:
mm 3C , 81C C , 115
5
9 , 9=B
1
5
D
r
(
*
=
+ +
It is choosen the tyre deflection coefficient 3B , = and it is found the dynamic
radius of the 0heel:
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
mm 815 , 8=8 3C , 81C 3B , = r r
= d

7#( EBterna& c/aracteri5tic o" t/e en%ine
It is used to determine the main performances of the engine. 3rom the e!ternal
characteristic 0e can remar1 that the ma!imum value of the torRue is reached at a certain
engine speed Ebut not the ma!imum oneF.
(ain parameters of the engine:
$ ma!imum po0er:
J >: "G 0
N

$ ma!imum engine speed:
J :9AA r(m n
N

It is chosen the elasticity coefficient of the engine :
J :: A
e
c
/he engine speed at 0hich 0e have the ma!imum torRue is :
J 4A D> 6 :: A :9AA
7
r(m r(m c n n
e N <

/he torRue at engine speed for ma!imum po0er is :
J ?6D 476 ?6D 476
:9AA
>:
m N 7
r(m
"G
n
0
<
N
N
N

/he coefficients used to compute the e!ternal characteristic are :
J @@D A
F :: A 4 E 6
:: A 9 7
F 4 E 6
9 7
4


e
e
c
c

J 666 4
:: A 4
:: A
4
6

e
e
c
c

J 444 4
F :: A 4 E 6
4
F 4 E 6
4
7

e
e
c

GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI


J AAA 4 444 4 666 4 @@D A
7 6 4
+ +
(ain eRuations for the po0er and the torRue curves :

1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

,
_


7
7
6
6 4
F E
N N N
N e
n
n
n
n
n
n
0 n 0
J
:9AA
444 4
:9AA
666 4
:9AA
@@D A >: F E
7 6
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

,
_


r(m
n
r(m
n
r(m
n
"G n 0
e

1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
6
7 6 4
F E
N N
N e
n
n
n
n
< n <
J
:9AA
444 4
:9AA
666 4 @@D A ?6D 476 F E
6
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
r(m
n
r(m
n
m N n <
e
Determining the ma!imum torRue :
G
r(m
r(m
r(m
r(m
r(m
r(m
"G r(m 0
e
9
7 6
4A A:7 :
:9AA
6D>A
444 4
:9AA
6D>A
666 4
:9AA
6D>A
@@D A >: F 6D>A E
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

,
_


m N 7
r(m
r(m
r(m
r(m
m N r(m <
e

1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+ 94> 4?6 94> 4?6


:9AA
6D>A
444 4
:9AA
6D>A
666 4 @@D A ?6D 476 F 6D>A E
6
J 964 4?6 m N <
<

3uel consumption eRuations :
J 6@A
h "G
gn
c
N

J F E
6
7 6 4
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_


N N
N #e
n
n
n
n
c n c
J
4AAA
F E
F E F E
n 0
n c n c
e
#e he

GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
7#6 T/e 2aBi2!2 5+eed and t/e %ear'oB ratio5
aF /he ma!imum speed :
$ total mass of the loaded vehicle :
J 4??>> N G
a

$ the rolling reistance coefficient :
J A46 A &
$ frontal area of the vehicle E statistically obtained F : J 46 6
6
m @
$ drag coefficient :
J ?: A
x
c

$ efficiency of the transmission :
J D> . A
4AA
D>
a D>
$ the air density :
J 66: 4
7
m
"g

$ aerodynamic coefficient : J
6
x
c
"


$ rotation speed at ma!imum speed :

J 4A D9 : :9AA 4 4 4 4
7
ma!
r(m r(m n n
N v

- po0er at ma!imum rotation speed :
J 4A 777 >
:9AA
6D9A
444 4
:9AA
6D9A
666 4
:9AA
6D9A
@@D A >: F 6D9A E
9
7 6
G
r(m
r(m
r(m
r(m
r(m
r(m
"G r(m 0
e

1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

,
_


J >777A
ma!
G 0
#onstants used to compute the ma!imum speed of the vehicle :
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
J
sec
4A> 67>
46 6 7D@ A
A46 A 4??>>
6
6
6
7
m
m
m
"g
N
@ "
& G
A
a

J
sec
4A 96> @
46 6 7D@ A
>777A D> A
7
7
9
6
7
ma!
m
m
m
"g
G
@ "
0
B


/he ma!imum speed of the car :

,
_

+
,
_

+
,
_

+
,
_

+
7
7 6
7
7 6
ma!
7 6 6 7 6 6
A B B A B B
v
J
sec
A94 96
7
sec
4A> 67>
6
sec
4A 96> @
6
sec
4A 96> @
7
sec
4A> 67>
6
sec
4A 96> @
6
sec
4A 96> @
7
7
6
6
6
7
7
9
7
7
9
7
7
6
6
6
7
7
9
7
7
9
ma!
m
m m m
m m m
v

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

/he gear ratios :


$ the dynamic radius :
J 7A7 A m r
d

$ the final drive ratio :
J 9@7 9
sec
A4 96
4A D9 : 7A7 A
7
ma!
ma!
A

m
r(m m
v
n r
i
v d
$ the ma!imum slope :
J 4D A
ma!
rad
J 6A4 A F 4D A sinE F 4D A cosE A46 A F sinE F cosE
ma! ma! ma!
+ + rad rad &
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
Ke 0ill determine the values bet0een 0hich there must be placed the first gear ratio 0e
0ill use the ineRuation :
: b "l i a < <
$ the grip coefficient :
J @A A
$ the 0eight on the front a!leCdrive a!le :
J @@7D N G
<

$ coefficient used for front drive :
J DA A
<
m
J >7A 6
9@7 9 D> A 964 4?6
7A7 A @A A @@7D DA A
A


m N
m N
i <
r G m
b
<
d < <

Based on the ineRuation 0ritten above it is chosen :


J >A 6
"I
i
8aving in mind the statistical data presented at the beginning of the project 0e can
choose the number of transmission ratios in the gearbo! E the gears F :
J : num
$ ratio of geometric progression :
J 6@6 4 >A 6
4 : 4

num
"I
i %
J 4A? 6
6@6 4
>A 6

%
i
i
"I
"II
J ?97 4
6@6 4
4A? 6

%
i
i
"II
"III
J 6@6 4
6@6 4
?97 4

%
i
i
"III
"IV
J 97: 4
9@7 9 D> A 964 4?6
7A7 A 6A4 A 4??>>
A
ma!

m N
m N
i <
r G
a
<
d a

GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI


J AAA 4
6@6 4
6@6 4

%
i
i
"IV
"V
: /he sa0 diagram
/he minimum engine speed for changing gears :
J 4A ?79 9
6@6 4
4A D9 :
7
7
ma!
min
r(m
r(m
%
n
n
v
v


3irst gear :
J C A:: :? sec C :>4 4:
>A 6 9@7 9
4A D9A : 7A7 A
7
A
ma!
ma! 4
h "m m
r(m m
i i
n r
v
"I
v d

Second gear :
J C A:: :? sec C :>4 4:
4A? 6 9@7 9
4A ?79 9 7A7 A
7
A
min
min 6
h "m m
r(m m
i i
n r
v
"II
v d

J C @:: >4 sec C D?A 4D


4A? 6 9@7 9
4A D9A : 7A7 A
7
A
ma!
ma! 6
h "m m
r(m m
i i
n r
v
"II
v d

/he third gear :


J C @:: >4 sec C D?A 4D
?97 4 9@7 9
4A ?79 9 7A7 A
7
A
min
min 7
h "m m
r(m m
i i
n r
v
"III
v d

J C 4A@ D6 sec C :@? 6:


?97 4 9@7 9
4A D9A : 7A7 A
7
A
ma!
ma! 7
h "m m
r(m m
i i
n r
v
"III
v d

/he forth gear :


GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
J C 4A@ D6 sec C :@? 6:
6@6 4 9@7 9
4A ?79 9 7A7 A
7
A
min
min 9
h "m m
r(m m
i i
n r
v
"IV
v d

J C A?D 44@ sec C >D> 76


6@6 4 9@7 9
4A D9A : 7A7 A
7
A
ma!
ma! 9
h "m m
r(m m
i i
n r
v
"IV
v d

/he fifth gear :


J C A?D 44@ sec C >D> 76
AA 4 9@7 9
4A ?79 9 7A7 A
7
A
min
min :
h "m m
r(m m
i i
n r
v
"V
v d

J C 79D 4:4 sec C A94 96


AAA 4 9@7 9
4A D9A : 7A7 A
7
A
ma!
ma! :
h "m m
r(m m
i i
n r
v
"V
v d

(ain eRuations used to tra0 the sa0 diagram :


J A6: A
>A 6 9@7 9
7A7 A
F E F E
4
A
4
n m
n m
n v
i i
n r
n v
"I
d

J A76 A
4A? 6 9@7 9
7A7 A
F E F E
6
A
6
n m
n m
n v
i i
n r
n v
"II
d

J A94 A
?97 4 9@7 9
7A7 A
F E F E
7
A
7
n m
n m
n v
i i
n r
n v
"III
d

J A:7 A
6@6 4 9@7 9
7A7 A
F E F E
9
A
9
n m
n m
n v
i i
n r
n v
"IV
d

J A?@ A
AAA 4 9@7 9
7A7 A
F E F E
:
A
:
n m
n m
n v
i i
n r
n v
"V
d

7#7 $1na2ic ca&c!&!5 dia%ra25


4F /he /raction #haracteristic
/he traction characteristic presents the variation of the 0heel force in function of the speed of
the vehicle for every gear.
J 4AAA
min
r(m n
im

GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
J :9AA
ma!
r(m n
im

ma! min min
... 4AA
v im im
n r(m n n n +


F E
4
>: 7@
7A7 A
>A 6 D> A 9@7 9 F E F E
F E
A
4
n <
m m
n <
r
i i n <
n /
e
e
d
"I e
R

1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
6
4
:9AA
444 4
:9AA
666 4 @@D A ?6D 476
4
>: 7@ F E
r(m
n
r(m
n
m N
m
n /
R
J
:9AA
444 4
:9AA
666 4 @@D A 4A 47D : F E
6
7
4
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
r(m
n
r(m
n
N n /
R


F E
4
67A 7A
7A7 A
4A? 6 D> A 9@7 9 F E F E
F E
A
6
n <
m m
n <
r
i i n <
n /
e
e
d
"II e
R

1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
6
6
:9AA
444 4
:9AA
666 4 @@D A ?6D 476
4
67A@ 6A F E
r(m
n
r(m
n
m N
m
n /
R
J
:9AA
444 4
:9AA
666 4 @@D A 4A ?@7 6 F E
6
7
6
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
r(m
n
r(m
n
N n /
R


F E
4
:@7 67
7A7 A
?97 4 D> A 9@7 9 F E F E
F E
A
7
n <
m m
n <
r
i i n <
n /
e
e
d
"III e
R

1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
6
7
:9AA
444 4
:9AA
666 4 @@D A ?6D 476
4
:@7 67 F E
r(m
n
r(m
n
m N
m
n /
R
J
:9AA
444 4
:9AA
666 4 @@D A 4A 46@ 7 F E
6
7
7
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
r(m
n
r(m
n
N n /
R


F E
4
7D> 4@
7A7 A
6@6 4 D> A 9@7 9 F E F E
F E
A
9
n <
m m
n <
r
i i n <
n /
e
e
d
"IV e
R

GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI

1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
6
9
:9AA
444 4
:9AA
666 4 @@D A ?6D 476
4
7:6 49 F E
r(m
n
r(m
n
m N
m
n /
R
J
:9AA
444 4
:9AA
666 4 @@D A 4A 99A 6 F E
6
7
9
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
r(m
n
r(m
n
N n /
R


F E
4
7:6 49
7A7 A
AAA@ 4 D> A 9@7 9 F E F E
F E
A
:
n <
m m
n <
r
i i n <
n /
e
e
d
"V e
R

1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
6
:
:9AA
444 4
:9AA
666 4 @@D A ?6D 476
4
7:6 49 F E
r(m
n
r(m
n
m N
m
n /
R
J
:9AA
444 4
:9AA
666 4 @@D A 4A DA7 4 F E
6
7
:
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
r(m
n
r(m
n
N n /
R
6F /he Dynamic #haracteristic
6 6
7
6
4 4
F A6: A E 46 6 7D@ A F E F E n m m
m
"g
n v @ " n /
A

J
4??>>
F A6: A E 46 6 7D@ A
:9AA
444 4
:9AA
666 4 @@D A 4A 47D :
F E F E
F E
6 6
7
6
7
4 4
4
N
n m m
m
"g
r(m
n
r(m
n
N
G
n / n /
n D
a
A R

1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

J F A76 A E 46 6 7D@ A F E F E
6 6
7
6
6 6
n m m
m
"g
n v @ " n /
A

J
4??>>
F A76 A E 46 6 7D@ A
:9AA
444 4
:9AA
666 4 @@D A 4A ?@7 6
F E F E
F E
6 6
7
6
7
6 6
6
N
n m m
m
"g
r(m
n
r(m
n
N
G
n / n /
n D
a
A R

1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

J F A94 A E 46 6 7D@ A F E F E
6 6
7
6
7 7
n m m
m
"g
n v @ " n /
A

GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
J
4??>>
F A94 A E 46 6 7D@ A
:9AA
444 4
:9AA
666 4 @@D A 4A 46@ 7
F E F E
F E
6 6
7
6
7
7 7
7
N
n m m
m
"g
r(m
n
r(m
n
N
G
n / n /
n D
a
A R

1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

J F A:7 A E 46 6 7D@ A F E F E
6 6
7
6
9 9
n m m
m
"g
n v @ " n /
A

J
4??>>
F A:7 A E 46 6 7D@ A
:9AA
444 4
:9AA
666 4 @@D A 4A 99A 6
F E F E
F E
6 6
7
6
7
9 9
9
N
n m m
m
"g
r(m
n
r(m
n
N
G
n / n /
n D
a
A R

1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

J F A?@ A E 46 6 7D@ A F E F E
6 6
7
6
: :
n m m
m
"g
n v @ " n /
A

J
4??>>
F A?@ A E 46 6 7D@ A
:9AA
444 4
:9AA
666 4 @@D A 4A DA7 4
F E F E
F E
6 6
7
6
7
: :
:
N
n m m
m
"g
r(m
n
r(m
n
N
G
n / n /
n D
a
A R

1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

3or the gear 0ith ratio 4 the dynamic characteristic is eRual to the rolling resistance
coefficient
&
:
J A46 A
4??>>
F 4A D9 : A?@ A E 46 6 7D@ A
:9AA
4A D9 :
444 4
:9AA
4A D9 :
666 4 @@D A 4A DA7 4
F 4A D9 : E F 4A D9 : E
F 4A D9 : E F E
6 7 6
7
6
7 7
7
7
:
7
: 7
: ma! :


1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_



N
r(m m m
m
"g
r(m
r(m
r(m
r(m
N
G
r(m / r(m /
r(m D n D
a
A R
v
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
7F /he "ccelerations diagram
$ the moment of inertia of the engine :
J 4
6
m "g 7
m

$ the moment of inertia of the 0heel : J 6A
6
m "g 7
r

$ the total mass of the loaded movement :
J 4>AA"g m
t

/he coefficients of mass in rotational movement :
J
F E
4 F E
6
6
A
d
r "
"
r m
7 i i 7
m i 7

+ +
+
J 9:D 4
7A7 A 4>AA
6A F 9@7 A >A 6 E 4 F E
4 F E
6
6 6 6
6
6
A
4

+ +

+ +
+
m "g
m "g m "g
r m
7 i i 7
m i 7
d t
r "I m
t "I m

J 9A? 4
7A7 A 4>AA
6A F 9@7 A 4A? 6 E 4 F E
4 F E
6
6 6 6
6
6
A
6

+ +

+ +
+
m "g
m "g m "g
r m
7 i i 7
m i 7
d t
r "II m
t "II m

J 7?D 4
7A7 A 4>AA
6A F 9@7 A ?97 4 E 4 F E
4 F E
6
6 6 6
6
6
A
7

+ +

+ +
+
m "g
m "g m "g
r m
7 i i 7
m i 7
d t
r "III m
t "III m

J 794 4
7A7 A 4>AA
6A F 9@7 A 6@6 4 E 4 F E
4 F E
6
6 6 6
6
6
A
9

+ +

+ +
+
m "g
m "g m "g
r m
7 i i 7
m i 7
d t
r "IV m
t "IV m

J 764 4
7A7 A 4>AA
6A F 9@7 A AAA 4 E 4 F E
4 F E
6
6 6 6
6
6
A
:

+ +

+ +
+
m "g
m "g m "g
r m
7 i i 7
m i 7
d t
r "V m
t "V m

$ the gravity acceleration :
J
sec
@4 D
6
m
g
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
J
9:D 4
A46 A F E
sec
@4 D
F E
F E
4
6
4
4
4


n D m & n D
g n a

J
7D6 4
A46 A F E
sec
@4 D
F E
F E
7
6
6
6
6


n D m & n D
g n a

J
79D 4
A46 A F E
sec
@4 D
F E
F E
7
6
7
7
7


n D m & n D
g n a

J
764 4
A46 A F E
sec
@4 D
F E
F E
9
6
9
9
9


n D m & n D
g n a

J
7A4 4
A46 A F E
sec
@4 D
F E
F E
:
6
:
:
:


n D m & n D
g n a

9F /he acceleration$time diagram


J D A ... 4 A
ma!
v
h
"m
h
"m
v
d

J A6: A
>A 6 9@7 9
7A7 A
A
m
m
i i
r
R
"I
d
iI

J A7: A
4A? 6 9@7 9
7A7 A
A
m
m
i i
r
R
"II
d
iII

J A94 A
?97 4 9@7 9
7A7 A
A
m
m
i i
r
R
"III
d
iIII

J A:7 A
6@6A 4 9@7 9
7A7 A
A
m
m
i i
r
R
"IV
d
iIV

J A?@9 A
AAA 4 9@7 9
7A7 A
A
m
m
i i
r
R
"V
d
iV

GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI


J
E F E
: 9 7 ma! 7 ma! 9
6 4 ma! 4 ma! 6

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_


iV
a
iIV
a
iIII
a
a a
iII
a
iI
a
a a a v
R
v
a
R
v
a
R
v
a v v i& v v i&
R
v
a
R
v
a v v i& v v i& v a
/ig, 9,5 The acceleration time diagram
:F /he time needed to accelerate


a
v
a
a v
a d
dv
v a
v t
A
J
F E
4
F E
?F /he distance needed to accelerate


a
v
a
a v
a d
dv
v a
v #
A
J
F E
4
F E
7#8 Po0er c/aracteri5tic
A :A 4AA 4:A
4
6
a
v
v
a
( )
m
s
6
v
a
1m
hr
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/he po0ers for each gear are :
FJ E F E F E
4 4 4
n v n / n 0
R R

FJ E F E F E
6 6 6
n v n / n 0
R R

FJ E F E F E
7 7 7
n v n / n 0
R R

FJ E F E F E
9 9 9
n v n / n 0
R R

FJ E F E F E
: : :
n v n / n 0
R R

Ke must ta1e into account also :
$ the po0er used to defeat the rolling resistance :
J F E cos 4>AA A46 A F E cos F E
a a t a r
v "g v m & v 0
$ the po0er used to defeat the aerodynamic resistance :
J 46 6 7D@ A F E
7
6
7
7
a a a a
v m
m
"g
v @ " v 0
$ the po0er used to defeat the slope resistance :
J F sinE
sec
@4A D 4>AA F sinE F E
6
a a t a #
v
m
"g v g m v 0
$ the total po0er used to defeat all the e!ternal resistances :
J F sinE
sec
@4A D 4>AA F sinE
46 6 7D@ A F E cos 4>AA A46 A F E cos
F E F E F E F E
6
7
6
7
a a t
a a a t
a # a a a r a re#
v
m
"g v g m
v m
m
"g
v "g v m &
v 0 v 0 v 0 v 0
+
+ +
+ +



7#9 Bra>in% and 5ta'i&it1 dia%ra25
4F Deceleration
$ coefficient of masses in rotational movement disengaged clutch :
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
FJ A E
t m &r
m 7
$ normal reaction :
J 4??>> N G L
a &r

$ bra1ing force :
J F E
&r &r
L /
/he resistances that must be defeated :
$ rolling :
FJ cosE A46 . A 4??>> F cosE F E N & G /
a rul
$ slope :
FJ sinE 4??>> F sinE F E N G /
a grade
$ aerodynamic :
J 46 6 7D@ A F E
6 6
7
6
a a a a
v m
m
"g
v @ " v /
Bra1ing decceleration :
J
F E F E F E F E
F E
t &r
a grade rul &r
a &r
m
v / / / /
v a

+ + +




A 4A 6A 7A 9A
6
9
?
a
fr
v
a
A.6 , Adeg , ( )
m
s
6
a
fr
v
a
A.9 , Adeg , ( )
m
s
6
a
fr
v
a
A.? , Adeg , ( )
m
s
6
a
fr
v
a
A.@ , Adeg , ( )
m
s
6
v
a
m
s
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/ig, 9,8 Bra"ing decceleration
6F Bra1ing distance


+ + +

a
v
a
grade a a a rul &r
a
t &r a &r
dv
/ v / v / /
v
m v #
A
J
F E F E F E F E
F E


+ +

a
v
a
grade a rul &r
a
t &r a &
dv
/ v / /
v
m v #
A
min
J
F E F E F E
F E


/ig, 9,9 Bra"ing di#tance
7F Stopping distance
$ driver reaction time :
secJ : A
dr
t
$ bra1ing system reaction time :
secJ 7 A
#$#
t
$ total reaction time :
secJ @ A sec 7 A sec : A + +
#$# dr total
t t t
$ stopping time :


+ + +
+
a
v
a
grade a a a rul &r
a
t &r total a a #to(
dv
/ v / v / /
v
m t v v #
A
J
F E F E F E F E
F E


9F S1idding critical speed
A 4A 6A 7A 9A
4AA
6AA
s
fr
v
a
A.6 , Adeg , ( )
m
s
frmin
v
a
A.6 , Adeg , ( )
m
s
fr
v
a
A.9 , Adeg , ( )
m
s
frmin
v
a
A.9 , Adeg , ( )
m
s
fr
v
a
A.? , Adeg , ( )
m
s
frmin
v
a
A.? , Adeg , ( )
m
s
fr
v
a
A.@ , Adeg , ( )
m
s
frmin
v
a
A.@ , Adeg , ( )
m
v
a
m
s
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
$ s1idding critical speed :
J
F tanE 4
F tanE
F E




+
g R R v
d
:F =olling critical speed
J
F E tan
6
4
F E tan
6
F E


g
t
g
t
g r
h
B
h
B
g R h R v
8# Na3i%ation 515te2
:.4 Introd!ction into na3i%ation 515te2 2en!
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/ig, C,1 <iniACoo(er Navigation @$#tem
Ke 0ill present no0 the main screen of the navigation display.
/ig, C,5 <ain @creen o& navigation d$#(la$
/he first button H2n$Board #omputerI permit the driver to acces the cruise range
display outside temperature display traveling time display distance display starting fuel
consumption calculations and average speed calculations.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/he second button H,PS$NavigationsI permit the driver to acces the option of
changing map from #D or D;D select the destination select the route vie0 guidance to
destination vie0 the route acces the address boo1 entries and access vie0 the current
possition display.
/he third button H(onitor 2ffI is to deactivate the screen displacement.
/he HSettingsI button allo0 the driver to change the screen display mode adjust the
navigation volume change the screen color pattern change language select the unit type the
navigation sho0 the route and to change the screen brightness.
/he screen displays in t0o posible 0ays.
I# S+&it 5creen di5+&a1 2ode <S+&it;
2n the left side of screen the driver can observe information from computer Ee.g. current
average fuel consumptionF information on route Ee.g. map section according to map scaleF.
2n the right side of screen the driver 0ill observe information on current location
Elongitude latitude and altitudeF or information from destination guidance system Ee.g.
direction of turnF
/ig, C,8 @(lit #creen di#(la$ o(tion
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
II. F!&& 5creen 2ode 4 "ll available information and selection data are displayed
across the entire screen regardless of the currently selected function.
8#*#* CONTROL CONCEPT
Khen the driver select a function from the (*N) a list of selection options or of submenus
0ill appear in the display:
/ig, C,9 <enu li#t
/o select a function the driver can use the rotary button to complete the t0o follo0ing
steps:
4. (ar1 the function by turning the rotary button until the desired function is highlighted.
3ig. :.: =otary button
6. #onfirm the selection by pressing the rotary button.
3ig. :.? Select on rotary button
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
Re5ettin% /i5tor1
/his function ELast 3unction (emoryF ma1es it easier for the driver to access
previously vie0ed information or a previously used function of the Q,PS$NavigationQ menu
after the navigation system has been s0itched off or the menu changed.
/o return to the top menu level of the Q,PSNavigationQ 0ith the ne!t menu change:
Briefly press t0ice in a ro0.
/he navigation system displays the most important data needed for an emergency call:
the vehicle identification number
the emergency call number
the current position.
8#*#( ECPLANATION OF FUNCTION SELECTION
/o help the driver get oriented as Ruic1ly as possible the individual selection
procedures are provided immediately belo0 each menu option.
Individual control and entry processes may include the follo0ing elements:
Button to be pressed
3unctions that driver select using the rotary button. QSelecting functionsQ
/he rotary button appears 0ith arro0s for control procedures in 0hich it is pressed or turned
only.
"s soon as the device is put into operation the navigation system displays the follo0ing
safety precautions:
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/ig, C, Garning me##age
8#( GPS Na3i%ation
/he navigation system eliminates the need to consult conventional road maps as he
drive. It therefore ma1es an important contribution to traffic safety.
/his integral component 0ithin the vehicleGs navigation system relies on reference
satellites to determine the precise position of drivers vehicle.
8#(#* Ma+ C$D$V$
(ap #DsCD;Ds are inserted in the navigation computer. It is located in the floor
beneath the right seat and is protected by a cover.
"ll producers of cars as1 to ensure that vehicleGs navigation system has access to the
latest high0ay net0or1 information al0ays load the most recent #DCD;D version of the
digital road map.
"s is the case 0ith conventional road maps the map #DsCD;Ds are subject to
periodic updates to ensure that they reflect the latest information and surveys.
C/an%in% t/e 2a+ C$D$V$
*ach map #DCD;D contains road maps covering one or more countries or regions.
Khen driving the car the navigation system 0ill alert 0hen the driver is leaving the area
stored on the map #DCD;D that is currently loaded. /he driver should respond by changing
the map #DCD;D in the navigation computer.
#DsCD;Ds are coated on both sides 0ith a protective film. Nevertheless please
observe the follo0ing precautions:
/ouch #DsCD;Ds on the outer edge only to avoid getting fingerprints or dust
scratches or humidity on the reflective scanning surface
Do not 0rite on or apply adhesive labels to the #DsCD;Ds
If necessary clean the reflective scanning surface 0ith a commercially$available cloth
0iping from the center to the outer edge
#ondensation on the #DsCD;DsEe.g. due to large temperature differencesF may
prevent the computer from being able to read them properly.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
$ESTINATION ENTRY
In entering the destination the driver can select from among the follo0ing options:
Destination entry and selection
/o select destination from map
/o select the destination via information on the destination current location or country
/o select from among recent destinations
/o return to initial location
/o select destination from address boo1
MANUAL $ESTINATION ENTRY
Se&ectin% de5tination co!ntr1
If the name of a country appears on the screen in 0hite letters data for more than one
country are stored on the map #DCD;D.
/o select a destination country e.g. 0hen traveling to a foreign country:
4. /urn the rotary button until the current country name is highlighted. Q#ountry ZQ
appears in the display
6. Press the rotary button. " list of the available countries is displayed
7. Select Q)nited StatesQ. /he system adopts the selection as the destination entry.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/ig, C,! In(ut de#tination
Enterin% de5tination
Q#ity ZQ is highlighted.
4. Press the rotary button to start the entry
6. Select QBQ.
/he selected letter is highlighted in the display
/ig,
C,3
Entering cit$ de#tination
Enterin% 5treet
QStreet ZQ is highlighted.
4. Press the rotary button to start the entry
6. Select Q=Q.
/he selected letter is highlighted in the display
7. #ontinue to select letters from Q=e!ford DriveQ until the system responds 0ith positive
recognition of the destination by highlighting the entry in the list
9. Select Q=e!ford DriveQ.
/he system adopts the street name.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/ig, C,1= Entering #treet de#tination
MAP4SUPPORTE$ $ESTINATION SELECTION
If the driver 1no0s the to0n or city but only the general location of the street and not
its name he can select the destination on a map using a crosshair and input it into the
navigation system.
4. *nter the destination
6. Select Q(apQ
7. Press the rotary button. " selection menu appears on the screen
9. Select QDest. Input (apQ
:. /o change the map scale if necessary:
/urn the rotary button continuing until the map scale is highlighted
Press the rotary button to select the map scale
/urn the rotary button again to set the desired map scale
Press the rotary button to store the scale.
/ig, C,11 <a( de#tination #election /ig, C,15 <a( Cro##hair
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
SELECTING $ESTINATION IN EINFORMATIONE
/he driver is loo1ing for a destination in a specific city e.g. a hotel or a restaurant a
filling station the nearest (INI center a tourist attraction a hospital 5 but do not 1no0 the
e!act address.
4. *nter the destination
6. Select QInformationQ
7. Select Q,eneral DestinationsQ. /he D;D offers a large amount of information 0hen select
Q/ravel informationQ.
9. Select QInfo on destinationQ. " list containing various
types of destination appears on the screen
:. Select the reRuired destination e.g. Q8otels and =estaurantsQ
?. Select Q8otelQ
>. Select the first letter of the hotelGs name e.g. QSQ. /he selected letter is highlighted in the
display
@. #ontinue to select the remaining letters in the name until the system signals positive
recognition by highlighting the name in the list
D. Select the highlighted name in the list.
4A. Press the rotary button. " selection menu appears on the screen
44. Select Q"ctivateQ.
/ig, C,18 General In&ormation /ig, C,19 1otel #election
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
STARTING THE $ESTINATION GUI$ANCE SYSTEM
2nce the driver have entered or selected the complete destination address the city or
to0n 0ill appear on the screen along 0ith the street and house numberJ QDirectionsQ is
highlighted.
Pressing the rotary button 0ill start active guidance. If the split screen display has
been selected the e!pected travel time and the distance to the destination are displayed in the
lo0er right half of the screen after the guidance system is started 0hile the navigation
computer calculates the route to the destination.
2nce the computer has completed its calculations a route map appears on the left side
of the display screenJ this is accompanied by arro0s indicating both: general direction and
true north.
2n the right side of the split screen 0ill appear the name of the street 0here the driver 0ill
ma1e the ne!t turn Ein the direction indicated by the arro0F along 0ith the distance to the
intersection the direction of travel and the current position.
/ig, C,1C @tarting de#tination guidance
In the lo0er right half of the screen the estimated travel time and the distance to the
destination 0ill also continue to be displayed.
$ISPLAYING ROUTE
Re3i5in% 5ca&e
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
=egardless of 0hich display mode the driver have selected ESplitC3ullF he al0ays have the
option of selecting the scale that best suits his personal preferences.
4. /urn the rotary button to mar1 the field 0ith the specified scale
6. /urn the rotary button again to set the desired map scale
7. Do not move the rotary button for a fe0 seconds or press it to save the map scale.
/ig, C,1C
Revi#ing
#cale
A&terin% di5+&a1 direction
Khen the driver select a scale of less than 4 mile or 6 1m he have the option of rotating the
map to orient it either to the north or to the direction of travel.
4. Press the rotary button. " selection menu appears
6. Select Q(ap PositioningQ. "nother selection menu appears on the screen
7. Select the desired directional orientation.
/ig, C,1B Altering di#(la$ direction
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
Ro!te &i5t di5+&a1
Khen the destination guidance system is activated the driver can call up a list of the
cities and streets along the route. /his route list is based on the route recommended by the
navigation system.
/he distances remaining to be traveled on each individual road are also displayed. /o
display the route list 0hile the destination guidance system is active:
4. Press the rotary button. " selection menu appears
6. Select QInformationQ
7. Select Q=oute listQ. /he route list appears on the screen
9. /urn the rotary button to scroll through the list
/ig, C,1 Route li#t di#(la$
Re3i5in% ro!te +re"erence
/he driver have the option of revising his route preferences by active destination.
4. Press the rotary button.
" selection menu appears on the screen
6. Select Q=oute PreferenceQ
7. Select the priorities for use in calculating the route
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/ig, C,1! Revi#ing route (re&erence
8#(#( CREATING AN A$$RESS BOO?
Addre55 and de5tination 2e2or1
/he driver can < depending on the length of the addresses < store up to 4AA addresses and
copy them directly as a destination for ,PS navigation:
4. Select Q"ddress Boo1Q
6. Select Q*nter addressQ
7. *nter the reRuested data. " name is not reRuired for active guidance or for storing a
destination in the
address boo1
9. "fter entering the complete address confirm by selecting Q*nterQ. /he system stores the
address.
/ig, C,13 Addre## memor$
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
Storin% t/e c!rrent +o5ition
/he driver can enter the current position directly in the address boo1 or destination memory
and add a designation for this location.
4. Select Q"ddress Boo1Q
6. Select Q(emorize veh. positionQ
7. "dd a designation for the position if desired
9. Select Q*nterQ.
/ig, C,5= @toring current (o#ition
@/at to do i" F
/he driver reRuest the current position of his vehicle but do not receive a precise
displayZ
/he system is unable to receive enough ,PS signals at the current position o0ing to
obstructions the position is not yet available on his map #DCD;D or the system is in the
process of calculating his position.
/he ,PS logo disappears from thescreenZ
=eception is interruptedJ a building or similar obstruction may be the cause.
/he guidance system fails to adopt an address from the address boo1 as its
destinationZ
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/he address is not on the map #DCD;D currently in use. #hoose an address as close as
possible to the original one using the map for saving destinations as necessary.
/he guidance system does not adopt an address 0ithout the streetZ
No specified center is defined for the selected locality on his map #DCD;D.
*nter any street or destination e.g. rail0ay station in the selected city and start active
guidance.
/he driver 0ish to enter a destination address into the guidance system but the letters
for it cannot be selectedZ
/he address is not on the map #DCD;D currently in use. In this case the system 0ill not
offer the driver any letters to choose from. #hoose an address as close as possible to the
original one if necessary using the map for saving destinations.
/he driver attempt to enter a destination address using the target cursor but the
guidance system refuses to accept the entryZ
/he current scale does not offer adeRuate resolution. /he system only accepts destinations
from scales of up to 4 mile or 6 1m EQSave dest.Q can be highlightedF.
/he system stops furnishing directions on 0hich 0ay to turn as driver approach
intersectionsZ
/he driver is driving in an area that has not yet been completely recorded on the map
#DCD;D. /he output route arro0 points in the direction of the ne!t point or destination
already detected or he have left the recommended route and the system reRuires a fe0
seconds to calculate a ne0 recommended route.
/he route map automatically appears 0hile the driver is being guided to his
destination Efull screen modeFZ
/he driver is driving in an area that has not yet been completely recorded on the map
#DCD;D. /he guidance system cannot operate under these conditions. 8o0ever the driver
0ill see the current position of the car in the map display to help orient the driver.
/he battery has been disconnectedZ
It 0ill ta1e appro!. 4: minutes for the system to resume operation.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
8#6 T/e co2+!ter
STARTING THE COMPUTER
/he driver can use the computer to access the follo0ing information:
=ange
2utside temperature
/raveling time
3uel consumption
"verage speed
Speed limit
/he Q=angeQ function sho0s the distance that the car can travel on the drivers remaining fuel
based on his rate of fuel consumption in the period immediately preceding his data reRuest.
/ig, C,51 Board Com(uter A Range
8#6#* TRAVELING TIME
/he Q/ravel timeQ function provides the driver 0ith the estimated remaining travel
time. /he navigation computer bases its calculations on the projected travel route the type of
route and drivers average road speed.
$ISTANCE
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/he QDistanceQ function displays the distance remaining to the destination.
/he follo0ing calculation steps are run through after the destination guidance system
is started:
]Bee$line bet0een starting and destination position as basis
]"ppro!imation in the route calculation still running
]"djustment of the value to the calculated route sho0n 0ith the maps.
"s a result the distance value initially sho0n may change until the entire route is
calculated.
/he QDistanceQ function consists e!clusively of a passive display provided in units
based on the selections the driver have made in the QSettingsQ mode.
8#6#( FUEL CONSUMPTION
/he driver can have the average fuel consumption displayed for t0o different
distances e.g. such as a complete journey a single stretch or follo0ing a stop to refuel. /he
average fuel consumption is calculated for the time during 0hich the engine is running.
Kith the ignition 1ey in position 4 or higher to start calculating fuel consumption:
4. Select Q#onsumpt. 4Q or Q#onsumpt. 6Q
6. Select Q=ecalculateQ.
/he display is set to zero and the system begins recalculating the average fuel consumption.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/ig, C,55 /uel Con#um(tion
AVERAGE SPEE$
/he driver can select a display of the vehicleGs average speed. /he average speed is
calculated for the time during 0hich the engine is running.
/o start calculation of the average speed 0ith the ignition 1ey in position 4 or higher:
4. Select Q"vg. speedQ
6. Select Q=ecalculateQ.
/he display is set to zero and the system begins recalculating the average speed.
8#6#6 SPEE$ LIMIT
"ssume that the driver do not 0ant to e!ceed :A mph E@A 1mChF on a stretch of free0ay and
0ould li1e to be alerted 0hen he reach this speed ElimitF.
/ig, C,58 @(eed ;imit
@/en t/e car reac/ t/e &i2it
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
" signal tone sounds. /he speed limit reminder 0ill only be repeated if car drop belo0
the limit by more than 6 mph Eappro!. : 1mChF before speeding up again.
S0itc/in% o"" or reacti3atin% t/e &i2it "!nction
/he driver 0ould li1e to deactivate the active 0arning 0hile still retaining his speed entry for
later use.
8#6#7 ABBREVIATIONS OF $ISPLAY
Screen di5+&a1 Meanin%
"vg.\] speed "verage speed
B# \] #omputer
#D \] #ompact disc
D;D \] Digital versatile disc
,PS \] ,lobal positioning system < navigation system
min < ma! \] (iniimmuumm to ma!
Nav. volume \] Navigation volume < adjustment option
No.CIntersection \] 8ouse number or intersection < destination entry
2ut. temp. \] "mbient air EoutsideF temperature
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
9# FINAL CONSI$ERATIONS
/his statement sums up all the benefits of having a smart interface. 3orget about
accidents traffic jams getting lost in an un1no0n city consider you luc1y that you have all
this amount of technology 0hich can help you and guide you in any moment.
#onsidering that the interior interface and the outside loo1 of a car 0ill remain the same
is a huge mista1e. "s 0e can remar1 cars didnUt change their loo1ing interface and
propulsion principles for the last 4AA years. It is time to ma1e a change. /he number of car
o0ners is increasing e!ponentially the technology is advancing spectacularly intelligent cars
are a significant need for modern human being.
*very chapter had its o0n contribution to create a unitary vision about ho0 a comple!
interface can be integrated in an intelligent vehicle dashboard ho0 certain button functions
can be placed on a touch screen ho0 the general design of the car interior can be simplified
and made more comfortable.
/he first chapter presents the need of such a study and presents the general goals of this
paper.
/he second chapter presented the user as the core of the design line. #onsidering the user
as the customer producers should orient their studies on customer psychology demands and
needs. " successful product must verify the three basic criteria demanded by user:
functionality usability pleasure. 3ollo0ing the D;* concept imposed by "ID* cars 0ill
include various intelligent systems 0hich 0ill help the driver to optimize his interaction 0ith
the environment and 0ith the other traffic variables. Sensors 0ill transmit the essential data
about the environment to the I#" 0hich after a detailed analyze 0ill give a proper instruction.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
/he third chapter follo0s the historical line of vehicle$driver interfaces development. "n
important stage 0as developing the "ID* project at *uropean level. ;arious car producers
actively contributed 0ith scientific research to the "ID* project offering smart suggestions
and e!amples about ho0 ne0 technologies can be integrated on cars. /his vivid interest about
the subject mar1s the born of a ne0 study subject in automotive industry: intelligent road
safety control.
/he dynamic calculus presented in the fourth is the main mathematical instrument used to
analyze the performances of a vehicle. In projecting the systems the results of this calculus
must be al0ays ta1en into account. 2f major interest are the bra1ing and stability parameters
0hich offer a detailed vie0 of 0hat could happen if the vehicle is driven in improper
conditions.
/he fifth chapter follo0s the car Navigation System menu step by step and e!plaining
each command and button at every menu and submenu. *!plaining problems that the driver
can reach by using the navigation system and e!plaining the solutions that he can easily do.
/he navigation system presentation include the board computer the display in front of driver
and the ,PS navigation. It is the main conection bet0een the driver and the car.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
Bi'&io%ra+/1
^B*N A4_ #. Ben"bdel1ader =. #utler and L. Davis +EigenAGait? <otionABa#ed
Recognition o& 0eo(le :#ing Image @el&A@imilarit$- Proc. Int. #onf. "udio$
and ;ideo$Based biometric Person "uthentication 8almstad S0eden 6AA4.
^#2L A6_ =. #ollins =. ,ross and S. Shi +@ilhouetteABa#ed 1uman Identi&ication &rom
Bod$ @ha(e and Gait- Proc. Int. #onf. 3ace ,esture =ecognition
Kashington D# )S" 6AA6.
^#)/ >>_ S. #utting and L. Lozlo0s1i +Recognition o& /riend# b$ Their Gal"- Proc.
Int. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 4D>>.
^D"* _ Lim Daehee Lee Seung0on Pai1 Soo1i +Active @ha(e <odelABa#ed Gait
Recognition :#ing In&rared Image#- International Sournal of Signal Processing
Image Processing and Pattern =ecognition ;ol. 6 No.9 December 6AAD
^3"B AA_ 0, /aber) +@eat occu(ation detection in#ide vehicle#-) presented at the 9th
I*** South0est Symp. Image "nalysis and Interpretation "pr. 6AAA.
M1:A =8N J, @, 1uang) <, <, Trivedi) and T, Gandhi) +Driver># view and vehicle
#urround e#timation u#ing omnidirectional video #tream-) presented at the
I*** Intelligent ;ehicle Symp. Sune 6AA7.
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
^S"I DD_ ". Sain L. Pan1anti and =. Bolle +An Identit$ Veri&ication @$#tem :#ing
/inger(rint#- Proc. I*** vol. @: 4DDD.
^L"= A>_ *. L"=IN ". L2;S)ND S. KIB*=,) +Develo(ment o& an Integrated 1<IA
conce(t &or Active @a&et$ @$#tem#-) Department of "pplied Information
/echnology #halmers )niversity 2f /echnology "nd ,oteborg )niversity
,oteborg S0eden 6AA>
^L=) D@_ 7, Jrumm and G, Jir") +Video occu(ant detection &or airbag de(lo$ment-) presented at
the I*** Kor1shop "pplications of #omputer ;ision 2ct. 4DD@.
^()= D?_ 8. (urase and =. Sa1ai +<oving 6b*ect Recognition in Eigen#(ace
Re(re#entation- ,ait analysis and lip readingU. Pattern =ecognition Letters
no. 4> 4DD?.
^N"/ A6_ National 1ighwa$ Tran#(ortation and @a&et$ Admini#tration) +6ccu(ant Cra#h
0rotection @tandard-) 3ederal (otor ;ehicle Safety Standard 6A@ 2ct.
6AA6.
^NIb A?_(. Ni!on and S. #arter +Automatic Recognition b$ Gait- Proc. I*** D9
6AA?.
^=*[ A4_ R, Re$na) A, Giralt) and D, E#teve) +1ead detection in#ide vehicle# with a
modi&ied @V< &or #a&er airbag#-) presented at the I*** #onf. Intelligent
/ransportation Systems "ug. 6AA4.
^;*, A7_ I. ;ega and S. Sar1ar +@tati#tical <otion <odel Ba#ed on the Change o&
/eature Relation#hi(#- 8uman gait$based recognitionU I*** /rans. Pattern
"nalysis (achine Intelligence 6AA7.
^KKK A4_ #ar 3ull 2ption meanings http:CC000.nairaland.comC9?46@7Cmeaning$full$
option$car
^KKK A6_ "utovehicle safty http:CCen.0i1ipedia.orgC0i1iC"utomobilecsafety
^KKK A7_ "utovehicle 8(I http:CC000.Rn!.comCproductsChmiChmi.html
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
^KKK A9_ 8istory of autovehicle http:CCen.0i1ipedia.orgC0i1iC8istorycofcthecautomobile
^KKK A:_ "utovehicle evolution http:CC000.autoevolution.comCcarsC
^KKK A?_ "utovehicle Navigation System evolution
http:CCen.0i1ipedia.orgC0i1iC"utomotivecnavigationcsystem
^KKK A>_ Navigation System )tility (anual
http:CC000.motoringfile.comCfilesC6AA7(INI#ooper#ooperS.pdf
Curriculum Vitae
INFORMAII PERSONALE FOTOGRAFIE
Nume Acatrinei Gabriel
Are!" nr 14, str. Abrud, 500454, Brasov, Romania
Tele#$n %%& %'() &*+ ,((
Fa- %%& %.*) && %) %*
E/mail acatrinei0abriel)123a4$$5c$m
Na6i$nalitate r$mana
Data na7terii 10, noiembrie, 1989
E8PERIEN9
PROFESIONAL9
- Perioada 2004 2012 (in curs
- !.". Anarom "om#an$ !.R.%., &on 'e(iade Radu(escu nr.11
- )istributie #iese auto
- !o*er, mani#u(ant mar*uri
- Perioada 2010 2012 (in curs
- !.". +A, 2010 %,- !.R.%., Abrud nr. 14
- .rasn#ort mar*uri
- Administrator
EDUCAIE :I FORMARE
- Perioada 2008 - 2012
- /niversitatea .ransi(vania Brasov
Fotografie
GRADUATE PROJECT Gabriel ACATRINEI
- &n0inerie mecanica, Autove1icu(e Rutiere (b. en0(e2a
- )i#(oma de abso(vire
- &nvatamant 3i
- Perioada 2004 2008
- %iceu( .eoretic 4"onstantin Brancoveanu5
- Pro*i( 4!tiinte a(e naturii5
- )i#(oma de abso(vire 12 c(ase, )i#(ima de Baca(aureat
- &nvatamant 2i
- Perioada 2000 2004
- !coa(a 6enera(a nr. 27
- Perioada 1998 2000
- !coa(a 6enera(a nr. 90
APTITUDINI :I COMPETENE
PERSONALE
Limba matern" Romana
Limbi !tr"ine cun$!cute %b. :n0(e2a
A;tituini 7i c$m;eten6e
arti!tice
i
A;tituini 7i c$m;eten6e
!$ciale
+
%ucre2 cu di*erite *irme si am contact #ermanent cu asociatii
*irmei in care (ucre2, (ucrand ca so*er *ac si munca de a0ent
de van2ari, ceea ce necesita comunicare.
"onduc o *irma de trans#orturi, comunicarea *iind esentia(a
intre administrator-an0a;ati-c(ienti.
A;tituini 7i c$m;eten6e
$r0ani<at$rice
.
"oordone2 o a*acere de trans#orturi, ceea ce im#(ica
coordonarea an0a;ati(or si e*ectuarea contabi(itatii.
A;tituini 7i c$m;eten6e
te4nice
'
/ti(i2e2 ca(cu(atoru( in #ermanenta de (a varsta de 8 ani, tim#
in care am ca#atat e<#erienta in= +icroso*t
>**ice(e<#erimentat, "atia(mediu, Auto"ad(+ediu, Bor(and
Pasca(, "??, @o<.
Permi! e c$nucere Posed #ermis de conducere din anu( 2008
Alte a;tituini 7i c$m;eten6e
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INFORMAII SUPLIMENTARE
ANE8E

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