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Analele Universitii din Craiova, seria Agricultur Montanologie Cadastru Vol.

XL/1 2010


COMPORTAREA CERNOZIOMULUI CAMBIC DIN ZONA COLINARA
SLNIC-BUZU LA ACIUNEA FACTORILOR ANTROPICI.

RESEARCH REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF ANTHROPOGENIC
FACTORS ON CAMBIC CHERNOZEMS IN THE SLNIC- BUZU HILLY
AREA

M. MUAT, RADU ALEXANDRA, M. SEVASTEL - USAMV Bucuresti
LAVINIA PARVAN - ICPA Bucuresti
C. URZICA SC Fitoserv SRL

Cuvinte cheie: cernoyiom cambic, bazin hidrografic, eroziune, conservarea solului
Key words: cambic chernozem, erosion, hzdrographic basin, improvement

SUMMARY

Bazinul hidrografic Slnic de Buzu, unde s-au efectuat studiile, se ncadreaz n
zona Subcarpailor de Curbur, cu dealuri i depresiuni corespunztoare morfostructurilor
mio-pliocene i levantin-cuaternare, cu depozite predominant sedimentare, cu climat
continental i cu o bogat varietate de specii de plante. Dintre procesele naturale
duntoare societii umane, eroziunea i implicit degradarea solului ca urmare a
interveniei antropice, este cea mai complex, tocmai prin impactul ei, prin areale i
pagube.
nveliul de sol format sub influena factorilor pedogenetici amintii mai sus, este
alctuit preponderent din cernisoluri, cel mai rspndit fiind cernoziomul cambic.
Am ales pentru studiu 8 profile de cernoziom cambic, situate n 4 subbazine
afluente Slnicului (Valea Ttarului, Valea Mereului, Valea Bieti i Valea Balaurului),
care au suferit diferite intervenii antropice. La aceste profile au fost analizate, prin
comparaie, nuiri fizice, chimice i morfologice.
Datele obinute servesc la evaluarea impactului factorului antropic asupra evoluiei
cernoziomului cambic din zona colinar a judeului Buzu.

Slnic of Buzu river basin, where the studies have been carried out is located
within the Curbure Sub-Carpathians, with hills and depressions corresponding to the Myo-
Pliocene and Levantine Quaternary morphostructures, with predominantly sedimentary
deposits, continental climate and a rich variety of plant species.
Among the natural processes harmful to human society, erosion and implicitly soil
degradation as a result of the human intervention, is the most complex, just by its impact
through areas and damages.
The soil cover, formed under the influence of pedogenetic factors above mentioned,
includes predominantly chernisols, the most widespread being cambic chernozem.
In order to carry out the study, we selected 8 profiles of cambic chernozems,
located in four sub-watersheds (Valea Ttarului, Valea Mereului, Valea Bieti and Valea
Balaurului) tributary to Slnic river that have suffered various human interventions. For
these profiles the physical, chemical and morphological characteristics have been
analyzed by comparison. Obtained data serve to assess the impact of anthropogenic
factor on the evolution of cambic chernozem in the hilly area of the Buzu county.



Analele Universitii din Craiova, seria Agricultur Montanologie Cadastru Vol. XL/1 2010

1. MATERIAL AND METHOD

The major influence on the coating of soil in hilly area of Buzau county have a
process of erosion and landslides. Gradual erosion of surface material determinated
washing, part of the genetic horizons are removed, in the worst case prentice materials are
updated.
Complexity of pedogenesis and soil degradation in the hills lining Slanic-Buzau,
were the subject of a series of studies and research based projects that have complex,
integrated river basin planning tributary (Fig. 1). Ameliorative works were executed on
dual-action coating of soil degradation processes have reduced and changed in different
soil characteristics.




Fig.1 Hidrograpfic basin of Slnic-Buzu area

This paper aims to present the influence of human intervention through the
application of ameliorative works on cambic chernozem four tributary watersheds
Slanicului: Ttarului Valley, Mereului Valley, Bieti Valey and Balaurului Valley. The
perimeters of these basins have been carried out successive soil mapping before and after
execution to capture changes in physical, chemical and morphol ogical characteristics of
soils.
In Tatarului Valley, basin were executable bench terraces (Fig. 2) the use land. On
the right side of this river basin, where the soil is chernozem cambic were two sections in
the deshi agroterasata: PT3 and PT4. The sequence of genetic horizons and their
dimensions are shown in Figure 3.

Analele Universitii din Craiova, seria Agricultur Montanologie Cadastru Vol. XL/1 2010


30
43
27
30
35
60
63
32
0 20 40 60 80
C
C c
Bv
Am
(c m)
P t3 P t4

Fig.2 Detaliile de executie a teraselor
bancheta din Valea Tatarului
Fig.3 Alcatuirea profilelor de cernoziom cambic
(Pt3 si Pt4) din Valea Tatarului

The Mereului Valley, basin have chosen for presentation, a profile on the right side
cambic mold equipped with technological paths. Erosion of the job execution detail s are
shown in Figure 4, and studied composition profile in Figure 5.



60
30
31
0 50 100
C c
Bv
Am
(c m)
P m6

Fig.4 Detaliile de executie a aleilor
tehnologice din Valea Mereului
Fig.5 Alcatuirea profilului de cernoziom cambic
(Pm6) din Valea Mereului

The River Valley basin have been applied Baiesti agroameliorative protection
measures such as erosion of tillage system on the direction of the contour, grassed strip
crops, and modeling of green. Improper operation of facilities resulted in the
disappearance of some of them (cover crops). On the right side of the river basin area of
tillage system on the contour direction (fig. 6), opened three sections, we have chosen for
the presentation of two sections of mold cambic (Pb3 and Pb5), the morphological whole
which is shown in Figure 7.

42
48
25
52
34
26
0 20 40 60
C c
Bv
Am
(c m)
pb3 pb5

Analele Universitii din Craiova, seria Agricultur Montanologie Cadastru Vol. XL/1 2010

Fig.6 Versantul drept al
bazinului hidrografic Valea
Baiesti
Fig.7 Alcatuirea profilelor de cernoziom
cambic (Pb3 si Pb5) din Valea Baesti

The Balaurului Valley basin for the presentation we chose two sections of mold
cambic (Pbl5 and Pbl7) located on the left side of the basin, decorated with classical
terraces. Ameliorative work of the technical elements and composite profiles are presented
in Figures 8 and 9.


(c m)
68
49
15
36
15
25
0 50 100
C c
Bv
Apk
pbl5 pbl7

Fig.8 Detaliile de executie a
teraselor din Valea Balaurului
Fig.9 Alcatuirea profilelor de
cernoziom cambic (Pbl5 si Pb7) din
Valea Balaurului

Physico-chemical characteristics of the soils studied pursued, the 0-40cm depth are
clay content (<0.002 mm) into humus, the phosphorus in field water capacity and water
capacity useful. All laboratory tests and interpretation of results were done in accordance
with the "development methodology soil studies" - ICPA 1987.


2. RESEARCH RESULTS

HIDROGRAPHYC BASIN TATARULUI VALEY

Influence of anthropogenic intervention by agroterasare on cambic chernozem
located on the right side of the river basin is analyzed by comparing physical and chemical
properties of soil present, with those previous arrangement. Thus were chosen for study
soil, three profiles: PT3-located in upper third of the slope, PT4-located in the middle third
and PT8-ahead after planning and development.
The data presented in Figure 10 indicates that: soil texture is clayey, the largest
percentage of clay is found in the first 40 cm of profile PT3, humus content is low, there is
a rise of around 0.3% in the profiles after planning, mobile phosphorus content is low
profile before fitting and the PT3 and PT4 middle after fitting, field capacity remains very
high after development, the ability is useful to maintain high water.
By agroterasare reduce loss of clay on top of the profile, improves mobile
phosphorus content and ability to retain water and useful field

Analele Universitii din Craiova, seria Agricultur Montanologie Cadastru Vol. XL/1 2010

2.1
2.4 2.3
13
23
14.8
28.2
13.1
23.4
15.3
32.4
13.2
22.9
23
27.9
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
argila (% ) humus (% ) p(ppm) CC (% ) CU (% )
P 8 P t3 pt4

Fig.10 Some physico-chemical attributes of chernozem Cambic
analyzed on 0-40 cm depth, the profiles PT3, PT4 and P8
Tatarului Valley



HIDROGRAPHYC BASIN MEREULUI VALEY

Technological paths advantage is that very little occurs on the soil profile and are
effective in terms of erosion. Data from PMA analyzed by fitting the profile, were compared
with those of the P4 profile open before fitting.
The data analysis presented in Figure 11 indicates that: soil texture is loamy,
humus content increased by 0.62% but still remains small, mobile fosfor content increases
by about 14 ppm after development, the capacity field of water and is useful medium and
maintained at values after fitting.
Technological paths does not change the soil profile, preserving the amount of
water needed by plants and lead to a nursery in humus content.
1.5
2.12
11.6
23.3
4.9
33.5
10.1
21.9
19.5
33.5
0
10
20
30
40
argila (%) humus (%) p(ppm) C C (%) C U (%)
p4 pm6

Fig.11 Some physico-chemical attributes of chernozem cambic
analyzed on 0-40 cm depth, the profiles P6 and P4,
Mereului Valley



Analele Universitii din Craiova, seria Agricultur Montanologie Cadastru Vol. XL/1 2010

HIDROGRAPHYC BASIN BIETI VALEY

In the area where agricultural work was performed on the general direction of the
contour profiles were chosen two recent projects and Pb5 Pb3. The results were
compared with those obtained from profile P1, the soil survey above.
2,2
1,441,76
12
23,2
31,8
47,1
12,7
23
9,7
29,4
13,5
22,8
8,6
26,8
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
argila (%) humus (%) p(ppm) C C (%) C U (%)
p1 pb3 pb5


Fig.12 Some physico-chemical attributes of chernozem cambic
analyzed on 0-40 cm depth, the profiles P3, P5 and P1, Baiesti Valley

The data presented in figure 12 indicates that: soil texture is clayey, there is a
decrease in clay content 2.4% and 5% Pb3 profile to Pb5 profile compared to the original
profile, humus content is low and record whereas, a decrease of 0.5% to 0.75%, mobile
phosphorus content decreases by about 38 ppm compared to the profiles of our recent
initial one; capacity field of water and useful medium should remain.
Ground work on the general direction of the contour and texture preserving useful in
soil water. Chemical characteristics of soil conservation requires additional ameliorative
works.


HIDROGRAPHYC BASIN BALAURULUI VALEY

Terracing slopes eroded involves a major intervention on the soil profile. We choose
presentation two profiles located on the left side of the basin, terrace PBL Platform 7 (fig.
6) and slope 5 PBL.
The data analysis presented in Figure 13 indicates that: the texture is different, the
percentage of clay is higher in July due to PBL bring cambic horizon near the surface;
capacity field is slightly higher in PBL 7datorated clay content in capacity useful exchange
of water is decreasing humus content decreases by about 1%, mobile phosphorus content
is maintained at values close.

Analele Universitii din Craiova, seria Agricultur Montanologie Cadastru Vol. XL/1 2010

2.9
1.9
10.6
23.4
13
31.9
7.3
24.2
14.8
47.4
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
argila (%) humus (%) p(ppm) C C (%) C U (%)
pbl5 pbl7

Fig.13 Some physico-chemical attributes of chernozem cambic
analyzed the depth of 0-40 cm, and Pbl7 Pbl5 profiles,
Balaurului Valley

3. CONCLUSIONS


1. By agroterasare reduced loss of clay on top of the profile, improves mobile
phosphorus content and ability to retain water and useful field.
2. Alleys advances were not amended the soil profile, preserving the amount of water
needed by plants and lead to a nursery in humus content.
3. Ground work on the general direction of the contour and texture preserving useful in
soil water. Chemical characteristics of soil conservation requires additional
ameliorative works.
4. Terracing slopes eroded involves a major intervention on the soil profile.
5. By terracing most characteristics of the soil is amended, it requires ameliorative
work of recovery.

REFERENCES

1. Piciu I., Grigora C., 1995 - ndrumtor pentru elaborarea studiilor pedologice pe
terenuri situate pe versani i interpretarea lor n cazul utilizrii, conservrii i
ameliorrii solurilor , Arhiva ICPA., Bucureti;
2. Florea N., Munteanu I.,2000 Sistemul Romn de Taxonomie a Solurilor,
Ed.Univ.Al.I.Cuza.
3. Muat Marian 2006 Studiul solurilor afectate de eroziune din zona colinar a
bazinului hidrografic Slnic-Buzu, n vederea stabilirii msurilor de ameliorarei
stvilire a procesului de eroziune, Tez de doctorat
4. Oanea N., Radu Alexandra Teodora 2003 Pedologie aplicat, Ed, Alutus,
Miercurea Ciuc.
5. xxx Sistemul Romn de Clasificare a Solurilor, 2003
6. Metodologia elaborrii studiilor pedologice, vol I, II, III, ICPA. Bucureti 1987